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Asia Province Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.101 /00 Roman law engraved at Delphi and Knidos:  The senior consul is instructed, as part of a campaign to put down piracy, to write to kings in Syria, Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene and to give special audience to the Rhodians. 101-00 CAH 9-17
c.100 Writings of ARISTOTLE and THEOPHRASTOS, in a cellar in Scepsis in the Troad from 287, sold to philosopher Apellicon of Teos, who edits them, and takes them to Athens. 100 Dur 2-601, OCD 115
no date: B76 1-1165
c.100 CAPPADOCIA occupied by Mith-VI of Pontus.  Mith-VI expells his sis Laodice and Nic-3, restores Ariarathes-VII, but on second thought decides to put his own son on the throne, Ariarathes-VIII Eusebes. 101 CAH 9-141, lvA, rcT
100 CAH 9, frH
c.100 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, and Ariarathes-VII of Cappadocia meet in presence of both armies. 101 OCD 107
c.100 Son of A-VI, ARIARATHES-VII Philometor dies.  5th king of Cappadocia from 116, murdered personally by Mith-VI of Pontus, who appoints his own 8 year old son ARIARATHES-IX Eusebes Philopator king until 96 under regency of Gordius. 101 CAH 9-141, MRDK 332, OCD 107, atl1, awCap, lvA, rcT, wikKPn
100 CAH 9-141, 1023, frH
c.100 L. Calpurnius PISO CAESONIUS is governor of Asia this year alone. 100 wikLRGA
c.100 Bucolic poet BION of Smyrna dies. 100 atl1
c.100 ARTEMIDORUS, geographer of Ephesus, flourishes.  Wrote 11 books.  Book 2 contains 1st map of Iberian peninsula and many illustrations. 101 DGRBM 1-374, wikAE
c.99 The remnant of the German and other tribes, defeated by the Romans, are received into the pay of Mithridates of Pontus. 99 GHH
c.98 C. MARIUS comes from Rome to Asia. 99/8 CAH 9-142
c.98 C. MARIUS visits Cappadocia. 98 atl1
c.98 Asia Province governed by Q. Mucius Scaevola and Rutilius Rufus. 98 CAH 9
c.97 Q. Mucius SCAEVOLA is governor of Asia this year alone. 97 wikLRGA
c.97 Cappadocian nobles rebel against Pontic control, and call in the bro of the former king from Asia province. 97 CAH 9-142, wikBθP, wikKPn
c.97 Cappadocia conquered by Mith-VI. 97 CAH 9-142, GHH
c.97 ARIARATHES-V ends.  King of Cappadocia from 100, forced out of by Mith-VI, and dies soon after. 97 CAH 9-142, atl1
c.96 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, hires Cappadocian GORDIUS to kill Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia. 96 DGRBM 2-282
c.96 Son of Mith-VI, claimed son of Ariarathes-V, ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR ousted.  King of Cappadocia from 100, ousted by Ariarathes, son of A-VII, goes home to Pontus.  Youngest son of A-V is installed by Sulla, ARIARATHES-VIII succeeds until 95. 96 CAH 9-1023, DGRBM 1-285, awCap, rcT
95 atl1
c.96 Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, king of Cyprus 107-88, sends for his 4th bro DEMETRIUS-III to come from Knidos Caria. Ant 13:13:4
c.96 LAODICE, sis of Mith-VI, marries aged Nicomedes-III Euergetes of Bithynia. 96 GHH
c.96/5 In 13 mint centers in Paphlagonia and Pontus, silver drachms and tetradrachms and gold staters are struck in the name of Mith-6 Eupator.  On the obverse his portrait is done in realistic style. 96 CAH 9-140
c.95 ARIARATHES-VIII Epiphanes dies.  King of Cappadocia from 96, killed by bro-in-law, Mith-VI of Pontus.  DYNASTY ENDS. 95 CAH 9-1023, GHH, OCD 108, wikA8C     88 frH
c.95 Senate orders Mith-VI & son Ariarathes-IX Eusebes out of Cappadocia, orders Sulla to set Ariobarzanes-I Philoromaios on throne. 95 B76 8-385, 12-288, CAH 9, OCD 108
c.95 Nicomedes-III of Bithynia sends envoys including his wife Laodice, Mith-VI' sis, and another pretender to Rome to testify that her former husband had recognized 3 legitimate sons.
Mith-VI counteracts by sending Gordius to Rome to claim that his Cappadocian king was a son of the earlier Ariarathes (V) who had aided Rome in the war against Aristonicus.
95 CAH 9-142, wikBθP
c.95 Cappadocia and Paphlagonia are declared free by Rome.  Cappadocians elect ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios king until 93. 96 awCap     95 B76 8-385, CAH 9-142, 1023, GHH, OCD 108, rcT, wikA1C
c.94 NICOMEDES-III Euergetes, king of Bithynia 127-94, sends concubine Hagne and her son Socrates to Cyzicus. 94 atl1
c.94 ANTIOCHUS-X besieges SELEUCUS-VI Epiphanes in Mopsuestia Cilicia. 95 BHS 2-260 94 lvAX, lvS6
c.94 1st son of A-8, SELEUCUS-VI Epiphanes Nicanor dies.  King of Syria 95, burns to death in his palace at Mopsuestia Cilicia.  Bros Antiochus-XI Epiphanes, and twins Demetrius-III Eucaerus and Philip-I Philadelphus succeed. 95 BHS 2-260 94 DGRBM 3-775, atl1, lvS6
killed 95 by cousin Antiochus-X Eusebes in Syria. anan, wikP1
c.94 Bros of Seleucus-VI, Antiochus-XI Epiphanes and Philip-I Philadelphus at Mopsuestia Cilicia, cross the Amanus to attack Antiochus-X Eusebes in Antioch. 94 BHS 2-260
c.94 Mithridates-VI destroys the son and successor of Ariarathes and Laodice of Cappadocia, and entrhones his own son ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR. 94 CAH 9-1023, GHH, OCD 108
c.94 NICOMEDES-III Euergetes dies.  King of Bithynia from 127.  Son NICOMEDES-IV Philopator succeeds until 91/0. 94 B76 VII-332, CAH 9-142, OCD 734, anan, atl1, bk, frH, lvA, rcT, wikLRB, wikN4B     91 MCAW 238
c.94 Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA sent from Rome to be proconsul of Asia for 9 months.  P. Rutilius Rufus is legate.  Scaevola punishes farmers who default on taxes. 95 DGRBM 3-681 94 B76 VIII-940, OCD 957
c.94 Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA and legate P. Rutilius Rufus corrects abuses in Roman administration of Asia province. 94 atl1
c.94 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, helped by tribune L. Antistius, escapes from prison in Rome.  Both flee to Smyrna, where Caepio dies 93. 94 LdHR 267
c.94/3 Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA, proconsul of Asia 94, puts legate Rutilius RUFUS in charge, leaves Asia. 94/3 OCD 957
c.93 L. Gellius POPLICOLA is governor of Asia this year alone. 93 wikLRGA
c.93 Ariobarzanes-I appointed king of Cappadocia by Romans.  Mith-VI Eupator does not venture openly to oppose this nomination, but secretly persuades Tigranes, king of Armenia, to invade Cappadocia, and expel Ariobarzanes. 93 DGRBM 1-286, 2-1097, GHH
91/0 wikKPn
c.93 Ignoring Rome's command to not interfere with Cappadocia's independence, troops from Armenia under Tigranes, son-in-law of Mith-VI, invade Cappadocia at the behest of Mith-VI. 93 KHA 75, wikBθP 91/0 CAH 9-143
c.93 At 1st appearance of Tigranes' generals, ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios, king of Cappadocia from 95, driven from Cappadocia until 92 by Tigranes-II, king of Armenia.  ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR resumes until 92. 93 CAH 9
91/0 CAH 9-143
Ariobarzanes-I is expelled by Bagoas, general of Mith-VI 93 GHH
92 DGRBM 1-454
c.93 NICOMEDES-V SOCRATES fails to gain Roman support for his claim to throne of Bithynia, goes to stay with Roman equite Cornelius on Euboea. 93 atl1
c.93 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO exiled at Smyrna from 94, dies. 93 atl1     no date: DGRBM 1-535
c.92 Galatia conquered by Mith-VI of Pontus. 92 GHH
c.92 L. Cornelius SULLA sent from Rome as propraetor of Cilicia until 92/1, with orders to restore Ariobarzanes-1 to his kingdom of Cappadocia, and to settle disputes between Mith-VI of Pontus and Nic-IV of Bithynia. 92 B76 IX-1006, DGRBM 3-935, LdHR 310, MCAW 238
c.92 Armenian forces expelled from Cappadocia by Sulla. 94 wikSl
c.92 L. Valerius FLACCUS is governor of Asia this year alone. 92 wikLRGA
c.92 SULLA settles affairs in Asia. 92 GHH
c.92 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, promotes pretender Nicomedes-V Socrates as king of Bithynia against Nic-IV Philopator king of Bithynia 94-91. 92 OCD 734 91/0 CAH 9-1023
c.92 GORDIUS, general of Mith-VI, is driven out of Cappadocia by Sulla, who restores ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromanus to throne of Cappadocia until 90. 92 B76 8-385, DGRBM 1-286, 2-282, 3-935, DGRG 1-507, GHH     89 rcT
c.92 L. Cornelius SULLA, praetor of Cilicia, goes to Syria. 92 implied
c.92 P. RUTILIUS RUFUS, exiled from Italy, goes to Mytilene Lesbos, then to Smyrna, where he spends the rest of his life, despite being invited back by Sulla.  He writes his autobiography and a history of Rome in Greek. 92 wikPRR
c.92/1 L. Cornelius SULLA, propraetor of Cilicia from 92, returns to Rome. 94 wikSl     92/1 DGRBM 3-935, OCD 1021
c.91 C.(4) Julius CAESAR goes from Rome to Asia, and is governor this year alone. 91 wikLRGA, atl1
c.91 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia invades Cappadocia.  Ariobarzanes-1 flees to Rome until 90. 91 atl1
91/0 CAH 9-143
c.91/0 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator king of Bithynia from 94, overthrown and expelled until 90 by Mith-VI of Pontus, who installs Nic-IV's anti-Roman bro and NICOMEDES-V SOCRATES CHRESTUS.  Nic-IV flees to Rome. 91 DGRG 1-405, GHH, atl1, wikBθ     91/0 CAH 9-143, 1023 90 DGRBM 2-1097, wikN4B
c.90 MANIUS(2) AQUILIUS becomes consular legate.  He and Manlius Maltinus head embassy from Rome to Asia until 88 to fight Mith-VI of Pontus.
ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromanus former king of Cappadocia,
in Rome from 90 accompanies.
91/0 CAH 9-143
90 atl1, lvA     89 OCD 90, DGRBM 1-286
88 DGRBM 1-253, wikKPn
c.90 Praetor L.(2) CASSIUS is sent from Rome to be proconsul of Asia until later 90. 90 DGRBM 1-625
c.90 L.(2) CASSIUS proconsul of Asia 90, in conjunction with M'(2) Aquillius, restores Ariobarzanes to Cappadocia. 90 DGRBM 1-625
c.90 L.(2) CASSIUS proconsul of Asia 90, ends.  L. LUCILIUS succeeds until 89. 90 wikLRGA
c.90 NICOMEDES-V SOCRATES CHRESTUS, anti-Roman king of Bithynia from 91/0, deposed by M'(2) Aquillius, who restores NICOMEDES-IV Philopator until 88 and urges him to raid territory of Mith-VI Eupator in order to repay his debt to Rome. 90 B76 12-288, DGRG 1-405, atl1, lvA, wikN4B 89 OCD 90
c.90 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator, king of Bithynia, plunders Pontus as far as Amastris, and returns with much loot. 90 wikKPn
c.90 With Cappadocia secured, Mith-VI invades Bithynia, defeating M'(2) Aquillius and Nicomedes-V, annexing Nic-5's part of Bithynia. 90 wikBθP 89 wikKPn
c.90 Son of Nic-III, NICOMEDES-V SOCRATES CHRESTUS dies.  Part ruler of Bithynia from 91, killed by order of Mith-VI of Pontus. 90 atl1, wikLRB 90-88 wikSC
c.90 ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromanus king of Cappadocia from 92, expelled 2nd time by Mith-VI of Pontus, flees again to Rome until 89. 90 DGRBM 1-286, GHH     89 atl1     88 DGRG 1-507
c.89 L. LUCILIUS governor of Asia from 90, ends.  C. CASSIUS succeeds until 88. 89 wikLRGA
c.89 Pontus 89BCEMITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, sends envoy Pelopidas to complain to Roman envoys in Asia about Nicomedes-IV Philopator's aggression. map: Javierfv1212

89 atl1
c.89 ARMENIA MINOR, independent from 189, comes under Pontus until 87. 89 rcT
c.89 TRAPEZOS (Trebizond), under Armenia Minor from 180, comes under Pontus until 87. 89 rcT
c.89 ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, king of part of Cappadocia from 92, deposed by M.(2) Aquilius, goes home to Pontus.  ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios sole rule until 88. 90/89 OCD 108
89 GHH, OCD 90, 107, hifiBst, wikA9C
c.89 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, defeats Romans 4 times in 1 year. 89 CDCC 584
c.89 GALATIA, under 12 Tetrarchies from 166, comes under Pontus until 86. 89 frH, rcT
c.89 Greeks of Asia province welcome Mith-VI as liberator from Roman moneylenders and tax farmers. 89 CDCC 588
c.89 Son of Nicomedes-II of Bithynia, PYLAEMENES-III Euergetes, king of Paphlagonia from 108, expelled by Mith-VI of Pontus.  Son of Mith-I, (Mith-VI of Pontus), MITHRIDATES-II Eupator Dionysus, resumes in Paphlagonia until 84. 90 DGRBM 3-606
89 rcT, wikLPΦ
c.89/8 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator king of Bithynia 91-88, pressured by M'(2) Aquilius and Roman creditors, raids Pontic territory. 89 atl1     89/8 B76 12-286, OCD 90, 734 88 MCAW 240
c.88 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, sends envoy Pelopidas on a final embassy to Romans in Asia. 88 atl1
c.88 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator makes 1st move in the war, from Bithynia thru Paphlagonia into western Pontus. 88 CAH 9-145
c.88 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, invades Bithynia. 88 DGRBM 2-1197, bk, wikBθP, wikN4B
c.88 Bros Archelaus and Neoptolemus generals of Mith-VI defeat Nic-IV by river Amnias.  Nic-IV flees to Roman armies.  Mith-VI's main infantry, has not even seen action.  After the battle Mith-VI dismisses prisoners to their homes. 88 CAH 9-145, atl1
c.88 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator joins M'(2) Aquillius at Protopachium in east Bithynia. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 Pontic army crosses Mount Scorobas into east Bithynia.  100 of Mith-VI's allied Sarmatian cavalry defeat 800 Bithynian cav.  Nic-IV retreats further to join C. Cassius. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator, king of Bithynia from 90, expelled from Bithynia by Mith-VI of Pontus, who supports claims of Nicomedes-V Socrates (dead 90) until 85.
BITHYNIA, under Nicomedes-IV from 90, taken by by Mith-VI of Pontus until 85/4
88 CAH 9-146, DGRBM 2-1197, DGRG 1-405, wikBθP, wikN4B
c.88 Pontic generals defeat M'(2) Aquillius, near Protopachium in east Bithynia.  Aquillius loses 1/4 of his alleged 40,000 men; 300, probably Asiatic Greeks, are captured, led before Mith-VI, and freed.  Aquillius flees by night back to Pergamum. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 C. Cassius, governor of Asia, now with Nic-IV and his men, occupy Leontoncephalae fortress in Phrygia.  They drill their ill-matched troops, but give up and retreat further  Nic-IV goes to Pergamum. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 Q. OPPIUS falls back to Laodicea, where he seeks and obtains reinforcements from Aphrodisias. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator flees to Rome 2nd time. 88 DGRG 1-405, GHH, wikBθP, wikN4B
c.88 MITH-VI occupies Bithynia, Phrygia, Mysia and nearby Roman-administered areas.  Sends officers to receive submission of outlying Lycia, Pamphylia, and Ionia.  Only Caria resists. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 M'(2) Aquillius raises troops from Bithynia, exiled Cappadocians, Paphlagonians, and Galatians.  C. Cassius, governor of Asia, has his own forcesQ. Oppius, probably praetor in 89, has an army, mainly of allied troops, on the borders of Lycaonia.  Each Roman contingent has 40,000 men.  Roman ally Nic-4 in east Paphlagonia has 50,000 inf and 6,000 cav.  Total Romans & allies: 176,000 men, not counting the fleet.  Mith-VI has 250,000 inf and 40,000 cav.  All numbers probably exaggerated. 88 CAH 9-145
c.88 C. CASSIUS, governor of Asia, retreats to Aegean coast and crosses to Rhodes. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 MANIUS(2) AQUILLIUS dies.  Commander in Asia from 90, captured by people of Mytilene Lesbos, placed on a donkey and paraded back to Pergamum, delivered to Mith-VI, who has him tied to an ass, publicly ridiculed, wearing a placard, hauled back to Pergamum, tortured, executed by having molten gold poured down his throat.  Romans abandon Bithynia. 88 CAH 9-146, atl1, wikM2Aq
no date: OCD 90, DGRBM 1-253
c.88 C. CASSIUS governor of Asia from 89, ends.  L. Cornelius SULLA succeeds until 84.  L.(4) Licinius Lucullus is his quaestor. 89 LEWH 106     88 DGRBM 2-832, MCAW 240, wikLRGA     87 B76 VI-375, CAH 9, LEWH 106
c.88 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, invades Phrygia in province of Asia. 89 CAH 9-144 88 atl1
c.88 Roman authority in Anatolia overthrown by Mith-VI of Pontus.  Simultaneously, Parthian power is diminished by dynastic feuds. 88 ISBE 3-903
c.88 STRATONICEA Caria taken by Mith-VI of Pontus, who lives there for a while.  He falls for a local girl named Monia. 88 CAH 9-145, DGRBM 2-1112, wikStr
c.88 King of Lycia resists Mith-VI. 88 lctk
c.88 1st Mithridatic War with Rome begins until 85/4 by massacre of 80,000 Roman and Italian citizens in one day in Asia, by his order.  This is called the "Asiatic Vespers"  Some Romans in Lydia escape by hiding on floating islands. 89 CAH 9-144, 148, lvA
88 B76 8-385, 12-288, CAH 9, CDCC 105, DGRG 1-576, GHH, ISBE 3-903, MCAW 240, anan, atl1, frH, wikM6Pn
c.88 Mith-VI writes secretly to all regional satraps and overseers of cities that, on the 30th day after the day of writing, they should have all Italian residents killed, along with their wives, children, and any freedmen of Italian birth, and throw out their corpses unburied.  He offers freedom to slaves who kill or inform on Italian masters, and relief of half their debt to any who deal similarly with their creditors. 89 CAH 9-148
c.88 EPHESUS, under Rome from 133, comes under Pontus until 86. 88 rcT
c.88 Ephesus, Pergamum, Adramyttium, Tralles and Caunus all joins Mith-VI in violence against Romans. 88 CAH 9-145, 148, IDB 2-116, ISBE 2-116
c.88 CAPPADOCIA, under Ariobarzanes-I Philoromaios from 89, taken by Mith-VI of Pontus, who deposes A-I (3rd time), and restores ARIARATHES-IX until 85. 88 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-286, 507, GHH
c.88 All ASIA overrun by Mith-VI of Pontus.  ASIA province, under Rome from 130, willingly joins Mith-VI against Rome until 84. 89 CDCC 585       89/8 CDCC 91     88 CAH 9, ISBE 1-327, OCD 131
c.88 Athenian philosopher statesman ARISTION visits Mith-VI to get help against RomansArision succeeds and returns to Athens. 88 CAH 9-150
c.88 PERGAMUM, province of Rome from 130, taken by Mith-VI.  It then welcomes him, and is under him until 85. 88 ISBE 3-769, MCAW 240
c.88 MITH-VI proclaims amnesty to Laodiceans if they would surrender Q. Oppius to him. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 Inhabitants of Laodicea on the Lycus in Phrygia hand over Q. Oppius to Mith-VI, who keeps him in his entourage in some style and later frees him. 88 CAH 9-146, atl1
c.88 Q. Oppius freed by Mith-VI, goes to Cos Island, drops out of history. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 P. Rutilius Rufus escapes from Mytilene Lesbos to Smyrna. 88 CAH 9-145, atl1
c.88 mid Athenians solicit aid from Mith-VI against Sulla. 88 GHH, lvA
c.88 Phrygian districts of Laodicea, Apamea, and Synnada are added to the province of Cilicia.  They will soon be part of Asia province. 88 DGRG 2-624, 634
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are several APAMEAs:  in Phrygia, Bithynia, Media, Syria, and 2 on the Tigris.
88 HERACLEA PONTICA sends warships to help Roman fleet in Aegean. 88 atl1
c.88 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, sends part of his fleet to Piraeus, but a contingent under Metrophanes split from it after Delos, destined for ports of central Greece. 88 CAH 9-151
c.88 Sons of P-X, P-XI ALEXANDER-II and P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES, on Cos Island from 103, captured by Mith-VI, taken to Pontus.  P-XI is treated well and educated until 84.  P-XII Dionysios next appears in Syria in Syria 88 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-147, 316, DGRBM 3-597, atl1, lvPt11
c.88 Reverses of Mithridates-VI. 88 GHH
c.88/7 ARCHELAUS, general sent by Mith-VI, crosses into Thrace. 88 atl1     88/7 MCAW 240 87 BHS 2-262
c.87 TRAPEZOS (Trebizond), under Pontus from 89, comes under Armenia until 66.. 87 rcT
c.87? ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, son of Mith-VI of Pontus, leads army to Macedonia until 86 87?
c.87 MAGNESIA on the Meander holds out against Mith-VI. 87 atl1
c.87 Stratonicea Caria remains loyal to Romans. 87 atl1
c.87 Ptolemy-XI ALEXANDER-II, prisoner in Pontus 88-84, allegedly drafts a will bequeathing Egypt to Romans. 87 atl1
c.87 Some Athenians, forced into exile by tyranny of Aristion escape to Amisus Pontus. 87 atl1
c.87 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, encourages pirates to raid in Mediterranean. 87 atl1
c.87 ARCATHIAS, son of Mith-VI, sent to Thrace in preparation to invade Greece. 87 CAH 9-153
c.87 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, grants additional rights of asylum to temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 87 atl1
c.87? ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, son of Mith-VI of Pontus, leads army to Macedonia, in Europe until 86. 87? guess
c.87 ARMENIA MINOR, under Pontus from 89, comes under Armenia until 66. 87 rcT
c.87 SULLA victorious in Anatolia.  He levies heavy war contributions on conquered provinces. 87 GHH
c.86 ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, son of Mith-VI of Pontus, killed fighting for Mith-VI in Thessaly. 87 wikA9C     86 pre-March OCD 107
c.86 Consul L.(7) VALERIUS FLACCUS with 12,000 men and legate C.(2) Flavius Fimbria, sent to Asia against Mith-VI, but also to undermine or depose Sulla.  Flaccus remains until 85. 86 LEWH 106, OCD 436
c.86 TAXILES, general of Mith-VI with 110,000 troops sent across Hellespont to reinforce Archelaus in Greece. 86 DGRBM 3-985
c.86 Ephesians openly rebel against Mith-VI, cancelling debts and taking other measures to maintain political unity.  Other cities as far north as Smyrna and south as Tralles follow suit. 86 CAH 9-159
c.86 Ephesians capture and kill Pontic general Zenobius, and declare war on Mith-VI. 86 atl1
c.86 EPHESUS, under Pontus from 88, back under Rome until 395. 86 rcT
c.86 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, savagely punishes opponents at Lesbos and cities of Asia: e.g. Smyrna, Pergamum, Adramytium in Aeolis, etc.  1,600 are killed in this witch hunt for Roman sympathizers. 86 CAH 9-160, atl1
c.86 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, suspects allies of treachery.  He massacres 60 Galatian hostages and their families in Pergamum, some at a banquet.  3 survivors flee to Galatia to organize rebellion.  One of the few surviving leaders, Deiotarus, raises an army, expels Mith-VI and his garrisons, and drives them out of Galatia. 86 CAH 9-159, hifiGlt
c.86 GALATIA, under Pontus from 89, comes back under 12 Tetrarchies until 62. 86 frH, rcT
c.86 30,000 Galatians join Romans against Mith-VI. no date: hifiGlt
c.86 Cities of Asia refuse to let L. Valerius Flaccus and his army inside their walls. 86 atl1
c.86/5 L.(7) Valerius FLACCUS gets a reputation for greed, harshness, and unfairness, causing desertions and indiscipline 85 CAH 9-160
c.86/5 L.(7) Valerius FLACCUS sails from Byzantium to Chalcedon.  C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA remains in Byzantium, and incites mutiny.  Flaccus returns to Byzantium, but is forced to flee back to Chalcedon.  Fimbria pursues Flaccus to Chalcedon, then to Nicomedia.  Fimbria has Flaccus dragged out and beheaded, takes over his army until 84. 86 DGRBM 1-611, 2-151, 158, LdHR 2-321     86/5 wikLcl 85 CAH 9-160, DGRBM 2-151, atl1
84 LEWH 106
no date: CAH 9-160, OCD 440
86/5 COS Island and KNIDOS, under Mith-VI from 88, on appearance of Lucullus' fleet, defect to Romans. 86/5 CAH 9-160
c.86/5 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, in Greece from 87, retreats from Thrace across Hellespont to Bithynia. 86 LEWH 106, wikSl 85 DGRBM 3-937, MCAW 240
c.85 C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA, having collected reinforcements, defeats 4 generals of Mith-VI on banks of the Rhyndacus in northwest Anatolia.  son of Mith-VI escapes from that action to join Mith-VI at Pergamum 85 CAH 9-160, wikSl
no date: lvA
c.85 spring C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA marches quickly to Pergamum, where Mith-VI keeps court. 85 CAH 9-160, LdHR 317, atl1
c.85 spring MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, flees from Pergamum to for the coast at Pitane.  Fimbria almost encircles him with earthworks, leaving only the sea as an exit.  Lucullus' fleet is off the coast, but refuses to help corner Mith-VI and give credit for completing the war to Sulla's adversariesSo Mith-VI escapes by sea. 85 CAH 9-160, LdHR 317, atl1
c.85 spring MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, flees to Mytilene Lesbos.  He takes son Mithridates of Pergamum with him.  Mith-VI feels safe because Fimbria has no ships. 85 LdHR 317, atl1
c.85 PERGAMUM, under Mith-VI from 88, back under Rome until 395. 85 implied
c.85 C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA rampages thru Asia terrorizing Mith-VI partisans in Nicomedia, Cyzicus, and other cities. 85 CAH 9-160, DGRBM 2-151, GHH, atl1
c.85 ILIUM (Troy) opens its gates to C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA, who then sacks and burn it, and massacres inhabitants. 85 CAH 9-160, DGRG 2-34, atl1
c.85 Sons of Cratippus rule as tyrants at Tralles Lydia. 85 atl1
c.85 DORYLAUS son of Philetaerus is convicted of trying to start a revolt in Pontus. 85 atl1
c.85 Earthquake at Apamea Phrygia. 85 atl1
c.85 PIRATE ATTACKS increase in Aegean and Anatolia during war against Mith-VI. 85 atl1
c.85 L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS, general under Sulla, collects fleet in Syria and Asia to support Sulla. no date: LEWH 106
c.85/4 L. Cornelius SULLA crosses from Thrace to Asia. 85/4 DGRBM 3-937
84 DGRBM 2-151, DGRG 2-1189, LEWH 106
c.85/4 ILIUM (Troy-8), Greek city from 700, destroyed 85, restored by Sulla as Troy-9. 85 B76 X-145-6
c.85/4 L. Cornelius SULLA and Mith-VI meet at Dardanus in the Troad. 85 CAH 9-161, LdHR 318, MCAW 240, wikKPn
85/4 1st Mithridatic War with Rome from 88, ends:  Treaty of Dardanus  of doubtful validity between Sulla and Archelaus general of Pontus, which returns to pre-war borders of 88.  Mith-VI surrenders part of his fleet and agrees to pay Rome 2,000 talents for sacking Chios, plus war expenses.  Restore pro-Roman kings in Bithynia and Cappadocia.  Asian cities that collaborated with Mith-VI are subjected.  Rhodes gets more land. 85 B76 8-385, CAH 9-161, GHH, LdHR 318, atl1, frH, lvA, wikTAR
84 DGRBM 2-1197, Dur 3-110, ISBE 3-903, KHA 78, LEWH 106, MCAW 240, wikM6Pn
c.85/4 NICOMEDES-V Socrates, king of Bithynia from 88 under Pontus, expelled by Sulla.  C.(3) Scribonius Curio, restores NICOMEDES-IV Philopator until 74. 85 CAH 9, OCD 734, wikBθP
84 atl1, wikN4B
c.85/4 L. Fannius and L. Magius in army of Flavius Fimbria desert to Mith-VI, persuade him to enter negotiations with Sertorius in Spain. 85 atl1
84 DGRBM 2-136
c.85/4 ARIARATHES-??, king of Cappadocia from 88, deposed by C.(3) Scribonius Curio on orders from Sulla.  Curio, then restores ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios until 78. 85 CAH 9-1023 85/4 OCD 108 84 DGRBM 1-286, 507, atl1
c.85/4 Citizens of Smyrna give clothes to Sulla's army during winter. 84 atl1
c.85/4 L. Cornelius SULLA extracts 20,000 talents in indemnities and back taxes from rebelled Ionian cities. 85 Dur 3-125, LdHR 318, atl1
c.85/4 GALATIA, becomes a Roman protectorate.  DEIOTARUS is made tetrarch of west Galatia until 40. 85 B76 IV-383
c.85/4 C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA sets up camp at Thyatira in Lydia. 85/4 LdHR 318
84 DGRBM 3-937
c.84 Opponents of L. Cornelius Cinna sail from Italy to join Sulla. 85 atl1
c.84 spring L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS enters Asia until 80. 84 DGRBM 2-832
c.84 FLEET of Mith-VI seized by L.(4) Licinius Lucullus and L. Murena. 85 atl1
c.84 MITH-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, sails by ship from Pitane, in Aeolis to Sinope. 85 atl1
84 LdHR 318
c.84 L. Cornelius SULLA goes to Thyatira in Lydia, blockades camp of Fimbria.  Most of Fimbria's men desert to Sulla's overwhelming superiority. 86 bk 85 OCD 436
84 DGRBM 2-151, 3-937, LdHR 318
c.84 MITHRIDATES-II Eupator Dionysus ends.  Pontic king of Paphlagonia from 89.  Son of Nic-III of Bithynia, NICOMEDES-I succeeds until 74. 84 rcT, wikLPΦ
c.84 2nd son of P-X, Ptolemy-XI ALEXANDER-II, prisoner in Pontus from 88, escapes takes refuge with Sulla, shipped to Rome. 84 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-318, atl1
c.84 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, military tribune to M. Thermus in Asia, returns to Rome. 84 Dur 3-167
c.84 King of Lycia defeated by Romans.  LYCIA incorporated into Asia province. 84 anan, lctk
c.84 Lycia northwestLycian towns Cibyra, Bubon, Balbura, and Oenoanda, are added to the Lycian League. 84 lvA
c.84 C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA proposes a meeting with Sulla, who sends P. Rutilius Rufus to tell Fimbria he may leave Asia.  Fimbria flees to Pergamum. 84 GHH, LdHR 318
c.84 ASIA Province, rebelling from 88, back under Rome until ?.  Reorganized by Sulla.   Becomes senatorial 27. 85/4 CDCC 91 84 OCD 131
c.84 C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA in Temple of Aesculapius in Pergamum suicides. 85 OCD 436, atl1     84 CAH 9-161, DGRBM 2-151, 3-937, GHH, LdHR 318     no date: CAH 9-161
c.84 Pontic fleet is delivered up to Sulla. 84 GHH
c.84 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, restores Bithynia to Nicomedes-III until 74, Cappadocia to Ariobarzanes, and Paphlagonia to Philaemenes. 84 GHH
c.84 SULLA, governor of Asia from 88, leaves L.(1) Licinius Murena governor of Asia with 2 legions until 83, sails from Ephesus to Athens, prepares for invasion of Italy next spring. 84 CAH 9-162, DGRBM 2-1121, 3-937, LdHR 318, MCAW 240, atl1, wikLRGA     84/3 Dur 3-125
83 B76 3-576, CDCC 708, DGRBM 3-937, Dur 3-110, 125, LdHR 325, MCAW 242, bk, wikSl, wikTAR
c.83 8 or 9 cities which had resisted Mith-VI are rewarded with keeping their own government and with the title "Friend of the Roman People":  Chios, Rhodes, Carian cities Stratonicea, Aphrodisias and Tabae, some Lycian cities, Magnesia-on-Meander, and IliumRhodes regains control of Peraea.  Troops are quartered on anti-Roman cities over winter.  Each legionary receives 4 tetradrachms a day, centurions 50 drachmas.  Slaves freed by Mith-VI are returned to their masters. 83 CAH 9-162
c.83 L.(1) Licinius MURENA governor of Asia with 2 legions, wants a triumph, seeks a quarrel with Mith-VI, takes Comana in Cappadocia, robs its temple, and rejects an embassy from Mith-VI, who sends envoys to Rome to complain.  Meanwhile Murena crosses the Halys, ravages country of Mith-VI, and returns to Galatia and Phrygia loaded with loot.  Q. Calidius, sent by the senate, orders Murena to stop hostilities, but he brings no written instructions, and Murena continues his ravages. 83 DGRBM 2-1121, wikM6Pn
82 DGRBM 1-563
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is a Comana in Pontus and Comana in Cappadocia.
c.83 2nd Mithridatic War with Rome begins until 81Roman general L.(1) Licinius Murena invades Pontus. 83 B76 12-288, CAH 9, Der 3-110, GHH, atl1, frH, wikTAR
c.83 TIGRANOCERTA, a new capital for Armenia, founded by Tigranes.  Many of inhabitants are forcibly transported from Cappadocia. 83 GHH, atl1
c.83 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, is occupied until 80 with revolts in his Black Sea empire, in Colchis, and north and east of the Cimmerian Bosporus. 83 CAH 9-163
c.83 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, sends Gordius against Murena, and soon joins Gordius with a larger force. 83 DGRBM 2-1121
c.83 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, executes his son on suspicion of treason, and prepares to fight rebels in Bosporus. 83 DGRBM 2-1121
c.83 L.(1) Licinius MURENA governor of Asia 84-3, defeated by Mith-VI and Gordius on the banks of the Halys, retreats to Phrygia. 83 DGRBM 2-282 83/2 DGRBM 2-1121, wikKPn
c.83 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, suspected of dealing with Romans, defects to L.(1) Licinius Murena. 83 OCD 97, atl1
c.83 CILICIA, under Seleucids from 145, comes under Armenia until 67.  Tigranes settles Arabs there. 83 CAH 9-357, OCD 1073, atl1, rcT     no date: LEWH 95
c.82 HERACLEA PONTICA refuses to take sides in dispute between L.(1) Licinius Murena & Mith-VI. 82 atl1
c.82 L.(1) Licinius MURENA ignores orders brought from Rome by Calidius, invades Pontus. 82 atl1
c.82 L.(1) Licinius MURENA attacks Mith-VI of Pontus at Sinope, defeated and driven to Phrygia, loses all hold in Cappadocia. 82 B76 12-288, CHH 9-353, atl1
c.82 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, offers a huge sacrifice to Zeus Stratios, to celebrate his victory. 82 atl1
c.82 MOAGETES, tyrant of Cibyra Lycia, deposed by L.(1) Licinius Murena. 82 atl1
CONFUSION ALERT!  Cibyra Mikra is a town in Pamphylia.  Cibyra Magna is in Lycia.
c.82 Military tribune A. GABINIUS sent by Sulla to Murena with orders to stop hostilities against Mith-VI.  Gabinius asks Mith-VI of Pontus to be reconciled with Ariobarzanes-I for a slice of Cappadocia.  M-VI agrees. 82 CAH 9-963
81 DGRBM 2-1121 80 DGRBM 2-192
c.82 ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR, Greek scholar of Miletos writes a history of the Jews. 82 TToH
c.81 SULLA orders Mithridates-VI of Pontus to surrender parts of Cappadocia which he still holds.  M-VI complies. 80 CAH 9-356
c.81 L.(1) Licinius MURENA withdraws from Pontus. 81 wikTAR
c.81 L.(1) Licinius MURENA fails to suppress pirates. 81 atl1
c.81 A. GABINIUS sent by Sulla, recalls Murena from Asia. 81 atl1
c.81 P. RUTILIUS RUFUS exiled in Asia from ?, is invited back by Sulla but refuses to return. 81 atl1
c.81 L.(1) Licinius MURENA governor of Asia from 84, and son L.(2) return to Rome.  L. Cornelius LENTULUS succeeds until 81. 83 wikLRGA
81 DGRBM 2-1121
c.81 L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS was quaestor under L. Licinius Murena.  He is no longer involved in fighting, and studies philosophy with Antiochus of Ascalon. 81 atl1
c.81 L. Cornelius LENTULUS governor of Asia 81, ends.  M. Minucius THERMUS succeeds until 80. 81 wikLRGA
c.81 C.(4) Julius CAESAR flees from Italy to Cilicia until 78, joins army under M. Minucius Thermus. 81 DGRBM 1-539
80 MCAW 244
no date: Dur 3-167
c.81 2nd Mithridatic War with Rome from 83 ends.  Peace restored on terms of 84.   (3rd 74) 82 frH, lvA
81 LEWH 107
c.81 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, begins recovering Bosporan possessions. 81 CAH 9-356
c.81/0 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, in Cilicia from 81, is sent by M. Minucius Thermus as envoy to Nicomedes-IV of Bithynia to get ships for siege of Mytilene Lesbos. 81 DGRBM 2-1197, atl1
81/0 OCD 734     80 MCAW 244, wikBθP, wikN4B     79 vrm

Anatolia 80-64
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