c.100 SAVLAKH becomes king of Colchis until 70. 100 rcCau
c.97 ARTAVASDES (Tigranes)-I deposed.  Artaxiad king of Greater Armenia from 123, deposed by Mithridates-II of Parthia, who takes his son Tigranes hostage until 95. 97 eiArs, wikPE 95 lvArm 95 lvArt, wikArtD
c.97 ARTAXERXES ends.  Arsacid king of Media from 111ARTABANUS succeeds until 88. 97 wikPsk
c.96 2nd son of Demetrius-II & Cleo Thea, ANTIOCHUS-VIII Gryphus dies.  Co-king of Syria from 115 at Antioch, murdered by favorite Heracleon of Beroea, who aspires to the crown.  Widow Cleo-V Selene flees and marries Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, who is overcome by son of A-8, SELEUCUS-VI Epiphanes Nicator, who succeeds until 95.  SYRIAN CIVIL WAR renewed between the brothers.  Cousin ½bro ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus fights SELEUCUS-VI until 95. Ant 13:13:4     96 BHS 2-259, CHJ 2, DGRBM 3-775, GHH, IDB 1-152, ISBE 1-918, LEWH 95, RAI3, TTPC, anan, atl1, frH, hifiSl, lvA8G, lvA9C, lvA9E, lvAX, lvD3 lvP1, lvS6     95 RAI2
c.96 HERACLEON detaches north-east Syria, including his native Beroea (Aleppo), Bambyce-Hieropolis and Heraclea, as a separate principality. 96 BHS 2-259
c.96 Son of Antiochus-VIII Grypus, DEMETRIUS-III, now on Cyprus, disputes throne of Syria with Antiochus-IX, sails to Phoenicia, siezes Damascus. Ant 13:13:4
96 B76 III-457 95 LEWH 95
c.96 EROTIMUS, king of Nabatean Arabs attacks Syrian territory. 96 atl1
c.95 Citadel of APAMEA on the Orontes fortified by Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus. 95 atl1
c.95 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus removes the gold from a statue of Zeus. 95 atl1
c.95 SELEUCUS-VI defeats uncle Antiochus-IX in battle, but again, the empire is not reunited.  Son of Antiochus-IX, ANTIOCHUS-X Eusebes Philopator, becomes leader of the south branch and continues civil war. Ant 13:13:4
95 BHS 2-259, CHJ 2, GHH, lvS6
c.95 Son of A-7 & Cleo Thea, ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus dies.  Co-king of Syria from 96 with ½bro Antiochus-VIII Grypus, defeated by neph SELEUCUS-VI, son of A-8.  Cyzicenus is killed or suicides.  His son Antiochus proclaims himself king in Aradus, as ANTIOCHUS-X Eusebes Philopator.  Widow Cleo-V Selene marries stepson ANTIOCHUS-X, who succeeds until 93.  SELEUCUS-VI becomes master of Antioch. Ant 13:13:4
95 BHS 2-259, DGRBM 1-200, 3-775, GHH, IDB 1-152, Jud 3-75, LEWH 95, anan, atl1, frH, hifiSl, lvA9C, lvAX, lvD3
c.95 DEMETRIUS, another son of A-7 & Cleo Thea establishes himself as DEMETRIUS-III Theos Philopator Soter in central Syria.  He is now called Demetrius EUCAERUS. Ant 13:13:4
95 BHS 2-260
c.95 Running out of silver, Seleucus-VI mints emergency coinage of poor quality . 95 atl1
c.95 1st son of A-8, SELEUCUS-VI Epiphanes Nicanor ends.  King of Syria 95, defeated by cousin Antiochus-X Eusebes.  S-VI flees to Mopsuestia Cilicia and dies there 94Widow Cleo-V Selene marries her bro-in-law Antiochus-X Eusebes so as to end the conflict, but her son continues his family branch, which controls the northern part of the kingdom.  Bros Antiochus-XI Epiphanes and Philip-I Philadelphus continue in south. 95 BHS 2-259, DGRBM 3-775, anan, atl1, hifiSl, lvA9E, lvAX, wikP1
94 GHH, lvD3, lvS6, lvA9E
c.95 Conquests of Artavasdes, king of Armenia, in the west. 95 atl1
c.95 MITHRIDATES-II of Parthia attacks Artavasdes-I, king of Armenia. 95 atl1
c.95 ARTAVASDES (Tigranes)-I dies.  Former king of Greater Armenia 123-97.  Son TIGRANES-II, Parthian hostage from 97, released, negotiates with Mith-VI of Pontus, succeeds until 55, independently until 66.  He is accepted by Parthians in exchange for "70 valleys" until 88. post-100 OCD 1073     96 CAH 9-238 96/5 CAH 9-142     95 CAH 9, OCD 119, TTPC, anan, atl1, bdrs, hifi, hystn, lvA, lvArm, lvArt, lvT2, rcCau, wikArtD, wikLAK, wikPE, wikTAH, wikTg2     95/4 B76 IX-1006
94 B76 18-1041, hystn
Armenia 95 BCE copied from GNU FDL
c.95 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, asserts his independence of all patronage, establishes an unshackled government, and extends his borders by conquest.  Hence Armenian kingdom is founded by Tigranes-II. 96 GHH, lvT2
c.95 ARMENIA peaks from now until 66.  Greater Armenia extends over parts of the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia, northwest Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Phoenicia, forming the second Armenian empire. 95 wikHA
c.94 SOPHENE, split off from Armenia from 190, conquered by TIGRANES-II, king of Greater Armenia, which reunites Armenia.  Sophene is part of Armenia until 66. 94 LEWH 52, wheAD   93 lvT2 90 hifi
no date: B76 IX-1106
c.94 ARMENIA, divided from 190, reunited until 390CE, independent until 66, under TIGRANES-II until 56, under Artaxiad kings until 34. 94 B76 18-1041, LEWH 52
no date: B76 IX-1106
c.94 Antiochus-X Eusebes assumes sovereignty until 93 in opposition to Seleucus-VI. 94 GHH
c.94 BAKRU-II ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 112.  ABGAR-I Piqa succeeds until 68. 94 OCD 760, frH, rcT, wikOs
c.94 1st son of A-8, SELEUCUS-VI Epiphanes Nicanor dies.  King of Syria 95 burns to death in his palace at Mopsuestia CiliciaBros Antiochus-XI Epiphanes, Antiochus-X Eusebes, and twins Demetrius-III Eucaerus and Philip-I Philadelphus succeed. 94 DGRBM 3-775, atl1, lvAX, lvS6
c.94 Bros of Seleucus-VI, Antiochus-XI Epiphanes and Philip-I Philadelphus at Mopsuestia Cilicia, cross the Amanus Mountains to attack Antiochus-X Eusebes in Antioch. 94 BHS 2-260
c.94 Sons of A-8 Grypus, ANTIOCHUS-XI Epiphanes and Philip-I Philadelphus are defeated by Antiochus-X Eusebes. 94 BHS 2-260, atl1
c.94 ANTOCHUS-X Eusebes becomes leader of northern Seleucids until 92.. 94 GHH, lvD3
c.94 AZIZ, priest-king of Emesa from ?, dies.  Son SAMPSICERAMUS-I does not succeed until 69. 94 wikRFE
c.93 ANTIOCH taken by Antiochus-XI Epiphanes Philadelphus, until 92. 93 lvA9E, lvAX
c.93 2nd son of A-8 Grypus, ANTIOCHUS-XI Epiphanes contends unsuccessfully with his cousin Antiochus-X Eusebes. 93 GHH
c.93 2nd son of A-8 Grypus, ANTIOCHUS-XI, Epiphanes Philadelphus dies.  Leader of northern Seleucids at Antioch from 94, defeated by A-X, rides his horse into the Orontes and drowns.  ANTIOCHUS-X Eusebes takes over in Antioch and the north until 89, but does not control the south, where Demetrius-III and Philip-I continue. 94 atl1
93 anan, lvAX, lvD3
93/2 lvA9E
c.93 Philip-I Philadelphus, another son of A-8 Grypus, at Beroea, wars with his cousin Antiochus-X Eusebes.  Parthians support Eusebes. 92 GHH
c.93 SYRIAN CIVIL WAR renewed until 88 between PHILP-I Philadelphus, son of A-8, at Antioch until 84 and DEMETRIUS-III Eucaerus at Damascus until 88. 93 LEWH 95
no date: OCD 310
c.93 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, is unable to maintain himself against Pacorus of Parthia. 93 GHH
c.93 TIGRANES-II marries CLEOPATRA, dau of Mith-VI of Pontus, and makes alliance with him. 95 lvT2     93 CAH 9, TTPC
no date: B76 IX-1006, OCD 1073
c.93/2 Parthians fight in Syria against tribal leader Laodice and her Seleucid ally Antiochus-X Eusebes, who is killed. 93/2 wikPE
c.92 Son of A-9, ANTIOCHUS-X Eusebes dies.  King of Syria from 95, killed fighting Parthian general Mithridates Sinaces and ally Aziz the Arab in CommageneBro DEMETRIUS-III Euchaerus and son of A-8, PHILIP-I Philadelphus are co-kings until 88. 95 B76 III-457, atl1,     93 LEWH 95, hifiSl     92 B76 III-457, anan     89 lvAX, lvD3     88 atl1, 83 IDB 1-152, frH
c.92 L. Cornelius SULLA goes from Cilicia to Syria. 92 implied
c.92 Euphrates Meeting to determine policies and boundaries of Asia ProvinceSulla, praetor of Cilicia takes a higher seat than Orobaze, ambassador of Mith-II of Parthia.  Mith-II wants alliance with Rome, but refuses to help against Mith-VI of Pontus. 96 caisAD, eiArs 94 atl1     92 B76 9-843, CAH 9-603, DGRBM 3-935, GHH, LEWH 96
c.92 First Rome / Parthia treaty; ambassadors from Pacorus received by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia. 92 GHH, hifiP
c.92 Philip-I Philadelphus is defeated and expelled from his kgdm. 92 GHH
c.92 Pacorus executes one of his ambassadors for having sat on Sulla's left. 92 GHH
91 ADIABENE comes under Armenia until 66. 91 lvT2
c.90 PARNAJOM ends.  King of Colchis/Iberia from 109.  ARSHAK (Artaxias)-I succeeds as king of Iberia until 78. 93 rcCau
90 MRDK 343, hifiGeo, wikArtI 89 atl1
c.90 DEMETRIUS-III Euchaerus, 4th son of Grypus, asserts his claim to Syria. 90 GHH
c.90 GORDYENE, independent from 189, conquered by Armenia, and under it until 66. 90 rcT, wikGrd 88 wikTAH
c.89 PHILIP-I Philadelphus invites Parthians to help him against his bro Antiochus-XI. 89 lvP1P
c.88 ATROPATENE conquered by Armenia, and under it until 66. 88 wikTAH
c.88 GOTARZES-I, Parthian king of Babylonia 90-87, intervenes in Syrian Civil War. 89 lvD3
87 CAH 9-586
c.88 After Mith-II of Parthia dies, the "70 valleys" that Tigranes-II gave him in 95 are now taken back by Tigranes. 91 lvT2
c.88 OSROENE, independent from 132, conquered by Armenia, and under it until 64.  ABGAR-I Piqa remains king 94-68. 88 wikTAH
c.88 ARTABANUS ends.  Arsacid king of Media from 97.  (Arsaces-XIV) MITHRIDATES succeeds until 67. 88 wikPsk 87 wikLPK
c.88 Philip-I Epiphanes is allied with Strato tyrant of Beroea (Aleppo).  While Philip is in Beroea, Demetrius-III Eucaerus besieges it.  Strato appeals to neighboring Arab chief Aziz, and to Mithridates Parthian governor of Mesopotamia.  They answer his call, and D-III is besieged in his turn.  D-III is cut off from his water-supply and forced to surrender. 88 BHS 2-261
c.88 Son of A-8 Grypus, DEMETRIUS-III EUCAERUS ends.  Seleucid king at Damascus from 95 or 93, captured by Gotarzes-I, Parthian satrap of MesopotamiaSYRIAN CIVIL WAR from 93, ends.  PHILP-I, sole rule at Antioch until 84, but does not control DamascusD-III dies of illness in captivity. Ant 13:14:3, Wars 1:93:95 90 GHH     88 B76 III-457, DGRBM 3-288, ISBE 1-918, Jud 5-1490, LEWH 95, atl1, frH, hifiSl     88/7 lvD3, lvP1P 87 CAH 9-586, anan
c.87 SAMAL, kingdom in west Syria, under Commagene from 163, comes under Armenia until 73. 87 rcT
c.87 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, reconquers land on Median border. 87 Jud 4-37
c.87 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, returns from Babylonia, invades Coele-Syria. 87 Jud 4-37
c.86 Philip-I's bro, ANTIOCHUS-XII Dionysus, is in Coele-Syria. 86 GHH
c.85 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, starts calling himself king of kings. 85 wheAD
c.84 For 2 years ANTIOCHUS-XII Dionysus maintains his throne against his bro Philip-I Philadelphus, and against predatory Arabs. 86 GHH
84 atl1, hifiSl
c.84 Son of A-8, ANTIOCHUS-XII Dionysus dies.  Seleucid held up in Damascus from 88, killed fighting Aretas-III king of Nabateans Ant 13:15:1     85 BHS 2-264 84 LEWH 95, atl1, hifiSl     83/2 lvA12, lvP1P
c.84 People of Antioch, disgusted with Seleucids, invite Tigranes-II, king of Armenia to rule them. 84 GHH     83 B76 IX-1006, KHA 75
c.84 Son of A-8, PHILP-I Philadelphus, at Antioch from 93, expelled by insurrection until 83. 83 DGRBM 3-288, frH
no date: LEWH 95
c.84 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, defeats Parthians and conquers part of Mesopotamia. 84 atl1
c.84 ANTIOCHUS-XIII Asiaticus, son of A-X visits to Rome. 84 GHH, anan
c.83 Syrians, tired of anarchy, invite Tigranes-II of Armenia to rule Syria. 83 B76 18-1041, KHA 75, MCAW 242, wikTg2
c.83 TIGRANOCERTA, a new capital for Armenia, founded by Tigranes-II (Hellenistic architecture).  Many inhabitants are forcibly transported from Cappadocia. 83 GHH, atl1, wheAD
c.83 SYRIA, under Seleucids from 301, taken by TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia.  Syria and Cilicia come under Armenia until 69.  Tigranes transports many inhabitants to his new capital, Tigranocerta. 83 BHS 2-263, CAH 9-357, CHJ 2, IDB 1-152, MCAW 242, OCD 1073, atl1, bk, hifiS, lvT2, rcS, wikPm, wikTAH     no date: LEWH 95
83 Son of A-8 & Tryphaena, PHILIP-I Philadelphus, out from 84, is made king of Syria until later 83 by Tigranes-II. 83 DGRBM 3-288
c.83 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-66, after several successive victories, becomes master of Syria, with its dependent province, CiliciaGeneral MAGADATES is made governor until 69. 83 CAH 10-717, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-200, 2-898, 3-1127, GHH
83 COMMAGENE, independent from 163, under Mithridates-I Callinicus 109-70, comes under Armenia until 80.  Tigranes settles Arabs there. 83 rcT
c.83 ANTIOCH, under Seleucids from 244, except for usurper in 145, comes under Tigranes-II until 73. 83 rcT
c.83 Son of Antiochus-VIII & Tryphaena, PHILIP-I Philadelphus ends.  King of Syria 83, dies 75.  ANTIOCHUS-XIII Asiaticus, succeeds and goes to Rome to ask for help. 83 anan
83 or 75 wikP1P
no date: lvP1P
c.80 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, unsuccessfully attacks the Achaei, a tribe near Colchis. 80 atl1
c.80 COLCHIS, under king Savlakh 100-70, comes under Pontus until 47. 80 rcCau
c.80 BEROEA (formerly Halap), under Seleucids from 301, comes under Armenia until 50. 80 rcS
c.80 COMMAGENE, under Mithridates-I Callinicus 109-70, under Armenia from 83, semi-independent vassal state until 73. 80 anan
c.80 P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES, prisoner in Pontus 88 and off radar since then, turns up in Syria, from where he goes to Egypt. 80 B76 VIII-282
c.80 CARRHAE (Haran), under Seleucids from 301, comes under Armenia until 66. 89 hifiSl     80 rcT
c.78 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, incited by dad-in-law Mith-VI, invades Cappadocia with an overwhelming force. 78 B76 IX-1006, CAH 9-356, OCD 108, 110
77 atl1     74 bk
c.78 ARSHAK (Artaxias)-I ends.  King of Iberia from 90.  ARTOG (Artoces) succeeds until 66. 81 rcCau     78 MRDK 343, hifiGeo, wikArtI     77 atl1
c.77 IBERIA, north of Armenia, allies with Pontus against Romans until 66. 77 hifiGeo
c.77 War between Arsaces, of Parthia, and Tigranes, of Armenia. 77 GHH
c.77 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56 concludes a dishonorable peace with Arsaces, and cedes much territory to Parthia. 77 GHH
c.75 ANTIOCHUS-XIII Asiaticus goes to Rome to bid for throne of Egypt as well as Syria.  They fail to get desired results and return via Sicily. 75 atl1
ANTIOCHUS-X Eusebes BHS 2-264
c.75 Son of Antiochus-VIII & Cleo Selene, PHILIP-I Philadelphus dies.  Former king of Syria 83. 75 lvP1P, lvT2
73 COMMAGENE, under Mithridates-I Callinicus 109-70, semi-independent Armenian vassal from 80, comes under Roman sponsorship until 38. 73 rcT
c.73 SAMAL, kingdom in north Syria, under Armenia from 87, comes back under Commagene until 17CE. 73 rcT
c.73 ANTIOCH, under Armenia from 83, comes back under Seleucids until 64. 73 rcT
c.71 MITHRIDATES-VI of Pontus, driven from Anatolia, takes refuge with Tigranes-II of Armenia, who assigns him an honor guard, and treat him with the distinctions of royalty, but refuses to see him, or give any indication of siding with him, and keeps him almost a prisoner in a castle. 72 B76 12-288, CAH 9-238, DGRBM 2-1112, 3-1127, GHH     71 CAH 9-365, DGRBM 2-833, 3-1127, GHH, atl1, lvT2
c.71 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is sent by bro-in-law Lucullus governor of Asia, as envoy to Armenian King Tigranes-II to demand surrender of Mith-VI of Pontus. 71 wikLcl
c.70 SAVLAKH ends.  King of Colchis from 100, under Pontus from 80PHARNACUS succeeds until 63. 70 rcCau
Armenia 70 BCE copied from GNU FDL
c.70 MITH-VI of Pontus, exiled in Armenia, hears that orator Metrodorus of Scepsis (in Mysia) and sophist Amphicrates of Athens had been unjust, and has them executed. 70 atl1
c.70 Son of Samos-II, MITHRIDATES-I Callinicus dies.  King of Commagene from 109.  Son ANTIOCHUS-I Theos succeeds until 38. 86 rcT     70 CAH 9-1023, CDCC 225, OCD 273, anan, wikA1TC, wikKC, wikRCmg     69 B76 III-36, frH
c.70 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, envoy of Lucullus secretly wins over Zarbienus and other disaffected subjects of Tigranes-II. 70 atl1
c.70 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, envoy of Lucullus fails to meet Tigranes-II in Armenia because T-II is now in SyriaClaudius intrigues with Armenian subjects.  He is deliberately delayed by his guides, but leaves them behind and makes his own way to Antioch. 70 CAH 9-239, atl1
c.70 Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER, envoy of Lucullus, meets Tigranes-II, and bluntly warns him of war if Mith-VI of Pontus is not handed over.  T-II refuses. 70 CAH 9-239, GHH, atl1
c.70 Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER, envoy of Lucullus, in Syria & Armenia from 71, returns to Pontus. 70 atl1

Syria - Armenia 69-41