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Asia Province Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.81/0 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, in Cilicia from 81, is sent by M. Minucius Thermus as envoy to Nicomedes-IV of Bithynia to get ships for siege of Mytilene Lesbos. 81 DGRBM 2-1197, atl1
81/0 OCD 734     80 MCAW 244, wikBθP, wikN4B     79 vrm
c.80 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, is successful in getting ships from Nicomedes-IV of Bithynia.  Since Nic-IV is a known homosexual, Caesar is suspected of playing catamite to him, and titled "Queen of Bithynia". 80 MCAW 244 79 vrm
c.80 Sullan general L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS, in Asia from 84, returns to Italy. 80 DGRBM 2-832
c.80 M. Minucius THERMUS governor of Asia from 81, ends.  P. Claudius NERO succeeds until ?. 80 wikLRGA
c.80 Gn.(5) Cornelius DOLABELLA sent from Rome to Cilicia as proconsul until 79.  C. Malleolus is his quaestor until he dies (murdered?) and is replaced by legate C. Verres.  Together they plunder Cilicia until 79. 80 B76 X-404, CAH 9-354, DGRBM 1-1058, 2-908, DGRG 1-621, OCD 358, atl1
c.80 States looted by Dolabella include: Sicyon, Delos, Samos, Tenedos island, Lampsacus, Myndos, and Aspendos. 80 atl1, 244
c.80 C.(4) Julius CAESAR at the siege of Mytilene Lesbos, is credited with saving the life of a comerade. 80 DGRBM 1-540, GHH, MCAW 244
80/79 Temple of Artemis at Perga Pamphylia plundered by C. Verres. 80/70 IDB 3-732
c.79 C. VERRES, proquaestor of Dolabella, continues to extort money from various parts of Anatolia, including Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Phrygia, and Milyas (mountainous country north of Lycia). 79 atl1
c.79 Gn.(5) Cornelius DOLABELLA, proconsul of Cilicia from 80, returns along with C. Verres to Rome. 79 DGRG 1-621, OCD 358     78 B76 X-404
c.79 Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Ariobarzanes-I of Cappadocia send envoys to Rome. 79 atl1
79 Q. SERTORIUS, rebel in Spain begins negotiations with Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 79 CAH 9-217
c.78 P.(1) Servilius VATIA begins subduing pirates in Anatolia until 74.  L.(9) Valerius Flaccus is his military tribune.  C.(4) Julius Caesar and T. Labienus serve under Vatia. 78 CAH 9-354, DGRBM 1-540, 2-159, 3-1232, lvA, wikTLb
c.78 P.(1) Servilius VATIA defeats pirates at sea off the coast of Cilicia.  Pirates then take refuge in strongholds among the mountains on the south coast of Anatolia. 78 DGRBM 3-1232
77 wikPSV
c.78 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, in Anatolia from 81, learns of Sulla's death, returns to Rome. 78 B76 3-576, DGRBM 1-540, Dur 3-167, sjsu, ttjc, vrm, wikBθP
c.78 PHAESELIS Pamphilia, under pirates from ?, taken by P.(1) Servilius Vatia 78 DGRBM 3-1233
77 CAH 9-354, lvA, wikPSV
c.78 CORYCOS on coast of Cilicia, under pirates from ?, taken by P.(1) Servilius Vatia 78 DGRBM 3-1233
77 CAH 9-354, lvA, wikPSV
c.78 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, freed from Treaty of Dardanus 85, incites son-in-law TIGRANES-II of Armenia & Syria to invade Cappadocia with an overwhelming force. 78 B76 IX-1006, CAH 9-356, OCD 108, 110 77 atl1
c.78 ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios, king of Cappadocia from 85/4, driven out by Tigranes-II until 66. 78 OCD 108, 110
c.78 M. Tullius CICERO, in Greece from 79. visits Asia province, he meets Rutilius Rufus and listens to rhetoric of Menippus, Dionysius, Aeschylus, and Xenocles. 78 atl1
78 M. Tullius CICERO, in Asia from 78, goes to Rhodes until 77.  Servius Sulpicius Lemonia Rufus accompanies. 78 B76 VIII-149, 14-540, DGRBM 1-709, 3-946, IDB 4-444, OCD 868, wikSSR     77 atl1     no date: OCD 234
c.78 P.(1) Servilius VATIA moves inland, attacks pirates in Lycia and Cilicia until 75. 78/7 DGRBM 3-1233, bk
c.77 OLYMPUS Lycia, under a pirate called Zenicetus from ?, taken and burnt by P. Servilius Vatia.  Zenicetus is killed or suicides. 78 DGRBM 3-1232     77 CAH 9-354, atl1, lvA, wikPSV
c.77 Quaestor L.(5) Julius CAESAR sent from Rome to Asia until ?. 77 OCD 190
c.77 P. Servilius Vatia defeats pirates at sea and clears Lycia and Pamphylia. 77 lvA
77 P.(1) Servilius VATIA, general in south Asia 78-74, gains control of Lycia. 77 CAH 9-354, lvA
c.77 (?) Terentius VARRO becomes governor of Asia until 76. 77 wikLRGA
c.77 P.(1) Servilius VATIA clears pirates from Lycia and Pamphylia. 77 lvA, wikPSV
c.76 (?) Terentius VARRO governor of Asia from 77, ends.  M. Junius SILANUS succeeds until 75. 76 wikLRGA
c.76 P.(1) Servilius VATIA, general in south Anatolia 78-74, takes Lycian cities of Attalia, Olympos, Phaselis, and Corycos in Cilicia. 76 atl1
c.76 P.(1) Servilius VATIA recovers disloyal districts in Pamphilia. 76 CAH 9-355
c.76 3 Romans sent by senate to Erythrae on west coast of Asia to collect Sibylline prophecies.  They include P. Gabinius Capito.  Other envoys are sent to Ilium for same purpose. 76 DGRBM 2-195
c.76 P.(1) Servilius VATIA, general in south Asia 78-74, invades Cilcia. 77 atl1     76 lvA
c.75 P.(1) Servilius VATIA, general in south Anatolia 78-74, advances across Taurus Mountains (1st time for a Roman army), clears north face of central Taurus range, subdues the Isauri, besieges and takes capital Isaura, clears the way for a march into Cilicia Trachea. 75 atl1, wikPSV
c.75 Pirates of Isauria (west Cilicia) partially subdued. 75 GHH
c.75 M. VARIUS is sent by Sertorius from Spain to Mith-VI of Pontus to help him fight Romans 75 DGRBM 3-1221
c.75 M. Junius SILANUS governor of Asia from 76, ends. 75 wikLRGA
75 C.(4) Julius CAESAR raises a fleet at Miletus, pursues and captures the pirates, and imprisons them in Pergamum.  M. Junctus, governor of Asia, refuses to execute them as Caesar demands, preferring to sell them as slaves.  Caesar returns to the coast and has them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity - a promise the pirates had taken as a joke.  Just to be nice, he first has their throats cut.  Caesar then proceeds to Rhodes until 74. 75 DGRBM 1-540, OCD 189, ttjc, wikELJC
74 atl1
c.75 ASCLEPIADES of Prusa Bithynia, Greek physician, contradicts Hippocrates 400.  Says disease is the result of inharmonious motion of corpuscles that compose bodies.  First to distinguish accute from chronic diseases. 75 TTPC
c.74 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator dies..  King of Bithynia from 85, aka NICOMEDES-I of Paphlagonia from 84, bequeathes kingdom to Rome to avert Pontic aggression.  It causes opposition within Bithynia. 75 CAH 9-213, 233, bk     75/4 CAH 9-358, 1023, OCD 734, lvA, rcT     74 B76 VII-332, 15-1104, DGRBM 2-1100, 1198, DGRG 1-405, IDB 1-443, ISBE 1-327, 3-1026, anan, atl1, bk, frH, wikBθ, wikBθP, wikLPΦ, wikLRB, wikN4B
c.74 PAPHLAGONIA, partitioned between Pontus and Bithynia from 108, under Nicomedes-I from 84, and son of Mith-V, Mithridates-II Eupator Dionysus, from ?, comes under Rome until 68. 74 rcT, wikLPΦ 70 wikLPΦ
c.74 CIUS on the Propontis, under Bithynia from 301, comes under Rome until 395CE. 75/4 rcT
c.74 Pontic general ARCHELAUS persuades inhabitants of Heraclea Pontica to send some warships to join Mith-VI's fleet. 74 atl1
c.74 BITHYNIA, kingdom from 297/6, annexed by Rome, attached to Pontus until 62.  It includes Chalcedon. 74 DGRG 1-597, GHH, IDB 3-941, ISBE 3-1026, frH
c.74 L.(1) OCTAVIUS becomes proconsul of Cilicia until death 74. 74 DGRBM 3-9, atl1
c.74 Armenian Tigranes-II invades Cappadocia. 74 bk
by 74 P.(1) Servilius VATIA had organized the territory he had conquered and incorporated it into Cilicia province. by 74 wikPSV
c.74 P.(1) Servilius VATIA, now called ISAURICUS, general in south Anatolia from 78, sails to Rome, replaced by L.(1) OCTAVIUS who soon dies, and is replaced by M. JUNCUS, who proves incompetent, leaving Rome without leaders in Anatolia. 74 CAH 9-213, 355, DGRBM 3-1233, lvA, wikPSV
c.74 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, summons help from his allies, and prepares for a new war against Romans. 74 atl1
c.74 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, declares Nicomedes-IV's will fraudulent, invades Bithynia, sends Diophantus into Cappadocia to prevent attack from Cilicia. 75 Dur 3-110     74 B76 12-288, CAH 9-358, MCAW 244, atl1, bk     73 B76 8-385, CAH 9-234, TToH, wikKPn, wikTAR
c.74 Pontic generals HERMOCRATES and TAXILES invade Paphlagonia. 74 DGRBM 3-986
74 fall Pontic generals HERMOCRATES and TAXILES invade Bithynia. 74 DGRBM 3-986
c.74 Both consuls are sent from Rome against Mith-VI of Pontus: M.(3) Aurelius COTTA to Bithynia for a holding action, and L.(4) LUCULLUS to command with 1 Italian legion in AsiaLucullus acquires 4 more Asian legions, and is in Asia until 69. 74 B76 VI-375, CAH 9-359, DGRBM 2-832, bk,     73 lvA
c.74 M.(3) Aurelius COTTA and the rest of the Romans in Bithynia flee to Chalcedon. 74 DGRG 1-597
c.74 L.(1) OCTAVIUS dies.  Proconsul of Cilicia 74, dies.  CILICIA taken over by consul L.(4) Lucullus.  Mith-VI then allies with Cilician pirates. 74 CAH 9-234, wikKPn, wikLO
c.74 Deserters L. Fannius and L. Magius with Mith-VI of Pontus from 84, are sent to Spain to make treaty with Sertorius. 74 DGRBM 2-136
c.74 SERTORIUS in Spain trades with Mith-VI of Pontus:  Roman officers including M. Varius (Marius) are sent back with Fannius and Magius in exchange for 40 ships and 3,000 talents. 74 DGRBM 2-136, MCAW 244
74 PONTUS, at unstable peace with Rome from 81, again at war until 703rd Mithridatic War begins until 63. 75 Dur 3-110     74 B76 12-288, CAH 9-358, GHH, ISBE 3-903, LEWH 107, frH     73 B76 8-385, TToH, lvA, wikBθP, wikM6Pn, wikTAR
c.74 C.(4) Julius CAESAR sails his own private army from Italy to combat Mith-VI of Pontus until 74/3. 74 B76 3-576, atl1, sjsu, ttjc
c.74 Forces have been sent by Mith-6 into Lycaonia and south Asia to stir up the Isaurians and Pisidians, but they are driven out by the active Galatian tetrarch Deiotarus. 73 CAH 9-236
c.74 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40 under Romans, drives generals of Mith-VI out of Phrygia. 74 B76 III-438, DGRBM 1-954     73 CAH 9-236, atl1
c.74 CYZICUS, under Rome 133BC-395CE besieged by Mith-VI until 73. 74 DGRG 1-741, OCD 309 73 atl1, wikKPn
c.74 P. OPPIUS steals troop supplies.  His commander M.(3) Aurelius Cotta denounces him.  Oppius draws his sword on Cotta, who accordingly dismisses him from the province, and sends a letter to the senate, formally accusing Oppius.  (Tried 69) 74 DGRBM 3-38 73 atl1
c.74 Consul M.(3) AURELIUS COTTA in Bithynia, rashly offers to take on Mith-VI's main army, and is defeated at sea off Chalcedon, retreats to Chalcedon, loses naval superiority. 74 CAH 9-359, DGRBM 3-39, atl1 73 lvA, wikKPn
c.73 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, invades Bithynia. 73 wikKPn
c.73 A black ox miraculously appears at Cyzicus for a sacrifice to goddess Persephone, who sends a storm to destroy Mith-VI's siege engines. 73 atl1
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS, in Asia 74-69, becomes governor of Asia with 5 legions, assembles his army and imposes strict discipline, relieves Cyzicus, drives Pontians away. 74 GHH     73 B76 12-288, CAH 9, atl1, wikLRGA     74/3 B76 VI-375
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS tries to stifle rebellion in cities of Asia, which Mith-VI is encouraging. 73 atl1
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS arrives at Cyzicus, and occupies a strong position blocking Mith-VI's only exit. 73 atl1
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS defeats Mith-VI cavalry as they withdraw by the Rhyndacus, captures 6,000 horses and 15,000 men.  Mith-VI retreats to Nicomedia. 73 B76 12-288, CAH 9-236, DGRG 2-717, TToH
c.73 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, retreats by ship to Amisus, sends demands for help to Tigranes-II of Armenia, and kings of Scythia and Parthia, asks for help from son Macheres viceroy of Bosporus. 73 CAH 9-362, DGRBM 2-885
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS commander in Asia 73-69, after massing troops, moves thru Galatia into Pontus. 73 CAH 9-363, wikKPn
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS besieges Amisus until 70.  Mith-VI escapes to Sinope. 73 CAH 9-363, wikKPn 72 atl1     71 atl1
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS raises siege of Chalcedon, rescues M. Aurelius Cotta. 73 CAH 11-80
c.73 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS defeats Scythians. 73 CAH 11-80
c.73 HERACLEA PONTICA under Bithynia from 281, besieged by consul M.(3) Aurelius Cotta from 75?, afflicted with plague, betrayed by Connacorex, taken by Cotta and Triarius, sacked, burnt, comes under Rome until 72. 74 rcT
c.73 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, in east from 74, returns via Rhodes to Rome. 73 sjsu
c.72 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS, commander in Asia 73-69, leaves L.(2) Licinius Murena with 2 legions to continue the siege of Amisus, leads 3 legions against Pontic generals Taxiles and Diophantus, still at Cabira. 72 CAH 9-363, DGRBM 2-833, 1100, 1121, 3-986
72 mid L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS advances with his main forces thru Galatia, south of Paphlagonia, to western Pontus.  Meanwhile legate Triarius with 70 ships disposed of the last Pontic fleet off Tenedos, and proconsul Cotta with the remnants of his original forces and Bithynian reinforcements neutralized the fortress of Heraclea, where Pontic commander Connocorix was besieged for 2 years. 72 CAH 9-237
72 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS with 5 legions reaches the lower Halys and marches downstream to coast around Amisus unopposed.  Gates of Amisus are closed against him, and Amisus is besieged until 70. 72 CAH 9-237
c.72 LAMPSACUS, under Pontic troops from ?, no longer soLucullus destroys squadrons left to block his passage thru the Hellespont, off Lemnos island. 72 CAH 9-236
c.72 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS defeats Pontic generals Taxiles and Diophantus, at Cabira.  Mith-VI escapes from Cabira to Comana. 72 B76 VI-375, DGRBM 3-986
71 DGRBM 2-833
c.72 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS destroys remnants of Mith-VI's retreating army by rivers Aesepus and Granicus. 72 CAH 9-236, atl1
c.72 Inhabitants of Cyzicus are rewarded with freedom by Romans for their courage during siege, and they start a festival in honor of L.(4) Licinius Lucullus. 72 atl1
c.72 Poet PARTHENIUS of Nicaea is captured by (?)L. Cornelius Cinna, and sent to Rome. 72 atl1
c.72 L. FANNIUS and Pontic naval commander Metrophanes escape with difficulty to Mith-VI, after being defeated by Mamercus (Mam. Aemilius Lepidus Livianus). 72 atl1
c.72 MITH-VI escapes assassination attempt during mining operations at Cyzicus. 72 atl1
c.72 MITH-VI army suffers from starvation and plague while camped by Cyzicus. 72 atl1
c.72 MITH-VI secretly slips away from Cyzicus and goes west to nearby Parion on the same coast. 72 atl1
c.72 Legates C. Valerius Triarius and Barba sail thru the Propontis and rapidly capture Apamea, Prusa, Nicaea, and Prusias-Cierus between Apamea and Nicaea. 72 CAH 9-236, atl1
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 2 Apameas in Anatolia alone:  in Bithynia and Phrygia.  Plus more in Syria and Mesopotamia.
c.72 MITH-VI is forced to retreat by sea from Nicomedia to Pontus, but many of his ships are destroyed in a storm. 72 atl1
72 HERACLEA PONTICA under Rome from 73, garrisoned by Mith-VI until ?. 72 atl1
c.72 Pontic general ARCHELAUS is captured while trying to win over soldiers from Fimbria's army, who are still serving with L.(4) Licinius Lucullus. 72 atl1
c.72 MITH-VI passes thru the Bosporus to Sinope in Pontus, but pauses at the free-state of Heraclea, where he leaves 4,000 men to delay the Roman advance.  He appeals to his son Machares and to Tigranes for help. 72 CAH 9-236, atl1
72 Grammarian TYRANNION captured by L.(4) Licinius Lucullus, sent to Rome. 72 DGRBM 3-1196
72 App.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER goes to Asia until 70 to serve under bro-in-law L.(4) Licinius Lucullus. 73 OCD 247
72 B76 II-977
70 DGRBM 1-770
c.72 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS invades Pontus. 72 atl1
72 HERACLEA PONTICA under a Pontic garrison 72, besieged by M. Aurelius Cotta. 72 atl1
72/1 L.(4) LUCULLUS with 5 legions marches thru the Iris and Lycus valleys into the heart of Pontus.  There Mith-6 had gathered near Cabira 40,000 inf and 4,000 cav. 72 CAH 9-237
c.72/1 L.(4) LUCULLUS, commander in Asia 73-69, winters in Cabira Pontus, checks extortion. 72/1 CAH 11-80
c.71 AMISUS, last stronghold of Pontus under general Callimachus, besieged by L.(2) Murena from 73, wall is breached.  Callimachus burns Amisus and escapes by sea. 71 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-571, 2-1121 DGRG 1-123
70 atl1, wikKPn
c.71 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS assaults the retiring columns unopposed, and destroys the bulk of the Pontic army.  Mith-6 flees south-east thru Comana to Armenia. 71 CAH 9-238
c.71 MITH-VI kills his wife Monia, and escapes from Comana to Tigranes in Armenia.  Taxiles accompanies. 73 MCAW 244     72 B76 IX-1006, DGRBM 2-1112, GHH     71 CAH 9-238, 365, DGRBM 2-833, 3-986, GHH, atl1
c.71 Mith-VI sends eunuch Bacchides to execute his wives, concubines (including Monima of Miletus) and kids.  71 DGRBM 1-450 70 atl1
c.71 Mith-VI gathers a new army at Cabira Pontus. 71 atl1
71 mid L.(4) LUCULLUS established his legions in a defensive position on high ground opposite Cabira.  His food supplies came, surprisingly, across southern Pontus from Cappadocia, where aged Ariobarzanes still held his throne.  Mith-6 attacked the supply route with his cavalry, but his assaults were repelled with heavy losses.  Having learned his lesson from Lucullus, Mith-6 was unwilling to risk a general engagement, and now attempted to withdraw east into Lesser Armenia, where his resources of gold and silver were stored in 70 strongholds, and where he could hope for the support of ally Tigranes, ruler of Great Armenia.  Attempted retreat turned to disaster, thanks to the previous destruction of the bulk of the Pontic cavalry. 71 CAH 9-237
c.71 L.(4) LUCULLUS pursues Mith-VI as far as mountain fortress of Talaura in Pontus, and despatches App.(15) Claudius as ambassador to Tigranes-II, to demand surrender of Mith-VI.  Lucullus arranges for Asia to pay a huge indemnity to Rome. 72 GHH     71 CAH 9-365, DGRBM 2-833, GHH     70 atl1
c.71 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS besieges Themiscyra Pontus. 71 atl1
c.71 L.(4) LUCULLUS advances against Mith-VI, but is defeated in a cavalry skirmish near Cabira. 71 atl1
c.71 Holcabas deserts to Romans, and then allegedly tries to kill Lucullus. 71 atl1
c.71 L.(4) LUCULLUS is shown a safe route to advance against Cabira, but is then defeated in another skirmish. 71 atl1
c.71 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is sent by bro-in-law Lucullus as envoy to Armenian King Tigranes-II to demand surrender of Mith-VI of Pontus. 71 wikLcl
c.71 Grandad of geographer Strabo, (?) Aeniates, rebels from Mith-VI and persuades some garrisons to surrender to Romans. 71 atl1
c.71 A force sent by Mith-VI to attack Lucullus' supply convoy is defeated by Fabius Hadrianus and suffers heavy losses. 71 atl1
c.71 Panic in Mith-VI's camp as his army tries to escape before arrival of Lucullus. 71 atl1
c.71 L.(4) LUCULLUS marches thru the Iris and Lycus river valleys and established his base at Cabira.  Mith-VI sends cavalry to cut Roman supply line to Cappadocia in the south, but they suffer heavy casualties. 71 wikKPn
c.71 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS captures and loots Cabira. 71 atl1
c.71 EUPATORIA fortress, midway between Amasia & Cabira, taken by L.(4) Lucullus. 71 atl1
c.70 SINOPE, under Pontus from 183, capitol of Pontus, taken by L.(4) Lucullus, comes under Rome until 395. 70 B76 IX-232, atl1, rcT
c.70 AMASIA Pontus taken by L.(4) Licinius Lucullus. 70 atl1
c.70 L.(4) LUCULLUS, commander in Asia 73-69, completes conquest of Pontus, but war continues 74-64.  Lucullus occupies all Mith-VI's land west of the Euphrates including Sinope. 70 B76 8-385, CAH 9-365, lvA
c.70 PONTUS, at war from 74, is, for all practical purposes now under Romans. 71 guess
c.70 MITHRIDATES-II Eupator Dionysus, Pontic king of Paphlagonia from 73, ends. 70 wikLPΦ
c.70 C. Valerius Triarius arrives unexpectedly off coast of Pontus, and defeats navy of Heraclea. 70 atl1
c.70 Cotta and Triarius capture Heraclea, after it is abandoned by Connacorex. 70 atl1
c.70 L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS occupies Armenia Minor. 70 CAH 9-238, atl1
c.70 L.(4) LUCULLUS allies with Machares, son of Mith-VI, who is also king of Bosporus. 70 atl1
c.70 L.(4) LUCULLUS reorganizes Asia province humanely, legislates to reduce debt and restore prosperity, thereby antagonizing financial circles in Rome.  Cities of Asia establish festivals in honor of Lucullus. 70 B76 8-385, atl1
c.70 Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER, envoy of Lucullus, in Syria & Armenia from 71, returns to Pontus. 70 atl1
c.70 App.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER in Anatolia from 70 serving under bro-in-law L. Licinius Lucullus, returns to Rome. 70 B76 II-977
c.70 L.(4) LUCULLUS, commander in Asia 73-69, tries to persuade Phraates-III, new king of Parthia, to help him invade Armenia to get Mith-VI of PontusPhraates-III declines, but remains on friendly terms with Rome. 69 B76 9-843
c.70 A WATER MILL operates near a residence of Mithridates-VI. 70 GHH
c.69 L.(4) LUCULLUS, in Asia from 74, governor from 73, leaves Fabius Sornatius with 6,000 men in charge of Pontus, ends as governor of Asia.  P. Cornelius DOLABELLA succeeds 68-7.
Lucullus with 12,000 inf and 3,000 cav
marches thru Cappadocia to the Euphrates crossing at Tomisa and enters north Sophene.  He crosses the Antitaurus east of Lake Golciik, down to Amida in the plateau of the upper Tigris basin, which constitutes south Sophene.
69 B76 8-385, CAH 9-240, 365, DGRBM 2-835, GHH, Jud 3-474, MCAW 248,lvA, wikKPn, wikLRGA
c.69 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, flees to join Mith-VI in Pontus. 69 Oct CAH 9-369
c.69 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, gives father-in-law Mith-VI of Pontus 10,000 men to recover Pontus. 69 DGRBM 2-1101
c.68 General Sornatius receives order from Lucullus to join him at GordyeneHis troops know it is for an invasion of Parthia, so they refuse to follow Sornatius. 69/8 DGRBM 2-835
c.68 Pontic general CALLIMACHUS captured by Lucullus at Nisibis and executed. 68 DGRBM 1-571
c.68 MITHRIDATES-VI, with 8,000 men, with 8,000 men, marches west into Lesser Armenia . 68 CAH 9-243
c.68 MITHRIDATES-VI, with 8,000 men, tries to recover Pontus while L. Lucullus is at Nisibis paralized by mutiny instigated by his bro-in-law P. Clodius Pulcher. 68 CAH 9-243, 370, DGRBM 2-835, lvA 67 lvA
c.68 MITHRIDATES-VI surprises Romans under Fabius Hadrianus, who retreat to Cabira.  M-VI blockades Cabira. 68 CAH 9-243, lvA 67 lvA
c.68 MITHRIDATES-VI writes to Phraates-III of Parthia, asking for help against Romans, but Phraates remains neutral. 68 Arsaces atl1
c.68 PAPHLAGONIA, under Rome from 74, back under Pontus until 66.  Pontic king MITHRIDATES-II Eupator Dionysus, resumes until 66. 68 wikLPΦ
c.68 C. VALERIUS TRIARIUS is sent to help Fabius Hadrianus in Pontus, forces Mith-VI to go on defense. 68 DGRBM 3-1172
c.68 Fabius Hadrianus besieged by Pontians in Cabira 68, relieved by C. Valerius Triarius. 68 CAH 9-243
c.68 C. VALERIUS TRIARIUS defeats Mith-VI at Comana. 68 atl1
c.67 MITH-VI of Pontus withdraws into Armenia Minor, and kills Attidius on a charge of treason.  Lucullus pursues, but again his troops mutiny. 67 DGRBM 2-835, 3-1128, GHH, atl1
c.67 Mith-VI lures out the Roman troops at Gazioura, 80km south of Cabira, by threatening their storehouse of material and booty around Zela. 67 CAH 9-243
67 May 21 MITHRIDATES-VI must defeat Romans before Lucullus arrives.  Triarius wants to defeat M-6 before Lucullus arrives.  Triarius attacks prematurely at Zela.  Mith-VI defeats Triarius, and kills 7,000 Romans and many officers, including 24 military tribunes. 67 CAH 9-243, 370, DGRBM 3-1172, atl1, lvA
c.67 May L. Licinius LUCULLUS and army return from Nisibis to Pontus, but is too late to save Romans at Zela.  On his approach Mith-VI withdraws to fort Talaura in Armenia Minor to wait for Tigranes-IILucullus rescues Triarius from his own angry troops, then pursues Mith-VI, but again his troops mutiny by instigation of P. Clodius, and refuse to follow him into battle. 67 B76 II-1003, CAH 9-243, 371, DGRBM 2-835, 3-1172, GHH, atl1, wikLcl
c.67 ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios, king of Cappadocia 85-78, expelled by Mith-VI and Tigranes-II. 67 atl1
c.67 mid Q. MARCIUS REX sent from Rome with 3 new legions to be proconsul of Cilicia until 66.  He refuses to help Lucullus, at instigation of bro-in-law, P. Clodius, whom Lucullus had offended. 67 CAH 9-244, DGRBM 3-646, csm, wikCon, wikPm
c.67 P. CLODIUS PULCHER leaves Lucullus' army in Nisibis, and joins bro-in-law Q. Marcius Rex. in Cilicia 67 atl1
c.67 Mutinied troops of L. Lucullus appeal to Q. Marcius Rex, proconsul of Cilicia, who refuses. 67 CAH 9-371
c.67 P.(1) Cornelius DOLABELLA, governor of Asia from 69, returns to Rome.  L. Manlius TORQUATUS succeeds until 66. 67 DGRBM 1-1058, wikLRGA
c.67 POMPEY, commander of Mediterranean, goes from Rhodes to Cilicia. 67 atl1
c.67 MITHRIDATES-VI recovers more of Pontus while Tigranes-II plunders Cappadocia.  Lucullus is lame from mutinies. 67 CAH 9-371, DGRBM 2-835, 3-1128
c.67 10 legates, including Marcus, bro of L.(4) Lucullus sent from Rome to Asia, to settle affairs of Pontus, and reduce it to a province, but they find country in chaos. 67 DGRBM 2-835, 238, atl1
c.67 L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS helps economy of Asia, curbs Roman magistrates and money lenders. 68 MCAW 249
c.67 Pirates of Side Pamphylia defeated by Pompey.  But slave trade continues. 67 lvA
67 Consul M'(4) ACILIUS GLABRIO sent from Rome to command Bithynia and Pontus, arrives with orders to take over L.(4) Lucullus' army. 67 CAH 9-244, 249, 371
67 The main body of pirates had deposited their families and property in the heights of Mount Taurus, and with their ships await Pompey with 60 ships off the promontory of Coracesion in Cilicia.  Pirates are defeated at sea, 800+ ships are taken.  Remaining pirates flee into Coracesion. 67 CAH 9-250, DGRBM 3-482, atl1
c.67 POMPEY, commander of Mediterranean, besieges pirate fortress Coracesion Cilicia, takes fortress, more than 20,000 prisoners, and amnesties all pirates who agree to quit that sort of thing.  Whole operation takes 3 months. 67 B76 14-793, CAH 9-374, DGRBM 3-482, SHWC, wikClc
c.67 CILICIA, under Armenia from 83, disputed by Rome until 66.
CILICIA TRACHAEA, under pirates from ?, taken by Pompey, but still claimed by Tigranes-II until 66.  Pompey recognizes local dynast Tarcondimotus-I Philantonius as ruler of Cilicia Tracheia until 31.
67 DGRG 1-621, IDB 3-941, OCD 239, wikClc
63 rcT
c.67 Cilician pirates are settled in towns where it would be difficult for them to resume their former habits and given land by Pompey.  Trustworthy ones are distributed among small and depopulated cities of Cilicia (Mallus, Adana), and many are settled at Soli (between Corycos & Tarsus), which had been lately stripped of inhabitants by Armenian king Tigranes, and which is henceforward called Pompeiopolis.  The worse class are removed to Dyme in Achaia, or to Calabria. 67 DGRBM 3-482, atl1, lvA
c.67 MITHRAISM is practiced by pirates of Cilicia and discovered by Pompey according to Plutarch. 67 tndar, wikMθr
c.67 TARSUS incorporated into Cilicia province and made capital. 67 B76 IX-831, IDB 4-518, wikClc
c.66 POMPEY receives news of  Lex Manilia de Imperio Gn. Pompeius  which gives Pompey command against Mith-VI, with imperium thruout Anatolia. 66 atl1, lvA, unrv, wikLRL
c.66 Q. MARCIUS REX proconsul of Cilicia from 67, surrenders his province and army to Pompey in compliance with Lex Manilla, returns to Rome. 66 DGRBM 3-646
c.66 ARMENIA MINOR, under Armenia from 87, taken by Pompey, comes under Rome until 48. 66 atl1, rcT
c.66 M'(4) ACILIUS GLABRIO, proconsul of Bithynia and Pontus, ineffectively fights Mith-VI until superceded by Pompey in compliance with Lex Manilla.  Glabrio then becomes proconsul of Cilicia. 66 DGRBM 2-272, OCD 467
c.66 Last of the Cilician pirates are wiped out by Pompey, thereby securing Rome's grain supply. 66 wikTAR
c.66 L. Manlius TORQUATUS, governor of Asia from 67, ends.  T. AUFIDIUS succeeds until 65.  He is one of the few good ones. 66 atl1, wikLRGA
c.66 spring In Galatia L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS is called to resign command to his old rival POMPEY, who succeeds over all Anatolia.  Lucullus returns to Rome.  Q.(8) Caecilius METELLUS CELER is legate of bro-in-law Pompey. 67 MCAW 248
66 B76 VI-835, DGRBM 2-835, 1061, GHH, KHA 62, OCD 678, atl1, bk, wikLcl
c.66 POMPEY, commander of the east, re-enrols the Valerian legion of Lucullus, despite its past mutiny. 66 atl1
c.66 After Lucullus leaves, CAPPADOCIA is taken by Mith-VI of Pontus before arrival of Pompey. 66 DGRBM 1-286, DGRG 1-507
c.66 TRAPEZOS (Trebizond), under Armenia from 87., comes under Rome until 48.. 66 rcT
c.66 POMPEY, commander of the east, now in Cilicia, makes military agreement with Phraates-III of Parthia, crosses Taurus Mts., occupies Cappadocia. 66 B76 8-385, CAH 9, atl1, lvA
c.66 CILICIA, disputed by Tigranes-II from 67, added to Roman Empire until 260CE, under Tarcondimotus-I Philantonius until 31, but becomes a province in 62. 67 anan
66 lvA     63 rcT
c.66 MITHRIDATES-VI, king of Pontus from 115, in name only from 70, conquered by Pompey at Nicopolis, flees to Colchis until 65. 66 B76 8-385, CAH 9, CHJ 2, DGRG 1-778, ISBE 2-624, LEWH 108, SHWC, wikM6Pn     65 MCAW 248
c.66 ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromaios, former king of Cappadocia 85-78, restored by Pompey until 62. no date: OCD 108
c.66 DRYPETINA, dau of Mith-VI, murdered by Menophilus to prevent her from being captured by Romans. 66 atl1
c.66 MITHRIDATES-II Eupator Dionysus, Pontic king of Paphlagonia from 68, ends.
PAPHLAGONIA, under Pontus from 68, comes under Rome until 395.
66 wikLPΦ 65 rcT
c.66 Q.(8) Caecilius METELLUS CELER legate of bro-in-law Pompey, repels an attack on his winter-quarters by Oroeses, king of the Albanians. 66 DGRBM 2-1061
c.66/5 OROISES, chief of the Albanians crosses the Cyrus river to attack Roman encampments in 3 separate actions.  Pompey and his legates defeat them and impose a truce on the Albanians without entering their country. 66/5 CAH 9-256
c.66/5 POMPEY, commander of the east, winters in Cilicia. 66/5 KHA 82
c.65 PAPHLAGONIA, including capital Sinope, under Rome 66-395, attached to Bithynia (also under Rome).  Sons of Bithynian Pylaemenes-III, PYLAEMENES-IV is co-ruler until 51 with bro ATTALUS-I, who rules until 48.  Bithynian dynasty ends in 6BCE. 65 B76 VII-734, wikLPΦ
c.65 T. AUFIDIUS, governor of Asia from 66, ends.  P. VARINIUS succeeds as propraetor until 64. 65 wikLRGA
c.65 MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, asks Tigranes-II of Armenia for refuge.  Tig-2 refuses to admit him entry, because Tig-2 suspects M-VI of fomenting intrigues of his son against him. 65 DGRBM 3-483
c.65 At Sinora MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, learns that Tig-2 had turned against him.  He disbands most of his followers and goes with an essential quantity of coined money thru north Armenia to the coast of north Colchis. 65 CAH 9-252
c.65 MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, subdues various tribes on his route around Black Sea, including Heniochi, Achaei, Scythians and Maeotians. 65 atl1
c.65 On coast of north Colchis, MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66 spends winter in the stronghold of Dioscurias. 65/4 CAH 9-253
c.65 MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, chased by Pompey, flees thru Colchis to Bosporus in Crimea until death 63. 66 atl1     65 CAH 9-252, 254, DGRBM 3-483, LEWH 108, MCAW 248, TTPC, lvA
65 spring POMPEY, commander of east, moved west into Iberian territory.  While negotiating with Iberian king Artoces, Pompey finds that he is preparing for war - and attacks first.  Vigorous fighting ends with Roman victory in the highlands of central Iberia, when Artoces fails to hold the crossing of the PelorusPompey makes a formal peace, guaranteed by the surrender of the king's sons as hostages, and marched down the Phasis valley into the coastal zone of Colchis, where there is no serious resistance. 66/5 CAH 9-256
c.65 POMPEY, commander of east, marches into Colchis, where he is attacked in the rear by Iberians and Caucasian Albanians. 66/5 cnfl
c.65 A savage tribe called Heptacometae slaughter a detachment from Pompey's army, enroute from Colchis to Pontus. 65 atl1
c.65 NICOPOLIS in Armenia Minor founded by Pompey on the site of his victory over Mith-VI in 66. 66 atl1
65 DGRBM 3-483
c.65 AMASIA Pontus made a free city by Pompey. 65 B76 I-291
CONFUSION ALERT!  AMISUS is on the coast of Pontus.  AMASIA is inland on the Iris.
c.65 At the port of Phasis Colchis POMPEY, meets his naval legate Servilius, who had reached there with a detachment of the fleet. 65 CAH 9-256
c.65 POMPEY, commander of the east, decides not to pursue Mith-VI, but rather attack the king of Armenia, who is now more formidable. 65 DGRBM 3-483
65/4 POMPEY, commander of east, winters at Aspis (location unknown) in Armenia Minor. 65/4 CAH 9-258, 381     64 atl1
winters in Amasia Pontus DGRBM 3-483
c.64 spring POMPEY, commander of east, goes to Amisus on coast of Pontus.  Metellus Nepos is still his legate. 64 CAH 9-381, wikBθP
c.64 The ruin of Mith-VI seems so certain that his 4th wife Stratonice, surrenders the fortresses of Sinoria, to Manlius Priscus, legate of Pompey together with valuable treasures and private documents.  Pompey now reduces Pontus to a Roman province, without waiting for any commissioners from the senate. 65/4 DGRBM 3-483 64 atl1
c.64 CILICIA PEDIAS, east part of original Cilicia, under Pompey from 67, incorporated into Cilicia Province. 64 Jud 5-562, OCD 239, wikClc
c.64 TARSUS, a free city in Cilicia from ?, a major learning center, is reinstated as a free city - under Rome (whatever that means). 64 BAX 208, BNTH 234
c.64 POMPEY at Amisus, hears claims of client kings, makes provisional settlement of Asia, refuses offer of Mith-VI to be a vassal. 64 CAH 9-381
c.64 POMPEY at Amisus, restores Gordyene to Tigranes-II, sends Afranius and A.(5) Gabinius on to Syria to restore Tig-II. 64 CAH 9-381
c.64 PONTUS organized as a senatorial province by Pompey. 67 GHH     64 IDB 3-941, atl1, wikPnr     63 wikKPn
c.64 POMPEY at Amisus, grants territories to neighboring kings: Deiotarus in Armenia Minor, Ariobarzanes in Cappadocia, Aristarchus in Colchis, Attalus in Paphlagonia, restores Gordyene to Tigranes-II. 64 CAH 9-381, atl1
c.64 P. VARINIUS, propraetor of Asia from 65, ends.  P. ORBIUS succeeds as until 63. 64 wikLRGA
c.64 DEIOTAURUS, tetrarch of west Galatia from 85, is promoted by Pompey to king until 40, and given part of east Pontus, and Armenia Minor, all for his loyalty to Rome. 64 B76 III-438, GHH, wikBθP
63 DGRBM 1-954
The east half of Pontus is now called LESSER ARMENIA or ARMENIA MINOR, and given to Deiotarus for his loyalty to Rome. 64 GHH, wikBθP
c.64 LYCIA, autonomous under Roman supervision from 133, becomes a Roman province. 64 hifi
c.64 Places under Mith-VI rebel, including Phanagoria Bosporus, Chersonese, Theudosia, Nymphaeum. 64 atl1
c.64 OXYARTES, son of Mith-VI, taken prisoner in the insurrection of the citizens of Phanagoria Bosporus.  He is afterwards delivered to Pompey. 64 DGRBM 3-75
c.64 CILICIA, under Rome from 65, comes under client king Tarcondimotus-I Philantonius until 31. 64 rcT
c.64 Earthquake in part of Pontus still controled by Mith-VI.  Of course it's an omen. 64 atl1
64 late POMPEY, commander of east, leaves final mop up of Mith-VI to his naval blockade, follows Afranius and Gabinius from Pontus thru Cappadocia and Cilicia into northern Syria.  Spends rest of 64 restoring order in Syria. 64 B76 8-385, CAH 9-259, 381, DGRBM 3-484

Anatolia 63-0
V