Greece
c.100 T. DIDIUS, praetor in Macedonia, successful guarding north and east frontier.  Defeats the Scordisci and forces them to retreat.  Returns to Rome. 102-1 CAH 9-32 100 CAH 9, atl1
no date: OCD 340
c.100 THRACE, under Romans from 146, kingdom restored as vassal of Rome until 73. 100 wikOK
c.100 Son of Beithys, COTYS-V becomes king of Asteans of Thrace until 87. 100 frH, wikOK
c.100 PHYLO of Byzantium describes an instrument used to demonstrate expansion of air.  May have been used as a thermometor. 100 B76 8-701
c.100 MEDEIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 101, ends.  THEODOSIOS succeeds until 99. 100 wikEA
c.100 Writings of ARISTOTLE and THEOPHRASTOS, edited by philosopher Apellicon of Teos, taken from Ionia to Athens, under Athenians until 84, in Greece until 83. 100 OCD 115 no date: B76 1-1165
c.100 Tower of the WindsTOWER of the WINDS built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus in Athens.  Contains 8 sundials. picture: Joanbanjo

100 B76 4-743, 1040
50 wikTW
c.100 APOLLODOROS ends.  Head of Epicurean Kepos (Garden) in Athens from ?.  Said to have written over 400 books; none survived.  ZENO of Sidon succeeds until 75. 100 wikAE
c.100 Greek SCULPTURE:  Accurate copies of earlier works begin. 100 B76 19-299
c.99 THEODOSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 100, ends.  PROCLES succeeds until 98. 99 wikEA
c.99 Praetor L. Sextius CALNINUS sent from Rome to Macedonia. 99 DGRBM 1-586
c.98 PROCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 99, ends.  ARGEIUS succeeds until 96. 98 wikEA
c.96 ARGEIUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 98, ends.  HERACLEITUS succeeds until 95. 96 wikEA
c.95 HERACLEITUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 96, ends.  DIOCLES succeeds until 94. 95 wikEA
c.95 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher in Athens from ?, moves to Rhodes until 87. 95 wikPs
c.94 DIOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 95, ends.  ISOCRATES succeeds until 93. 94 wikEA
c.94 L.(4) Julius CAESAR sent from Rome to be proconsul of Macedonia until ?. 94 OCD 190
c.93 Nicomedes-V SOCRATES fails to gain Roman support for his claim to throne of Bithynia, goes to stay with Roman equite Cornelius on Euboea. 93 atl1
c.93 ISOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 94, ends.  CALLIAS succeeds until 92. 93 wikEA
c.92 C. GEMINUS praetor of Macedonia, defeated by Maedian Thracians, who then ravage Macedonia. 92 DGRBM 2-238
c.92 C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS propraetor in Macedonia, is defeated by Maedian Thracians, who then ravage Macedonia. 92 DGRG 2-1189, atl1
c.92 M. Livius DRUSUS cures himself of epilepsy by drinking hellebore at Anticyra on the coast of Phocis. 92 atl1
c.92 CALLIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 93, ends.  MENEDEMOS succeeds until 91. 92 wikEA
c.91 MENEDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 92, ends.  MEDEIUS succeeds until 88. 91 wikEA
c.90 AMODOKOS-IV becomes king of Odrysians of Thrace under Rome until 80. 90 frH
c.90 The Scordisci and Maedi supported by the Thracian Denteletes and the Dardanii, swarm thru Dalmatia, Macedonia, and Thessaly, reaching as far as Epirus, depriving Rome of control over many areas of the Balkans and north Greece. 90 hifiSc
c.90 T. Albucius, in exile, at Athens, studies philosophy. 90 atl1
c.89 Thracians, led by king Sothinus, invade Macedonia, but are forced back by C. Sentius Saturninus.  (again 86) 89 atl1
c.88 MEDEIUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 91, ends.  Anarchy until 87. 88 wikEA
88 C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS is still governor of Macedonia, when Sulla is in GreeceQ. Bruttius Sura is his legate. 88 DGRBM 3-725, 947
88 C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS.governor of Macedonia, plunders his province. 88 atl1
88 At Byzantium a fleet is posted under Minucius Felix and Popillius Laenas to hold the key to the Black SeaPontic fleet has 300 decked ships plus 100 with 2 banks of oars. 88 CAH 9-145
c.88 Q. Brutius SURA, legate of C. Sentius Saturninus goes from Sciathus island to Boeotia. 88 DGRBM 3-947
c.88 P. GABINIUS CAPITO sent from Rome to be propraetor in Achaea until ?.  He is known for extortion. no date: DGRBM 2-195
88 Fleet under Minucius Felix and Popillius Laenas at Byzantium learns of Pontic victories, disperses, giving 400 Pontic ships free passage into the Propontis and Aegean. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 Athenians join anti-Roman rebellion of Mith-VI of Pontus. 88 CAH 9
c.88 Athenion seizes power in Athens, with support of Archelaus; he is later replaced by Aristion. 88 atl1
c.88 Athenians solicit aid from Mith-VI of Pontus against Sulla. 88 GHH, lvA
c.88 PHILO of Larissa, head of New Platonic Academy 109-79, and pupil Antiochus of Ascalon, go to Rome. 88 CAH 9-150, OCD 73, 822, atl1
c.88 Athenian philosopher statesman ARISTION visits Mith-VI in Anatolia to get help against Romans.  He returns with news of success, has himself elected strategos in charge of arms.  He appoints colleagues and archons.  Opposing aristocrats are killed and their property confiscated. 88 CAH 9-150
c.88 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, sends part of his fleet to Piraeus, but a contingent under Metrophanes split from it after Delos, destined for ports of central Greece. 88 CAH 9-151
c.88 Apellicon of Teos collects a large library, including books of Aristotle. 88 atl1
c.88 T. POMPONIUS, to escape the civil war, moves with his wealth from Rome to Athens until 65, becomes a banker and adopts the name ATTICUS. 88 B76 I-636 85 atl1
c.88 Achaea, Laconia, Boeotia, and other Greek states side with Mith-VI of Pontus against Rome. 88 atl1
c.88 fall Quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS is sent by Sulla to Greece to take over command of the Mithridatic War. 88 wikLcl
c.88 ELEA, town and region in northwest Peloponnese, comes under Rome until 395. 88 rcPl
c.88 Q. Bruttius SURA, legate of the governor of Macedonia, delays the Pontic advance during fall and winter, buying time for the arrival of Sulla. 88 DGRBM 3-947, OCD 1021, lvA
c.88/7 Thracians, Scordisci and their allies invade Epirus and plunder temple of Zeus at Dodona. 88 hifiSc 87 atl1
c.88/7 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, crosses into Thrace. 88/7 MCAW 240
c.88/7 Q. Bruttius SURA, fights Archelaus, partisan of Mith-VI of Pontus for 3 days near Chaeronea.  Either Sura wins, or it's a draw. 88/7 CAH 9-151, DGRBM 3-947, OCD 1021, lvA
c.88/7 Q. Bruttius SURA, legate of C. Sentius governor of Macedonia, raids Sciathus island and perhaps on Piraeus, crucifies recaptured slaves, cut off the hands of the free-born.  He captures 2 Pontic ships and executes their crews.  Receiving another 1,000 inf and cav, he fights joint forces of Aristion and Archelaus for 3 days near Chaeronea Boeotia with success until Spartans and Achaeans arrive to aid them. 87 CAH 9-151, atl1
c.88/7 ARISTION, Athenian philosopher turned tyrant, persuades Athens to openly side with Mith-VI of Pontus against Rome. 88 TToH 88/7 MCAW 240, lvA
87 First Mithridatic War 88-85/4:  SULLA with 5 legions sails from Capua, lands at Dyrrhachium.  C. Antonius Hybrida accompanies. 87 B76 15-1103, CAH 9-151, DGRBM 3-936, LEWH 106, atl1, lvA, wikGAH, wikSl, wikTAR
c.87 When Sulla arrives in Thessaly, L.(4) Licinius Lucullus orders Bruttius Sura, legate of C. Sentius to return to Macedonia, leaving Sulla to fight against Archelaus' army. 87 CAH 9-151, DGRBM 3-948, atl1
87 SULLA with 5 legions, forces Boeotians to surrender and abandon support for Mith-VI, marches thru Boeotia, gathering supplies and reinforcements as he approaches Attica. 87 CAH 9-153, atl1, wikSl
c.87 fall Aristion and supporters retreat to Athens until March 86. 88 CAH 9-153
c.87 L. Cornelius SULLA pushes Pontic general Archelaus back to Athens and besieges Aristion in Athens until 86.  Archelaus holds up in the Piraeus. 88 bk     87 B76 8-385, CAH 9-153, CDCC 105, DGRBM 1-297, MCAW 240, atl1, lvA
c.87 Son of Beithys, COTYS-V ends.  King of Odrysian-Asteans of Thrace from 120, restored from 100.  Son SADALAS-I succeeds until 80. 87 frH, wikOK
c.87 L.(4) Licinius Lucullus protects Chaeronea Boeotia from reprisals, after murder of Roman garrison commander by Damon. 87 atl1
c.87 SALAMIS Island in Saronic Gulf, under Athens from 230, comes under Rome until 395CE. 87 rcAg
c.87? ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, son of Mith-VI of Pontus, leads army to Macedonia, in Europe until 86. 87? guess
c.87 ARCADIA independent from 146, comes under Rome until 395CE. 87 rcPl
c.87 ARCATHIAS, son of Mith-VI, sent from Anatolia to Thrace in preparation to invade Greece. 87 CAH 9-153 '  
c.87 Following anarchy from 88, PHILANTHES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 86.  Rome annexes Athens. 87 wikEA
c.87 L. TITIUS reports a message from Jupiter, promising Sulla victory in war against Mith-VI. 87 atl1
c.87 A Pontic army is defeated, with loss of 1,500 men, by a northern detachment of Sulla's forces near Chalcis. 87 CAH 9-153
c.87 L. Cornelius SULLA, besieging Athens, retires to Eleusis Attica for winter. 87 CAH 9-153, atl1
c.87/6 winter Quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS sent by Sulla with 6 ships to get help from Roman allies.  This effort continues into 85.  He starts with Crete. 87 CAH 9-153, DGRBM 3-596 87/6 DGRBM 2-832     86 atl1
c.87/6 ODEUM, a theater for musical performances southeast of the Acropolis from 444, destroyed, either by Sulla, or by his opponent Aristion lest Sulla use its timbers to storm the Acropolis.  Soon rebuilt. 87/6 wikOA
c.87/6 The small Roman army in Macedonia is overcome by Arcathias. 87/6 CAH 9-153
86 early Arcathias leaves garrisons at Philippi and Amphipolis. 86 CAH 9-153
c.86 SULLA spoils temples at Olympia, Epidaurus, and Delphi, and steals other treasures to fund his army. 86 atl1
c.86 Sacred lamp at Athens loses its flame. 86 atl1
c.86 Athenians yell insults at SULLA and his wife Metella. 86 atl1
86 Mar 1 Aristion and his followers go to the Acropolis, burning the Odeion of Pericles in order to deny its materials to Sulla.  See 65. 86 CAH 9-154, DGRBM 3-898
c.86 Mar 1 ATHENS reduced to famine by Sulla, taken by storm, plundered, but not burnt, allowed to remain free.  Its library sent to Rome. 88 bk     86 B76 8-385, CAH 9-154, DGRBM 3-937, Dur 3-110, IDB 1-309, ISBE 3-127, MCAW 240, atl1
86 spring Arcathias' army, probably the largest ever sent by Mith-VI, is in Magnesia Thessaly. 86 CAH 9-153
c.86 ACROPOLIS is captured.  ARISTION, Athenian philosopher turned tyrant, and his followers surrender to Sulla and are executed.  40 pounds of gold and 600 of silver taken by Sulla's legate, C.(3) Scribonius Curio. 86 CAH 9-154, 158, MCAW 240, atl1
c.86 NEW PLATONIC ACADEMY ends.  Began 155.  Destroyed in the siege of Athens. 86 wikPA
86 ARCATHIAS, Pontic commander in Magnesia Thessaly, dies of illness at Tisaeum. 86 CAH 9-154
c.86 P. Servilius VATIA sails from Italy, joins Sulla in Greece until 83. no date: wikPSV
c.86 PIRAEUS, defended by Archelaus, besieged by Sulla.  Wooden tower can't be burnt because it is saturated with alum.  Arsenal destroyed.  Fighting is inconclusive. 86 SHT 2-402, 413, atl1
c.86 ARCHELAUS, lieutenant of Mith-VI at Piraeus, receives from Mith-VI 80,000 reinforcements under Dorylaus.  Archelaus and Dorylaus defend, but lose 2,000 troops in battle outside the enceinte.  Archelaus and the reinforcements escape by sea, sail north to the Pontic army in Magnesia.  PIRAEUS falls to Sulla, who destroys it. 86 CAH 9-154, DGRBM 1-262, 1060, 3-937, LEWH 106, MCAW 240
c.86 ARCHELAUS, Dorylaus, and their army meet the northern army at Thermopylae.  Archelaus assumes command. 86 CAH 9-154
c.86 SULLA takes temple treasures of Epidaurus, Delphi and Olympia. 86 CAH 9-154
c.86 PHILANTHES, eponymous archon of Athens from 87 ends.  HIEROPHANTES succeeds until 85. 86 wikEA
c.86 L. Munatius PLANCUS defeats Pontic general Neoptolemus at Chalcis Euboea. 86 atl1
c.86 Thracians, invade Macedonia again (see 89) 86 atl1
c.86 TAXILES, general of Mith-VI with 110,000 troops sent across Hellespont, advances thru Macedonia.  AMPHIPOLIS resists and is sacked.  Taxiles goes thru Thessaly, into Phocis, besieges Elatea, but is foiled, and joins Archelaus in Boeotia. 86 DGRBM 3-985, DGRG 2-1189, atl1
c.86 ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, son of Mith-VI invades Macedonia, conquers most of it. 86 DGRBM 1-258
c.86 SULLA, in Athens 86, marches north.  L. Licinius Murena is under Sulla. 86 CAH 9, Dur 3-110, 124, LEWH 106, OCD 225
c.86 ARGOS, in Achaean League from 195, comes under Rome until 395CE. 86 rcPl
c.86 Battle of CHAERONEA Boeotia; Pontic generals Archelaus, Dorylaus, and Taxiles are defeated, with a loss of 110,000 of their 120,000 men by SULLAArchelaus, with 10,000 men, retreats to Chalcis Euboea.  Taxiles drops out of history until 74. 86 CAH 9-154, CDCC 181, DGRBM 2-1121, 3-937, 985, DGRG 1-595, Dur 3-110, 124, GHH, LEWH 106, OCD 225, atl1
c.86 SULLA punishes Thebans by confiscating their territory. 86 atl1
c.86 Consul L.(7) Valerius FLACCUS is sent from Rome by government of Cinna to Epirus, ostensibly to finish off Mith-VI, but also to resist Sulla. 86 CAH 9-157, DGRBM 2-158, LdHR 2-321, OCD 436, atl1
c.86 mid SULLA in Greece hears that Flaccus had landed in Epirus, and may try to supersede Sulla if he did not co-operate.  He marches towards Thessaly to meet them.  While at Melitaea in Phthiotis, Sulla hears that Boeotia is being ravaged by the rump of Archelaus' army plus 80,000 led by Dorylaus, freshly arrived in ChalcisSulla turns south. 86 CAH 9-157
c.86 6,000 men under Hortensius stranded in Thessaly and likely to be cut off by Archelaus. 86/5 CAH 9-155
86 Consul L.(7) Valerius FLACCUS marches from Epirus, to ByzantiumFlaccus gets a reputation for greed, harshness and unfairness, becomes unpopular with his troops. 86 CAH 9-157, DGRBM 2-158, LdHR 2-321, atl1
c.86 ARIARATHES-IX EUSEBES PHILOPATOR, son of Mith-VI of Pontus, general in Macedonia from 87, dies in Tisacum Thessaly. 87 wikA9C
86 pre-Mar OCD 107
c.86 late 6,000 men under Hortensius, stranded in Thessaly, link up with Sulla at Patronis. 86/5 CAH 9-155
86/5 Legate of Flaccus, C.(2) Flavius FIMBRIA quarrels with a quaestor.  Flaccus, as arbiter, decides for the quaestor.  Fimbria threatens to return to Rome.  Flaccus fires him.  Flaccus sails from Byzantium to ChalcedonFimbria at Byzantium foments a mutiny. 86 DGRBM 2-158
86/5 L.(7) Valerius FLACCUS learns of the mutiny, returns to Byzantium, but is chased away.  He flees from Byzantium to Asia chased by his legate C.(2) Flavius Fimbria. 86 DGRBM 2-158
85 atl1
c.86/5 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, now with only 90,000 is again defeated by Sulla at Orchomenos Boeotia and is nearly wiped outSulla estimates 160,000 lost to Romans 15,000 inf, 1,500 cav. 86 CAH 9-39, wikSl 85 CAH 9-155, 158, wikKPn, wikBO
c.86/5 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, with only 10,000 left of his army retreats east to the coast. no date: CAH 9-157-8
c.86/5 SULLA ravages Boeotia, especially coastal towns opposite Euboea for their continual changing sides. 86/5 CAH 9-158
c.86/5 ARCHELAUS asks for meeting with SULLA.  They agree that Mith-VI is to give up Asia and Paphlagonia, return Bithynia to Nicomedes, return Cappadocia to Ariobarzanes.  Mith-VI must deliver 70 (or 80) ships fully equipped to Sulla, plus a war indemnity of 2,000 (or 3,000) talents.  In return Sulla would guarantee Mith-VI his rule in Pontus and the rest of his territories, and secure for him the status of an ally of Rome.  Sulla keeps Archelaus' 70 ships, in case Mith-VI doesn't agree to his terms. 86/85 CAH 9-158
c.86/5 ARCHELAUS in Greece from 87, marches north, retreats across Hellespont to Bithynia. 86 LEWH 106, wikSl 85 DGRBM 3-937, MCAW 240
c.85 HIEROPHANTES, eponymous archon of Athens from 86 ends.  PYTHOCRITUS succeeds until 84. 85 wikEA
c.85 ABDERA Thrace, under a Pontic garrison from ?, freed. 85 atl1
c.85 L. Cornelius SULLA plunders the Delphic Temple. 85 GHH
c.85 SULLA is busy most of the year in Macedonia punishing barbarians on north borders:  Dardani, Scordisci, Sarmati, etc. 85 LdHR 317, atl1, hifiSc
c.85 SULLA, now in Macedonia, writes a letter to senate, threatening revenge on his opponents. 85 atl1
c.85 L. Cornelius SULLA fights the Dardani. 85 atl1
c.85 ODESSA, under Pontus from 107, comes under Rome until 44. 85 rcU
c.85 SULLA learns of success of C.(2) Flavius Fimbria in Asia, makes peace with barbarians, goes to Thrace. 85 LdHR 318
c.85 SULLA at Philippi is met by envoys of Mith-VI proposing a treaty.  Sulla rejects it and sends Archelaus to tell Mith-VI to offer better terms. 85 DGRBM 1-262, LdHR 318
c.85 Drave, Danube, SaveL. Cornelius SCIPIO attacks and cripples the Scordisci in the area of the Save, Drave, and Danube. 88 wikScr 85 atl1
c.85 L. Cornelius Sulla orders admiral Lucullus to occupy Abydos Mysia. 85 LdHR 318
c.85 Archelaus returns to Sulla with a better offer from Mith-VI and a proposal for a conference. 85 LdHR 318
85 late SULLA marches north to Thessaly to winter, build ships, and await return of Lucullus' fleet garnered from Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Pamphylia. 86 atl1
85 CAH 9-158
85/4 L. Cornelius SULLA crosses to Asia. 85/4 DGRBM 3-937     84 DGRBM 2-151, DGRG 2-1189, LEWH 106
c.84 PYTHOCRITUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 85 ends.  AESCHRAEUS succeeds until 83. 84 wikEA
c.84 Liburnia Part of Cinna's army at Brundisium is transported to Liburnia on north Illyrian coast until later 84. 84 atl1
c.84 Temple at Delphi is damaged by fire during a raid by Thracians and IllyriansL. Scipio responds by attacking Illyrians. 85 hifiSc 84 atl1
c.84 SULLA, in Asia from 85, sails from Ephesus to Athens, prepares for invasion of Italy next spring. 84 CAH 9-162, DGRBM 2-1121, 3-937, LdHR 318, MCAW 240, atl1, wikLRGA 84/3 Dur 3-125     83 B76 3-576, CDCC 708, DGRBM 3-937, Dur 3-110, 125, LdHR 325, MCAW 242, bk, wikSl, wikTAR
c.84 SULLA is stopped by gout in Athens, initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, appropriates libraries of his tyrant opponents, including library of Apellicon of Teos, containing most of the works of AARISTOTLE and THEOPHRASTUS. 86 B76 1-1165 84 CAH 9-162, DGRBM 3-937, MCAW 241, atl1
c.84 SULLA leaves Greece and Asia in economic distress, making forced loans and leaving the former tax farmers and money lenders in power. 84 MCAW 241
c.84 SULLA receives senate's embassy and sets out his terms for a settlement with political opponents. 84 atl1
c.84 SULLA visits hot springs (? Aedepsus) in Euboea trying to cure his gout. 84 atl1
c.84 Envoys from Sulla land at Brundisium, learn of Cinna's death, sail back to Epirus to tell Sulla. 84 CAH 9-186, LdHR 323
c.84 SULLA sends a painting by Zeuxis and other treasures back to Rome, but the ship carrying them sinks near Malea. 84 atl1
c.84 APELLICON of Teos, wealthy book collector, dies at Athens. 84 B76 I-441, wikAT
84/3 T. POMPONIUS ATTICUS meets Sulla at Athens, but refuses to follow him back to Italy. 83 atl1
84/3 SULLA takes army to Dyrrhachium. 84/3 DGRBM 3-937
c.83 AESCHRAEUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 84 ends.  SELEUCUS succeeds until 82.  Archons continue irregularly and of little significance. 83 wikEA
c.83 C. Antonius HYBRIDA is left by Sulla to command a small cavalry force in Achaea.  He plunders the province. 84 atl1
83 wikGAH
c.83 SULLA with 40,000 men, 15,000 lbs gold, 115,000 lbs silver, art works, and a text of ARISTOTLE's works (in Greece from 100), in 1200 transport ships sails from Dyrrhachium to Brundisium. 83 B76 3-576, CAH 9-162, CDCC 708, DGRBM 3-937, Dur 3-110, 125, GHH, LdHR 325, MCAW 242, bk, wikSl, wikTAR
c.82 BUREBISTA becomes king of the Thracian Getae and Dacians until 44.  He is first to unite the Dacian tribes. 82 wikBrb, wikBst
c.80 Gn.(4) Cornelius DOLABELLA, consul 81, comes from Rome to be proconsul of Macedonia until 78. no date OCD 358
c.80 Son of Cotys-V, SADALAS-I ends.  King of Odrysian-Asteans of Thrace from 87.  Son COTYS-II(VI) succeeds until 45. 80 frH
79 wikLRTD, wikOK
c.80 AMODOKOS-IV ends.  King of Odrysians of Thrace under Rome from 90. 80 frH
c.80 Main events at Olympic Games are cancelled, because athletes have been summoned to Rome by Sulla. 80 atl1
c.80 Senatorial decree confirms land grants made by Sulla to sanctuary of Amphiaraos at Oropos Attica. 80 atl1
c.79 PHILO of Larissa, head of Platonic Academy 109-79, and pupil Antiochus of Ascalon, both in Rome 88-?, have a fight in which Antiochus gets leadership of academy until 68. 80 EoΦ 3-382
79 B76 14-540, EoΦ 3-384
no date: OCD 822
c.79 M. Tullius CICERO comes from Rome to Greece until 78.  Studies philosophy and oratory at Athens, hears lectures of Antiochus of Ascalon, Zeno of Sidon, Phaedrus the Epicurean. 80 DGRBM 3-231     79 B76 6-912, 14-540, CDCC 198, DGRBM 1-192, 709, 746, MCAW 244, OCD 239, atl1, wikCc
c.78 Gn.(4) Cornelius DOLABELLA, proconsul of Macedonia from 80, returns to Rome.  Ap.(13) Claudius PULCHER succeeds until 76. 78 OCD 247, 358
c.78 Ap.(13) Claudius PULCHER, proconsul of Macedonia 78-6, defeats Sarmatians and Thracians, fights Dardani until 76. 78 CAH 9-357, OCD 313
c.78 C.(1) COSCONIUS is sent into Illyricum as proconsul until 76. 78 DGRBM 1-863, wikIlrc
c.78 Dalmatian campaign begins until 77. 78 OCD 310, ooctA
c.78 SALONA, town and harbor of Dalmatia, opens gates to C. Cosconius. 78 DGRG 2-884
c.78 CICERO and ATTICUS are taught philosophy at Athens by Antiochus of Ascalon, and attend lectures of Epicurean philosophers Phaedrus and Zeno of Sidon. 78 atl1
c.78 M. Tullius CICERO, in Greece from 79, goes to Asia until 78. 78 B76 14-540, DGRBM 1-709, OCD 868
no date: OCD 234
c.78/7 C.(1) COSCONIUS defeats Illyrians and captures Salona. 77 atl1
c.78/7 Dalmatian campaign from 78 ends.  Dalmatia is conquered and added to Illyricum. 77 ooctA
c.77 Ap.(14) CLAUDIUS PULCHER and his legate M. Fonteius defend Macedonia against raids from Celts and Thracian tribes living near Mt. Rhodope.  Romans now call all Celts of Thrace Scordisci. 77 atl1
76 hifiSc
c.77 BALBUS tries to stir up unrest in Cosconius' army. 77 atl1
c.76 C. COSCONIUS proconsul of Illyricum from 78, ends. 76 wikIlrc
c.76 Ap.(13) CLAUDIUS PULCHER dies.  Proconsul of Macedonia from 78.  C.(3) Scribonius CURIO succeeds until 73. pre-76 DGRBM 1-770     76 OCD 247, atl1     75 B76 III-302, CAH 9-357, OCD 302, wikGSC
c.75 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO, proconsul of Macedonia, penetrates west Thrace as far as the Danube and defeats the inhabitants. 75 DGRG 2-1189, hifiSc, wikMs     74 atl1
c.75 MOESIA (the general name for everything between the Danube and the Haemus Mountains) first entered by Romans.  C.(3) Scribonius CURIO is 1st Roman to penetrates as far as Danube and defeats Moesians, pushes enemies across Danube, ends the war until ?. 75 DGRG 2-367, wikGSC, wikMs
c.75 Dacians living north of the Danube clash with C.(3) Scribonius CURIO. 75 B76 III-339
c.75 Dardani in Macedonia partially subdued by C.(3) Scribonius Curio. 75 GHH, OCD 313     73 atl1
c.75 PHILODEMOS of Gadara, Epicurean philosopher, poet, moves from Athens to Italy, becomes mentor to L. Calpurnius Piso, lives in his villa in Herculaneum. 75 B76 VII-950, CDCC 676
c.75 ZENO of Sidon dies.  Head of Epicurean school in Athens from 100, dies in Athens.  Said happiness consists in enjoyment of present pleasures.  PHAEDRUS succeeds until 70. 75 wikΦE, wikZS
c.73 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO, proconsul of Macedonia from 75, ends, but doesn't return to Rome until 71.  M. Terentius VARRO LUCULLUS succeeds until 71. 73 B76 III-302, DGRBM 2-838, DGRG 2-1189, OCD 313, 624
c.73 Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace, vassal of Rome from 100, goes independent until 11. 73 frH
c.73 BYZANTIUM, independent from 306, comes under Rome until 395. 73 frH
c.72 BUREBISTA, king of the Thracian Getae and Dacians 82-44, occupies Greek coastal cities of the Dobruja region. 72 wikBst
c.72 M. Terentius VARRO LUCULLUS, proconsul of Macedonia 73-1, campaigns in east Thrace, defeats the Bessi on Mt. Haemus, takes their capital, ravages land between the Haemus and the Danube, which he reaches. 72 CAH 9, GHH, atl1, hifiSc
no date: DGRG 2-1189
c.72 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS removes a colossal statue from Apollonia on east coast of Thrace and takes it back to Rome. 72 atl1
c.72 MITH-VI, king of Pontus 115-66, unsuccessfully attacks Perinthus and Byzantium. 72 atl1
c.72 M. Terentius VARRO LUCULLUS, proconsul of Macedonia 73-1, defeats the Dardani, ravages Thrace. 72 CAH 9
no date:
DGRG 2-1189
c.71 M. Terentius VARRO LUCULLUS, proconsul of Macedonia from 73, returns to Rome and triumph. 71 DGRBM 2-838, csm
c.71 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO, in Macedonia from 76, returns to Rome. 71 DGRBM 1-902
c.70 PHAEDRUS dies.  Head of Epicurean school in Athens from 75, teacher of CiceroPATRON succeeds until 51. 70 B76 4-601
70/69 wikΦE     69 atl1
52 DGRBM 3-140
c.68 ANTIOCHUS of Ascalon dies.  Head of Platonic Academy from 84±4.  Mostly a Stoic. 78 B76 14-540     68 B76 I-424, BNTH 50     69 B76 I-424, EoΦ, OCD 373
c.68 T. POMPONIUS ATTICUS banker in Athens 88-65, buys an estate in Epirus, begins correspondence with Cicero. 68 B76 I-636, DGRBM 1-414
c.67 M. Porcius CATO, age 28, sent from Rome to be military tribune in Macedonia until 65.  Given command of a legion.  He imposes strict discipline on himself and his troops. 67 B76 II-645, atl1, wikCY
c.67 Q. Servilius CAEPIO dies at Aenos Thrace.  Bro M. Porcius Cato mourns his death. 67 atl1
c.67 POMPEY, commander of Mediterranean, sails from Athens to Rhodes. 67 atl1
c.67 Gn. Plancius, Nasennius, and L. Valerius Flaccus serve under Metellus in Greece and Crete. 67 atl1
c.67 Legate CORNELIUS SISENNA sent with some troops by Pompey from Greece to Crete. 67 DGRBM 2-1064
c.66 M.(6) Porcius CATO, military tribune in Macedonia 67-65, visits Antioch and other places in eastern provinces. 66 atl1
c.65 T. POMPONIUS ATTICUS, Epicurean, in Athens from 88, having gained popularity, moves back to Rome. 65 B76 I-636, DGRBM 1-414, atl1
c.65 Pompey in the Caucasus. 65 GHH
c.65 M. Porcius CATO, military tribune in Macedonia from 67, tours thru Roman provinces of the Middle East, then returns to Rome, accompanied by philosopher Athenodorus. 65 wikCY
c.65 Odeion of Pericles at Athens, burnt from 86, restoration begun until 52 financed by Ariobarzanes-II. Philopator, king of Cappadocia. 65 DGRBM 3-898
c.64 L. MANLIUS TORQUATUS becomes proconsul of Macedonia until 63. 64 wikLMT
63 fall L. MANLIUS TORQUATUS, proconsul of Macedonia from 64, returns to Rome. 63 wikLMT
c.62 C.(1) ANTONIUS Hybrida, consul of 64, having been promised Macedonia, leaves Italy, goes there as proconsul and plunders it shamelessly until he is recalled in early 61.  Gn. Plancius is military tribune under him. 63 CDCC 171, 62 DGRBM 1-214, OCD 77, wikGAH
c.62 POMPEY, in east from 67, returns from Ephesus to Athens to Rome. 62 atl1
c.62 Gn. Plancius and P. Sestius serve under C. Antonius in Macedonia. 61 atl1
c.62 C.(1) ANTONIUS Hybrida, proconsul of Macedonia, invades Dardanian land and is defeated. 62 OCD 313, wikGAH
61 early C.(1) ANTONIUS HYBRIDA, leads army against rebellious Greek cities.  As he approaches Istros (Histria, Sinoe) on coast of Black Sea, Hybrida detaches his entire mounted force and leads it away, leaving his infantry without cavalry cover.  A Bastarnae host, including the Getae, which had crossed the Danube to help the Istrians, attacks, surrounds and massacres the Roman infantry, capturing several eagles.  Roman position on lower Danube collapses. 61 atl1, hifiBst, hifiSc, wikBst
61 early C.(1) ANTONIUS Hybrida, proconsul of Macedonia from 62, having plundered it shamelessly, is recalled to Rome by the senate, and replaced by C. Octavius in 60. 61 DGRBM 1-214, OCD 77, wikGAH
61 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is in Greece stealing artwork to adorn games he plans to hold as aedile. 61 DGRBM 1-770
c.61 BUREBISTA, king of the Thracian Getae and Dacians 82-44, begins expansion of Dacia, attacking the Boii and Taurisci. 61 wikBrb
c.60 C. OCTAVIUS, praetor of 61, becomes proconsul of Macedonia until 58. 60 DGRBM 3-9
c.60 The BESSI of Thrace conquered by C. Octavius. 60 DGRG 2-1189     59 atl1
c.60 Relations between the Thracian Getae and their neighbors deteriorates.  Suddenly, under Burebista, guided by a wizard called Deceneus, the Getae attack their former allies, ravage territory of the Boii and Taurisci, nearly exterminate the Boii.  Their territory is then called deserta Boiorum. 60 hifiSc
c.60 GETAE under Burebista attacks the Scordisci in Thrace. 60 hifiSc
c.60 Cities Histros, Mesambria, and Olbia are destroyed by Burebista. 60 hifiSc
c.60 GETAE under Burebista attacks the Bastarnae in Dobruja. 60 hifiBst, hifiSc
c.60 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS studies at Rhodes and Athens, where he is taught by Pammenes. 60 atl1
c.59 Burebista calls himself "King of all Thrace". 59 hifiSc
c.59 L. AEMILIUS PAULLUS is quaestor under C. Octavius, proconsul of Macedonia.  He is accused by L. Vettius as one of the persons privy to the fake conspiracy against Pompey. 59 DGRBM 2-765
58 C. OCTAVIUS, proconsul of Macedonia from 60, returns to Rome to stand for consul.  L. APPULEIUS SATURNINUS becomes propraetor.  Gn. Plancius is his quaestor. 58 DGRBM 3-382, 725, OCD 143, 746
58 Mar M. Tullius CICERO sails from Brundisium to Epirus. 58 B76 4-607, CAH 9, CDCC 199, 833, DGRBM 1-544, 713, 2-708, 3-382, Dur 3-110, 173, MCAW 252, OCD 235, atl1, rtp, wik1Tr
58 May 23 M. Tullius CICERO goes to Thessalonica.  In Chalcidice.  He is ignored by former friend, propraetor of Macedonia, Saturninus, for fear of offending the senate, but he is received by Saturninus' quaestor Gn. Plancius, and highly honored, until he leaves in November. 58 CAH 9, CDCC 199, 833, DGRBM 1-544, 713, 2-708, 3-382, Dur 3-110, 173, MCAW 252, OCD 235, atl1, rtp, wik1Tr, wikCc
58 Mark ANTONY, hounded by creditors, goes from Italy to Greece, studies philosophy and rhetoric at Athens, then goes to Syria. 58 DGRBM 1-214, atl1, wikMA
58 Nov M. Tullius CICERO in Macedonia from April, goes to Dyrrhachium. 58 DGRBM 1-714
58 Dec? M. Tullius CICERO retires to Athens until 57. 58 GHH, bk
c.57 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS comes from Rome as proconsul of Macedonia until 55.  C. Virgilius is his legate. 58 DGRG 2-1189, 57 DGRBM 3-372, 3-1263, OCD 836
c.57 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS proconsul of Macedonia 57-5, fights Dardani unsuccessfully. 57
c.57 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS proconsul of Macedonia 57-5, secretly orders death of Plator of Orestis. 57 atl1
57 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS proconsul of Macedonia 57-5, plunders province of Macedonia, and loses part of his army. 57 atl1
c.57 PAEONIA, under Rome from 168, back under Thrace until 29. 57 rcEB
57 Aug M. Tullius CICERO, exiled in Greece from 58, sails from Dyrrhachium to Brundisium. 57 CDCC 149, 913, DGRBM 1-714, GHH, MCAW 252, wik1Tr
57 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, visits Illyricum.  He returns in 57. 57 atl1
c.55 Son of Rhoemetalces, COTYS-I becomes king of Sapeans (Odrysian bloodline) of Thrace until 48. 55 frH, wikOK
c.55 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS, proconsul of Macedonia, and plundering it from 57, returns to Rome.  Succeeded by Q. ANCHARIUS. 55 DGRBM 1-168, 3-372, atl1
c.55 BUREBISTA, king of the Thracian Getae and Dacians 82-44, begins conquering Greek cities on west coast of Black Sea. 55 wikBrb
c.54 The PIRUSTAE raid Roman Illyricum. 54 bril
c.54 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, visits Illyricum again to put down incursions by the Pirustae, takes hostages, then goes to Treveri land in lower Moselle valley. 54 DGRBM 1-547, hifiCT
c.53 Drave, Danube, SaveThe Scordisci in the area of the Save, Drave, and Danube defeated by Burebista's Dacians, and become subject to him. 56-50 wikScr
c.52 Statue of Zeus at Olympia is struck by lightning.  And Zeus is the god of lightning, so... 52 atl1
c.52 ODEIUM THEATER in Athens rebuilt by Ariobarzanes-II, king of Cappadocia, 62-51. 52 atl1
c.51 LiburniaDALMATIANS capture Promona, a city of the Liburnians, and defeat an army sent by Caesar. 51 OCD 310, atl1 50 IDB 1-757
c.51 PATRO ends.  Head of the Epicurean school from 70. 51 B76 6-912
c.50 Star & Crescent STAR & CRESCENT symbol becomes associated with Byzantium. pic Dbachmann

100-0 wikSnC
50 BOII, in Noricum from 60, but now south of Danube exterminated by Burebista king of Thracian Getae and Dacians 60-44. 50 B76 II-122, 3-1074, OCD 171, 185
50 T. ANTISTIUS is quaestor in Macedonia until 49. 50 DGRBM 1-209
50 Jul M. Tullius CICERO returns from Cilicia, via Rhodes and Ephesus to Athens, bound for for Brundisium.  He talks to philosopher Aristus. 50 atl1
c.50 Empire at 50BCE map: Cristiano64
49 Mar 15 Senate and Pompey sail from Brundisium, to Dyrrhachium. 49 DGRBM 3-487, GHH, rtp
49 Mar POMPEY begins recruiting in Macedonia and many Roman provinces and allied kings from all parts of the east. 49 DGRBM 3-487, atl1
49 Mar Ptolemy-XIII Philopator supplies troops to help Pompey in Thessaly. 49 B76 VIII-282
49 Mar? C.(2) ANTONIUS, bro of Antony is sent by Caesar from Rome to occupy Illyricum. 49 DGRBM 1-550
c.49 Aulus CAECINA, friend of M. Cicero, supports Pompey, writes pamphlet against Caesar. 49 OCD 187
c.49 C. ANTONIUS is forced to surrender to M. Octavius, one of Pompey's officers, off Dalmatian coast.  He is prisoner until executed 42. 49 atl1
c.49 Ap.(15) Claudius Pulcher consults oracle at Delphi about outcome of civil war. 49 atl1
c.49 M.(6) Porcius CATO advocates delaying military action.  Pompey does not trust him with a senior command. 49 atl1
c.49 L. Scribonius LIBO and M. OCTAVIUS are put in charge of part of Pompey's fleet with instructions to prevent Caesar's forces crossing. 49 wikLSL
49 Jun M. Tullius CICERO, district commissioner of Capua from ?, sails from Brundisium to Dyrrhachium, joins republicans. 49 B76 4-608, DGRBM 1-716, MCAW 256, OCD 235, wikCc
49 C.(2) ANTONIUS, bro of Antony, serving Caesar in Illyricum, defeated and captured. 49 DGRBM 1-550
49 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) is moved from Italy to Illyricum.  Probably commands at least one legion there after failure of Dolabella and Antonius. 49 wikSls
49 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS is appointed by Pompey to command ships of Cilicia, Syria, and Phoenicia. 49 DGRBM 2-800, wikGCL
49 late POMPEY sends his troops to winter quarters in Thessaly and Macedonia. 49 atl1
c.49/8 Burebista, king of Thracian Getae and Dacians 82-44, sends Acornion of Dionysopolis as ambassador to negotiate alliance with Pompey. 49/8 ahe
c.49/8 M.(6) Porcius CATO, conservative, in Africa from 49, sails to Greece until 48.  Rejoins Pompey. 49 MCAW 256
48 Jan 5 CAESAR sails 20,000 men from Brundisium to Palaeste in the gulf of Valona in Epirus in pursuit of Pompey and the optimates.  He plans 2 more trips to ferry the remaining 40,000.  Legate Postumius is sent back to facilitate transport.  Pompeyan fleet commander Bibulus is near Corcyra, 50 miles south of Palaeste, and his ships are not ready to sail to intercept Caesar. 49 B76 3-578, wikBb
48 DGRBM 1-551, 3-487, 510, Dur 3-184, MCAW 256, OCD 189, sjsu, vrm, wikBb, wikCCW, wikTAR
48 Jan CAESAR sends 2 commissioners to negotiate with Pompeyans at Oricum in Epirus.  They include L. Statius Murcus. 48 DGRBM 2-1121
48 Jan Q. Fufius CALENUS sails Caesar's 12 empty ships back from Epirus.  Most of them are captured by Pompeyan M. Calpurnius Bibulus.  Calenus escapes to coast of Italy. 48 DGRBM 1-562, atl1, wikQFC
48 Jan CAESAR takes Oricum in Epirus and Apollonia, then hurries north to surprise Dyrrhachium, where Pompey's supplies are kept.  Pompey arrives at Dyrrhachium first. 48 DGRBM 1-551, atl1, wikCCW
48 Jan Pompeyan M. Calpurnius Bibulus is in charge of Pompey's fleet blockading Caesar at Oricum, but he is ill and unable to get supplies.  L. Scribonius Libo is sent by Pompey to join Bibulus.  Bibulus and Libo sail towards Oricum and request a truce to negotiate with Caesar.  Caesar agrees and Libo tries to trick Caesar into thinking that they are acting on Pompey's orders. 48 DGRBM 2-1121
48 Jan Caesar wonders what happened to his 12 ships, and sails out in a rowboat.  He and his men nearly drown, and return to Epirus.  Supposedly Caesar says, "Fear not! You carry Caesar and his fortune."  In any case, he abandons the effort. 48 DGRBM 3-487, Dur 3-184, OCD 189, sjsu, wikTAR
48 Jan CAESAR sets up camp at Apollonia Illyricum. 48 OCD 83
48 early Pompeyan fleet commander M. Calpurnius BIBULUS overworks himself, gets sick, sails to Corcyra, and dies before end of winter.  His 50 galleys are given to L. Scribonius Libo, who continues blockading Oricum, then sails to Brundisium to blockade Antony. 48 atl1, wikBb, wikLSL
48 Jan POMPEY fortifies a hill near Dyrrhachium. 48 DGRBM 1-551
48 Jan Mark ANTONY, Caesar's rep in Italy, gathers another fleet.  He and Q. Fufius Calenus sail the remaining 40,000 men from Brundisium to Apollonia. 48 DGRBM 1-215, 551, Dur 3-185, OCD 77, wikCCW
48 early CAESAR tries to return to Italy, but his boat is forced back by a storm. 48 atl1
48 early CAESAR and army march from Apollonia back to Dyrrhachium. 48 DGRBM 1-551, 3-487
48 early Pompeyan L. Manlius TORQUATUS commander of garrison at Oricum in Epirus, is forced to surrender himself and the town to Caesar, who dismisses Torquatus uninjured.  He promptly joins Pompey, and is with him at DyrrhachiumCaesarean M'(5) ACILIUS GLABRIO succeeds in Oricum. 48 DGRBM 2-272, 3-1165
48 early Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO proconsul of Syria from 49, summoned by Pompey, sails his 2 legions from Ephesus to Thessaly, where he maneuveres against Gn. Domitius Calvinus and L. Cassius until arrival of Pompey. 48 DGRBM 2-1063, OCD 678, atl1, wikMS
48 early L. VIBULLIUS RUFUS is sent by Caesar to make peace offer to Pompey.  Vibullius hurries to Pompey, and gives him all the intel he has on Caesar. 48 DGRBM 3-1256
48 early Pompeyan L. Scribonius LIBO is given command of some 50 galleys. 48 wikLSL, wikMA
48 Pompeyans C. Valerius TRIARIUS and ??? LAELIUS are given command of some ships from Asia province by Pompey. 48 DGRBM 3-1173
48 early CAESAR starts to blockade Pompey's position at Dyrrhachium. 48 DGRBM 1-551
48 MENEDEMUS, chief of Libera Macedonia, sides with Caesar. 48 DGRBM 2-1036
48 L. CASSIUS Longinus is sent by Caesar to Thessaly to watch the movements of Q.(10) Metellus Pius Scipio.  No battle occurs, but Scipio can't join Pompey till Caesar's repulse at Dyrrhachium forces Gn. Domitius Calvinus to unite his forces with those of Caesar. 48 DGRBM 2-802, 1063
48 Jul Dyrrhachium POMPEY with 40,000 men breaks thru Caesar's lines at Dyrrhachium and compells him to retire with loss of 1,000 veteran legionaries.  Pompey fears to attack Caesar. map: Homoatrox

48 DGRBM 1-551, 3-487, Dur 3-184, GHH, MCAW 256, OCD 368, rtp,
Jul 10 ttjc, ttpm, wikCCW,
Jul wikBD, wikIlrc, wikJC
48  Dionysopolis Decree  written by citizens of Dionysopolis on the Black Sea coast.  A fragmentary marble inscription, mentions a Dacian town named Argedauon as Burebista's capital. 48 hifiBst, hifiSc, wikDD
48 Caesarean L. VALERIUS FLACCUS is killed at Dyrrhachium. 48 DGRBM 2-159
48 M. OPIMUS prefect of cavalry in army of Q.(10) Metellus Pius Scipio, is taken prisoner by Caesarean Gn. Domitius Calvinus. 48 DGRBM 3-34
48 Confident of success, the nobles in Pompey's camp quarrel over division of spoils.  Q.(10) Scipio has a violent altercation, which descends to personal abuse, with L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus and P. Lentulus Spinther, respecting the office of pontifex maximus, which Caesar then held.. 48 DGRBM 2-1063
48 POMPEY, still outnumbering Caesar, but with raw recruits, declines battle, uses his superior cavalry to cut off Caesar's supplies and control all the provisions of the country.  Pompey's fleet commands the Adriatic.  He could effectively besiege Caesar's army, but the Roman nobles in the camp hound Pompey for a battle. 48 DGRBM 3-487, wikCCW
48 CAESAR, short on food, retreats south into Thessaly to rest his troops. 48 DGRBM 1-551, Dur 3-185, GHH, atl1, wikCCW
48 Q. TITIUS sent by Caesar to Epirus to get grain for troops. 48 DGRBM 3-1159
48 Q. FUFIUS sent by Caesar into Boeotia and Attica. 48 atl1
c.48 Son of Rhoemetalces, COTYS-I ends.  king of Sapeans of Thrace from 55, ends.  RASKOUPORIS succeeds until 42. 48 frH, wikOK
48 At Dyrrhachium POMPEY is advised by Afranius to invade Italy, which is now unguarded, but is persuaded by taunts of cowardice to attack Caesar.  He leaves M.(6) Porcius CATO in charge of Dyrrhachium. 48 DGRBM 1-649, Dur 3-185, OCD 215, atl1
48 Before Pharsalus, Gn.(3) Pompeius' fleet takes several of Caesar's vessels off Oricum Epirus, and attacks coastal town of Lissus unsuccessfully. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 M. Tullius CICERO, with Pompey from 49, gets sick, leaves Pompey's camp. 48 B76 4-608
c.48 SADALAS, son of Cotys-II, king of Asteans of Thrace, leads a troop to help Pompey against Caesar. 48 DGRBM 1-870
48 POMPEY follows Caesar into Thessaly instead of going to Italy. 48 atl1
48 CAESAR lets his troops sack town of Gomphi Thessaly. 48 atl1
48 Pompeyan C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS commanding ships of Cilicia, Syria, and Phoenicia, is sent to Sicily. 48 DGRBM 2-800
mid 48 Q. CORNIFICIUS is sent by Caesar as quaestor to Illyricum until 47.  He keeps it loyal to Caesar. mid 48 DGRBM 1-857, atl1, wikIlrc
48 CAESAR in Epirus, sends legates to try to detach Greece from Pompey. 48 CAH 9-441
48 C. Calvisius SABINUS is sent by Caesar to Aetolia.  He takes posession of it. 48 DGRBM 3-689
48 M. FAVONIUS, general under Metellus Scipio operates in Macedonia. 48 DGRBM 2-139
48 P. CLODIUS and Gn. Domitius CALVINUS with 2 legions, sent by Caesar from Illyricum to Macedonia, where he meets Q.(10) Metellus Scipio, but no decisive battle happens. 48 DGRBM 1-585, 775, 2-1063
Thessaly; not Macedonia. OCD 197
48 Caesarean L. CASSIUS Longinus becomes proconsul of Greece until . 48 OCD 212
48 P. VATINIUS and L. Cornelius BALBUS sent by Caesar with peace proposals to the Pompeyan army.  Pompeyan T. Labienus opposes any compromise.  On Caesar's order, Vatinius returns to Brundisium before Pharsalus. 48 DGRBM 3-1235
48 Caesarean P. VATINIUS defeats Gn. OCTAVIUS in a sea battle near island of Tauris. 48 atl1
48 Prior to Pharsalus L. CASSIUS Longinus proconsul of Greece, is sent by Caesar with Q. Fufius CALENUS into Southern Greece.  Calenus goes to Achaea, where he takes Delphi, Thebes, Megara and Orchomenos. 48 DGRBM 1-562, 2-802, atl1
48 Prior to Pharsalus, Caesar orders his men not to kill M.(7) Brutus, probably for the sake of his mom Servilia, a mistress of Caesar. 48 DGRBM 1-512, wikMJB
48 Pompey's son SEXTUS consults Thessalian witches. 48 atl1
Pharsalus map: pub dom
48 Aug 9 Battle of PHARSALUS Thessaly; Pompey with 45,000 inf & 7,000 cav is defeated by Caesar with 21,000 inf & 1,000 cav.  Antony commands left, Calvinus center, Caesar right.  Among Pompeyans, Scipio commands center.  Caesar pardons all captured Romans including M.(7) Brutus.  Pompey flees to the coast. 48 B76 VII-929, 3-578, 14-795, CAH 9-433, CDCC 54, DGRBM 1-215, 552, 585, 3-487, Dur 3-185, GHH, IDB 1-478, MCAW 256, OCD 858, SHWC, TTPC, atl1, bk, rtp, sjsu, ttjc, ttpm, vrm, wikCCW, wikIlrc, wikMA, wikMS, wikPm
48 Aug 9 Pompeyan commanding left wing L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is killed trying to escape after Pharsalus.  His son Gn.(6) is present and doesn't return to Italy until 46. 48 B76 I-151, CAH 9-433, DGRBM 1-85, OCD 361, wikLDA
48 Aug Pompeyan M.(7) Junius BRUTUS escapes from Pharsalus to Larissa, vascilates, writes to Caesar requesting forgiveness for him and C.(5) Cassius.  Caesar forgives both, and invites Brutus to join him.  Brutus complies. 48 CAH 9-433, DGRBM 1-512, Dur 3-186, MCAW 256, wikMJB
48 Aug C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS is caught and forced to surrender to Caesar.  He is pardoned, but remains a republican. 48 wikGCL
48 Aug POMPEY, and son Sextus flee to Larissa, then to the east coast, board a merchant ship at the month of river Peneus, and sail to Mytilene Lesbos, where his wife is. 48 CAH 9-433, DGRBM 1-855, 3-488, Dur 3-186, OCD 858, SHWC
48 Republican C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS sails his ships to Sicily. 48 wikGCL
48 Republican L.(4) CASSIUS LONGINUS surrenders to Caesar at Hellespont. 48 atl1
48 After Pharsalus, Pompeyan consul L.(12) Cornelius LENTULLUS CRUS escapes from Thessaly to Rhodes, where he is denied entry, but then given asylum, then goes to Egypt. 48 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-732, wikPCLS
48 Pompeyan Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO escapes from Pharsalus to Corcyra, to Africa. 48 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1063, OCD 678, atl1, wikMS
48 After Pharsalus, Pompeyan T. LABIENUS, flees to Dyrrhachium, finds Cicero, informs him, joins Afranius and they go to Corcyra. 48 DGRBM 2-697, wikTLb
48 After Pharsalus, Pompeyan M. PETREIUS, flees to Patrae in Achaea, then to Africa. 48 DGRBM 3-214
48 After Pharsalus, Pompeyan L. Manlius TORQUATUS flees to Africa. 48 DGRBM 3-1165
48 After Pharsalus, Pompeyan M.(3) OCTAVIUS, still has a fleet, and sails to Dyrrhachium, hoping to secure it for the republicans. 48 DGRBM 3-9
48 After Pharsalus, Caesarean Gn. Domitius CALVINUS is appointed governor of Asia, and goes there. 48 wikGnDC
48 Pompeyan Q. Caecilius BASSUS escapes from Thessaly to Tyre. 48 DGRBM 1-472
48 Caesarean Q. Fufius CALENUS takes Athens, Megara, and Patrae. 48 DGRBM 1-562
48 Athenians declare for Caesar. 48 GHH
48 After Pharsalus, Pompey's allies defect to Caesar. 48 OCD 319
48 After Pharsalus, DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia, flees to Asia. 48 DGRG 1-930, OCD 319, atl1, wikDt
48 After Pharsalus, republican M.(10) Claudius MARCELLUS retires to Mytilene Lesbos until 46. 48 B76 VI-601, OCD 646
48 After Pharsalus, M.(6) Porcius CATO goes to Corcyra.  The fleet and troops are put under him.  He offers command to Cicero, who refuses.  Cato and T. Labienus then sail to Cyrene, where they hope to find Pompey.  Cicero stays in Corcyra until October looking for a way to reconcile with Caesar. 48 CAH 9-433, DGRBM 1-649, 716, 2-697, OCD 215, 235, atl1
48 After Pharsalus, Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, in Adriatic is deserted by his 50 Egyptian ships, and goes to Corcyra, where many republicans, who had survived the battle, had taken refuge. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is appointed by Pompey to command republicans in Greece.  He dies soon after. 48 B76 II-977
48 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, with Pompey from ?, dies in Greece. 48 OCD 247
48 Oct M. Tullius CICERO, in Greece from 49, pardoned by Caesar.  He and his bro Quintus return to Brundisium in November 48 B76 4-608, CAH 9-433, DGRBM 1-716, MCAW 256, OCD 235, 239, wikCc
48 Caesarean C.(1) Calvisius SABINUS serving in Greece, sent to Aetolia, takes control of whole country. 48 DGRBM 3-689, OCD 197
48 Pompeian commander, M. Octavius tries to besiege Salona Dalmatia, but is driven off by inhabitants. 48 atl1
48 MARK ANTONY, with Caesar in Greece, sent back to Rome as Caesar's rep. 48 OCD 77
48 Caesarean legate Aulus(5) GABINIUS and Q. CORNIFICIUS are commissioned to transport recently levied troops to Illyricum.  On their way by land, they are attacked by Dalmatians at Synodion, and lose some eagles and over 2000 men.  With difficulty they retreat to Salona Dalmatia<.  Dalmatians remain rebellious until ?. 48 CAH 10-550, DGRG 1-747, HRE 95, IDB 1-757, wikAG, wikIlrc
48 Caesarean legate Aulus(5) GABINIUS defends against attacks of Pompeian commander, M. Octavius. 48 wikAG
48 Caesarean legates Aulus(5) GABINIUS and Q. CORNIFICIUS recover Illyricum, defend it against Pompeyan fleet. 48 OCD 292, 451, 46 ISBE 2-803
48 Pompeyan Rhodian fleet is under C. Claudius Marcellus and C. Coponius. 48 DGRBM 1-850, 2-933
48 CAESAR returns from Dyrrhachium to Rome. 48 guess

Balkan Peninsula 47-0
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