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Asia Province Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.63 3rd Mithridatic War with Rome from 74, ends.  POMPEY defeats king MITH-VI of Pontus. 65 ISBE 3-903     63 B76 8-385, TToH, frH, lvA, wikBθP, wikM6Pn, wikTAR
c.63 PHARNACES-II, son of Mith-VI, rebels against father.  Roman exiles in the core of Mith-VI's Pontic army join him. 63 wikM6Pn
c.63 P. ORBIUS, propraetor of Asia from 64, ends.  P. Servilius GLOBULUS succeeds until 62. 63 wikLRGA
c.63 POMPEY investigates trade routes to India. 63 atl1
c.63 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator Dionysius dies.  Former king of Pontus 115-66, besieged in fortress of Panticapaeum Crimea, tries suicide by poison, fails because he has already innoculated himself by taking small doses of poison.  He orders his Gallic friend and bodyguard to kill him.  Killed. 63 B76 VIII-115, 8-385, 12-288, 14-793, BNTH 9, CAH 9-390-1, 1023, ISBE 1-326, MCAW 249, MRDK 272, OCD 696, TToH, anan, atl1, frH, rcT, wikM6Pn, wikTAR
c.63 ASCLEPIADES of Prusa dies in old age after a distinguished career as a doctor. 63 atl1
c.63 PHARNACES-II, son of Mith-VI, quickly sends an envoy to Pompey offering submission and hostages. He also sends the body of his father, to be at the disposal of Pompey.  Pharnaces is rewarded with the kingdoms of Pontus and Bosporus until 47. 63 B76 VII-928, GHH, anan, frH, rcT, wikΦr2
c.63 POMPEY returns from Levant thru Syria to Pontus. 63 DGRBM 3-484, 737
c.63 end POMPEY winters at Amisus Pontus to organize Anatolia. 63 CAH 9-390
c.62 POMPEY at Amisus Pontus sets up vassal clients in Anatolia:
Pharnaces-II vassal of Pontus & Russian dominions.
Deiotarus-I vassal of Galatia until 40: Halys river to Trapezus.
Aristarchus vassal of Colchis.
Attalus & Philamenes vassals of Paphlagonia.
Tarcondimotus vassal of Mt. Amanus.
Brigotarus tetrarch of Galatia & part of Pontus until 44.
Ariobarzanes-II is confirmed in Cappadocia.
Antiochus-I is confirmed in Commagene with control of Zeugma.
Kings of Iberia and Albania are nominally enrolled as vassals.
63 CDCC 224
62 CAH 9-393, DGRBM 3-484, rcT
c.62 POMPEY mediates boundary disputes:
Tigranes-II keeps Gordyene.
Phraates must be content with Adiabene.
Arab sheikh Agbarus gets Osroene, and calls himself Abgar-II 68-53.
Sampsiceramus of Emesa is confirmed.
Ptolemy of Chalcis is confirmed.
Aretas-III king of Nabateans 85-60 gets Damascus back.
62 CAH 9-394
c.62 P. Servilius GLOBULUS, propraetor of Asia from 63, returns to RomeL.(9) Valerius FLACCUS succeeds until 61. 62 DGRG 1-787, wikLRGA
c.62 BITHYNIA, under Rome and part of Pontus from 74, made a senatorial province until ??. 74 IDB 3-941, ISBE 3-1026 63 wikBθP     62 CAH 9-392
c.62 GALATIA, under 12 Tetrarchies from 86, comes under tetrarch DEIOTARUS-I until 40, BRIGOTARUS until 44, and CASTOR until 44. 62 frH, rcT
c.62 CILICIA, under Rome from 66, under Tarcondimotus-I Philantonius 66-31, made a province until ?. 62 CAH 9-392
c.62 ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios, king of Cappadocia from 66, abdicates in presence of Pompey to son ARIOBARZANES-II Philopator until 51. 63 DGRBM 1-286, DGRG 1-507, awCap, wikA2C     63/2 wikA1C 62 CAH 9-1023, atl1, frH, rcT
c.62 TOMISA, the Euphrates bridgehead between Melitene and Sophene, is restored to Cappadocia, now under Ario-II. 62 CAH 9-265
c.62 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS is legate of L.(9) Valerius Flaccus in Asia. 62 DGRBM 1-584, OCD 197
c.62 Q.(9) Caecilius Metellus Nepos sails from Rome to Asia Province, informs Pompey of the disorder in Rome. 62 wik1Tr
c.62 late Pompey sails from Ephesus to Athens to Brundisium. 62 DGRBM 3-484, GHH, OCD 858
c.62 Praetor FLACCUS, confiscates 100 lbs. of gold gathered by Jews of Apamea and Laodicea in Phrygia for temple at Jerusalem.  He will be tried for it in 59. 62 ISBE 3-863, Jud 3-174-5, 13-487, atl1
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 2 Apameas in Anatolia alone:  in Bithynia and Phrygia.  Plus one across the Euphrates from Zeugma, another in Syria and one in Mesopotamia.
c.61 L.(9) Valerius FLACCUS, propraetor of Asia, levies crews to man a fleet. 61 atl1
c.61 L.(9) Valerius FLACCUS, propraetor of Asia from 62, returns to Rome.  Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M. succeeds as proconsul until 58.  A. Allienus is his legate. 61 OCD 239, wikLRGA 60 DGRBM 1-132
c.60 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., proconsul of Asia 61-58, refuses to reverse conviction of Heracleides of Temnus, for defrauding Hermippus. 60 atl1
c.58 C. Calpurnius PISO Frugi, quaestor in Pontus, leaves province to help his father-in-law M. Tullius Cicero. 58 atl1
c.58 Mar? BROGITARUS, now in Rome, is made client king of the Galatian Trocmi and priest of Magna Mater at Pessinus. 58 B76 II-1004, 14-794, 15-1105, OCD 254, atl1
c.58 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., proconsul of Asia from 61, returns to Rome.  T. Ampius BALBUS succeeds until 57. 59 OCD 239
58 DGRBM 1-746, OCD 159, wikLRGA
c.57 DEIOTARUS-I, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, expands his power, and dominates other tetrarchs of Galatia. 57 atl1
c.57 C.(4) MEMMIUS, anti-Caesar, sent from Rome to become gov of Bithynia until ?.  Poet C. Valerius Catulus is on his staff until 56. 57 Dur 3-155, OCD 216, 668, wikCtls
c.57 T. Ampius BALBUS, proconsul of Asia from 58, ends.  C. Fabius HADRIANUS succeeds until 56. 57 wikLRGA
c.57 ARIOBARZANES-II Philopator, king of Cappadocia 62-51, needs help of A.(5) Gabinius to crush enemies, persuades him to intervene militarily. 57 OCD 108, atl1, wikA2C
c.57 late P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES sails from Rome to Ephesus with Pompey's recommendation and a promised of bribe to A.(5) Gabinius. 57 B76 I-994, VIII-282     56 atl1
c.57/6 CILICIA, becomes a consular command, receives 2 legions.  It containes many independent unsubdued peoples in the highlands. 57/6 CAH 9-265
c.57/6 ARCHELAUS of Comana, son of a general of Mith-VI of Pontus, claims to be son of Mith-VI, goes to Egypt, marries Cleo Berenice-IV. 57 B76 I-994
56 CAH 9-272, DGRBM 1-263, atl1
c.56 C. Fabius HADRIANUS, proconsul of Asia from 57, ends.  C. SEPTIMIUS succeeds until 55. 56 wikLRGA
c.56 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER sent from Rome to be governor of Cilicia (with Cyprus) until 53. 56 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-731, wikPCLS
c.56 mid Poet C. Valerius CATULUS, on staff of C.(4) Memmius in Bithyinia from 57, returns to Rome. 56 wikCtls
c.56 CILICIA TRACHEIA, west half of original Cilicia, the part north of Taurus Mts. is incorporated into Cilicia province.  Tarcondimotus remains independent 67-31. 56 OCD 239
c.55 C. SEPTIMIUS, proconsul of Asia from 56, returns to RomePraetor C.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER succeeds until 53. 55 DGRBM 1-770, wikLRGA
c.55 Ptolemy-XII Auletes sails from Ephesus to Syria, with a letter from consul Pompey requiring A.(5) Gabinius to restore him to his kingdom. 55 CAH 9-272
55 late Consul M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS, proconsul of Syria 55-53 leaves Italy with his army from Brundisium for Syria via Asia.  Son Publius accompanies. 55 CAH 9-400, DGRBM 1-874, GHH, OCD 202, 295, atl1     54 atl1
53 May 6 CARRHAE
c.53 C.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, proconsul of Asia from 55, returns to RomeQ. Marcius PHILIPPUS succeeds until 51. 53 DGRBM 1-771, 3-288, wikLRGA
53 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER sent from Rome to be governor of Cilicia until 51.  M.(7) Brutus is his quaestor;  M.(3) Octavius is legate. 53 B76 II-977, DGRBM 1-512, 770, OCD 183, 247, wikMJB
c.53 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER governor of Cilicia (with Cyprus) from 56, returns to Rome.  Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER succeeds until 51.  M.(7) Brutus is his quaestor. 53 B76 II-977, VI-146, DGRBM 2-731, OCD 183, 247, atl1, wikPCLS
c.52 ARIOBARZANES-II Philopator, king of Cappadocia 62-51, rebuilds Odeium theater at Athens. 52 atl1
c.52 M. Tullius CICERO returns from Rome to Cilicia, finds its 2 legions near mutiny. 52 CAH 9-265
c.51 Legions in Cilicia from 57/6 are near mutiny when its governor is changed. no date: CAH 9-265
c.51 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER governor of Cilicia & Cyprus from 53, returns to Rome.  M. Tullius CICERO succeeds until 50.  Q. Lepta is his prefect.  L. Mescinus Rufus is his quaestor.  Cicero has instructions to keep Cappadocia loyal to King Ariobarzanes-III. 51 B76 II-977, 4-608, CAH 9, CDCC 200, DGRBM 1-770, 2-771, 3-495, 672, DGRG 1-621, Dur 3-110, 180, ISBE 4-735, OCD 183, 247, 235, atl1, lvA, wikCc
c.51 P. SILIUS becomes governor of Bithyia & Pontus as propraetor until ?.  He corresponds with Cicero. 51 DGRBM 3-823
c.51 M. NONIUS SUFENAS becomes propraetor in one of the provinces in the area of Cilicia. 51 DGRBM 3-932
c.51 ARCHELAUS, priest of Bellona at Comana (in Pontus or Cappadocia), helps insurrectionists in Cappadocia against king Ariobarzanes-II.  He is forced to quit by Cicero 51 DGRBM 1-263
c.51 ARIOBARZANES-II Philopator, king of Cappadocia from 62, murdered by a conspiracy of enemies.  Son ARIOBARZANES-III Eusebes Philoromaios succeeds until 42. 54 frH 52 atl1, awCap 51 CAH 9-1023, rcT, wikA2C, wikA3C
c.51 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS proconsul of Asia from 53, ends. Q. Minucius THERMUS succeeds as propraetor until 50. 54 DGRBM 3-288, 1097
c.51 M. Tullius CICERO governor of Cilicia & Cyprus 51-50, campaigns against bandits on Mt. Amanus. 51 DGRG 1-116, wikCc
c.51 M. Tullius CICERO governor of Cilicia & Cyprus 51-50, captures stronghold of Cilician rebels at Pindenissum fortress. 51 atl1
c.51 M. Tullius CICERO receives intel on Parthian movements from Antiochus-I of Commagene. 51 DGRBM 1-194, wikA1TC
c.51 M. Tullius CICERO governor of Cilicia & Cyprus 51-50, camps on border of Cappadocia to protect it and Cilicia against Parthians. 51 DGRBM 1-194
c.51 DEIOTARUS-I, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, puts his forces at disposal of Cicero and Bibulus.  Cicero tells him not to bother. 51 DGRBM 1-194, OCD 319
c.51 DEIOTARUS-I, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, forced to share power with DEIOTARUS-II until 43. 51 rcT
c.51 PYLAEMENES-IV ends.  Bithynian co-ruler of Paphlagonia from 65.  Bro ATTALUS-I continues 65-48. 51 wikLPΦ
c.50 Quaestor C. Coelius CALDUS is sent from Rome to Cilicia under Cicero. 50 DGRBM 1-561
c.50 Sextus LUCILIUS, military tribune of M. Bibulus, killed at Mt. Amanus Cilicia. 50 DGRBM 2-822
c.50 Aeschines of Miletus is exiled for speaking too freely in front of Pompey. 50 atl1
c.50 Q. MINUCIUS THERMUS, propraetor of Asia from 51, ends.  L. ANTONIUS, younger bro of Antony succeeds as quaestor/propraetor until 49. 50 DGRBM 3-1097, OCD 78, wikLRGA
c.50 Jul M. Tullius CICERO governor of Cilicia & Cyprus at Tarsus from 51, returns via Rhodes, Ephesus, and Athens for BrundisiumQuaestor C. Coelius CALDUS succeeds until ?. 50 CDCC 200, DGRBM 1-716, DGRG 1-621, IDB 4-518, OCD 235, lvA, wikCc no date: DGRBM 1-561
c.49 L. ANTONIUS, younger bro of Antony, quaestor in Asia from 50, ends as quaestor, but stays on as propraetor.  C. FANNIUS succeeds as governor until 48. 49 OCD 78, wikLRGA
c.49 Consul L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS raises 2 legions for Pompey in Asia. 49 DGRBM 2-732
c.49 Tarcondarius Castor of Galatia donates 300 cavalry to Pompey. 49 DGRBM 1-628
c.48 early Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO, former proconsul of Syria from 49, summoned by Pompey to Anatolia, extorts Anatolians, prepares to plunder the temple of Diana in Ephesus, summoned again by Pompey to join him with his troops, because Caesar had already crossed over to GreeceScipio sails his 2 legions from Ephesus to Thessaly. 48 DGRBM 2-1063, OCD 678, atl1
c.48 PHARNACES-II, client king of Bosporus and Pontus 63-47, invades Anatolia including Galatian Pontus. 48 CAH 9, atl1, wikKPn
48 After Pharsalus, Caesarean Gn. Domitius CALVINUS in Thessaly, is appointed governor of Asia, and goes there. 48 wikGnDC
c.48 C. FANNIUS, governor of Asia from 49, ends.  Gn. Domitius CALVINUS succeeds 47-46. 48 DGRBM 1-585, wikGnDC, wikLRGA
c.48 ATTALUS-I ends.  Bithynian king of Paphlagonia from 65, sole ruler from 51.  Son of Mith-II, PHARNACES-I of Pontus/Bosporus succeeds until 47. 48 wikLPΦ
c.48 ARMENIA MINOR, under Rome from 66, comes under Pontus until 47. 48 rcT
c.48 TRAPEZOS (Trebizond), under Rome from 66, comes under Pontus until 47, then back to Rome until 258.. 48 rcT
c.48 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, helps Gn. Domitius Calvinus in Pontic campaign, siezes the rest of Galatia until 47. no date: OCD 319
c.48 PHARNACES-II, client king of Pontus and Bosporus 63-47, overruns much of Cappadocia, Pontus, and Bithynia. 48 wikBθP
no date: OCD 197
c.48 Ariobarzanes-III, king of Cappadocia, sides with Pompey against Caesar (42). 48 GHH
c.48 Q. PATISIUS is sent by Gn. Domitius Calvinus into Cilicia to fetch auxiliary troops. 48 DGRBM 3-135
c.48 P. SESTIUS is sent by Caesar to Cappadocia. 48 DGRBM 3-796
c.48 AMISUS Pontus taken by Pharnaces-II, who castrates all boys and sells inhabitants to slave traders. 48 wikCCW
48 Aug 9 PHARSALUS
48 Aug After Pharsalus, DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, leaves Pompey, flees from Thessaly to Asia and returns home to Galatia, then defects to Caesar. 48 DGRG 1-930, OCD 319, atl1, wikDt
48 Aug POMPEY, and son Sextus Pompeius sail from Thessaly to Lesbos. 48 CAH 9, DGRBM 3-488, Dur 3-186, OCD 858, SHWC
c.48 POMPEY, his wife Cornelia, and son Sextus sail from Lesbos to the coast of Pamphylia, where Pompey is joined by several ships and many senators.  His friends advise him to seek refuge with Ptolemy-III in EgyptHe gathers a fleet and 2,000 troops, and sails to Alexandria. 48 B76 14-795, CAH 9, DGRBM 3-488, Dur 3-186, OCD 858, SHWC, atl1, rtp
c.48 Pompeyan T. Ampius Balbus tries to plunder temple of Diana at Ephesus to finance republicans, but is prevented by arrival of Caesar. 48 DGRBM 1-455, OCD 159
48 Oct? Gn. Domitius Calvinus, governor of Asia, sends 2 legions to help Caesar in Egypt. 48 DGRBM 1-585
48 Oc/Nv MITHRIDATES of Pergamum, ordered by Caesar, now in Egypt, to Cilicia and Syria to raise auxiliary forces to help him in Alexandria.  He does so quickly. 48 DGRBM 2-1094
c.48 Dec Caesar's legate Gn. Domitius Calvinus, governor of Asia 48-, defeated by Pharnaces-II at Nicopolis in east Anatolia.  Pharnaces-II gains control of Pontus. 48 CAH 9, atl1, wikBθP, wikGnDC     no date: OCD 197, wikCCW
c.47 May CAESAR comes from Syria to Cilicia.  Visits Tarsus in May, where he finds enthusiastic support. 47 CAH 9, MCAW 256, sjsu, wikJC
c.47 spring C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS, former Pompeyan, pardoned by Caesar, appointed legate, possibly at Tarsus. 47 OCD 212
c.47 PHARNACES-II, client king of Pontus and Bosporus 63-47, captures Amisus and wins over rest of Pontus. 47 atl1
c.47 C. PLAETORIUS is quaestor under Gn. Domitius Calvinus in Asia. 47 DGRBM 3-381
c.47 As Pharnaces-II learns of Caesar's approach with his veteran army, he sends envoys to seek peace, which Caesar refuses. 47 atl1, wikBθP
c.47 Aug 2 PHARNACES-II, client king of Pontus and Bosporus 63-47, defeated by CAESAR at Zela in Galatian Pontus.  Caesar sends Gn. Domitius Calvinus to pursue Pharnaces. 47 B76 3-578, CAH 9-434, DGRBM 1-552, 585, Dur 3-110, 188, GHH, IDB 3-841, ISBE 3-903, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, OCD 164, TTPC, atl1, vrm, wikCCW, wikBθP
c.47 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40 under Romans, asks Gn. Domitius Calvinus for help against Pharnaces. 47 DGRBM 1-954
c.47 ARMENIA MINOR, under Pontus from 48, comes back under Rome until ?.  DEIOTARUS is restored until 40. 47 rcT
c.47 Aug After Zela CAESAR sends letter to senate: "Veni, vidi, vici.". 47 B76 3-579, CAH 9-434, MCAW 256, vrm, wikCCW, wikVVV
c.47 PHARNACES-II, client king of Pontus and Bosporus 63-47, forced to surrender Sinope to Gn. Domitius Calvinus. 47 DGRBM 1-585
c.47 PHARNACES-II dies.  Client king of Pontus and Bosporus from 63, king of Paphlagonia from 48, escapes to Bosporus, where he is killed by Asander.  Son of Bithynian Pylaemenes-III, ATTALUS-I resumes in Bithynia until 40. 47 B76 VII-928, Dur 3-110, 188, CAH 9, GHH, LEWH 109, OCD 164, TTPC, anan, frH, wikLPΦ, wikΦ2Pn
ARIARATHES succeeds until 39. 47 frH, rcT
c.47 CAESAR pardons Ariobarzanes-III of Cappadocia, and gives him Armenia Minor. 47 GHH
c.47 PONTUS added to Roman empire. 47 GHH
c.47 C. Vibius PANSA, officer under Caesar in Asia, made governor of Bithynia & Pontus until 46. 47 OCD 776, wikGVP
c.47 CAESAR resides at Tarsus, administrates Cilicia province and reorganizes it. 47 IDB 4-518, ISBE 4-735, wikClc
c.47 C. CASSIUS surrenders to Caesar at Tarsus. 47 atl1
c.47 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, former ally of Pompey, interrogated at Nicaea Bithynia by Caesar, and defended by Brutus.  Deiotarus is allowed to remain tetrarch, but forced to cede some of the land he was granted in 48. 47 B76 III-438, DGRBM 1-954, OCD 319, atl1
c.47 ARCHELAUS, priest of Bellona at Comana (in Pontus or Cappadocia) from ?, deposed by Caesar, who appoints LYCOMEDES successor until ?. 47 DGRBM 1-263
c.47 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS rejoins CAESAR at Nicaea Bithynia. 47 DGRBM 1-512, atl1
c.47 CAESAR extracts much money from individuals and cities, before returning to Rome. 47 atl1
c.47 CAESAR leaves Gn. Domitius CALVINUS to settle affairs in Asia, sails from Asia to Tarentum. 47 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-585, MCAW 256, sjsu
Sep 26 Dur 3-188
c.46 Mithridates of Pergamum is defeated by Asander, while trying to seize kingdom of Bosporus. 46 atl1
c.46 Caesarean Gn. Domitius CALVINUS, governor of Asia from 47, sails to AfricaP.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS succeeds until 44. 46 CAH 9-441, DGRBM 3-1233, wikLRGA
c.46 C. Vibius PANSA governor of Bithynia & Pontus from 47, returns to Rome. 46 OCD 776, wikGVP
c.46 DEIOTARUS-I, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, hears rumors that Caesar has suffered setbacks in Africa. 46 atl1
c.45 Q. Marcius CRISPUS appointed by Caesar as governor of Bithynia and Pontus until 43. 45 wikBθP
c.45 P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS, governor of Asia 46-4, grants privileges to temple of Artemis at Hierocaesareia (30km southwest of Thyatira). 45 atl1
c.45 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, summoned to Rome until 44 to answer charge of trying to murder Caesar when he visited Galatia. 45 B76 III-438
44 L. Tillius CIMBER, a tyrannicide, comes from Rome to Bithynia and Pontus, the provinces appointed him by Caesar. 44 DGRBM 1-749, wikTC
c.44 P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS, governor of Asia from 46, returns to RomeC. TREBONIUS succeeds until 43.  He begins raising money and troops for Brutus and Cassius. 44 B76 X-105, CAH 9-441, wikLRGA, wikTrb
c.44 BRIGOTARUS and KASTOR, tetrarchs of parts of Galatia from 62, both end.  DOMNILAOS succeeds until 40. 44 frH, rcT
c.44 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, in Rome from 45, returns with his former possessions restored by Antony, but supports republicans until Philippi 42. 44 B76 III-438
c.44 Aug C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS sails from Italy to Asia province, hoping to take possession of Syria before Dolabella could arrive there.  In Asia Cassius receives support of proconsul L. Trebonius, and quaestor P. Lentulus Spinther, who supply him with money. 44 B76 II-617, DGRBM 2-801, OCD 212, wikGCL, wikTrb
c.44 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS persuades inhabitants of Cilicia, including Tarsus, to support him. 44 atl1
c.44 Sp/Oc C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS goes from Asia province to Syria. 44 B76 II-617, OCD 212
c.43 Jan C. TREBONIUS, proconsul of Asia sends money to support M.(7) Brutus and C. Cassius. 43 DGRBM 3-1171, wikTrb
c.43 Gellius PUBLICOLA plots against M.(7) BRUTUS 43 atl1
c.43 Jan P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, proconsul of Syria 43, enroute from Rome to his province, lands in Asia province.  C. Trebonius opposes him.  Dolabella takes Smyrna by surprise, kills C. Trebonius. 43 B76 X-105, OCD 358, atl1, wikTrb
c.43 Jan Tyrannicide C. TREBONIUS dies.  Proconsul of Asia from 44, at Smyrna, is murdered in his bed by Dolabella, or according to Cicero, tried for treason, tortured 2 days and beheaded.  News reaches Rome in Feb.  M. TURIUS succeeds 42-40. 44 BAX 378     43 CAH 9-481, DGRBM 1-1059, OCD 1091, wikLRGA, wikTrb
c.43 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, proconsul of Syria 43, in Asia province, excuses Jews in Asia from military service, grants privileges to Ephesian Jews. 44 BAX 378, atl1
43 L. Tillius CIMBER defeats DOLABELLA. no date: wikTC
c.43 Apr P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, proconsul of Syria 43, after he had killed Trebonius in Smyrna, goes to Syria. 43 DGRBM 2-801
c.43 DEIOTARUS-II, tetrarch of part of west Galatia from 51, ends.  DEIOTARUS-I continues as tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40. 43 rcT
c.43 P. LENTULLUS SPINTHER forces fleet of P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA to retreat from Lycia. 43 atl1
c.43 DEIOTARUS-I, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, kills his son-in-law Castor. 43 atl1
c.43 PAMPHILIA is added to province of Asia. 43 lvA
43 Jul P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA dies.  Blockaded in Laodicea by C.(5) Cassius Longinus, suicides.  Cassius takes Laodicea and Dolabella's army. 44/3 CAH 10-6, 18
43 DGRBM 1-1059, OCD 212, 358
c.43 Districts of Laodicea, Apamea, and Synnada are again part of Cilicia. 43 DGRG 2-624
c.43 TARSUS Cilicia taken by C.(5) Cassius Longinus, who forces inhabitants to pay his army. 43 atl1
c.43 PATISCUS is a proquaestor in the republican army in Asia. 43 DGRBM 3-135
c.43 Telmessus Lycia is annexed by Rome. 43 lvA
c.43 TARSUS Cilicia opposes C.(5) Cassius, and is fined by him for it, and punished for failure to pay. 43 IDB 4-518
c.43 THEODOTUS of Chios captured in Asia and executed by order of M. Brutus for his part in the murder of Pompey. 43 DGRBM 3-1073 42 atl1
c.43 M.(7) BRUTUS goes from Macedonia to Asia.  L.(2) Gellius Publicola accompanies. 43 guess
c.43 M. APPULEIUS in Macedonia, is promoted by M.(7) Brutus to governor of Bithynia until 42. 43 DGRBM 1-248
c.43 Nv/Dc L.(4) CASSIUS Longinus, bro of Caius(5), enemy of Antony, proscribed, flees from Rome to Asia province until pardoned 41. 43 DGRBM 2-802, OCD 212
c.43 late LYCIA is forced by M.(7) BRUTUS to contribute to his war fund. 43 CAH 10-645
c.43 Dec Q. Marcius CRISPUS governor of Bithynia and Pontus from 45, refuses to serve C.(5) Cassius, who removes him from office. 43 wikBθP
c.43 end M.(7) BRUTUS summons C.(5) CASSIUS back to Smyrna. 43 wikC7
c.43/2 L.(2) GELLIUS PUBLICOLA plots against life of M.(7) Brutus.  He is discovered but pardoned at intercession of his bro, M. Valerius Messalla. no date: DGRBM 3-601
c.42 early C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS illegal honcho of Syria 44-3, goes to Smyrna to join M.(7) Brutus. 43/2 DGRBM 2-801
42 CAH 10-47, Jud 5-234, atl1, wikRGS
c.42 early C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS illegal honcho of Syria 44-3, leaves Syria, goes to Smyrna, joins M.(7) Brutus.  Brutus wants to go at once to Macedonia.  Cassius wants to first put down all friends of the triumvirs in Asia, increase their army and fleet, and plunder the provinces.  They decide to grab all available money, liquidate all opponents, and send only a small fleet under Statius Murcus to the Ionian Sea. 43 CAH 10-6, 19, DGRBM 2-801
42 CAH 10-47, Jud 5-234
c.42 M.(7) BRUTUS judges a legal dispute between Greek merchant Persius and Roman Rupilius Rex.  This is known only from Satire 1:7 of Horace. 42 atl1
no date: wikStH
c.42 BRUTUS and CASSIUS control 21 legions. 42 CAH 10-6
c.42 M.(7) BRUTUS passes thru Anatolia collecting money and troops.  Lycia refuses to contribute, so Brutus besieges Xanthos, where Lycian League soldiers are gathered.  They choose mass suicide over domination. 42 B76 X-777, atl1, lctk
c.42 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, sides with Brutus and Cassius at request of Brutus. 42 DGRBM 1-955
c.42 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, becomes king of all Galatia until 40. 42 IDB 2-337
c.42 L.(4) CASSIUS Longinus, bro of C.(5), proscribed, raises troops in Asia province for war against Antony and Octavian.  He sends horsemen, who assassinate Ariobarzanes, on the pretext that Ariobarzanes was conspiring against Cassius. 42 DGRG 1-507
c.42 Laodicea sacked by C.(5) Cassius Longinus. 42 CAH 10-709
c.42 ARIOBARZANES-III Eusebes Philoromaios dies.  King of Cappadocia from 51, killed for refusing aid by agents of Cassius, who sieze his treasure.  Son of Ariobarzanes-II of the previous dynasty, ARIARATHES-X Eusebes Philadelphus, succeeds until 36.  Antony would have preserred Archelaus Sisines from Pontic Comana, whose loyalty to Rome was more certain. 42 CAH 9-1023, 10-6, 29, DGRBM 1-285, 287, GHH, OCD 107-8, awCap, frH, rcT, wikA3C, wikAXC
c.42 M.(7) BRUTUS & C. CASSIUS loaded with loot, reconvene at Sardis. 42 B76 II-617, CAH 10-07, DGRBM 1-513, 2-801, atl1, wikGCL
c.42 Ghost of Julius Caesar appears to M.(7) Brutus in his tent at night, says, "I am your evil genius, Brutus, and you will see me at Philippi".  Ghost disappears.  Brutus calls his servants, who say they had neither heard nor seen any apparition. Plutarch; Brutus 36:1
42 atl1
42 mid M.(7) BRUTUS & C. CASSIUS with 19 well paid legions cross Helespont into Thrace. 43 CAH 10-07, DGRBM 2-801, OCD 212
42 CAH 10-07
42 Oct PHILIPPI   Oct 3   Oct 23
c.42 After Philippi M. APPULEIUS, republican governor of Bithynia from 43, surrenders Bithynia to Antony. 42 DGRBM 1-248
c.42 Nv/Dc ANTONY with 2 legions goes from Macedonia to Asia until 41 to extort money owed to his troops, lands at Ephesus.  Decidius Saxa accompanies.  Antony restores much of what Cassius had ruined, but then demands much money of a land recently plundered. 43 CAH 10-26, 33, DGRBM 1-215
42 DGRBM 1-215, 3-730
41 DGRBM 1-664
c.42 Nv/Dc HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, hurries to Ephesus to defend self, bribes Antony with much money, impresses him with skillful diplomacy, totally wins him over. Bithynia.
Not Ephesus.
Wars 1:12:4
c.42 Nv/Dc ANTONY at Ephesus reorganizes Anatolia and offers Side and other Pamphylian ports to king Amyntas of Galatia. 42 lvA 41 atl1
c.42 L.(4) CASSIUS Longinus, bro of C.(5), exiled in Asia province from 43, pardoned by Antony at Ephesus. 43 DGRBM 2-802, OCD 212
c.42 Embassy from Hyrcanus-II to Antony at Ephesus say Herod and Phasael rule by force, Herod aims at sole power, and Hyrcanus is nothing but a name.  They ask for return of Jewish prisoners taken by Cassius.  Antony does so. 42/1 CAH 10-33
41 CHJ 3-104
Bithynia.   Not Ephesus. Wars 1:12:4
c.42 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, hurries to Ephesus to defend self, bribes Antony with much money, impresses him with skillful diplomacy, totally wins him over. Bithynia.
Not Ephesus.
Wars 1:12:4
42 Dec ANTONY goes from Ephesus to Cilicia, sends his friend Q. Dellius to Egypt to summon Cleo-VII to Tarsus to answer charges of aiding C.(5) Cassius with money. 42 DGRBM 1-215, 801, GHH, wikC7
41 DGRBM 1-801, 956, ISBE 3-1050
42/1 ANTONY returns to winter in Greece. 43 CAH 10-10
41 spring ANTONY returns from Greece to Asia, visits Bithynia, and presumably Pontus, spends summer touring the eastern provinces, imposing further levies, reorganizing administration after the disruption of the war, returns to Ephesus, announces financial demands, which are beyond the East's resources. 41 CAH 10-10-11
c.41 Part of CILICIA given by Antony to Polemo. 41 DGRG 1-622
c.41 ARIARATHES-X, king of Cappadocia 42-36, is confirmed by Antony. 41 CAH 10-34
c.41 TARSUS Cilicia, having opposed C. Cassius, is rewarded with freedom by Antony, exempted from taxes. 42 ISBE 4-735 41 IDB 4-518
c.41 CLEOPATRA-VII sails a gold plated barge from Egypt to the Cydnus river at Tarsus Cilicia.  Antony invites her to dinner at his headquarters.  She declines, and tells him to meet her on her barge, then dresses up as Aphrodite.  Antony meets her.  She tells him her sister Arsinoe-IV and Serapion are responsible for aiding C.(5) Cassius. 42 GHH     41 B76 IX-831, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 10-35, 39, CDCC 54, ISBE 3-1050, MCAW 258, anan, atl1
c.41 Pergamum LIBRARY given by Antony to Cleo-VII. 41 ISBE 3-126
c.41 Dau of P-XII Auletes, ARSINOE-IV dies.  Living at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus or Miletus, is murdered on the steps of the temple by order of Antony. Ant 15:4:1     41 B76 I-547, DGRBM 1-367, GHH, atl1, wikC7     40 CAH 10-12
41 Antony's quaestor, M. BARBATIUS POLLIO disagrees with Antony, returns from Ephesus? to Italy 41 atl1
c.41 BOETHUS helped by Antony achieves a prominent position at Tarsus. 41 atl1
41 fall ANTONY in Anatolia from spring, goes to Syria. 43 CAH 10-26, 33
c.40 Feb L. Decidius SAXA, Antonine governor of Syria from 41, chased by Parthians to Cilicia. 40 CAH 10-47, GHH
c.40 Q. LABIENUS, working for Parthia, moves from Syria into Cilicia, meets no resistance. 40 CAH 10-13, 47, CDCC 91, DGRBM 2-698
c.40 L. Decidius SAXA captured and killed in Cilicia by troops of Labienus. 40 CAH 10-47, DGRBM 1-356, 3-730, wikQLb
c.40 Q. LABIENUS, working for Parthia overruns Roman Anatolia as far as Asia province. 40 CAH 10-13, atl1
c.40 Carian cities, Aphrodisia, Alabanda and Mylasa fall to Labienus.  Stratonicia and Aphrodisia are damaged, also perhaps Miletus.  Lydia is overrun. 40 CAH 10-13, 645
c.40 Fb/Mr ANTONY at Tyre, learns of defection of Saxa's troops, sails to Asia, collects fleet. 41 CAH 10-41
c.40 Mar ANTONY in Asia, can't get help from Marcius Censorinus in Macedonia because of impending invasion by the Parthini, learns of his bro Lucius' defeat at Perusia by Octavian, realizes that he must get to his 24 legions in the west, sails for Greece. 41 CAH 10-42
c.40 M. TURIUS, governor of Asia from 42, ends.  Antonine L. Munatius PLANCUS succeeds until 38. 40 OCD 838, wikLRGA
c.40 Antonine Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS sent from Rome to be governor of Bithynia until 35. 40 B76 I-151, CAH 10-43, DGRBM 1-86, OCD 361, wikGnDA
c.40 ATTALUS-I ends.  Bithynian king of Paphlagonia from 47.  Son of Tectosage tetrarch Castor, CASTOR-I succeeds until 36. 40 rcT, wikLPΦ
c.40 DOMNILAOS, tetrarch of part of Galatia from 44, ends. 40 rcT
c.40 DEIOTARUS dies peacefully.  Tetrarch of west Galatia from 85, king of all Galatia from 42.  Antony divides his kingdom between his son and others.  Son CASTOR-I gets Galatia and the interior of Paphlagonia until 37.  Son of Pharnaces-II of Pontus DARIUS gets coastal Pontus.  Secretary of Deiotarus, AMYNTAS becomes tetrarch of north Pisidia until 37, then king until 25.  Son of Zeno of Laodicea, POLEMO-I, gets Lycaonia, Iconium, and adjacent parts of Cilicia Tracheia until 37.  Cleo-VII gets Cilicia Pedias.  Olba, west of Pedias, is ruled by the priestly house of the Teucrids.  The kingdom of the Amanus in the east is left under its hereditary ruler Tarcondimotus. 40 B76 III-438, CAH 10-34, 647, HRE 107, IDB 2-337, ISBE 2-378, OCD 319, atl1, frH, rcT     39 rcT
no date: OCD 57
c.40 ARMENIA MINOR, under Deiotarus from 47, comes under DARIUS of Pontus until 36. 40 rcT
c.39 early Antonine P. VENTIDIUS BASSUS with 11 legions from Italy to fight Parthians.  He lands in Asia, goes to Caria, surprises Q. Labienus, who flees to Cilicia. 39 B76 X-390, CAH 10-21, 46, 47, 50, DGRBM 3-1238, GHH, OCD 1113, atl1, wikPcr1
c.39 Q. LABIENUS, Roman defector to Parthia, flees east pursued by Ventidius Bassus, camps in Taurus Mts., sends envoy to Syria to get help from Parthians. 39 B76 9-844, CAH 10-50, DGRBM 2-698, 3-1238, OCD 575
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS with 11 legions camps on high ground, attacked by Parthians, defeats them.  Parthians flee towards Cilicia, followed by Bassus, who halts when he sees camp of Q. Labienus at Mt. Amanus.  The men of Labienus try to escape by night, but many of his men are cut off, and the rest defect to Bassus. 39 B76 X-390, DGRBM 3-1238, atl1, wikO2P
c.39 Q. LABIENUS dies.  Roman defector to Parthia, deserted by troops, caught at the Cilician Gates by Demetrius, a freedman of Caesar, and executed. 39 B76 9-844, CAH 10-21, 50, DGRBM 1-356, 2-698, 3-1238, OCD 575, atl1, lvPE, wikPE, wikQLb
c.39 Parthian Barzaphanes (Pharnapates), general under Pacorus, routed by P. Ventidius BASSUS retreat to the Amanus Passes dividing Cilicia from Syria. 39 CAH 10-50
c.39 P. VENTIDIUS BASSUS sends Popedius Silo to occupy the Amanus passes.  Barzaphanes, holds the passes.  Silo is in danger of being destroyed with his troops, when Bassus rescues him and defeats Barzaphanes, who is killed. 39 CAH 10-21, DGRBM 3-1238
c.39 ANATOLIA recovered by Ventidius BASSUSParthians retreat to Syria. 39 B76 9-844, CAH 10-50, OCD 575
c.39 Antony makes a son of Pharnaces-II DARIUS, king of Pontus until 37. 39 GHH, frH, wikDPn
c.39 ARIARATHES-X, king of Cappadocia 42-36, king of Armenia Minor from 42, forfeits Armenia Minor to DARIUS of Pontus. 39 frH, rcT, wikBθP
c.39 ARMENIA MINOR (southeast Pontus), under Cappadocia from 62, removed by Antony and given to DARIUS of Pontus until 36. 39 wikBθP
39 ANTONY confirms Amyntas in Galatia, and others as dependent kings in east. 39 atl1
c.39 POLEMO-I, philo-Roman of Laodicea, made ruler of Lycaonia and part of Cilicia Tracheia until 37 by Antony. 39 DGRBM 3-434, IDB 3-189, atl1     38 OCD 850
c.39 Part of CILICIA given by Antony to POLEMO-I of Pontus until 8. 39 DGRBM 3-434, wikBθP
c.39 ICONIUM Phrygia, under Pontus from 129, is given by ANTONY to Polemo-I until 36. 39 IDB 2-672
c.39 Ventidius BASSUS proceeds from Cilicia to Syria. 39 B76 VII-667, DGRBM 3-1238
c.38 CILICIA PEDIAS (East Cilicia) incorporated into Syria province until 72CE.  It therefore comes under C. SOSIUS until 37. 38 BNTH 245, IDB 1-628
c.38 spring ANTONY goes from Athens to Asia. 38 implied
c.38 Antonine L. Munatius PLANCUS, Antonine governor of Asia from 40, is compelled to retire.  M. Cocceius NERVA succeeds until ?. 39 GHH
38 wikLRGA
c.38 Ephesus rises to importance nearly equal with Antioch, as a trading and commercial city. 38 GHH
c.38 ANTONY proceeds from Anatolia to Commagene. 38 guess
c.38 ANTIOCHUS-I THEOS ends.  King of Commagene from 70, besieged at Samosata, surrenders to and is deposed by Antony, who installs his son MITHRIDATES-II Philhellen until 20. 38 CAH 10-24, 53, CDCC 225, OCD 273, rcT, wikA1TC, wikKC, wikRCmg     35 anan, frH     34 B76 III-36     31 anan
c.38 COMMAGENE, independent from 80, but under Roman sponsorship from 73, becomes Roman client until 17CE. 38 OCD 273
c.38 ANTONY proceeds from Commagene to Syria until later 38. 38 CAH 10-23, DGRBM 3-1239, GHH
c.37 Son of Pharnaces-II, DARIUS dies.  King of Pontus and Bosporus from 39, dies.  Bro ARSACES succeeds a few months, but Antony removes Cilicia from Pontus, giving the west (CILICIA TRACHEA under Tarcondimotus-I 66-31) to Cleo-VII until 30, and the east to Polemo-I. 37 OCD 850, rcT, wikDPn, wikP1Pn
36 GHH, IDB 1-628
c.37 Son of Zeno, POLEMO-I, Antonine ruler of Lycaonia and part of Cilicia Trachea from 39, loses Cilicia Trachea to Cleo-VIIAntony compensates him with much of the east coast region of Pontus, which he rules until 8. 37 IDB 3-841, OCD 850, frH     36 DGRG 1-621, ISBE 3-903
c.37 Son of Pharnaces-II, ARSACES dies.  King of Pontus and Bosporus 37, dies.  Antony gives Pontus and Bosporus to POLEMO-I until 8. 37 wikP1Pn
c.37/6 Son of Deiotarus, CASTOR-I dies.  Ruler of Galatia and Paphlagonia from 40.  Galatia, Lycaonia, and the Pamphylian coast are added to Amyntas' domain.  Castor's son DEIOTARUS PHILADELPHUS gets Paphlagonia. 37 CAH 10-647 36 rcT
c.37/6 Tetrarch of Galatia from 40, AMYNTAS becomes king of Galatia until 25.  He resides in Pamphylia. 37 frH, rcT
c.36 ARIARATHES-X Eusebes Philadelphus dies.  King of Cappadocia from 42, executed by Antony, who installs Sisenes, who takes the name ARCHELAUS, and succeeds until 17CE. 37/6 CAH 10-29     36 B76 I-488, DGRBM 1-285, DGRG 1-507, GHH, OCD 107, awCap, frH, rcT, wikArcC, wikAXC 35 GHH     34 DGRBM 1-263
c.36 ARMENIA MINOR, under Darius of Pontus from 39, annexed to Roman empire, and put back under Pontus until 14. 36 GHH, rcT
c.36 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, helps Antony against Parthians. 36 wikP1Pn
c.36 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, under Antony from 37, captured by Parthians, ransomed. 36 OCD 850
c.36 The remaining part of Pontus south of Amasia, bounded on the south by the mountains is given by Antony to Polemo. 36 DGRG 1-405
c.36 ANTONY re-distributes territory of kings in Cappadocia, Pontus and Cilicia. 36 atl1
c.36 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, having to surrender Lycaonia to Amyntas, and his possessions in Tracheia to Cleo-VII, is given in return Pontus beyond the Iris river, with Phazemonitis, Armenia Minor and Colchis.  Archelaus, son of the hereditary priest-ruler of Comana, gets Cappadocia on the departure or death of its king, Ariobarzanes' bro Ariarathes-X.  Cleo-VII also gets part of Crete, tho Antony claimed to have found a Caesarian decree freeing it.  Remaining cities are left to govern themselves and their territories. 37 CAH 10-647
c.36 ANTONY marches to Erzurum on Anatolia/Armenia border. 36 wikPE
c.36 Antonine C. FURNIUS becomes governor of Asia until 35. 36 wikLRGA
c.36 LYCAONIA, including ICONIUM Phrygia, under Polemo-I from 39, is given by ANTONY to Amyntas of Galatia until 25.  Remains under Galatia until ?. 36 IDB 2-672, 3-189, ISBE 3-188
c.36 Sep? SEXTUS POMPEIUS with only 17 ships, sails from Lesbos to Miletos Caria, making petitions to Antony, Thracian chiefs, and Parthians. 36 DGRBM 3-491, LEWH 111, wikSR 35 MCAW 260
to Mytilene Lesbos 36/5 CAH 10-37
c.35 LAMPSACUS siezed by Sextus Pompeius. 35 DGRBM 3-491, atl1
35 Quaestor M. TITIUS governor of Syria from 36, on order from Antony, takes some legions from Syria to Asia province to deal with Sextus Pompeius. 35 DGRBM 3-383, OCD 878, 1079, rcS, wikRGS
c.35 SEXTUS POMPEIUS robs temple of Hera at Lake Lacinium. 35 MCAW 261
c.35 C. FURNIUS, Antony's prefect of Asia, supported by Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, governor of Bithynia, resist Sextus Pompeius.  Antony likewise sends Titius, with 120 ships, to attack his naval forces. 35 DGRBM 2-191, 3-491, OCD 361, wikGnDA
c.35 SEXTUS POMPEIUS burns his ships and merges their crews into his army.  His friends advise him to make terms with Antony.  He refuses.  Most of them desert him, including his father-in-law, Scribonius Libo.  Sextus tries to flee to Armenia, but is overtaken by troops of Antony, betrayed by M.(3) Aemilius Scaurus, deserted by his own troops, and surrenders. 35 DGRBM 3-491, 738
c.35 SEXTUS POMPEIUS surrenders to Amyntas, king of Galatia 40-25.  He is taken prisoner to Miletus. 35 DGRBM 3-491, OCD 57, atl1
c.35 SEXTUS POMPEIUS executed, age 40, by M. Titius on secret order of Antony at Miletus Caria. 35 Ac31, B76 VIII-107, CAH 10-38, 62, DGRBM 3-491, GHH, MCAW 260, OCD 1079, atl1, wikSPm, wikSR
c.35 Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, governor of Bithynia from 40, no longer so. 35 B76 I-151, wikGnDA
c.35 ADIATORICS becomes a tetrarch in Galatia until 30. 35 rcT
c.35 C.(2) FURNIUS, governor of Asia from 36 ends.  Antonine M. TITIUS succeeds until 34. 35 wikLRGA 35/4 OCD 1079
c.34 Antonine M. TITIUS, governor of Asia from 35 ends.  ASINIUS MARRUCINUS succeeds until 33. 34 wikLRGA
c.33 Libraries of Pergamum number more than 200,000 volumes. 33 GHH
c.33 ARMENIA MINOR, under Rome under Pontus from 36, given by Antony (now in Armenia) to Polemo-I, remains under Pontus until 14. 33 CAH 10-48
c.33 ASINIUS MARRUCINUS, governor of Asia from 34 ends.  M. Herennius PICENS succeeds until ?. 33 wikLRGA
c.33 fall? ANTONY and CLEO-VII go from Syria to Ephesus until April, begin plans for war with Octavian.  Antony gives many Asian gifts to Cleo. 33 Ac31 31, CAH 10-44-5, 48, atl1
c.33 Nov P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS, Antonine general in Armenia from 37, withdraws army to Anatolia. 33 CAH 10-93
32 early HEROD comes from Judea to visit Antony and Cleo-VII in Ephesus. 33 CAH 10-95
c.32 Antonine consul Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS sails from Greece to Ephesus, joins Antony, tries to get him to send away Cleo-VII. 32 DGRBM 1-86, wikGnDA
c.32 P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS joins Antony in Ephesus, given charge of land forces. 32 OCD 201
c.32 Kings who go to Ephesus and declare for AntonySadalas and Rhoemetacles of ThraceBocchus of MauretaniaPhiladelphus of Paphlagonia;  Archelaus of Cappadocia;  Amyntas of Lycaonia and GalatiaMithridates of Commagene. 32 Ac31 31
c.32 HEROD in Ephesus advises Antony to kill Cleo-VII and annex Egypt. 32 CAH 10-95
c.32 Apr ANTONY at Ephesus, fits out 19 legions, 70-75,000 men, plus 15-25,000 auxiliaries and 12,000 cavalry supplied by client kings.  Of his remaining 11 legions, 4 under Pinarius Scarpus are stationed in Cyrenaica, 3 in Syria under Q. Didius, 4 left in Egypt. 32 Ac31 31-2
c.32 Apr ANTONY has 800 ships, nearly 300 of them transports; but it is not enough to carry his whole army. 32 CAH 10-50
c.32 Apr ANTONY and CLEO-VII in Ephesus from fall 33, move headquarters to Samos. 32 CAH 10-50, 96
c.31 Amyntas of Galatia and Q. Dellius are summoned by Antony (now in Greece) from Galatia to Macedonia to get auxiliaries. 31 DGRBM 1-956
c.31 TARCONDIMOTUS-I Philantonius dies.  Dynast in Cilicia Trachea from 64, ally of Antony from ?, fighting under C. Sosius against M. Vipsanius Agrippa, killed in a sea battle fighting for Antony.  Son TARCONDIMOTUS-II PHILOPATOR succeeds and declares in favor of Octavian until 17CE. 32 OCD 234, rcT 31 DGRBM 3-317, wikTrc
c.31 PAPHLAGONIA, directly under Antony from 36, Son of Tectosage Castor-I, DEIOTARUS-I Philadelphus, becomes king until 6.  He rules jointly with son DEIOTARUS-II Philopator until 27. 31 wikLPΦ
31 Sep 2 ACTIUM
c.31 ADIATORICS, a tetrarch in Galatia 35-30, attacks Roman colonists at Heraclea. 31 atl1
31 After Actium, OCTAVIAN goes from Samos to Ephesus, takes over all Anatolia. 31 CAH 10-61, atl1 30 CAH 10-647
31 late Amyntas of Galatia ally of Antony from 32, defects to Octavian. 31 Ac31
31 late Archelaus of Cappadocia ally of Antony from 32, defects to Octavian. 31 Ac31
31/0 CAH 10-61
c.31 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, under Antony 37-30, makes peace with Octavian, who confirms him in his kingdom. 31 Ac31, wikP1Pn 31/0 CAH 10-61 30 DGRBM 3-434
31 end Anatolia is effectively controled by Octavian. 31 CAH 10-61
31 end OCTAVIAN returns from Anatolia to Samos for winter. 31 CAH 10-61, atl1 30 CAH 10-647
c.30 Feb OCTAVIAN sails from Brundisium to Ephesus, takes over all Anatolia. 30 Ac31,
CAH 10-62
c.30 VEDIUS POLLIO, governor of Asia from ? ends.  C. MEMMIUS succeeds ?-?. 30 wikLRGA
c.30 OCTAVIAN marches overland from Anatolia to Syria. 30 CAH 10-62
c.30 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, under Antony from 37, sends an auxiliary force to help Antony. 30 DGRBM 3-434
c.30 ADIATORIX, a tetrarch in Galatia from 35, ends. 30 rcT
c.30 OCTAVIAN goes from Syria to Asia. 30 CAH 10-255
c.30 OCTAVIAN punishes Ephesus for supporting Antony. 30 atl1
c.30 late OCTAVIAN goes from Asia to Rhodes. 30 DGRBM 2-425, Jud 3-853
c.29 Alexandria and Ephesus are the 2 main trade places in the empire. 29 GHH
c.29 PERGAMUM becomes cult center for Rome and OctavianNICOMEDIA Bithynia follows suit.  Temples are erected in both. 29 CDCC 93, HRE 107, ISBE 1-327
c.29 Capital of Asia province, Pergamum from ?, moved to Ephesus. 29 anan
c.29 EPHESUS dedicates a sacred precinct to Rome and the emperor. 29 IDB 2-116
c.29 Former king of Commagene 70-38, ANTIOCHUS-I THEOS dies.  Charged with murder of an envoy sent to Rome by his bro Mith-II.  He is summoned to Rome, tried, condemned executed.. 29 CAH 10-175, OCD 72
c.27 BITHYNIA-PONTUS becomes a senatorial province. 27 ISBE 3-903
c.27 ASIA, province under Rome from 130, except 88-84, becomes a senatorial province, including Hellespont, Mysia, Ionia, Lydia, Caria, Phrygia, and coastal islands.  It is under a proconsul of consular rank aided by 3 legates and a quaestor. 28 HRE 23
27 CAH 11-580, OCD 131
c.27 L. VINICIUS becomes governor of Asia until 25. 27 wikLRGA
c.27 DEIOTARUS-II Philopator ends.  Co-ruler of Paphlagonia from 31.  Father DEIOTARUS-I Philadelphus sole rule until 6. 27 wikLPΦ
c.27 CILICIA becomes part of the province Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. 27 wikClc
c.26 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, is entitled "Friend of the Roman People" by the senate. 26 CAH 10-175
c.25 Roman client AMYNTAS dies.  King of Galatia from 37, killed in ambush by the Homanades on southeast border.  He leaves sons as heirs, but Augustus decides to annex most of his territory as an imperial province.  It receives its 1st Roman governor, and remains under Rome until 395. 25 B76 2-370, BAX 267, BNTH 273, CAH 10-153, 261, 271, DGRG 1-622, 930, HRE 108, IDB 1-825, 3-189, 941, ISBE 1-142, 327, Jud 7-262, MCAW 264, OCD 57, frH, hifiGlt, lvA, rcT, wikAg, wikTAR
c.25 GALATIA, independent Celtic kingdom from 275, becomes imperial province, including Lycaonia, Pisidia, Isauria.  Celts keep their language, customs, and tribal organization into Christian era. 25 BAX 267, BNTH 273, CAH 10-271, 650, IDB 3-189
c.25 CILICIA ASPERA given by Augustus to Archelaus of Cappadocia. 25 DGRG 1-622
c.25 SIDE Pamphylia, under Galatia from 42, given by Augustus to province of Cilicia.  Side remains a center of interregional slave trade. 25 lvA
c.25 L. VINICIUS, governor of Asia from 27, ends.  Potitus Valerius MESSALA succeeds until 23. 25 wikLRGA
c.25 M. LOLLIUS becomes 1st legate of Galatia until . 25 OCD 618
c.23 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA leaves Italy to govern eastern provinces until 21.  Establishes headquarters at Mytilene Lesbos. 23 B76 1-367, CAH 10-142, OCD 31
c.23 Potitus Valerius MESSALA, governor of Asia from 25, ends.  Sextus APPULIEIUS succeeds until 21. 23 wikLRGA
c.21 Sextus APPULIEIUS, governor of Asia from 23, ends. 21 wikLRGA
c.20 spring AUGUSTUS on Samos from 21, returns to Asia province, makes reforms in Asia and Bithynia, proceeds to Syria. 21 CAH 10-651     20 CAH 10-262, CDCC 93, DGRBM 1-429
c.20 CYZICUS, under Rome 133BC-395CE, natives kill Roman citizens (possibly a trade dispute), lose freedom. 20 OCD 309
c.20 ARCHELAUS, king of Cappadocia 36-17CE, receives Cilicia Trachea, Armenia Minor and East Lycaonia from Augustus. 25 wikArcC     20 B76 I-488, CAH 10-152, 744, DGRG 1-507
c.20 AMANUS area of Cilicia comes under Tarcondimotus-II. 20 DGRG 1-622
c.20 MITHRIDATES-II ends.  King of Commagene from 38, ends.  MITHRIDATES-III succeeds until 12. 20 CAH 10-650, CDCC 225, DGRBM 2-1094, anan, frH, rcT, wikM2C, wikM3C, wikRCmg
c.19 ANAZARBOS Cilicia is refounded as Caesarea Anazarbus by Romans due to restoration of king Tarcondimotus-II Philopator. 19 adly, brit
9 CAH 10-652
c.18/7 C. Norbanus FLACCUS becomes governor of Asia until 17/6. 18/7 wikLRGA
17 Agrippa, accompanied by wife Julia, sails from Italy to Asia.  He learns of Scribonius usurpation of Bosporus.  He orders Polemo of Pontus to overthrow Scribonius, with promise to rule Bosporus and marry DynamisAgrippa & Julia then go to Syria. 17 CAH 10-207, DGRBM 1-79, 2-641, GHH
16 CAH 10-95, Jud 2-418, MCAW 268, wikLC
no date: OCD 176
17 GLAPHYRA, dau of Cappadocian king Archelaus of Cappadocia, goes to Judea, marries ALEXANDER, son of Herod by Mariamne-I. Ant 16:1:2, Wars 1:23:1 18/7 wikArcC       17 DGRBM 2-427     16 GHH
c.17/6 C. Norbanus FLACCUS governor of Asia from 18/7, ends. 17/6 wikLRGA
c.16 POLEMO-I of Pontus & Cilicia, at request of M. Agrippa and with approval of Augustus, marries Queen Dynamis of Bosporus, becoming ruler of Bosporus, Pontus and Cilicia until 8.  He is charged with reducing Bosporus, which had been usurped by Scribonius. 16 DGRBM 3-434, wikBθP, wikP1Pn
14 CAH 10-151
c.15 Q. Aemilius LEPIDUS becomes governor of Asia until 14. 15 wikLRGA
c.15 Stoic ATHENODORUS returns to his native Tarsus Cilicia, reforms civic administration. 15 BNTH 234
15 fall? M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, governor of eastern provinces, sails from Berytus to Black Sea. Ant 16:2:2 16 DGRBM 1-79
15 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, governor of eastern provinces, goes from Black Sea to Asia. implied
c.15 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, with authorization from M. Agrippa, conquers Bosporus until 8, but needs help holding it. 15 OCD 850, frH 14 CAH 10-151, MRDK 272
c.14 Q. Aemilius LEPIDUS, governor of Asia from 15, ends.  C. Sentius SATURNINUS succeeds until 13. 14 wikLRGA
c.14 L.(8) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS comes from Rome to be proconsul of Pamphylia until 11, adding Galatia in 13. 14 DGRBM 3-373
c.14 ARMENIA MINOR, under Pontus from 36, no longer so. 14 rcT
c.14 NICOLAUS of Damascus sent by Herod from Judea to Ephesus to plead to M. Agrippa for Jewish rights in Asia and CyreneAgrippa grants rights in Asia, but not Cyrene. 14 CAH 10-331, DGRBM 1-79, Jud 12-1140, wikHG
c.14 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, commander of east, sails to Sinope, threatens to attack Bosporans, who surrender. 16 DGRBM 1-79 14 CAH 10-268
c.14 HEROD sails to meet Agrippa at Sinope. Ant 16:2:2 14 GHH
c.14 POLEMO-I, king of Pontus 37-8, is given Bosporus by Augustus, under supervision of Agrippa.  Recently widowed, Polemo marries 2nd wife Pythodoris of Pontus. 14 CAH 10-151, 268, OCD 150
c.14 AGRIPPA and HEROD at Sinope, return thru Paphlagonia, Cappadocia and Phrygia to Ephesus.  Ionian Jews persuade Agrippa to support their civil and religious rights against infringement by Greeks. Ant 16:2:2
14 Jud 2-418, 3-747
c.14 HEROD support Jews in Anatolia and Cyrene. 14 wikHG
c.14 AGRIPPA and HEROD sail from Ephesus, to Samos. Ant 16:2:2
c.13 C. Sentius SATURNINUS, governor of Asia from 14, ends.  M. VINICIUS succeeds 12-10. 13 wikLRGA
c.13 L.(8) Calpurnius PISO CAESONINUS becomes governor of Galatia-Pamphilia until 11. 13 wikLCPC
no date: DGRBM 3-373
c.12 MITHRIDATES-III ends.  King of Commagene from 20.  ANTIOCHUS-III succeeds until 17CE. 12 rcT, wikRCmg
c.12 HEROD and his sons Alexander & Aristobulus, and Antiparter, sail from Greece to Eleusa Island off Cilicia, entertained by Archelaus of Cappadocia.  They then sail to Judea. Wars 1:23:4
c.11 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS made governor of Galatia-Pamphilia.  He begins a campaign against the Homonadenses, a tribe based in the mountains of Galatia and Cilicia. 12 wikQrn     11 CAH 10-214, 271-2, OCD 908 12BC-1CE CAH 10-271
c.11 L.(8) Calpurnius PISO CAESONINUS, governor of Galatia-Pamphilia from 13, is sent by Augustus as legate to to quell a revolt in Thrace. 11 DGRBM 3-373, wikLCPC
c.10 ARCHELAUS, king of Cappadocia 36-17CE, fears for his dau Glaphyra, wife of Alexander.  He visits Jerusalem. Ant 16:9:6
10±1 MAZAKA, capital of Cappadocia, name changed to CAESAREA by king Archelaus. 12-9 OCD 191
c.10 M. VINICIUS, governor of Asia from 12, ends.  Paullus FABIUS MAXIMUS succeeds until 7. 10 wikLRGA
no date: OCD 427
c.9 Caesarea Anazarbus, refounded probably by Tarcondimotus-II Philopator of Cilicia. 9 CAH 10-652
c.8 POLEMO-I dies.  King of Pontus from 37, Bosporus from 14, pretends friendship with Bosporan rebels - the Aspurgiani tribe in Phanagoria.  He is discovered, captured, and killed.  ASPURGUS succeeds in Bosporus.  2nd wife PYTHODORIS succeeds in Pontus, Colchis, and Cilicia until 19CE. 8 CAH 10-152, 269, OCD 176, 850, frH, rcCrm, rcT, wikBθP, wikP1Pn
c.8 PYTHODORIS, widowed queen of Pontus, marries Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, thereby joining several eastern client kingdom under a single family.  She has 2 sons and a dau from her first husband Polemo-I of Pontus. 8 wikArcC, wikBθP
c.7 GLAPHYRA, dau of Archelaus of Cappadocia, widow of Alexander son of Mariamne, returns from Judea to Cappadocia. Wars 1:28:1, 2:7:4 7 Jud 5-152
c.7 In Paphlagonia some small principalities held by descendants of Deiotarus, are joined to Galatia. 7 HRE 109
c.7 Mt. Olgassys range between the Billaeus and the Halys is added to Bithynia by Augustus, together with the Pontic town of Amasia on the Iris. 7 DGRG 1-405
c.7 STRABO, historian, geographer, in Rome from 19 , moves to Amasia on the Iris in Pontus until death 23. 7 OCD 1017
c.7 Paullus FABIUS MAXIMUS, proconsul of Asia from 10, ends.  IULLUS ANTONIUS, 2nd son of Antony & Fulvia succeeds until 6. 8 wikLRGA 7/6 OCD 78
c.6 IULLUS ANTONIUS, 2nd son of Antony & Fulvia, proconsul of Asia from 7/6, returns to Rome.  C. Asinius GALLUS succeeds until 5. 6 OCD 457, wikLRGA
c.6 DEIOTARUS-I Philadelphus dies.  Tectosage king of Paphlagonia from 31, sole ruler from 27, dies.  PAPHLAGONIA, under a Bithynian dynasty from 65, is put under Galatia by Augustus. 6 B76 VII-734, CAH 10-152, 274, 650, ISBE 2-378, wikLPΦ
c.6 Knidos Caria recognizes Augustus' jurisdiction in a local homicide case. 6 CAH 10-649
c.6 Via Sebaste built from Perge northwest to Comama, looping past Lake Burdur to Pisidian Antioch before looping west and southwest thru Iconium, Lystra and Derbe. 6 CAH 10-650, anrd
c.5 C. Asinius GALLUS, proconsul of Asia from 6, ends. 5 wikLRGA
c.5±7 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS in Galatia subjugates the Homanadenes, Cilician bandits in south Galatia. 12BC-2CE OCD 908
12BC-1CE CAH 10-271
5-3 CAH 10-153, lvPSQ
c.3 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS becomes proconsul of Asia until ?. 3 ENBD 1069, ISBE 4-12
c.3 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS, proconsul of Asia?, becomes proconsul of Syria (1st time) until 2. 3 FHBC 302
c.3 PAPHLAGONIA province is enlarged by addition of the region south of Phazemonitis and east of Galatia (including Sebastopolis).  Another district hitherto under a dynast comes into Paphlagonia, making it the same size as Asia and twice that of Bithynia. 3 CAH 10-650
c.3/2 Pontus Galaticus region incorporated into province of Galatia. 3/2 CAH 10-153
c.2 AMASIA, under dynastic control from ?, incorporated into province of Pontus, but eastern Pontus remains under widow of Polemo-I. 2 CAH 10-651
c.2/1 Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS becomes proconsul of Asia until 1CE. 2/1 OCD 595
c.1 CAIUS Julius CAESAR is in Anatolia until his death in 4CE. 1 CAH 10-652