Syria-Armenia Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Persia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.40 Feb PACORUS prince of Parthia, aided by Q. LABIENUS, cross Euphrates, invade Syria until 39.  Rome / Parthia war begins until ?. 41 lvPE     40 B76 17-950, CAH 9-405, 10-13, 41, 47, 715, CHJ 3-104, DGRBM 1-215, 2-698, 3-730, GHH, ISBE 2-626, 689, Jud 8-376, atl1, wikPcr1, wikO2P, wikQLb, wikRPW
c.40 L. Decidius SAXA, Antonine governor of Syria from 41, holds up in Apamea on Euphrates until it surrenders to Parthians, flees to CiliciaHis troops, former Cassius men, defect to Labienus. 40 CAH 10-47, DGRBM 1-356, 2-698, 3-730, GHH, OCD 716, atl1, rcS, wikPcr1, wikRGS
c.40 spring Q. LABIENUS persuades many Roman garrisons around Syria to rally to his cause.  He meets no resistance. 40 CAH 10-13, wikQLb wikRPW
c.40 SYRIA, under Rome from 64, quickly conquered by PACORUS, under Parthia until 39. 40 B76 17-950, CAH 10-13, DGRG 2-1078, Jud 3-66, hifiP, hifiS, wikRGS
c.40 PACORUS prince of Parthia and Q. LABIENUS split up.  Pacorus goes south thru Syria.  All Syria joins him.  Labienus goes west into Cilicia. 40 CAH 9-405, 10-47, DGRBM 2-698
40 PTOLEMY MENNEUS, ruler of Chalcis from 85, ruler of Abilene from ?, driven out by Herod.  Son LYSANIAS-I succeeds until 37. Ant 14:13:3     40 CAH 10-318, DGRBM 3-569, DGRG 1-4, IDB 2-773, 3-967, ISBE 2-940, Jud 3-66, 11-627, 13-1349
c.40 HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, offers Parthian prince Pacorus 1,000 talents & 500 women of his opponents to make him king of Judea.  Pacorus agrees. Wars 1:13:1 40 CAH 10-48
c.40 PACORUS prince of Parthia sends general Barzaphernes to help Mattathias Antigonus in Judea by attacking Jews. Wars 1:13:1
40 LYSANIAS-I, ruler of Chalcis 40-37, goes to Syria, tells Parthian prince Pacorus that Matt Antigonus promises 1,000 talents & 500 women of his opponents to make Matt Antigonus king of JudeaPacorus agrees.. Ant 14:13:3, Wars 1:13:1 40 CAH 10-48
c.40 PACORUS prince of Parthia marches south on coast of Syria to Phoenicia. Wars 1:13:1
c.40 PACORUS prince of Parthia, takes Hyrcanus-II from Judea to Syria. Wars 1:13:11     40 CAH 10-48, GHH, lvPE
c.40 PACORUS, takes Hyrcanus-II from Syria to Parthia until 36. 40 CAH 10-48, wikH2
c.39 OLTAK ends.  King of Colchis from 47.  Colchis is back under Pontus (as a client of Rome) until 62CE. 39 rcCau
c.39 Parthians retreat from Cilicia to Syria. 39 B76 9-844, CAH 10-50, OCD 575
c.39 Antonine P. VENTIDIUS BASSUS with 11 legions proceeds from Cilicia to Syria. 39 B76 VII-667, DGRBM 3-1238
c.39 PARTHIANS, chased by P. Ventidius BASSUS from Syria across Euphrates to Parthia. 39 CAH 10-50, DGRBM 1-216, DGRG 2-1078
c.39 SYRIA, under Parthians from 40, back under Romans until 261CE (except for Aradus (Arvad on south coast)).  P. VENTIDIUS BASSUS is governor of Syria until 38. 39 DGRBM 3-1238, atl1, wikRGS
39 hifiS
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS prepares to attack Antiochus-I of Commagene, but he negotiates a settlement with Bassus. 38 wikA1TC
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS receives message from Herod asking for help, proceeds from Syria to Phoenicia, supposedly to help Herod. Wars 1:15:2
38 B76 X-390, DGRBM 3-1238, Jud 3-66, 4-37
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS extorts large sums from Mat Antigonus of Judea, Antiochus-I of Commagene, and Malchus the Nabatean chief, because they had aided Pacorus. 39 DGRBM 3-1238
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS leaves Pompaedius SILO with a detachment at Jerusalem and withdraws with majority of his troops north to winter quarters. Wars 1:15:2
39 CAH 10-50
c.38 PACORUS prince of Parthia, with a large newly recruited army, invades Syria again, attacks Bassus' camp by the same stupid assault that lost Cilicia. 38 DGRBM 1-356, 3-1238, wikRPW
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS, Antonine governor of Syria 39-8, in Syria, sends message to Pompaedius Silo, tells him to wrap it up in Judea, and bring troops to help him against Parthians. Wars 1:16:4
c.38 Pompaedius SILO, willingly dismissed by Herod, returns to P. Ventidius Bassus in Syria. Wars 1:16:4
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS, Antonine governor of Syria, defeats Parthians under Pacorus at Mt. Gindarus (70km northeast of Antioch). 38 B76 X-390, 1-1000, CAH 10-23, DGRBM 1-216, 3-1239, HRE 118, OCD 1113, atl1
c.38 PACORUS dies.  Prince of Parthia is routed and killed by Ventidius Bassus at Gindarus.  His head is sent round to the Syrian cities.  Defeated Parthians flee to Samosata, hold up with Antiochus-I of Commagene. Ant 14:15:7     39 lvPE     38 B76 VII-667, X-390, CAH 10-23, 50, 53, CHJ 3-105, DGRBM 3-1239, GHH, HRE 118, Jud 4-37, MCAW 260, OCD 123, 1113, atl1, wikLPK, wikO2P, wikPE     37 GHH
c.38 PACORUS dies.  Arsacid king of Media from 50.  Successor unknown until 30. 38 DGRBM 3-1239, wikPsk
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS, Antonine governor of Syria, attacks Antiochus-I king of Commagene on pretext that he had not given up some slaves to Bassus, but really just to extort money. 38 DGRBM 3-1239
c.38 HEROD goes from Emmaus north with 2 legions to complain to Antony about Macheras.  Herod goes to Daphne Syria. Wars 1:16:7 38 Jud 3-66
c.38 HEROD at Daphne Syria, learns of Joseph's death and insurrection in Galilee, hurries back with 2 legions to Mount Libanus. Wars 1:16:3
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS, Antonine governor of Syria 39-8, marches on Samosata, bribed by Antiochus-I of Commagene, makes a sloppy siege which achieves nothing. 38 CAH 10-53, DGRBM 1-194
c.38 ANTONY proceeds from Anatolia to Commagene.  He is miffed at Bassus for accepting bribes. 38 guess
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS, Antonine governor of Syria, besieging Samosata, relieved by Antony. 38 CAH 10-53, OCD 1113, rcS, wikRGS
c.38 ANTONY quickly finishes the siege of Samosata.  Herod shows up to complain about Macheras. Ant 14:15:8-9, Wars 1:16:7 38 atl1
Yes, this data is screwed up.  I think Josephus puts Herod in too many places at the same time, but I don't know who is right.
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS receives order from Antony finish subduing Parthians, and help him assist HerodBassus sends Sosius with 2 legions and 1,000 cav to Judea. Ant 14:15:9, Wars 1:16:6
38 CAH 10-53
38 P. Ventidius BASSUS comes from Syria to Judea, supposedly to help Herod, camps by Jerusalem. Ant 14:14:6, Wars 1:15:2
38 B76 X-390, Jud 3-66, 4-37
c.38 P. Ventidius BASSUS, Antonine governor of Syria from 39, returns to Rome. 38 CAH 10-53, OCD 1113, rcS, wikRGS
c.38 ANTIOCHUS-I THEOS ends.  King of Commagene from 70, besieged at Samosata, surrenders to and is deposed by Antony, who installs his son MITHRIDATES-II Philhellen until 20. Ant 14:15:9     38 CAH 10-53, CDCC 225, OCD 273, rcT, wikKC, wikA1TC, wikKC, wikRCmg     35 anan, frH
34 B76 III-36     31 anan
c.38 COMMAGENE, under Roman sponsorship from 73, becomes Roman client until 17CE. 38 OCD 273
c.38 ANTONY at Samosata, makes C. SOSIUS governor of Syria until 37, puts him in charge of Judean legions with strict orders to get Mat Antigonus. 38 CAH 10-54 740, DGRBM 3-885, DGRG 2-1078, rcS, wikRGS
c.38 C. SOSIUS, Antonine general in Syria, gives 2 legions to Herod and sends him on ahead. 38 CAH 10-28, 54
c.38 ANTONY proceeds from Commagene to Syria until later 38. 38 CAH 10-23, DGRBM 3-1239, GHH
c.38 ANTONY, in Syria from 38, returns to Athens. 38 CAH 10-54
c.38 C. SOSIUS, Antonine governor of Syria 38-7, takes 11 legions to Judea. 37 CAH 10-54, Jud 3-67, 8-376
c.38/7 ORODES-II (Arsaces XIX or XX) dies.  King of Parthia from 57, is apparently insane.  Son PHRAATES-IV (Arsaces XV) takes throne, murders dad, and succeeds until 2BC. 39 hifiE, hifiP     38 CDCC 649, MCAW 260, OCD 828, icsPE, KoP, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE     38/7 OCD 123
37 B76 VII-592, 972, 9-844, CAH 10-71, GHH, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, bk
c.37 fall ANTONY sails from Corcyra to Syria, goes to Antioch, sends C. Fonteius Capito to Egypt to summon CLEO-VII. 37 CAH 10-28, 55, 59, DGRBM 1-602
c.37 fall CLEOPATRA-VII, queen of Egypt, sails with her twins and supplies for Antony to Syria until 36. 37 CAH 10-30, 55, ISBE 3-1050
c.37 fall ANTONY, still married to Octavia, marries CLEO-VII at Antioch.  For wedding gifts she asks for everything formerly owned by P-II Philadelphus, plus Herod's kingdomAntony's gifts include Cilicia Tracheia, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, Phoenicia, part of Nabataea, and control of Syria until 30.  He also grants parts of Herod's kingdom:  Joppa, palm groves at Jerusalem, balsam groves, and some commercial monopolies. Wars 1:17:5     40 anan 37 CAH 10-55, 63, 67, MCAW 260     36 CHJ 3-113, atl1     33 SHWC
no date: Jud 9-1250, OCD 642
c.37 C. SOSIUS, Antonine general with 11 legions takes Mat Antigonus from Jerusalem to Antony at Antioch. Wars 1:17:3 37 Jud 8-376
c.37 Youngest son of Aristobulus-II MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS dies.  High priest and king of Judea from 40, beheaded at Antioch by Antony, leaving Herod supreme. Ant 15:1:2, Wars 1:17:3 37 Jud 3-67, 442, 7-1251
c.37 P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS, Antonine general sent to attack Armenia.  In Armenia until 33. 37 CAH 10-72
Lucius, not Publius Canidius Crassus 38 DGRBM 1-872
c.37 Caucasian ALBANIANS rebel against Romans.  Then Kartli-Iberia rebels. 37 cnfl
c.37 ARMENIA, under Atravasdes-II 55-34, allied to Parthia from 53, conquered by Canidius Crassus, under Rome until 35. 37 CAH 10-72
c.37 Canidius Crassus, defeats Iberians and Albanians. 37 atl1, cnfl
c.37 C. SOSIUS, Antonine governor of Syria from 38, ends. 37 wikRGS
c.37 Cruelty of PHRAATES-IV provokes many Parthian nobles to flee to Antony. 37 DGRBM 1-356
c.37/6 Parthian MONAESES, Warden of the Western Marches, joins Antony until 36, with promises of a wider defection. 37/6 Ac31 22, CAH 10-31
c.37/6 ANTONY winters in Antioch, continuing administrative changes.  This time reorganization is more extensive.  The East begins to fall into large client kingdoms, each ruled by a loyal prince. 37/6 Ac31 20, CAH 10-28
c.36 IBERIANS rebel against Romans. 36 cnfl
c.36 Mar ANTONY leaves Syria under C. Sosius, Asia under C. Furnius, 7 legions in Macedonia and 1 at Jerusalem.  Antony with 10 legions and 10,000 cavalry marches from Antioch.  CLEO-VII is with him. 36 Ac31 22
c.36 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene 56-31, is ally of Phraates-IV of Parthia until 35. 36 wikArt1
c.36 ARTAVASDES-II, king of Armenia 54-34, ally of Phraates-IV of Parthia from 37, again switches alliances by sending additional troops to Antony, allied to Antony until 35. 36 DGRBM 1-370, wikPE , wikRtv2
36 spring P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS, Antonine general continues conquest of Armenia, reduces the Albani and Iberi of the Caucasus. 36 CAH 10-31, 72, OCD 201
c.36 spring Parthian MONAESES, with Antony from 37/6, returns to Parthia with valuable info. 36 Ac31 22
c.36 ANTONY joins his army under Canidius Crassus near Erzurum on Anatolia/Armenia border. 36 B76 9-844, CAH 10-32, wikPE, wikRtv2
c.36 CLEOPATRA-VII, queen of Egypt, with Antony from 37 and pregnant with his son, goes with him as far as Zeugma (Seleucia on Euphrates), then returns to Apamea, Damascus, Judea. Wars 1:18:3
36 Ac31 22, CAH 10-70
c.36 LYSANIAS-I dies.  King of Chalcis from 40, executed by Antony for his treason in 40.  Son ZENODORUS does not succeed.
CHALCIS kingdom including Iturea and Abilene, under Lysanias-I from 40, given by Antony to Cleo-VII.  Includes everything down to Herod's kingdom.
37 CAH 10-67
36 ENBD 4, IDB 1-9, atl1 34 BNTH?
c.36 ANTONY in Armenia, is deceived by Artavasdes-II of Armenia to invade Atropatene, besieges Parthians in Praaspi (Phraaspa, Praaspa) fortified capital of Atropatene, but fails to capture city. 37 GHH     36 Ac31, B76 VII-972, DGRBM 1-357, 370, OCD 126, atl1, wikPr4
c.36 Antony's allies in Parthian campaign include Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS governor of Bithynia, POLEMO of Pontus, ARTAVASDES-II of Armenia. 36 B76 I-549, OCD 126, 361, 850, wikGnDA
c.36 Legate OPPIUS STATIANUS is left behind with 2 legions and the baggage to follow Antony when he invades Parthia.  Oppius is surprised by the enemy, and his 10,000 men are annihilated.  The siege train is burnt. 36 DGRBM 3-39, atl1     35 Ac31 23
c.36 ANTONY with legion VI Ferrata and other, unidentified units invades Armenia.  Artavasdes-II again defects to him. 36 eiArs, wikRtv2
36 ANTONY moves from Armenia to invade Parthian Mesopotamia. 36 B76 VII-972, CDCC 54, GHH, MCAW 260, cnfl, icsPE, wikMA, wikPE
36 Oc/Nv ANTONY defeated, retreats, loses 80,000 men before reaching borders of Armenia. 36 CAH 10-74, KHA 87
c.36 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, under Antony from 37, captured by Parthians, ransomed. 36 CAH 10-33, OCD 850     35 Ac31 23
36 Parthians, having better intel, wipe out Antony's supply wagons in Armenia. 36 CAH 10-73
c.36 ARTAVASDES-II, Artaxiad king of Armenia 55-34, ally of Antony from 36, deserts in a critical battle. 36 CAH 10-33, DGRBM 1-370     35 wikRtv2
no date: OCD 126
c.36 Parthian horsemen harass Romans.  Antony narrowly escapes with his life.  [Romans lose more than 20,000 men in this campaign.] 36 GHH, atl1
36 Nov ANTONY, unable to winter in Armenia, sends message to Cleo-VII to meet them on coast of Syria with plenty of supplies.  Antony retreats from Armenia to Syria, having lost 37% of his men. 36 CAH 10-33, 75, DGRBM 1-216, atl1, bk, wikMA
36 Nv/Dc ANTONY leaves quaestor M. Titius as governor of Syria until 35, sails to Egypt. 36 Ac31, B76 1-1000, OCD 1079
35 Quaestor M. TITIUS governor of Syria from 36, receives order from Antony in Alexandria, leaves Syria under L. Munatius PLANCUS until 34, takes some legions to Asia province to deal with Sextus Pompeius. 35 DGRBM 3-383, OCD 878, 1079, rcS, wikRGS
c.35 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, under Antony from 37, is employed by Antony to negotiate with king Artavasdes-I of Atropatene, whom he detaches from alliance with Parthia to Antony until ?. 35 DGRBM 3-434, wikArt1, wikP1Pn
c.35 ARMENIA, under Rome from 37, back under Parthia until 34. 37-34 implied
c.35 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene 56-31, allies with Antony, asks Antonyto come and help him against the Parthians. 35 wikArt1
35 mid ANTONY sails from Egypt to Syria, pretending that he is there to attack the Parthians, but his immediate goal is Armenia, because his former ally Artavasdes-II deserted in battle 36. 35 CAH 10-38
c.35 ARCHELAUS created king of Cappadocia by Antony.  Armenia Minor becomes dependent on Rome. 35 GHH
35 ANTONY goes from Syria to Alexandria for winter.  He takes prisoners Artavasdes-II and sons Tigranes and Artavasdes with him and leaves them in cutody of Cleo-VII. 35/4 CAH 10-39
34 early ANTONY sails from Egypt to Syria.  Antony sends Q. Dellius ahead to Artaxata to ask Armenian Artavasdes-II for the king's dau, pretending he wished to marry her to Antony's 6-year-old son Alexander Helios.  She would make a good hostage.  Artavasdes hesitates. 34 AC31 30, CAH 10-39, DGRBM 1-216, 370, 956, GHH, HRE 119, MCAW 260, atl1, bk, wikRtv2
34 early ANTONY in Laodicea on coast of Syria, summons Herod on charge of murdering Aristobulus-III, son of Jonathan Alex & Salome Alex.  Herod goes and clears himself by bribery.  Antony clears Herod, but compels him to cede Jericho and parts of Arabia to Cleo-VII 34 Jud 5-604
34 early ANTONY appears suddenly at Nicopolis on the Armenian border, and sends for Armenian king Artavasdes-II to discuss a new Parthian campaign.  Artavasdes refusees.  Antony marches to Artaxata. 34 CAH 10-39
34 early ARTAVASDES-II ends.  King of Armenia from 55, and sons Tigranes and Artavasdes, summoned by Antony.  Artavasdes is forced by his nobility to comply.  He and his sons enter Antony's camp.  They are siezed and kept in his custody until later 34.  ALEXANDER succeeds until 31. 34 AC31 30, B76 I-549, CAH 10-40, 78, DGRBM 1-216, 370, GHH, HRE 119, MCAW 260, anan, atl1, bdrs, hystn, lvA, lvArm, hystn, rcCau, wikLAK, wikPE, wikRtv2
34 early ARMENIA, under Parthians from 35?, resubdued by Antony until 30. Ant 15:4:3     34 B76 I-549, CAH 10-78, DGRBM 1-370
34 ANTONY tries to ally with Artavasdes-I of Atropatene, whose relations with Phraates-IV of Parthia had recently soured. 34 wikPE 33 atl1
34 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene, main ally of Antony, receives part of Armenia and betrothal of Antony's son Alexander Helios to his infant dau Iotape. 34 DGRBM 1-370, 2-614, OCD 126, hystn, wikArt1
34 1st son of Artavasdes-I, ARTAXES (Artaxias)-II escapes and flees to Phraates-IV of Parthia. Ant 15:4:3 34 wikTg3
34 ARTAXES (Artaxias)-II is made king of Armenia by Armenians until 32. 34 DGRBM 1-370, GHH, lvA, lvArm 33 anan, wikLAK    32 atl1   30 rcCau
by by Phraates-IV of Parthia, not Armenians 34 wikRtx2, wikTg3     32 atl1
c.34 ANTONY again attacks Phraates-IV of Parthia unsuccessfully. 34 B76 9-844
c.34 L. Munatius PLANCUS, Antonine governor of Syria from 35, ends.  Antonine L. Calpurnius BIBULUS succeeds until 32. 34 OCD 166, wikRGS     33 rcS
c.34 MANU-II Aloho ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 53.  FAQURI (Paqor) succeeds until 29. 34 frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
34 late ANTONY leaves army in Armenia to winter in Alexandria.  He takes prisoners Artavasdes-II and sons Tigranes and Artavasdes with him. Ant 15:4:3
34 CAH 10-40, 78, OCD 126
33 early ANTONY hurries from Egypt to Syria to Armenia/Media border. 33 CAH 10-79, wikRPW
c.33 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene 56-31, ally of Antony from 35, meets Antony on Araxes riverArt-I fears a Parthian attack, and seeks Antony's help  They agree to support each other against enemies, and interchange parts of their troops.  The domain of Artavasdes is enlarged with parts of Armenia.  Almost all of Antony's 16 legions is already in Armenia. 33
CAH 10-48, wikArt1
33 Antony's Parthian War ends in failure. 33 wikTAR
33 ANTONY withdraws forces from Armenia. 33 wikPE
c.33 ARMENIA MINOR, under Pontus from 36, under Rome from 35, given by Antony to Polemo, remains under Pontus until 14. 33 CAH 10-48
c.33 fall? ANTONY and CLEO-VII go from Syria to Ephesus until April. 33 Ac31 31, CAH 10-44-5, 48, atl1
33 Nov P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS, Antonine general in Armenia from 37, leaves Armenia under POLEMO, king of Pontus, withdraws army to Anatolia. 33 CAH 10-93, atl1
33 Parthians overrun Media and Armenia.  But they remain independent under Roman influence. 33 GHH
c.32 MEDIA ATROPATENE conquered by Parthians. 32 atl1
32 L. Calpurnius BIBULUS dies.  Antonine governor of Syria from 34. 33/2 wikRGS
32 OCD 166     31 rcS
c.31 ARTAVASDES-I ends.  King of Atropatene from 56, defeated and captured by Phraates-IV of ParthiaASINNALUS succeeds 30-24. 31 wikAtr 30 wikArt1
c.31 ALEXANDER ends.  King of Armenia from 34.  ARTAXES(Artaxias)-II succeeds until 30. 31 hystn
c.31 IMBLICHUS, priest-king of Emesa from 43, ends.  ALEXANDER succeeds until 29. 31 frH, wikImb
31 Sep 2 ACTIUM
31 Sep ARTAVASDES-II dies.  Former Artaxiad king of Armenia 55-34, prisoner of Antony from 34, beheaded by Cleo-VII in Alexandria.  She sends his head to Artavasdes-I of Atropatene to secure his helpHis son Tigranes remains her prisoner until 30. 31 CAH 10-106-7, wikRtv2
30 DGRBM 1-370, atl1, hifi
31/0 Q. DIDIUS, Antonine from ?, defects to Octavian, prevents a group of gladiators from joining Antony.  Octavian makes him governor of Syria until Nov. 30. 31 DGRBM 1-1005 31/0 CAH 10-61
30 Ac31, atl1
c.30 PHARNABAZUS-II (Bartom) dies.  King of Iberia from 66, is killed in a battle against Mirvan.  MIRVAN-II succeeds until 20. 33 rcCau     30 MRDK 343, atl1, hifiGeo
c.30 OCTAVIAN marches overland from Anatolia to Syria. 30 CAH 10-62
c.30 OCTAVIAN passes south thru Syria. 30 CAH 10-107
c.30 TIRIDATES-II, king of Media, pretender to throne of Parthia, takes son of Phrates-IV hostage, flees to Syria, lives under Roman protection. 31 B76 X-2
30 B76 VII-972, CAH 10-79
c.30 OCTAVIAN, goes from Egypt, thru Levant to Antioch, receives envoys from Phraates-IV of Parthia, returns his son to him, promises not to help Tiridates. Ant 15:7:3-4
30 CAH 10-254, ISBE 2-691, atl1
c.30 OCTAVIAN negotiates Rome / Parthia treaty with Phraates-IVArmenia and Osroene are Roman clients. 30 B76 VII-972, atl1
c.30 PALMYRA, independent from 64, comes under Rome until 261. 30 rcS
c.30 ARTAVASDES-I, Arsacid king of Atropatene, ally of Rome from 36, escapes from Parthians, flees to Octavian, goes to Rome, where he dies c.20. 30 OCD 126, atl1
c.30 ARMENIA, under Rome from 34, becomes Roman client kingdom until 20. 30 B76 VII-972
c.30 1st son of Artavasdes-I, ARTAXES(Artaxias)-II, made king of Armenia until 20 by agreement of Rome and Phraates-IV of Parthia. 30 CAH 10-79, bdrs, hystn, rcCau
c.30 OCTAVIAN goes from Syria to Asia province. 30 CAH 10-154, 255
c.30 TIRIDATES? becomes Arsacid king of Media until 25. 30 wikPsk
30 Nov 1 Q. DIDIUS, governor of Syria 30, ends.  M.(2) Tullius CICERO succeeds until 29. 30 OCD 239, wikRGS
c.29 ANTIOCHUS-I THEOS, former king of Commagene 70-38, charged with murder of an envoy sent to Rome by his bro Mith-II.  He is summoned to Rome, tried, condemned executed. 29 CAH 10-175, DGRBM 1-194, OCD 72, wikM2C
murdered by Phraates-IV 37 atl1
c.29 M.(2) Tullius CICERO, governor of Syria from Nov 30, ends.  M. Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS succeeds briefly. 29 wikRGS
c.29 M. Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS, governor of Syria 29, ends.  M.(2) Tullius CICERO resumes until 25. 29 wikRGS
c.29 ALEXANDER ends.  Sheikh of Emesa from 31.  Successor unknown until 20. 29 frH
c.29 FAQURI (Paqor) ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 34.  ABGAR-III succeeds until 26. 29 frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.27 SYRIA, imperial province, is put under an imperial legateCilicia is attached. 27 CAH 10-154, 279, 712
26 spring TIRIDATES, pretender to Arsacid throne, under Roman protection in Syria from 30, again invades Parthian Mesopotamia. 27 lvArs     26 B76 X-2, OCD 1078
25 OCD 1078
c.26 ABGAR-III ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 29.  ABGAR-IV Sumaqa succeeds until 23. 26 frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
25 M.(2) Tullius CICERO, governor of Syria from 28, ends.  M. Terentius VARRO (originally L. Licinius Varro Murena) succeeds until 23. Ant 15:10:1, Wars 1:20:4 25 wikRGS     24 wikLLVM
c.25 TIRIDATES?, Arsacid king of Media from 30, ends.  MITHRIDATES? succeeds until 9. 25 wikPsk
c.24 ASINNALUS ends.  King of Atropatene from 31.  ARIOBARZANES-II succeeds until 4CE. 28-20 wikAtr
24 ANTIOCH reconstituted as a Roman garrison called Colonia Caesarea Antiochea. 24 BRDTNT 282
24 TRACHONITIS, BAATANAEA, AURANATIS, under Zenodorus tetrarch in Transjordan, taken by Augustus, annexed to Syria until 23. 24 CAH 10-288
23 Alliance of Parthia with Romans; Augustus restores to Phraates-IV his son (25) 23 GHH
23 TRACHONITIS, BAATANAEA, AURANATIS, under Syria from 24, given by Augustus thru Varro to Herod. Ant 15:10:1
23 Jud 8-379
23 M. Terentius VARRO, governor of Syria from 25, ends.  M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA succeeds until 13, but usually in absentia, with legates in place. 23 CAH 10-155, wikLLVM, wikRGS 22 rcS
c.23 ABGAR-IV Sumaqa ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 26.  MANU-III Saphul succeeds until 4. 23 frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
20 early Armenians complain to Augustus about king Artaxes-II and ask for his bro Tigranes, who is in RomeAugustus sends Tiberius with an army into Armenia to depose Artaxes-II. 20 DGRBM 1-372, 3-1118, wikRtx2
20 early 1st son of Artavasdes-I, ARTAXES-II (Artaxias) dies.  King of Armenia under Rome from 30, murdered by unknown kinsmen, when they hear of approach of Tiberius, who personally crowns his bro TIGRANES-III king until 6. 20 CAH 10-263-4, DGRBM 1-372, 3-1118, 1129, GHH, anan, bdrs, hifi, hystn, lvA, lvArm, rcCau, wikLAK, wikRtx2, wikTg3
20 spring AUGUSTUS comes from Asia province to Syria. 20 B76 2-370, CAH 10-262, DGRBM 1-357, 429, HRE 120, IDB 2-590, ISBE 2-691, Jud 8-379
c.20 MIRVAN-II ends.  King of Iberia from 30.  MIRVAN-III succeeds until 1CE. 23 rcCau     20 MRDK 343, hifiGeo
20 ZENODORUS tetrarch of Abilene and Trachonitis from 30 appears before Augustus to beg for restitution of his dominions, but he dies suddenly of illness at Antioch. Ant 15:10:3     31 DGRBM 3-1311, DGRG 1-4     20 CAH 10-281, CHJ 3-115, IDB 1-9, 480, 773, ISBE 2-940, lvHG
20 Augustus in Syria, confers on Herod the territory of Zenodorus: Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Batanea. 21 GHH     20 DGRBM 3-1311, IDB 1-9, 480, 773, 2-590, ISBE 2-691, 940
c.20 TIBERIUS summoned from Rome by Augustus to Syria to serve under Agrippa. 20 MCAW 268, wikTi
c.20 AtropateneMEDIA ATROPATENE, free of dominance by Artaxes of Armenia, asks Augustus to give them a king.  Augustus enthrones son of late Artavasdes-I, ARIOBARZANES king until 6CE. 20 CAH 10-284
20 May 12 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, fearing invasion by Augustus from Syria and Tiberius from Armenia, makes treaty, agrees to a Roman protectorate in Armenia, returns to Tiberius the Roman standards captured from Crassus 53, Antony 36, and all Roman POWs who want to return.  Tiberius agrees to return his hostage son, sends him a trustworthy female slave, named Musa.  Roman celebration of this on May 12 will be continued into the 4th century. 20 B76 2-370, 9-844, CAH 10-159, 263, DGRBM 1-429, GHH, HRE 120, MCAW 268, OCD 828, bk, eiArs, icsPE, lvPE, wikPE
c.20 The family of Tarcondimotus king of eastern Cilicia who had fought and died for Antony at Actium 31, and had been taken hostage, is restored. 20 CAH 10-728
c.20 The family of the king of Emesa who had fought for Antony at Actium, and had been taken hostage, is restored. 20 CAH 10-728
c.20 Kingdom of EMESA, out of business from 29, restored under the Roman governor of Syria, by Augustus to IMBLICHUS-II, son of Imblichus-I, until 14. 20 CAH 10-731, DGRBM 2-548, HRE 113, frH, wikRFE
c.20 MITHRIDATES-II dies.  King of Commagene from 38.  Son MITHRIDATES-III succeeds until 12. 20 CDCC 225, DGRBM 2-1094, anan, frH, rcT, wikM2C, wikM3C, wikRCmg
c.20 GLASS BLOWING evidenced in Syria. end of 1st cen SHT 2-322
c.20 late AUGUSTUS, in Syria from spring, returns to Samos. 20 DGRBM 1-429
c.19 Parthians defeated by Tiberius. 19 GHH
c.18 ARMENIA Major is henceforward chiefly dependent on Rome. 18 GHH
c.17 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, accompanied by Julia, goes from Asia to Syria. 17 GHH
15 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, governor of eastern provinces, goes from Syria to Berytus. 17 DGRBM 1-79 15 B76 1-367, 2-815
c.14 Son of Imblichus-I, IMBLICHUS-II, priest-king of Emesa from 20, dies.  Son SAMPSICERAMUS-II succeeds until 42CE. 14 wikRFE 11 frH
c.14 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA sets up a veteran colony in Syria. 14 MCAW 268, MCAW 268
c.13 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, governor of Syria from 23, ends. 13 wikRGS     12 rcS
c.12 MITHRIDATES-III dies.  King of Commagene from 20.  Son ANTIOCHUS-III succeeds until 17CE. 12 wikA3C, wikM3C, wikRCmg
c.10 ARCHELAUS king of Cappadocia and HEROD travel together from Jerusalem to Antioch. Ant 16:9:6
c.10 M. TITIUS becomes governor of Syria until 9. 13 OCD 1079   13/2 wikRGS
10 FHBC 235, 302, rcS
c.10 ARCHELAUS king of Cappadocia and HEROD at Antioch, try to resolve differences between Archelaus and TITIUS, governor of Syria. Ant 16:9:6
c.9 M. TITIUS, governor of Syria from 10, ends.  C. Sentius SATURNINUS succeeds until 6.  3 sons accompany him.  Voluminus is legate. 10/9 wikRGS
9 FHBC 235, 302, OCD 955, 1079, rcS
c.9 MITHRIDATES?, Arsacid king of Media from 25, ends.  Successor unknown until 4ce. 9 wikPsk
c.8 C. Sentius SATURNINUS, governor of Syria 9-6, holds census of areas under his authority.  This includes Judea 8 BRDTNT 244
c.7 king of Armenia, is expelled by his subjects. 7 GHH
c.6 Son of Artavasdes-I TIGRANES-III dies.  King of Armenia under Rome from 20.  Armenia rebels against Rome and installs his anti-Roman son TIGRANES-IV, and sis/consort ERATO until 5. 12 hifi     10 wikLAK, wikTg3, wikTg4     8 hystn, lvA, lvArm, rcCau     8-6 bdrs     7 CAH 10-160     6 CAH 10-273, GHH, OCD 1073, anan
c.6 Romans appoint ARTAVASDES-III (Artabazus) king of Armenia, but Phraates-IV defends claims of Tigranes-IV. 6 CAH 10-160, GHH
c.6 C. Sentius SATURNINUS, governor of Syria from 9, ends.  P. Quintilius VARUS, until now governor of Africa, resumes until 4, bleeding it dry. Ant 17:5:2     7/6 wikRGS 6 CAH 10-279, FHBC 235, 302, Jud 13-1427, OCD 955, 1109, rcS
c.5 Son of Tig-3, TIGRANES-IV deposed.  Client king of Armenia from 6 with wife Erato, deposed until 2BC by Romans, who install ARTAVASDES-III (Artabazus) until 2BC.  His wife ERATO is also a claimant until 2BC. 6 anan     5 CAH 10-273, bdrs, hystn, rcCau, wikTg4 omitted lvA
c.5 P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria 6-4, visits Jerusalem until 4. Wars 1:31:5, Ant 17:5:7
c.5 P. Quintilius VARUS, after conclusion of Antipater trial, returns from Judea to Antioch. Wars 2:2:2, 2:3:1
c.4 P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria 6-4, receives letter from Sabinus, writes to Augustus about rebellion in Judea, orders several sub-rulers to mobilize and meet him in Ptolemais. Wars 2:5:1
4 Apr P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria 6-4, takes Augustus' treasurer named Sabinus with him to Caesarea to install Sabinus as procurator to supervise the distribution of Herod's property. Ant 17:9:3,
Wars 2:2:2, 2:2:4
4 Jud 14-589
c.4 P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria 6-4,leaves the same legion garrisoned in Jerusalem, returns with the other 2 legions to Antioch. Wars 2:5:3
4 P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria 6-4, leads 2 legions and 4 4 cavalry troops to Berytus. Ant 17:10:9, Wars 2:5:1     4 CAH 10-338, Jud 3-334
c.4 MANU-III Saphul ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 23.  Son ABGAR-V Uchama succeeds until 7CE. 4 ISBE 1-181, OCD 760, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.4 P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria 6-4, leaves the same legion garrisoned in Jerusalem, returns with the other 2 legions to Antioch. Ant 17:11:1, Wars 2:5:3
c.4 P. Quintilius VARUS, governor of Syria from 6, now filthy rich, recalled to Rome until 3?. 4 CAH 10-279, FHBC 235, 302, Jud 13-1427, OCD 1109, rcS, wikRGS
c.3 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS, proconsul of Asia?, becomes proconsul of Syria (1st time) until 2. 3 FHBC 302
c.2 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS, proconsul of Syria from 3, ends.  P. Quinctilius VARUS restored until 1. 2 rcS
c.2 ARTAVASDES-III (Artabazus) out.  King of Armenia from 5, overthrown by predecessor Tigranes-IV, helped by Phraates-V of ParthiaTIGRANES-IV resumes until 1CE under Parthia until 1BC. 2 CAH 10-273, 275, bdrs, hifi, hystn, rcCau
Tig-IV killed in battle. 2 wikTg4
c.2 ARIOBARZANES-II of Atropatene appointed by Augustus to serve as a client king of Armenia Major until 4CE. 2 Abz2, wikAtr
c.2 Erato, widowed queen of Artavasdes/Artabazus, reigns in Armenia.  Erato is deposed in same year or 1CE.  Interregnum and confusion in Armenia. 2 GHH, rcCau, wikLAK
c.1 P. Quinctilius VARUS, proconsul of Syria from 2, ends.  Next heard of in 7-9CE.  C. CAESAR VIPSANIUS, age 19, succeeds until 4CE. 1 rcS
c.1 CAIUS CAESAR VIPSANIUS, age 19, proconsul of Syria 1BC-4CE, with chief of staff M. LOLLIUS until 1CE, sail from Egypt to Syria with orders to recover Armenia. 1 B76 II-434, CAH 10-156, 275, FHBC 235, OCD 618, wikRGS
c.1 TIGRANES-III, king of Armenia 2BC-1CE, under Parthia from 2, sends envoy with gifts to Rome, asks for Armenian throne, prefering Roman overlords to Parthian.  Armenia under Rome until 34CE. 1 CAH 10-275, bdrs, hystn