Han commanderies and kingdoms
c.100 TAGAR Culture east of Mongolia from 700, ends. 100 mxfld, wikTng
c.100 Jin Confederacy in Korea from ?, disintegrates and is replaced by 3 local tribal confederacies:
Mahan in southwest, comprising 54 local clans, one of which eventually emerges as Baekje.
Jinhan in southeast, comprising 12 clans, one of which emerges as Silla.
Byeohan in south, between Mahan and Jinhan, comprising 12 clans
100 rcK
by 100 Han imperial government has sapped the kingdoms of their strength.  Most of their lands have been incorporated as commanderies. 100 B76 4-312
c.100 Distinction between kingdoms and commanderies is losing practical significance.  Far more land is governed as commanderies than as kingdoms. 100 CHC 1-473
c.100 Due to heavy taxation and compulsory military recruitment imposed by Emperor Wu's campaigns and luxury spending, many peasants revolt thruout the empire. 100 nweW, wikWu
c.100 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, issues an edict intended to suppress peasant revolts, by killing officials whose commanderies have unsuppressed peasant revolts.  It has the opposite effect, since it is impossible to suppress all of the revolts, and the officials merely cover up the revolts. 100 wikWu
c.100 Zhao Ponu, prisoner of the Xiongnu from 103, escapes and flees back to Han court. 100 ICMH 166, ckZP, icX
c.100 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, executes many people who counterfeit coins. 100 wikWu
c.100 Qiantang River suddenly disappears.  It will suddenly reappear in 97. 100 spYue
c.100 WANG CHING is made Grandee Secretary. 100 HFHD6 104
c.100 Tianhan era begins until 97. 100 wikCM, wikWu
c.100 YELANG, conquered by Han in 130, and made JIANWEI Commandery, reconquered.  Name remains as the name of a county (location disputed) in Tsangko Commandery. 100 HFHD6 63
c.100 LIU YENSHOU, son of Liu Shun, former King Chieh of Chu, becomes king of Chu until 69. 100 HFHD8-38
c.100 Embassy from Parthia (called Anxi by Chinese) arrives at Han capital. 100 hceisH
c.100 Han puppet ruler at Sutrishna from 101 is overthrown by Xiongnu nobles.  A bro of the previous king, CHANFENG succeeds until ?.  Chanfeng sends his son to Chang'an as a hostage, and is accepted as a Han vassal. 100 ICMH 166
c. 100










c. 100
Emperor Wu Ti sends over 100 envoys, led by SU WU, deputy commander of imperial guards, to the Xiongnu.  Zhang Sheng is 2nd in command; Chang Hui is 3rd.  Chanyu Qutihou is arrogant, which angers Zhang Sheng, who plots with Xiongnu officials, the prince of Gou, and Yu Chang, to murder Chanyu Qutihou's half-Chinese advisor Wei Lu and kidnap Qutihou's mother.
The Prince of Gou and Yu Chang carry out their plot while the chanyu is hunting, but someone tells the chanyu, who quickly returns and kills the Prince of Gou in battle and captures Yu Chang.  Zhang Sheng informs Su Wu, who is unaware of the plot.  Su Wu tries to suicide with his sword.  Wei Lu, who wants Su Wu to surrender and become an advisor to the chanyu, summons doctors and barely saves Su Wu.  Chanyu Qutihou arrests Zhang Sheng and Yu Chang.
North Asia After Su Wu recovers, Qutihou decides to publicly execute Yu Chang to force the entire Han mission to surrender.  Zhang Sheng surrenders.  Su Wu, is not shaken even when Wei Lu puts a sword to his neck, and promises that as the chanyu's advisor, he would be greatly honored.  Su Wu refuses to surrender.  Chanyu Qutihou puts Su Wu in a cellar without food and drink, but fears to kill him, then sends him to Lake Baykal to tend sheep for 19 years.
101 ICMH 166 100 HFHD7 18, icX, wikSW
no date wikWu
c.100 Xinjiang XINJIANG, vast arid plateau in far western China, between Mongolia to the northeast, Tibet to the south, and Khazakhstan to the west, comes under China until 190CE. map TUBS

100 rcCAE
c.100 wall DunhuangGREAT WALL, completed 214, extended northwest as far as Dunhuang commandery. 100 B76 4-314
c.100 CUCUMBERS, in India from ?, introduced to China. 140-86 B76 19-43
c.100 Imperial Library contains 13,000 books. 100 B76 15-223
c.100 Han China begins a great disparity of wealth, especially land ownership. 100 B76 4-313
c.100  Shiji  history of China in historical memoirs from legendary times to 100, composed by Sima Qian.  He characterizes the Chinese vs. Xiongnu as civilized people vs. barbarians.  Contains 1st reference to parachutes. 100 CHC 21, LEWH 146, wikXng
90 TTT
90-81 TTS
c.100  Li Ji (Book of Rites)  revised by Dai De from 214 books to 85 books.  His neph Dai Sheng reduces it to 46 books.  100 bk 100-0 wikBR
c.100 CRANK HANDLE for turning wheels invented in China. 100 TTT
100-91 TTS
c.100 Southeast Asia receives Indian religion and ideas by sea trade. 100 PW 17
c.100 hemp paper HEMP PAPER, used in China for wrapping and padding from 8th century, evidenced in Tomb of Wu Ti (140-87). photo Ytrottier

100 wikPpr
c.100  Li Ji  compiled by Dai De and Dai Sheng. 100 bk
c.100  Zixu Fu  "Sir Fantasy Rhapsody" poem written by Sima Xiangru. 100 bk
c.100 JAPAN:  EARLY YAYOI period ends.  Began 250.  Characterized by unglazed pottery with knife-incised surface decorations.  MIDDLE YAYOI period begins until 100CE.  Comb mark decorations appear on pottery. 100
B76 X-806
c.99 LI GUANGLI is sent by Emperor Wu Ti with 30,000 troops from Jiuquan Commandery to suppress the Xiongnu king of the Right. 99 HFHD6 98, 99, ICMH 167
Tarim Basin
c.99 LI GUANGLI posts 5,000 infantry under Li Ling, cavalry under Lu Bode at the Juyan Lakes in the Gobi.  With his remaining cavalry, he marches into the Tien Shan (Heavenly) Mountains to take Turfan.  Li Guangli is successful in the Tien Shan Mountains, killing or capturing 10,000 Xiongnu. 99 ICMH 167
c.99 Central AsiaLI GUANGLI returns from the Tien Shan Mountains, attacked by Xiongnu, forced to set up defensive perimeter.  He escapes and loses 60% of his men returning to Gansu. 99 ICMH 167
c.99 Popular insurrections in eastern commanderies and kingdoms. 99 GHCC, HFHD7 13
c.99 Hsu Po, bandit leader, terrorizes Taishan and Langye Commanderies. 99 HFHD6 103
c.99 PAO SHENCHIH is appointed Special Commissioner with power of life and death, to put down bandits infesting Qi region, and investigate the administration of the commanderies and kingdoms. 99 GHCC, HFHD6 104, HFHD7 13
c.99 Judge DU ZHOU, former Commandant of Justice 109-00, becomes Chief of Police at Chang'an until 98, prosecutes many, arrests even imperial relatives without mercy. 99 HFHD6 105, bk
c.99 Li Guangli orders LI LING to attack Xiongnu with cavalry commander Lu Bode under him and only 5000 troops.  Lu Bode dislikes Li Ling, and disappears with his cavalry.  Li Ling decides to advance beyond Juyan in Gobi Desert with infantry alone.  30,000 Xiongnu attack.  Li Ling is defeated and captured.  Only 400 of his men escape. 99 ICMH 167, yutH
c.99 LI LING, prisoner of Xiongnu, visits Su Wu, informs Su that his 2 bros had both been accused of crimes and suicided;  that his mother had died;  and that his wife had remarried.  He tries to convince Su to surrender, but Su refuses. 99 wikSW
c.98 Mr/Ap WANG CHING, charged with some crime, suicides. 98 HFHD6 104
c.98 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, gets an inaccurate report that Li Ling was training Xiongnu soldiers.  Emperor Wu has Li's clan executed. 98 nweW
c.98 Empress Wei Zifu is implicated in witchcraft.  With her son she plans to kill Jiang Chong, but her son is defeated and flees. 98 HFHD6 23
c.98 Historian SIMA QIAN defends the actions of Li Ling, and is therefore arrested and castrated. 99 bk     98 ICMH 168, nweW, yutH
c.98 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, again ascends Mt. Tai to sacrifice and worship heaven and earth. 98 B76 IX-770,
CHC 1-664, nweW
c.98 Judge DU ZHOU, Chief of Police at Chang'an from 99, promoted to Grandee Secretary until 91. 98 HFHD6 105
c.98 Wine monopoly begins until 81. 98 CHC 234, GHCC, bgsp, wikHD, wikHH
c.98 The QIANG of Tibet begin paying tribute to the Han. 98 GHCC 135
c.98 KAIKA TENO, legendary 9th emperor of Japan from 157, ends.  SUJIN succeeds 97-30.  1st Emperor with a direct possibility of existence. 98 wikLEJ
c.97 Han finances, drained by war and construction, reinforced by fines and judicial sentences. 97 LEWH 146
c.97 campaign 97New campaign against Xiongnu.  LI GUANGLI with 100,000 inf and 60,000 cav under Lu Bode, advance from ShuofangHan Yue with 30,000 troops marches north from WuyuanGongsun Ao with 30,000 inf and 10,000 cav marches north from Yanmen Commandery  No Xiongnu are encountered. 97 GHCC 118, HFHD6 22, ICMH 168
c.97 When the Xiongnu hear that Gongsun Ao had started out, they remove all their baggage and valuables to north of Yuwu River. 97 HFHD6 28, 104
c.97 LI GUANGLI fights the Chanyu on Yuwu River. 97 HFHD6 28, 104
c.97 ShujunCHENLI commandery, established 111, becomes part of Shu commandery. 97 HFHD6 68, bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  Chenliu Commandery is not Chenli Commandery.
c.97 LIU HU, king of Jibei (Chipo), dies.  Son LIU KUAN succeeds until 87. 97 HFHD7 07
c.97 QUTIHOU, chanyu of Xiongnu 101-96, sends away his women & kids, retains only 10,000 men to confront Li Guangli's 160,000.  Han lines break.  Li Guangli retreats, fighting Xiongnu for 10 days. 97 ICMH 169
c.97 Han Yue encounters no Xiongnu.  Gongsun Ao fights the Xiongnu king of the right, but gains nothing, and retreats to Yanmen. 97 ICMH 169, wikGA
c.97 Son of Liu Mai, LIU XIANG, Prince Ping of Liang from 137, ends. 97 wikLng
c.97 ZhangyeSHANYANG, administered as a commandery from 136, changed to ZHANGYE kingdom by Emperor Wu until 74 for his son Liu Po until 86. 97 HFHDX 12, HFHD6 105, bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  ZHANGYI is a commandery in northwestZHANGYE is a kingdom made from Shanyang Commandery.
c.97 TIANHAN Era from 100, ends.  TAISHI Era begins until 93. 97 wikCM, wikWu
c.96 QUTIHOU dies.  Chanyu of Xiongnu from 101, HULUGU succeeds until 85. 96 CHEIA 136, ICMH 169, rcN, wikHH, wnck
c.96 Emperor Wu gets paranoid because of a nightmare of being whipped by tiny stick-wielding puppets and a sighting of a traceless assassin. 96 nweW
c.96 Witchcraft persecutions begun by Emperor Wu. 96 nweW, wikWu
c.95 CANAL 100 km long connects Wei to Ching in Shensi. 95 GHCC
c.95 NEGATIVE NUMBERS used by Chinese. 100-91 TTS
c.94 JIANG CHONG promoted to Chief Commandant of Waters, Forests, and Pastures until 91.  Most of his friends and family members are honored. 94 HFHD6 108
c.93 TAISHI Era from 97, ends.  ZHENGHE Era begins 92-89. 93 wikCM, wikWu
c.93 Because his wife was charged with witchcraft, GONGSUN AO is arrested and executed with his relatives. 93 wikGA
c.93 Manuscripts of classics in old characters discovered. 93 GHCC
c.93 Dong Fong Shuo dies. 93 yutH
c.92 LIU PENGZU dies.  Son of Jing Ti and consort Qi Jia, prince JINGXU of Zhao from 152.  Bro Emperor Wu appoints an heir. 92 HFHD 134, HFHD6 109, wikJg
c.92 GONGSUN HE and his son Gongsun Chingsheng are arrested because the son is charged with witchcraft and having an affair with an imperial princess.  Both die in prison Feb/Mar 91.  This opens an opportunity for the Li faction to bid for court supremacy. 92 ICMH 169
91 HFHD6 17
c.92 GONGSUN YI is put in charge of the Privy Treasurer's office. 92 HFHD7 24
c.92 SORCERY trials begin at imperial palace. 92 GHCC     91 wikEWZ
c.92 King of Loulan dies.  His countrymen ask the Han to return his son to be king.  The Han court had castrated his son for law violations, so it refuses, claiming that the Emperor had grown too fond of him to let him go.  With Xiongnu support, his other son, Angui succeeds.  Angui befriends the Xiongnu and resists Han, because Loulan's geographical location meant that it was often ordered by Han to escort its imperial messengers, who were rude to Loulan officials. 92 ICMH 169, wikLln
no date: wikZao
Tarim Basin
c.92 The new king of Loulan is favored by Han, and sends hostages to Chang'an. 92 ICMH 169
No he's not, and he doesn't. wikLln
c.91 GUANGPING, a commandery from 144, is again made a kingdom until 56.  It is called PINGGAN by Emperor Wu, who appoints youngest son of Liu Pengtsu, LIU YEN as king until 81. 91 CHC 193, HFHD 110, HFHD6 109, 110, bril
c.91 Apr 9 An imperial edict says that Lt. Chancellor, Gongsun He, had been taking advantage of his position to do wrong and benefit himself and his family at the expense of the people. 91 HFHD6 112
c.91 Aug MA TUNG is made Marquis of Chungho (in Bohai commandery) with income of 4,870 families until 87. 91 HFHD6 116
c.91 LIU CHULI (relative of Li Furen) becomes chancellor of the left until 91. 91 ICMH 169
c.91 Emperor Wu is ill.  Jiang Chong convinces him that it is caused by witchcraft.  91 ICMH 169
c.91 Sep 1 JIANG CHONG, Chief Commandant of Waters, Forests, and Pastures from 94, is killed. 91 HFHD6 109
c.91 Emperor Wu Ti is safe in his while a 5 day CIVIL WAR erupts at Chang'an between Empress Wei Zifu allied with Crown Prince Liu Ju vs. Consort Zhao's family, the Lis, over the right to choose the heir-apparent.  Weis are supported by criminals and convicts.  Both families are devastated. 91
B76 4-310, CHC 177, ICMH 169, wnck
c.91 HAN YUE, Superintendant of the Imperial Household, claims to have found evidence of black magic in the palace of crown prince Liu Ju.  For this he is killed by Liu Ju. 91 HFHD6 70
c.91 Jiang Chong and Su Wen accuse crown prince Liu Ju of witchcraft.  Emperor Wu relies on Jiang Chong and Su Wen for information.  Jiang, with approval from Emperor Wu, searches thru various palaces.  He plants voodoo dolls and pieces of cloth with mysterious writings in the house of the "perpetrators", then condemns victims on the spot.  Jiang reaches palaces of Liu Ju and Empress Wei Zifu, and says he found proof of crime particularly at Liu Ju's household.  Jiang sends messengers to to report it to Emperor Wu. 91
CHC 175, HFHD6 113, ICMH 170, wikEWZ
c.91 LIU JU sends a man to impersonate a messenger from Emperor Wu, and arrests Jiang Chong and his co-conspirators.  They are arrested, except for Su Wen, who escapes. 91 CHC 175, HFHD6 111, ICMH 170, wikEWZ
c.91 SU WEN runs to , tells Emperor Wu that Crown Prince Liu Ju is revolting.  Emperor Wu, disbelieving it and correctly (at this point) concluding that Liu Ju was merely angry at Jiang Chong, sends a low-ranking eunuch to Chang'an to summon his son for explanation.  The eunuch instead returns and falsely reports that Liu Ju was going to kill him.  Emperor Wu orders his nephew, Prime Minister Liu Qumao, to lead the regular Han army and quell the rebellion. 91 wikEWZ
c.91 LIU JU, son of Empress Wei Zifu, heir-apparent, revolts, arrests Jian Chong and executes him and many shamans.  Empress Wei Zifu, forced to choose between husband and son, choses to support her son and authorizes Liu Ju to rally her palace guards and recruit civilian militias in preparation for retaliation by the conspirators. 91 B76 8-631, CHC 175, HFHD6 122, ICMH 170, ckH, wikEWZ, wikZao
c.91 When crown prince Liu Ju rebells, Lt. Chancellor Liu Chuli mobilizes the men of the office of oarsmen and scullers and gives them to Shangchiu Cheng to lead. 91 HFHD6 111
c.91 JIAN CHONG killed by crown prince Liu Ju in in Shanglin Park . 91 HFHD6 111
c.91 Chancellor LIU CHULI, associate of Jian Chong, flees from Chang'an until Sept. 91 ICMH 170
c.91 Sep Emperor WU TI and LIU CHULI return to Chang'an.  Emperor orders arrest of Crown Prince Liu Ju.  Street fighting breaks out between partisans. 91 ICMH 170
c.91 The 2 forces fight in the streets of Chang'an for 5 days.  Liu Qumao's forces prevail after it becomes clear that Prince Liu Ju does not have his father's authorization.  Liu Ju flees the capital with 2 of his sons 91 wikEWZ
c.91 Judge DU ZHOU, Grandee Secretary from 98, dies. 91 HFHD6 106
c.91 Crown Prince LIU JU and his Queen Sweet Little Lady NEE SHIH, and concubines are imprisoned.  Liu Ju escapes and is later tracked down and cornered in Hu County by local officials eager for rewards.  Liu Ju suicides.  His wife and 2 sons are executed..  Son Liu Bingyi, a few months old, is imprisoned. 91 HFHD7 32, 111, HFHD8 03, 05, ICMH 170, wikEWZ, wikWu, wikXn, wikZao
c.91 Liu Changlo, Superintendent of the Imperial House, is sent with 1 assistant to deprive Empress Wei Zifu of her rank. 91 HFHD7 15
c.91 First witchcraft trial begins with Prime Minister Gongsun Ao (Empress Wei's bro-in-law) and his son, leading to their unexplained suicide in jail. 91 wikEWZ
c.91 Sep Empress WEI ZIFU forced to suicide. 91 CHC 175, ICMH 170, wikEWZ, wikES, wikZao
c.91 Many executed for witchcraft in China, including:
  • Princess YANGSHI, dau of Empress Wei Zifu, Jun/Jul
  • Princess ZHUYI, dau of Empress Wei Zifu, Jun/Jul
  • GONGSUN JINSHENG, son of Wei Junru
  • WEI KANG, son of Wei Qing, Marquis of Changping
  • ZHAO PONU, general, Marquis of Zhuoye from 108
91 CHC 178, HFHD6 106, 107, ICMH 169, bk, nweW, wikEWZ, wikWu
c.91 WEI family is virtually exterminated. 91 CHC 178, ICMH 170
c.91 ZHANG HE, former advisor for Prince Liu Ju before his rebellion, castrated. 91 wikYn
c.91 Imperial counsellors PAO SHENGCHIH and SHANGCHIU CHENG suicide. 91 CHC 178
c.91 Oc/Nv SHANGCHIU CHENG is made Grandee Secretary. 91 HFHD6 116
c.91 Oc/Nv GONGSUN YUNG is arrested and executed. 91 HFHD6 117
c.91/0 SU CHANG, who captured a rebel, the son of former King of Yue, Tsou Chi, and also arrested Gongsun Yung, is made Marquis of Pu County in Shanxi Province until ?. 91/0 HFHD8 19
c.90 Xiongnu resume raiding. 90 ICMH 170
c.90 Liu Dan, Prince of Yen, is Emperor Wu's oldest surviving son, but Wu considers both him and his younger bro Liu Xu, Prince of Guangling kingdom, unsuitable, since neither respect laws.  Left with no other options, Emperor Wu decides on his youngest son, Prince Liu Fuling, age 6.  Wu also chooses a potential regent in Ho Guang, whom he considers capable and loyal.  Wu orders Prince Fuling's mother, Consort Zhao, arrested and executed, lest she become an uncontrollable empress dowager. no date: HFHD6 122, wikZao
c.90 At Ho Guang's suggestion, Emperor Wu makes ethnic Xiongnu official Jin Midi and general Shangguan Jie co-regents. no date: wikZao
c.90 Ap/My SHANGCHIU CHENG is sent north from Xihe Commandery with 20,000 men to attack the Xiongnu. 90 HFHD6 116
c.90 An edict alludes to people's exhaustion caused by bandits, and extreme measures taken to exterminate them. 90 CHC 173
c.90 MA TUNG, Marquis of Chungho 91-87, leads 40,000 troops to the Tien Mts. and returns. 90 HFHD6 116
c.90 Campaigns in Mongolia and Turfan region of central Asia. 90 GHCC 118
c.90 LI GUANGLI leads 70,000 cavalry north from Wuyuan Commandery to attack the Xiongnu. 90 HFHD6 92
c.90 Jul 18 Chancellor LIU CHULI cut in 2 at the waist in public at the Eastern Market.  His wife and children have their heads exposed on the Huayang Street. 91 CHC 178 90 HFHD6 114, ICMH 170
c.90 Han army marches from Juyan north across the Gobi to Karakorum country.  Xiongnu retreat north.  Li Guangli commands 3 columns into the desert.  Other columns are commanded by Ma Tong and Shangchui Cheng. 90
ICMH 170
Tarim Basin
c.90 General Cheng Wan leads troops of 6 western states against Turfan to prevent it from allying with the XiongnuForces used are comprised solely from the western states, indicating that Han has political influence over that region.  Cheng is a former Xiongnu king, but had submitted to Han and was made Marquis of Kailing.  As a result of the expedition, the Han court receives formal submission of Turfan later in the year (90). 90 wikHXW
c.90 LI GUANGLI pushes farther north seeking the chanyu.  He defeats a large Xiongnu force and returns for China.  Xiongnu harass his withdrawal, and finally routs him.  Li Guangli is captured, and defects to the Xiongnu. 90 ICMH 170, wikWu
c.90 The Xiongnu try to induce the Tibetan Qiang to rebel again. 90 HFHD8 25
c.90 Ma Tong and Shangchui Cheng ravage Xiongnu land and return to China with minimal losses. 90 ICMH 171
c.90 Eunuch Guo Rang exposes how Li Guangli and his political ally, Prime Minister Liu Qumao, were conspiring to use witchcraft on Emperor Wu. 90 wikWu
c.90 Emperor Wu Ti learns of LI GUANGLI's defection to Xiongnu, has his family executed. 90 ICMH 170, 171
c.90 Son of Liu Shun, LIU PING, King Ching of Chenting from 114, dies.  Son succeeds. 90 HFHD6 56
c.90 Public turns against Han's expansionist policies.  Treasury is empty; reformists gain power.    Emperor Wu Ti orders withdrawal from Luntai in Tarim Basin, and abandons Tarim Basin. 90 ICMH 171
c.90 Oc/Nv Con man HU CHIEN arrested and beheaded by order of Tien Kuangming. 90 HFHD6 117
c. 90/89 TIAN QIANQIU, superintendent of Emperor Gaozu's temple, presents a petition justifying Crown Prince Liu Ju, saying that he had been wronged and was forced into his position.  Tian Qianqiu says Gaozu told him in a dream that Prince Liu Ju should have only been whipped at most, not killed.  Emperor Wu makes Tian Qianqiu Grand Herald until 89. 92 wikWu
90 HFHD7 32, 89 nweW, wikEWZ
c. 90/89 SU WEN, now believed by Emperor Wu to be a conspirator wrongly inciting Liu Ju to rebellion, burnt alive. 89 wikEWZ
c. 90/89 JIAN CHONG, now believed by Emperor Wu to be a conspirator wrongly inciting Liu Ju to rebellion, executed along with his immediate and extended family. 89 wikEWZ
c.89 Hard snows in Mongolia force Xiongnu to stop raiding. 89 ICMH 171
c.89 HULUGU, chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu 95-85, requests renewal of the heqin agreement with increased annual tribute. 89 wikHH
c.89 Jul 27 TIAN QIANQIU, Grand Herald from 90, is made Lt. Chancellor and on the same day Marquis of Fuming until 77. 89
HFHD7 32
c.89 TIEN KUANGMING appointed Grand Herald until 83.  His older bro, Tien Yunchung is promoted to Grand Administrator of Huaiyang Commandery. 89
HFHD7 16
c.89 Ho commanderiesOffice of Colonel Director of the Retainers, formerly a Zhou office, first appointed in Han times by Emperor Wu until 9BC.  He has charge of the 3 capital commanderies: that of Governor of the Capital, Eastern Supporter, and Western Sustainer, the 3 Ho commanderies, Henei, , and Henan, and also Hungnung Commandery. 89 HFHD6 86, HFHD8 55
c.89 WANG XIN made Western Sustainer until ? by emperor Wu. 89 HFHD7 36
c.89 QIANG TEH, is made Marquis of Liaoyang in Chingyuan in Wei Commandery until 77. 89 HFHD7 35
c.89 ZHENGHE Era from 93, ends.  HOUYUAN Era begins 88-87. 89 wikCM, wikWu
c.89 King of Turfan surrenders to Han. 89 ICMH 171
c.89 Xianling tribe of the Qiang people of Tibet, discontented that they had lost the fertile lands at Jiuquan and Zhangyi, send an envoy to the Xiongnu, proposing a joint-attack on Han in the region. 89 wikHXW
c.89 CHAO KAO invents new farm tools and system of crop rotation. 89 GHCC
c.88 Jl/Ag Assassination attempt on Emperor Wu by Ma Holo and bro Ma Tung. 88 CHC 173, HFHD6 118
c.88 Lady ZHAO, mother of Liu Fuling, forced to suicide. 88 wikWu
c.88 LUNGLO Marquisate in Hejian (Hochien), vacant from 112, resumes.  Son of last marquis Han Yueh, HAN TSENG becomes Marquis An of Lunglo until 56. 88 HFHD7 23
c.88 LI GUANGLI, Han defector to the Xiongnu from 90, executed after a conflict with Wei Lu, another Han defector who is favoured by the chanyu. 88 yutH, wikLG
c.88/7 Dunhuang DUNHUANG, a Han military commandery proposed 111 west of Jiuquan Commandery, established. 88/7 HFHD6 73
c.87 spring WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, goes to Wutso Palace, gets sick.  No crown prince had been nominated.  Liu Dan, Prince of Yen, is Emperor Wu's oldest surviving son, but Emperor Wu considered him and his younger bro Liu Xu, Prince of Kuangling kingdom, unsuitable, since neither respected laws.  Ho Guang asks Wu Ti what he wants done.  The outcome may be Wu Ti's expressed wish and/or Ho Guang's intentions.  It is planned to enthrone his youngest son, 6 year old Liu Fuling, under protection of senior officials.  Government is under a triumvirate:  Ho Guang is chief, with the title of marshal of state.  The other 2 members are Jin Midi and Shangguan Jie. The 3 are supported by Sang Hungyang, who is now imperial counsellor. 88 nweW, wikHG, wikWu, 87 CHC 178, HFHD6 122
c.87 Mar 23 HO GUANG is made Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief.  JIN MIDI is made General of Chariots and Cavalry.  Chief of the Stud SHANGGUAN JIE is made Junior General.  Chief Commander of Provisions and Grain, SANG HUNGYANG is made Grandee Secretary. 87 HFHD7 122
c.87 Mar 27 Youngest son of Wu Ti by Lady Zhao (now dead), LIU FULING, age 7, is made crown prince by Wu Ti. 87 CHC 179, HFHD6 126, HFHD7 02, ckH, wikZao
c.87 Mar 29 10th child of Emperor Jing by Consort Wang Zhi, WU TI dies.  Han emperor from 140.  Youngest son by Lady Zhao, age 7, Liu Fuling, succeeds as ZHAO TI 86-74.  HO GUANG regent until 68.  Jin Midi until 86, and Shangguan Jie are co-regents.  Palace is run by Princess Eyi, Emperor Wu's dau and Emperor Zhao's older sis, who had moved back to the palace to serve as Emperor Zhao's caretaker.  Wei and Li clans are now eclipsed by Zhao. 87 B76 4-310, 8-631, CHAC 970, CHC 179, CHEIA 131, GHCC 125, HFHD6 121-2, HFHD7 02, ICMH 171, MCAW 243, TAWH 81, bgsp, bk, chc3, ckH, frie, hceisH, nweW, rcC, tcgHn, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu, wikZao, wstn
87/6 wnck     86 yutH
c.87 Mr/Ap GENERAL AMNESTY issued. 87 HFHD8 06
c.87 The Wuhuan had dug up some graves of the Xiongnu Chanyu, whereupon the Xiongnu attack them. 87 HFHD7 31
c.87 Xiongnu resume raids on China, but this time Han is too weak to respond. 87 ICMH 171
c.87 MA TUNG, Marquis of Chungho from 91, executed by being cut in 2 at the waist for complicity in a proposed rebellion, along with his older bro, Ma Holo. 87 HFHD6 116
c.87 PRINCESS EYI, widow of Wang Shou, is given more estates.  She cares for Emperor Zhao in the Summer Apartments of the Imperial Palace.  She becomes attached to Ding Wairen.  Emperor Zhao and regent, Ho Guang don't want to break up her attachment, so an edict summons Ding Wairen to wait on Princess Eyi. 87 HFHD7 03
c.87 LIU KUAN, king of Jibei (Chipo) from 97, accused of several sexual offenses and having cursed and sacrificed against Emperor Zhao.  He suicides by sword to throat.  This ends the royal line of Liu Chang. 87 HFHD7 07
c.87 JIBEI (Chipo), kingdom from 151, incorporated into the Peian Xien of Taishan commandery. 87 bril
c.87 HOUYUAN Era from 88, ends.  SHIYUAN Era begins 86-80. 87 wikCM, wikWu, wikZao
c.87 Jl/Aug SHANGCHIU CHENG is sentenced for having drunkenly sung disrespectfully in the temple of Emperor Hsiaowen or for having made invocations against Emperor Wu.  He suicides. 87 HFHD6 116
87
Aug 6-19
HALLEY'S COMET recorded by Chinese and Babylonians. 87 MCAW 241, 269, wikHC
c.86 GOWURU ends.  King of Buyeo in west Korea from 121, ends.  Buyeo splits into Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo) and Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo).  GODUMAK becomes king of Bukbuyeo 108-60.  HAEBURU becomes king of Dongbuyeo until 48. 86 rcK, wikKor
c.86 Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo) branches out, after which the original Buyeo is sometimes referred to as Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo).  Jolbon Buyeo is predecessor to Goguryeo. 86 wikKor
c.86 LIU PO, son of Emperor Wu, king of Zhangye (formerly Shanyang) from 97, dies.  Son LIU HO succeeds until 74. 89 HFHD6 105 86 HFHD8 12, wikMH, wikWu
c.86 LIU DAN, son of Wu Ti and consort Li, prince of Yen 117-80, secretly plans his 1st rebellion, in conspiracy with imperial clan members, Liu Zhang and Liu Ze.  They plan to accuse Emperor Zhao of not being Emperor Wu's son, and then for Liu Ze, a grandson of a former prince of Qi, to start a rebellion in Linzi.  Prince Dan would then start a rebellion from his state of Yen. 86 CHC 180, HFHD7 13, wikHG, wikHH, wikZao
c.86 The conspiracy is discovered, but Prince Dan shifts responsibility on one of his relatives, and is not punished.  The other conspirators are executed. 86 CHC 180, HFHD7 11, wikZao
c.86 LI CHUNG becomes Commandant of Justice until 83. 86 HFHD7 16
c.86 MA-SHIH CHIEN becomes Chief of Palace Police in Chang'an until 80. 86 HFHD7 23
c.86 Lientou and Kutseng, cities of Yichou Commandery, rebel. Yichou and Tsangko 86 HFHD7 08-9
c.86 Tanchih, city of Tsangko Commandery, rebels. 86 HFHD7 08-9
c.86 LU POHU is made Chief Commandant of Waterways and Parks until ?.  He enlist troops to counter rebellion of Kunming tribes in Yichou and Tsangko Commanderies in southwest. 86 GHCC 118, HFHD7 10
c.86 WANG PING is sent to inspect the empire. 86 HFHD7 12
c.86 Sep JIN MIDI, ethnically Xiongnu co-regent, a moderating influence in the co-regency, after being created a marquis on his sickbed, dies. 86 CHC 182, HFHD6 120, wikES, wikHH, wikT, wikZao     85 wikHG
c.86 After Jin Midi dies, Shangguan Jie is created marquis of Anyang because he had captured and killed Ma Holo. 86 HFHD6 120, wikZao
c.86 CHUAN PUYI, Inspector of Ching Province from ?, is promoted to Governor of Chang'an until 82. 86 HFHD7 13
c.86 LIU FU becomes King XIEN of Chungshan (Zhongshan) until 70. 86 HFHDX 17
c.86  Shih-Chi  "Records of the Grand Historian" by Sima Qian completed.  Raised relief map portrayed. 97 yutH     94 wikT
91 wikLCI     90 CHAC 983 87 frie     85 B76 10-1053
c.86 Historian SIMA QIAN dies. 92 GHCC,     87 hceisH     86 CHAC 21, 69, 971, CHC 171, bgsp, frie, wikHH, wikLCI     85 B76 2-1008, 9-597, 17-525
c.85 HULUGU dies.  Chanyu of Xiongnu from 95, dies of illness.  After a succession dispute, CHUANGDI succeeds until 68.  His mom is pro-Chinese. 85 CHEIA 136, rcN, wikHH, wikHXW, wnck, wstn
83 ICMH 171
c.85 The Wu Huan and Ding Lin, under Xiongnu from ?, rebel and defeat the weakened Xiongnu.  Afterward the Ding Lin split into Western and Northern Ding Lin. 85 wnck
84 CHC 235
c.85 Feb 22 HO GUANG created marquis of Bowang (Polu) until ?. 85 HFHD6 123, wikHG
c.85 LIU CHANGLO, Superintendent of the Imperial Household from ?, is appointed Imperial Household Grandee.  CHANG ANSHIH becomes Superintendent of the Imperial Household until ?. 85 HFHD7 15
c.85 LIU PICHANG, scholar, Superintendent of the Imperial House, age 79, dies. 85 HFHD7 14
c.84 Shangguan An is son of Shangguan Jie.  Jie wants An's 5 year old dau to marry Emperor Zhao.  Ho Guang refuses, because she is too young.  Shangguan An is a friend of Princess Eyi's lover, Ding Wairen.  An promises Ding a marquisate if Ding will bribe and persuade princess Eyi of the soundness of the marriage - reasoning that it would increase Shangguan power, and that a marquisate would help Ding legitimize his relationship with Princess Eyi.  Princess Eyi agrees. 84 wikES, wikHG, wikZao no date: HFHD7 03, 15
c.84 LIU CHING, king of Luan from 121, dies. 84 HFHD6 43
c.84 Shangguan An's 5 year old dau is created an imperial consort until 83 named Lady Shangguan. 84 wikES, wikZao
c.84 XU JEN, Grand Administrator of Jiaoxi, becomes Privy Treasurer until 78. 84 HFHD7 30
c.83 Apr LADY SHANGGUAN, dau of Shangguan An, age 6, is created Empress. 83 HFHD6 121, HFHD7 15, 24, wikES, wikHG, wikZao
c.83 EMPEROR ZHAO, age 13, marries a dau, age 5, of Shangguan An . 83 HFHD6 126
c.83 SHANGGUAN AN, son of Shangguan Jie, is made Commander of Chariots and Cavalry until 80. 83 CHC 181, HFHD7 15, 17
c.83 LI CHUNG, Commandant of Justice from 86, is sentenced for having previously allowed persons who had committed capital crimes to go free.  Publicly executed. 83
HFHD7 16
c.83 2nd Dian rebellion. 83 wikHH
c.83 LU POHU, Chief Commandant of Waterways and Parks 86-?, is sent to quell another rebellion. 83 HFHD7 10
c.83 TIEN KUANGMING, Grand Herald from 89, made Commander of the Palace Guard, and sent to lead troops to attack rebels in Yichou Commandery until 80. 83 HFHD7 16
northeast commanderies
c.82 CHINBON (Zhenpan) and IMDUN, the eastern & southern commanderies of Korea from 108 abandoned.  XUANTU and LOLANG are the only 2 of the original 4 commanderies remaining. 83 ICMH 171, 82 B76 VII-181, CHC 196, bril, wikHH
c.82 Cheng Fangsui, a diviner of Xiayang who looks like former Crown Prince Ju appears at the palace, claiming to be Prince Liu Ju.  Several tens of thousands of high officials, and people of Chang'an gather to see him.  They dare not say anything.  Chuan Puyi arrives and orders the man arrested.  Cheng Fangsui is arrested, shown to be an impostor, and executed in the Eastern Market by being cut in 2 at the waist. 82 HFHD7 13, 17, wikZao
c.82 WANG PING is sent as Chief of the Army to chastise rebels in Yichou Commandery, and routs them. 82 HFHD7 12
c.82 WANG PING again becomes Chief Justice. 82 HFHD7 12
c.82 Aug 4 SHANGGUAN AN is created marquis of Sanglo, and becomes arrogant and extravagant. 82 HFHD7 17, wikZao
c.82 CHUAN PUYI, Governor of Chang'an from 86, gets sick and is dismissed, and dies at home. 82 HFHD7 14
c.82 Korean LINTUN Commandery, established 108, abolished. 82 HFHD6 81
c.82 Korean ZHENPAN Commandery, established 108, abolished. 82 HFHD6 81
c.82 XUANTU Commandery, established 108, abolished. 82 HFHD6 81
c.82 At suggestion of Du Yannian, Ho Guang considers terminating some policies of Emperor Wu intended to raise revenues for war. 82 wikZao
c.82 2nd Campaign against KUNMING tribes in Yichou and Tsangko Commanderies.  This campaign extends Han power to the routes to Burma. 82 GHCC 118
c.82 DANER Commandery, in Hainan Island from 111, assimilated into Zhua commandery, which ends 47. 82 CHC 196, HFHD6 67, ICMH 172, bril
c.81 early Han ambassadors to Xiongnu inquire of Su Wu's fate.  The Xiongnu say Su had long died.  But, Su's old assistant Chang Hui secretly informs the ambassadors of Su's exile, and the ambassadors, under Chang's suggestion, tell chanyu Huyandi that Emperor Zhao had killed a migratory goose while hunting, and that a letter from Su seeking help was found on the bird's foot.  Huyandi admits that Su is still alive, recalls him and allows him and his 9 followers to go home. 81 wikSW
c.81 spring SU WU, and assocoate Chang Hui, prisoners of Xiongnu from 100, return to Chang'an.  Su Wu is made Director of Dependent States with the rank of 2000 piculs, and is granted 200 mou of land and a place of residence.  Chang Hui is made a Gentleman-of-the-Household. 81
HFHD7 20, HFHD8 34, wikSW, yutH
c.81 Youngest son of Liu Pengtsu, LIU YEN, king of Pinggan from from 91, dies. 81 HFHD6 109
c.81 LONGXI, a Han commandery from 205, reduced by detachment of 2 counties to form part of Jincheng commandery. 81 CHC 196, bril
c.81 Two of Tianshu's counties are detached to form part of Jincheng commandery. 81 CHC 196, bril
c.81 ZHANGYI Commandery, established 111 or 104, gets 2 of its counties detached to form part of Jincheng commandery. 81 CHC 196, bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  ZHANGYI is a commandery in northwestZHANGYE is a kingdom made from Shanyang Commandery.
c.81 Jincheng JINCHENG commandery is created in the northwest by detaching 6 counties from existing commanderies of Tianshu, Longxi, and Zhangyi.  This is for administrative efficiency, not from new conquests. 81 CHC 196, HFHD7 21
c.81 Son of Xiao Tse, XIAO CHING, Marquis Kung of Tsan in Nanyang Commandery from 120, dies. 18 HFHD6 43

East Asia 81-49
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