Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.20 POZHULONUTI (Vughturi) dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 31.  Bro SHUZHUNOTI (Seughie) succeeds until 12. 20 ICMH 181, rcN, wnck
c.20 SHIH TAN is transferred to be General of the Left and Imperial Palace Grandee. 20 HFHD 176
c.20 CHANG YU, Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Anchang from 25, is allowed to retire because of age.  Chang Yu returns to his residence, but continues to visit court until death in 5. 20 HFHDX 14
c.20 Emperor Cheng Ti makes Shih Tan Marquis of Wuyang with his state at Wuchiangchi in the city of Tan in Donghai Commandery, with income of 1100 families. 20 HFHD 176
c.20 Emperor CHENG TI visits the place where his own tomb is being prepared, and orders population migrations to it.  Migrations begin until 16. 20 CHC 210
c.20 Emperor CHENG TI starts traveling incognito in Chang'an, in pursuit of pleasures such as cockfighting. 20 CHC 213
c.20 Jun 18 WANG CHUN, Governor of Chang'an from 21, is made Grandee Secretary until death in 15. 20 HFHDX 24
c.20 WANG YIN, Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots and Cavalry from 22, is made marquis with income of 1600 families until death 15. 20 HFHD 214
c.20 When Yang Xiung was more than 30 years old, he came from Shu to the capital.  The Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots and Cavalry Wang Yin admired his writing, so he summoned Yang Xiung to be an official in his office.  Then Wang Yin recommended Yang Xiung to be an Expectant Appointee. 20 HFHD 224
c.19 TONGMYONG WANG, king of Goguryeo north Korea from 37, ends.  YURIMYONG WANG succeeds until 18CE. 19 rcK
c.19 GUANGDE (Kuangte) kingdom founded in Youxian (Danyang) until 17.  LIU YUNKO is appointed king. 19 CHC 199, HFHDX 17, bril
c.19 Emperor Cheng visits Princess Yanga.  He wants her dancing girl Zhao Feiyen and her sis Zhao Hede.  They are both made concubines and he favors them over Empress Xu and Consort Ban Jieyu. 19 wikCB, wikCng, wikEX, wikWZ
c.19 LIU YUN, King Ai of Chengyang from ?, dies without heir.  Younger bro LIU YI is appointed by Emperor Cheng until 8CE. 19 CHC 199, HFHDX 20
c.18 Jan 8 Empress Xu is sentenced, deposed, and sent to live in Chaotai Palace.  The way to advancement now lay open to the Zhao sisters and their family. 18 CHC 214, HFHD 158, HFHDX 18, wikCng, wikEX
c.18 BAEKJE (Paekche) kingdom is founded in Mahan territory in Kwangju area of southwest Korea until 660CE by ONJO, 3rd son of Jumong, who is king until 28CE. 18 B76 VII-671, 10-507, rcK, wikBkj, wikKor, wikP3K
c.18 Eastern Xiongnu overthrow the Han protectorate, regains independence. 18 wnck
c.18 DUAN HUIZONG, Protector General of the Western Regions from 21, ends.  Successor unknown until 15. 18 wikPWR
c.18 Both Empress Xu and Consort Ban Jieyu are accused of witchcraft by Zhao sisters Feiyen and Hede.  Empress Xu is put under house arrest away from court, but Consort Ban pleads her case.  She impresses Emperor Cheng and he allows her to stay at court.  She then becomes a lady in waiting to Empress Dowager Wang, instead of remaining consort to the Emperor.  Emperor Cheng wants to make Zhao Feiyan empress, but Empress Dowager Wang complains about her low birth and prior occupation as a dancer. 18 HFHD 158, wikCB, wikCng, wikEX, wikWZ
c.18 Office of Supervisor of the Household of the Empress abolished by Emperor Cheng Ti.  Duties are given to the Great Prolonger of Autumn. 18 HFHD8 17, HFHD99c 68
c.18 Official titles now up for sale. 18 GHCC
c.18 CHENGYANG, ??? from 168, becomes a commandery until 16. 18 bril
c.18  Biographies of Exemplary Women , a book about exemplary women in Chinese history, is compiled by Liu Xiang. 18 bril
c.18 Rebel CHENG KUNG calls himself Lord of the Mountains. 18 HFHDX 19
c.17 HONGJIA Era from 20, ends.  YONGSHI Era begins 16-13. 17 wikCM, wikCng
c.17 CHAO HU is made Grand Administrator of Guanghan Commandery. 17 HFHDX 19
c.17 WANG TAN, Marquis An of Pingah from 27, dies. 17 HFHDX 06
c.17 LIU YUNKO, king of GUANGDE (Kuangte) from 19, dies.  Kingdom abolished. 17 CHC 199
no date: HFHDX 17
c.16 May 23 CHAO LIN is made Marquis Chieh of Chengyang until 12, with income of 2000 families. 16 HFHDX 19
c.16 CHENGYANG, a commandery from 18, becomes a marquisate until ?. 16 bril
c.16 GIJUNG (Kye Wang), king of Mahan in southwest Korea from 32, ends.  GIHAK succeeds until 9. 16 rcK
c.16 WANG SHANG, Marquis of Chengdu, submits a petition to divide part of his march and to create Wang Mang a marquis.  Several well-regarded officials concurr, and Emperor Cheng is impressed with Wang Mang's reputation.  He therefore creates Wang Mang Marquis of Xindu. 16 wikWM
c.16 XINDU (formerly Guangchuan) is made a commandery.  WANG MANG is made marquis until . 16 B76 19-537, CHC 200, 226, HFHDX 20, wikWM, yutH
c.16 FENG TSAN, Gentleman in the Funerary Chamber of Wei Tomb, is promoted to Grand Administrator of Dai Commandery until 13. 16 HFHDX 32
c.16 Population migrations to work on Emperor Cheng Ti's tomb from 20, suspended.  At the same time Liu Xiang had been arguing against extravagant funerary practices. 16 CHC 210
c.16 LIU HU, king of Guangling from ?, dies without heirs.  16 HFHDX 31
c.16 XIAO HO, Marquis Li of Tsan from ?, degraded for having had a slave murder someone. 16 HFHDX 27
c.16 Aug 19 XIAO XI, great-great-grandson of Xiao Ho, and Chief of Nanluan, is made Marquis of Tsan until 14. 16 HFHDX 27
c.16 WATHUMUNDALA, king of Arkan on west coast of Burma from 50, ends.  THURINDA succeeds until 15CE. 16 rcSAM
c.16 SHUNYU CHANG, a Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, promoted to Chief Commandant of Waters and Parks until 13. 16 HFHDX 22
16 SOLAR ECLIPSE and several earthquakes. 16 HFHDX 15
c.16 Sep Favorite Beauty WANG, Empress WANG XIAOXUAN 64, Dowager 49, Grand Empress Dowager from 33, dies. 16 HFHD 212, wikEWX, wikXn
c.16 ZHAO FEIYEN, dau of Zhao Lin, harem girl from ?, is appointed Empress.  Her favor with Emperor Cheng declines while he favors her sister Hede, who is made a Brilliant Companion (highest ranking concubine) and lives in Sun-bright Residence (Chaoyang).  Both girls are favored for more than 10 years but die without children. 16 CHC 214, HFHD 15, HFHDX 22, 28, wikCng, wikWZ
c.16 Ice Chamber, a room for storing ice, in Weiyang Palace is burnt. 16 HFHD 95
c.15 early WANG CHUN, Grandee Secretary from 20, dies. 15 HFHDX 24
c.15 Feb WANG YIN, Commander-in-chief, General of Chariots & Cavalry, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 22, marquis from 20, dies.  WANG SHANG succeeds until 12. 15 HFHD 214, HFHD7 06, wikWZ
c.15 KUNG KUANG is made Superintendant of the Imperial Household and Intendant of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing. 15 HFHDX 35
c.15 GAO SHUN becomes Protector General of the Western Regions until 12. 15 wikPWR
c.15 Kaoling marquisate is given to Chai Fangchin. 15 HFHD99c 66
c.15 WANG YIN, Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, and controller of the business of the Master of Writing from 22, ends.  WANG SHANG succeeds until 11. 15 wikCng
c.15 WANG SHANG, Marquis Chingcheng of Chengdu 27-11 made Commander-in-chief and General of the Guard, thus controlling the government.  His marquisate is increased by 2000 households. 15 HFHDX 07
c.15 LIU TAN becomes marquis of Pingtung in Poyang prefecture of Jinan Commandery until 8. 15 HFHD8 66
c.15  Fang Yen , dictionary, 1st book on dialects, written by Yang Xiong.  Shows a trip hammer operated by lever and fulcrum used to pound grain. 15 GHCC, wikLCI
c.15  Dictionary of Local Expressions  , written by Yang Xiong.  BELT DRIVE, using a pulley machine is 1st mentioned used for a quilling machine that wound silk fibers onto bobbins for weavers' shuttles. 15 wikLCI
c.15 Dec 21 KUNG KUANG is promoted to Grandee Secretary until 8. 15 HFHD7 06, HFHDX 35
c.14 Peasants revolt in China. 14 GHCC, bk
c.14 XIAO XI, Marquis of Tsan from 16, dies. 14 HFHDX 27
c.14 Cult of the Jewel of Chen, 1st attested in 747, is reestablished by an edict of Empress Dowager nee Wang, when Emperor Cheng had no children.  Her temple is directly west of Chang'an. 14 HFHDX 24
c.14 SHIH TAN is made Privy Treasurer, and in Jun/Jul is promoted to superintendent of the Imperial Household. 14 HFHD 174
c.14/3 FAN PING leads a rebellion, together with 12 others until 13.  They kill the Grand Administrator of Chenliu Commandery. 14/3 HFHDX 26
c.13 Jn/Fb Escaped convict SU LING, leads a rebellion of 228 convicts in the office for iron in Zhangyi (Shanyang) Commandery, kills their Chief Official, takes arms from the arsenal, and overruns 19 commanderies and kingdoms. 13 HFHDX 26
c.13 YONGSHI Era from 16, ends.  YUANYAN Era begins 12-9. 13 wikCM, wikCng
c.13 Escaped convict SU LING captured and executed by Chuang Xin.  His rebellion lasts into 12 13
HFHDX 26
c.13 Emperor Cheng travels and visits Kanchuan Palace, where he performs the sacrifice "chiao" at the altar to the Supreme One. 13
HFHD6 115
c.13 CHUANG XIN, Grand Administrator of Junan Commandery, is promoted to Grand Minister of Agriculture until 11, and given 100 catties of gold.  Surname Chuang is changed to Yen. 13 HFHDX 26
c.13 SHUNYU CHANG, Chief Commandant of Waters and Parks from 16, promoted to Commandant of the Palace Guard, so he is one of the 9 ministers until ?. 13 HFHDX 22
c.13 FENG TSAN, Grand Administrator of Dai Commandery from 16, is removed to be Grand Administrator of Anding Commandery until ?. 13 HFHDX 32
c.13 LI TAN, a criminal of Chenliu Commandery, heads a conspiracy which assassinates rebel Fan Ping. 13 HFHDX 26
c.13 FAN PING rebel leader from 14/3, killed by criminal, Li Tan. 13 HFHDX 26
c.13 Aug 9 LI TAN is made Marquis Chieh of Yenxiang with income of 1,000 households until 1BC. 13 HFHDX 26
c.12 SHUZHUNOTI (Seughie) dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 20, dies.  Half bro QIYANOTI (Chega) succeeds until 8. 12 ICMH 181, rcN     11 wnck
c.12 Tuan Huizong leads army into Wusun to support one of the kings.  He is successful thru force and diplomacy. 12 ICMH 181
c.12 Wang Mang assembles all barbarians in the capital, and in their presence beheads Tang, son of the Heaou Chanyu Heen, publicly in the market-place. 12 wstn
c.12 GAO SHUN, Protector General of the Western Regions from 15, ends.  SUN JIAN succeeds until 9. 12 wikPWR
c.12 CHAO HU, Grand Administrator of Guanghan Commandery from 17, is made Chief of Palace Police in the Capital. 12 HFHDX 19
c.12 CHAO LIN Marquis Chieh of Chengyang from 16, dies. 12 HFHDX 19
c.12 KU YUNG is made Grand Administrator of Beidi Commandery until 9. 12 HFHD 104
12 Ag-Oc HALLEY'S COMET appears, but only recorded by Chinese. 12 MCAW 269, wikHC, wikHD
c.12 Ceremonies for supreme god Shangdi, at shrines south and north of Chang'an from 31, moved back to Kanchuan Palace until 7. 12 HFHD6 57
c.11 Feb 2 WANG SHANG, Marquis Chingcheng of Chengdu from 27, Commander-in-chief, General of Chariots & Cavalry, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 15, dies.  Bro WANG KEN succeeds until 8. 12 HFHD7 07, wikCng, wikWM, wikWZ     11 CHC 226, HFHDX 07
c.11 Feb 11 After the death of his bro Wang Shang, WANG KEN, Marquis Yang of Chuyang 27-7, is made Commander-in-chief and General of Agile Cavalry until 8, thus controlling the government.  He is avaricious and incompetent. 11 HFHDX 7
c.11 Ulunoti becomes chanyu contender until 10, when he quits, but doesn't die until 18CE. 11 rcN
c.11 Fb/Mr Yang Xiung follows Emperor Cheng to Kanchuan Palace. 11 HFHD 223
c.11 Ap/My Emperor Cheng goes to make offerings to the gods across the river.  When he returns, Yang Xiung presented him with the "Hotung Fu" as an admonishment. 11 HFHD 223
c.11 My/Jn LIU SHOU, a younger son of Liu Pa, King Xiao of Guangling, is made King Ching of Guangling until 6CE.  11 HFHDX 31
c.11 WANG LI, Marquis Huang of Hungyang 32-3, becomes involved in a crooked deal.  Li Shang, Grand Administrator of Nan Commandery, had opened much grassland to cultivation, and, when ordered to sell these fields to the inhabitants, urged by Grand Admistrator Wang Li, raised the price greatly.  Inspector, Sun Pao hears of it and impeaches Wang Li and Li Shang as deceiving the throne.  Li Shang dies in prison.  Wang Li is not punished, but is passed over by Emperor Cheng at the death of Wang Shang in 11BC, and Wang Ken is made Commander-in-chief in his place. 11 HFHDX 07
c.11 2 alleged sons of Emperor Cheng are allegedly murdered.  Their aleged moms are Consort Cao and Consort Xu (a likely relative of Empress Xu).  One of the sons is allegedly murdered by Consort Zhao Hede and possibly Emperor Cheng himself. 11 wikCng
c.10 Jan There is a grand hunt, and Yang Xiung writes the  Yu-lieh Fu . 10 HFHD 223
c.10 SHUNYU CHANG, Commandant of the Palace Guard from 13, made Marquis of Tingling until 8. 10 HFHDX 22
c.10 Sis of Empress Xu, Xu Mi, after the death of her husband Han Bao, Marquis of Longye, has an affair with Emperor Cheng's powerful cousin Chunyu Zhang, who is considered a possible successor to their uncle Wang Ken as commander of armed forces.  Empress Xu asks her sis to ask Chunyu to intercede on her behalf, and she gave Chunyu many gifts.  Empress Xu wants to regain her freedom and again become an imperial consort, figuring empress status is out.  Chunyu, in order to continue to get gifts from her, tells her that he will try to have her made "left empress" -i.e., returned to empress status in an inferior role to Empress Zhao.  Chunyu has no such intentions. 10 wikEX
c.10 WANG FENGSHIH, Marquis Tai of Kaoping from 27, dies. 10 HFHDX 08
c.9 GI-HAK, king of Mahan in southwest Korea from 16, ends.  9 rcK
c.9 LIU JIZI (later Emperor Ping) born to Consort Wei & Liu Xing, younger bro of Emperor Cheng. 9 wikPn
c.9 SUN JIAN, Protector General of the Western Regions from 12, ends.  3 unknown successors until 1CE. 9 wikPWR
c.9 LIU XIN, 17 year old Prince of Dingtao 23-7, visits Chang'an, brings his teacher, his prime minister, and the commander of his capital's defense forces to accompany him.  He shows understanding of Confucian classic Shi Jing, impressing his uncle Emperor Cheng. 9 wikAi
c.9 Emperor Cheng wants to show the Xiongnu that he has many animals and birds.  In autumn, he orders the people of Yufufeng to go to Nan Mountain to spread nets for game, which are then caged.  The Xiongnu are ordered to fight these animals with their hands and given whatever they got.  The Emperor attends the contests. 9 HFHD 223
c.9 Office of Colonel Director of the Retainers, in charge of the 3 capital commanderies: that of Governor of the Capital, Eastern Supporter, and Western Sustainer, from 89, abolished by Emperor Cheng until 7. 9 HFHD8 55
c.9 TAO-TSE religion of mystic Laokium begins.  It says chaos preceeded heaven and earth.  Prior to chaos was a silent being, immeasurable, sole, immutable, full of activity, the parent of the universe.  Laokium calls it Reason. 9 GHH
c.9 KU YUNG, Grand Administrator of Poti Commandery from 12, promoted to Grand Minister of Agriculture until 8. 9 HFHD 105
c.9 Still heirless, Emperor Cheng decides to make either his younger bro Liu Xing Prince of Zhongshan or his nephew Prince Liu Xin of Dingtao (son of late Prince Kang) his heir.  Emperor Cheng thinks that Liu Xin is more capable, and Prince Xin's grandmother Consort Fu is endearing herself to the Zhaos and Wang Ken with lavish gifts.  So the Zhaos and Wang Ken praise Prince Xin as well. 9 wikCng, wikWZ
c.9 PAN PO, scholar and teacher in the imperial court and an intimate of Emperor Cheng, dies. 9 HFHD 159
c.9 YUANYAN Era from 12, ends.  SUIHE Era begins 8-7. 9 wikCM, wikCng
c.8 Emperor Cheng summons several key officials to discuss with him who would be the proper heir.  One candidate is Liu Xin, grandson of Yuan Ti's consort of the Fu family and thus half-nephew of Cheng Ti.  His mother is from the Ting family; Liu Xin is supported by Cheng Ti's consort Zhao Hede (sis of empress Zhao Feyin) and Wang Ken, marshal of state at the time.
The other is Liu Xing, king of Zhongshan since 23.  He is a half-bro of Cheng Ti.  His mother had been Yuan Ti's consort of the Feng family, dau of Feng Fengshi.
8 CHC 215, wikAi
c.8
Mar 20
LIU XIN, son of Liu Kang, is made Crown Prince, since Emperor Cheng has no sons. 8 CHC 215, HFHD 132, HFHDX 32, wikCng, wikWZ
c.8
Mar 31
FENG TSAN made Marquis of Yixiang unti 6, in order to console Liu Xing. 8 HFHDX 33
c.8 LIU XIN, son of Liu Kang, king of Dingtao from 22, surrenders Dingtao.  Emperor Cheng Ti appoints a son of King Szu of Chu, LIU CHING to succeed until 5. 8 HFHD 195, HFHDX 32
c.8 My/Jn WANG KEN, Marquis Yang of Chuyang 27-7, Commander-in-chief and General of Agile Cavalry from 11, is ill, and is changed to be merely Commander-in-chief until Nov. 8
HFHDX 07, wikWM
c.8 QIYANOTI (Chega) dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 12.  Bro UCHILONOTI (Otiuru) succeeds until 13CE. 8 ICMH 181, rcN, wikWsn
7 wnck
c.8 SHUNYU CHANG, imprisoned from ?, dies.  His wife and kids are exiled to Hopu Commandery, and his mom Jo is sent back to her Commandery. 8 HFHDX 23
c.8 Last of 4 regents appointed by Wang Mang retires. 8 B76 19-537
c.8 Son of former Chanyu Huhanye, LUANTI YU is made Sage King of the West. 8 HFHD99c 15
c.8 KU YUNG, Grand Minister of Agriculture from 9, becomes ill and is dismissed.  Soon dies. 8 HFHD 105
c.8 HUNG HO-CHI is made Yin Shao-chia Duke. 8 HFHD 113
c.8 LIU TAN marquis of Pingtung from 15, ends. 8 HFHD8 66
c.8 CHILUEH, a biographical classification, created by LIU XIANG, Imperial librarian. 7 GHCC
c.8 LIU XIANG, Imperial librarian, dies while his proposal of constructing a Pi-yung is being considered.  Son LIU XIN succeeds until 23CE. 8 CHAC 971, 1014, HFHD 132
6 GHCC, HFHD 231
c.8 KUNG KUANG, Grandee Secretary from 15, demoted to Commandant of Justice. 8 HFHDX 36
c.8 KUNG KUANG is promoted to General of the Left occupying the office and duties of the General of the Right until 7. 8 HFHDX 36
c.8 Office of Clerk of the Capital is abolished. 8 HFHD 47
c.8 Number of students at Academy raised to 3,000. 8 GHCC
c.8 1st PAPER with legible Chinese characters on it. 8 wikPpr
8 Sep LIU XING son of Yuan Ti & Consort Feng Yuan, Prince Xiao of Zhongshan from 23, dies.  Son LIU JIZI succeeds until 1BCE. 8 CHC 215, 7 wikYn
c.8 WANG KEN, Commander-in-chief, General-in-chief, and controller of the business of the Master of Writing from 12, is ill and about to resign.  Possible successors are Wang Mang and his cousin Chunyu Zhang (son of Empress Dowager Wang's sis), who has a closer relationship to Emperor Cheng.  Wang Mang collects evidence that Chunyu took bribes from deposed Empress Xu.  He informs Wang Ken and Empress Dowager Wang.  Chunyu is exiled back to his march.  Before he leaves Chunyu, gives his horses and carriages to his cousin Wang Rong, son of his uncle Wang Li, with whom he has a known feud.  Wang Li, happy with Chunyu's gift, requests that Chunyu be allowed to remain at the capital.  Emperor Cheng orders Wang Rong arrested.  Wang Li panics and orders his son Wang Rong to suicide, which causes Emperor Cheng even more suspicion.  He therefore has Chunyu arrested and interrogated.  Chunyu admits deceiving Empress Xu and receiving bribes from her.  Chunyu Zhang is executed. 8 wikEX, wikWM
c.8 Former Empress XU, deposed and living in Chaotai Palace from 18, suicides. 8 wikCng, wikEX
c.8 Nov WANG KEN, Marquis Yang of Chuyang 27-7, Commander-in-chief from 11, is granted gold, a comfortable carriage, and a quadriga of horses and dismissed. 8 HFHDX 07
c.8 Nov WANG KEN, Commander-in-chief, General-in-chief, and controller of the business of the Master of Writing from 11, resigns, asking that Wang Mang succeed him.  WANG MANG succeeds until 7. 8 wikCng, wikWM  
c.8 Nov WANG KEN, regent from 11, resigns.  WANG MANG, nephew of Empress Dowager Wang, and marquis of Xin Tu, becomes regent until Aug 27. 8 B76 19-537, CHC 226, wikHH
c.7 Jan WANG MANG appointed marshal of state until ?. 7 CHC 215
c.7 Mar 14 CHAI FANGCHIN dies. 7 HFHDX 36
c.7 KUNG KUANG General of the Left from 8, is summoned to be Lt. Chancellor.  He should have been installed, and his marquis' seal and certificate had already been prepared, when on Apr 17, Emperor Cheng suddenly dies. 7 HFHDX 36
c.7 Apr 17 Son of Yuan Ti & Wang Zhengjun, CHENG TI dies childless, apparently from a stroke.  10th Han emperor of China from 32 under dowager Wang Chen Chun and Wang Mang.  Neph, age 17, LIU XIN succeeds as AI-TI until 1BCE.  His grandmother Consort Fu (Emperor Yuan's concubine) becomes palace honcho.  His catamite Tung Xien grows in power. 7 B76 II-802, IV-896, 4-310, 19-537, CHAC 1000, CHC 200, 227, GHCC 159, HFHD 132, HFHDX 32, ICMH 181, bk, frie, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikAi, wikCng, wikHD, wikHH, wikWM, wikWZ     7/6 wnck     6 yutH
c.7 Apr 17 KUNG KUANG, standing before the deceased Emperor's corpse, is installed as Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Poshan until 5. 7 HFHDX 36
c.7 May 17 AMNESTY. 7 HFHDX 31
c.7 After Emperor Ai Ti ascends the throne, WANG KEN, Marquis Yang of Chuyang 27-7, is given 2000 more households. 7 HFHDX 07
c.7 GEUMWA, king of Dongbuyeo in west Korea from 48, ends.  DAESO succeeds until 22CE. 7 rcK
c.7 CANGHAI commandery of Korea from 128 abandoned. 7 CHC 170
c.7 Office of Colonel Director of the Retainers, abolished in 9, re-established by Emperor Ai, but called Director of the Retainers. 7 HFHD8 55
c.7 CHANG FANG, marquis of Fuping in Pingyuan Commandery from 31, dies.  ???? succeeds until ?. 7 HFHD 08
c.7 Younger sis of Empress Zhao Feiyen, ZHAO HEDE, Brilliant Companion (highest ranking concubine) from 16, suicides. 7 CHC 214, HFHDX 28, wikCng, wikWZ, wikZH
c.7 Empress ZHAO FEIYAN is made Empress Dowager nee Zhao. 7 HFHDX 28
c.7 WANG ZHENGJUN, Empress Dowager from 33, becomes Grand Empress Dowager until 9CE. 7 CHC 227, wikAi, wikWZ
no date HFHD 212
c.7 CONSORT FU is not content with her title of Princess Dowager of Dingtao.  She also wants to be empress dowager.  Grand Empress Dowager Wang is willing to let her have the title, therefore Consort Fu is also given the title Grand Empress Dowager. 7 wikAi, wikWZ
c.7 Under Emperor Ai's auspices, a proposal to reduce slavery is made by several officials:  Princes would be limited to 200 slaves, marquises and princesses to 100 slaves, and other nobility and commoners to 30 slaves.  Slaves would be set free after a service of 3 years.  However, after the proposal is leaked, many slave owners push to have the proposal tabled.  Emperor Ai issues a limited version of the proposal-freeing slaves over age 50. 7 wikAi
c.7 Limitation of private property planned. 7 GHCC
c.7 53 officials ask to reduce the number of shrines again. 7 CHC 209
c.7 PAN CHIH (great grand uncle of Pan Ku) is made a Chief Commandant of the Dependent State of Xihe. 7 HFHD 31
c.7 Ceremonies for supreme god Shangdi, at Kanchuan Palace from 12 moved back to shrines south and north of Chang'an. 7 HFHD6 57
c.7 YUEH-FU (Office of Music) created in 114/3 to collect popular and foreign songs, abolished for economic reasons.  At this time it employs 829 virtuosi as singers and instrumentalists.  Over half are dismissed outright, and the remainder transferred to other offices; but an orchestra of 128 players remains for imperial audiences, and 62 performers at religious services. 7 CHC 196, 203, GHCC, HFHD8 36
c.7 SHI DAN is made Junior General and a Kuan-nei Marquis with the income of cities, and is in charge of the office of Master of the Writings. 7 HFHD 174
c.7 SHI DAN is made marshal of state.  He proposes restrictions on the amount of land and number of slaves that could be owned, with variations depending on social status (possession of orders of honor, or a marquisate).  The proposal is accepted in principle; but many in high places, such as families of imperial consorts Fu and Ting, and Ai Ti's minion Tung Xien, can lose heavily by the suggestion, and it is not implemented. 7 CHAC 1023, CHC 205
c.7 Grand Empress Dowager Wang orders Wang Mang to resign and transfer power to the Fu and Ding relatives.  Emperor Ai declines and begs Wang Mang to stay in his administration. 7 wikWM, wikWZ
c.7 Aug 27 WANG MANG regent of China from 8 forced to resign by Consort Fu.  He is heaped with honors and remains in Chang'an until 5.  SHIH TAN succeeds and is made Marquis of Kaolo until 6.  The Wangs begin to lose power. 7 B76 19-537, CHC 227, HFHD 174, ICMH 182, wikHH, wikWZ
c.7 fall WANG KEN, Marquis Yang of Chuyang 27-7, Commander-in-chief from 11, because he had failed to observe proper mourning and had held a feast with singing and dancing before Emperor Cheng's tomb was completed, he is dismissed.  WANG MANG succeeds until 6. 7
HFHD7 06, HFHDX 07
c.7 WANG KEN dies. 7 HFHDX 07
c.7 SUIHE Era from 8, ends.  JIANPING Era begins 6-3. 7 wikCM, wikCng
c.6 Capital of Baekje, WIRYE-SONG from 18, moved by king Onjo to PUKHAN. 18 B76 16-555
c.6 SHIH TAN, regent of China and Marquis of Kao-lo from 7, dismissed from his position and his marquisate, because of his resoluteness and actions against favoring imperial relatives. 6 HFHD 174
c.6 A report by officials commissioned by Grand Empress Dowager Wang concludes that Emperor Cheng did have 2 sons - one born to Consort Cao in 12BC and one born to Consort Xu (a relative of deposed Empress Xu) in 11BC.  However, one of the sons was murdered in infancy by orders of Consort Zhao Hede, with at least tacit agreement from Emperor Cheng, who was enamored with her. 6 B76 16-555
c.6 Wang Shun and Liu Xin note that frontier commandaries of Dunhuang, Jiuquan, and Zhangyi were established by Emperor Wu to separate the then-powerful Chuoqiang tribe of Qiang from the Xiongnu. 6 B76 16-555
c.6 Consort FU, still begrudging former romantic rival Consort Feng Yuan (who now is Princess Dowager of Zhongshan and grandmother of Liu Jizi Prince of Zhongshan), falsely accuses Consort Feng of witchcraft. 6 wikWZ
c.6 Consort FENG falsely accused of witchcraft, suicides.  Much of her family are executed and exiled. 6 wikWZ
c.6 WANG MANG, Commander-in-chief, General of Chariots & Cavalry, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 7, dismissed.  SHI DAN becomes General of the Left and Intendant of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing until later this year.  FU XI becomes Commander-in-chief and Intendant of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing until 5. 6 HFHD7 06
c.6 FENG TSAN, Marquis of Yixiang from 8, threatened with imprisonment, suicides.  17 members of the Feng clan die as a result of the investigations, and everyone pities them.  His clan is removed to their former commandery, Shangtang.  This is viewed as a political case, and everyone is disappointed in Emperor Ai. 6 HFHDX 33, wikAi
c.6 LIU LIANG, King of Hejian (Hochien) from 32, dies.  Son LIU SHANG succeeds until ?. 6 HFHDX 05
c.5 WANG MANG former regent of China, on imperial orders, leaves Chang'an to live on his marquisate.  His many supporters clamor for his recall, which happens in 2. 7 B76 19-537, CHC 227, wikHH
c.5 spring NOVA illuminates sky for 70 days according to Chinese and Korean records. 5 TTPC
c.5 Mar COMET in Capricorn illuminates sky for 70 days according to Chinese and Korean records. 5 FHBC 247
c.5 May 9 KUNG KUANG, Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Poshan from 7, dismissed from his position and marquisate, and sent home, in an edict which blames the country's calamities on him. 5 HFHDX 37
c.5 LIU CHING, king of Dingtao from 8, removed by Emperor Ai, and made King of Xindu.  Dingtao, kingdom from 52, is no longer a kingdom. 5 HFHD 195, HFHDX 32, 33, bril
c.5 CHU PO, imperial counsellor from ?, becomes chancellor for 3 or 4 months. 5 CHC 221
c.5 An edict proclaims the adoption of a new reign title (taichu yuanchiang) to take effect immediately.  (See 104) 5 CHC 222
c.5 WANG HO, son of Wang Mang, kills a household servant.  Wang Mang forces him to suicide. 5 wikWM
c.5 CHU PO, chancellor for 3 or 4 months, accused of treason and forced to suicide. 5 CHC 221
c.5 The WUSUN try to raid Chuban pastures, but Chanyu UCHILONOTI repulses them.  The Wusun commander is forced to send his son to the Chuban court as a hostage. 5 HFHD 195, bril, wikWsn
c.5 FU XI becomes Commander-in-chief and Intendant of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 6, is dismissed.  TING MING succeeds until 1. 5 HFHD7 06
c.5 National shrine of ISE built in Japan. 5 TAWH 18
c.5 XINDU, a commandery from 23, becomes a kingdom until 9CE. 5 CHC 200, bril
c.5 There are 4 empress dowagers this year until
DING, Empress Dowager from ?, dies.
5 wikAi
c.5 Migration is ordered to prepare the tomb of empress Ting, but next month the government says it will take no such action. 5 CHC 210
c.5 DINGTAO, a kingom from 25, reverts to JIYIN commandery until ?. 5 CHC 199, bril
c.4 DONGPING (Dahe/Jidong), a kingdom from 52, is administered as a commandery until 1CE. 4 bril
c.4 DONG XIAN, a minor official, begins to be favored by Emperor Ai.  Both men are married, but that is not seen as conflicting with a homosexual affair.  All emperors had male companions listed in their official histories. 4 wikAi
c.4 Ai bestows honors on Dong Xian at a rate which alarms the court.  Dong and his wife move into the palace, and Dong's sis becomes an imperial consort.  Dong's father is made an acting marquis.  Emperor Ai also orders that a residence as luxurious as an imperial palace, be built for Dong.  All who oppose these honors for Dong are severely punished. 4 wikAi
c.4 GUANGPING (Pinggan), commandery from 56, is again made a kingdom until 9CE.  Liu Kuanghan is king. 4 HFHD 110, bril
c.4 FENG YUAN, Consort of Yuan Ti, mother of Prince Liu Xing d.8, dies. 4 wikYn
c.3 Against opposition by prime minister Wang Jia, Emperor Ai creates Dong Xian Marquis of Gaoan. 3 wikAi
c.3 LIU SHOU, son of King Szu of Chu, becomes marquis of Wuan until 1. 3 HFHD 220
c.3 The Han refuse to receive the chanyu of the southern Xiongnu. 3 GHCC 134
c.3 WANG LI, 6th son of Wang Chin and a half-bro of Empress Dowager nee Wang, Marquis Huang of Hungyang from 32, is killed by Wang Mang. 3 HFHDX 07
c.3 PAO XUAN criticizes government policies and oppression of peasants. 3 GHCC
c.3 JIANPING Era from 6, ends.  YUANSHOU Era begins 2-1. 3 wikAi, wikCM
c.3 Cult of the Queen Mother of the West sweeps thru China, attracting support of those who seek salvation thru religious means. 3 CHC 221
c.3 Amulets of XI-WANG-MU, queen mother of the west, circulate among lower classes in Shantung. 3 GHCC
c.2 There have been several hundred petitions by commoners and officials requesting Wang Mang's return to the capital.  Emperor Ai summons him and his cousin Wang Ren back to Chang'an to assist Grand Empress Dowager Wang, but without official title. 2 CHC 227, wikHH, wikWM, wikWZ
c.2 Feb 5 Emperor Ai Ti installs the father of Empress Fu Yen as Commander-in-chief and General of the Guard and his uncle on his mother's side, Ting Ming as Commander-in-chief and General of Light Cavalry. 2 HFHD 203
c.2 Jun 19 KUNG KUANG is restored as Grandee Secretary, and Marquis of Poshan, and on Aug. 9 is made Lt. Chancellor.  Emperor Ai knows that Kung Kuang had been slandered, so he dismisses Fu Chia and apologizes to Kung Kuang. 2 HFHDX 37
c.2 WANG HSI, a colonel of the Chang River encampment, is sent as an envoy to the Xiongnu. 2 HFHD99c 13
c.2 One of the Wusun chiefs leads 80,000 Wusun west to Kangju, asking for help against the Chinese. 2 wikWsn
c.2 Prime minister Wang Jia submits a report to Emperor Ai, in which he urges that honors bestowed on Dong Xian be curbed.  This report is carefully worded to appear to be looking out for Dong. 2 wikAi
c.2 Grand Empress Dowager FU, Consort of Yuan Ti, mother of Prince Liu Kang d.23, dies. 2 wikAi, wikYn
c.2 DONG XIAN, age 21, is made commander of armed forces, and effectively the most powerful official in the administration.  Several members of the Dong clan become important officials, displacing the Fus and Dings. 2 CHC 218, wikAi
c.2 Prime minister WANG JIA opposes the enlargement of Dong Xian's march.  Emperor Ai has him accused falsely of crimes and forced to suicide. 2 wikAi
c.2 WANG MANG, in forced retirement on his marquisate from 5, recalled to Chang'an, lives there in quiet retirement until Ai Ti dies. 2 CHC 227, wikHH
c.2 SUICIDE, as an act of mourning a recently deceased relative, banned. 2 GHCC
c.1 LIU SHOU, son of King Szu of Chu, marquis of Wuan from 3, suspended until 1CE. 1 HFHD 220
c.1 UCHILONOTI, chanyu 8BC-13CE, comes to Chang'an to pay homage. 1 CHC 211, wstn
c.1 The kunmo of the Wusun comes to Chang'an to pay homage. 1 CHC 211
c.1 TING MING, Commander-in-chief and Intendant of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 5, is dismissed.  DONG XIAN succeeds. 1 HFHD7 06
c.1 Aug Emperor AI-TI on his deathbed entrusts the imperial seals to his catamite DONG XIAN. 1 CHC 228
c.1 Ag/Sp Son of Liu Kang & Condort Ding, LIU XIN, Emperor AI-TI dies.  11th Han emperor from 6, under dowager Wang Zhengjun, dies without heir or nominee.  Grand Empress Dowager nee Wang is undisputed head of the imperial clan. 1 B76 VII-1017, 4-310, 19-537, CHC 179, 200, 215, 218, HFHD 15, 132, HFHDX 37, ICMH 181, bril, ckH, frie, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikAi, wikHD, wikHH, wikWZ
c.1 Aug 15 Grand Empress Dowager WANG seizes the imperial seal and summons Dong Xian.  She also summons nephew Wang Mang to resume as regent.  She puts him in charge of the armed forces and the government. 1 B76 19-537, wikWM, wikWZ
c.1 Aug 16 The day after Ai Ti dies, his catamite DONG XIAN, marshal of state from 2, is dismissed, degraded, and suicides. 1 CHC 218, wikAi, wikDX, wikWZ
c.1 Aug 17 WANG MANG, retired in Chang'an from 2, becomes regent for Emperor Ping Ti and marshal of state. 1 CHC 218, GHCC, HFHDX 37, ICMH 181, wikWM
c.1 Actions taken by Wang Mang against enemies:
  • Relations of Emperor Ai, the Fus and Dings, are demoted and exiled back to their ancestral lands.
  • Empress Dowager Zhao Feiyen, wife of Emperor Cheng, and Empress Fu, wife of Emperor Ai are demoted to commoners, and ordered to guard their husbands' tombs.  They suicide.
  • Grand Empress Dowager Fu and Empress Dowager Ding are posthumously demoted to "mother of Prince Gong of Dingtao" and "Consort Ding" respectively.
  • Dong Xian is disinterred, reburied within a prison, and his clan exiled.
  • He Wu, former prime examiner, and his friend Gongsun Lu, who had opposed Wang Mang's regency, are relieved of their posts.
1 wikWM, wikWZ
c.1 WANG MANG, having consolidated his power, builds a personality cult, encouraging others to submit false prophecies in which he is mentioned as the 2nd coming of Ji Dan, Duke of Zhou and regent for King Cheng of Zhou, or other great mythical personalities.  He modifies governmental structure to recall the governments of the Zhou and Shang Dynasties.  This includes changes to official titles and geographical locations.  To prevent Emperor Ping's maternal uncles of the Wei clan from becoming powerful, he orders that they, along with Emperor Ping's mother Consort Wei, not be allowed to visit him in the capital. 1 wikWM
c.1 ZHAO FEIYEN, Empress from 16, is degraded to the rank of Empress of Emperor Xiao-cheng, and moved to the Northern Palace.  Some months later she is dismissed, made a commoner, and suicides. 1 HFHD 15, HFHDX 31, wikCng
c.1 LI TAN, Marquis Chieh of Yenxiang from 13, dies. 1 HFHDX 26
c.1 CHEN FENG, Junior Division head and General of the Gentleman-at-the-Household, is made superintendant of the Imperial Household until 2CE. 1 HFHD 19
c.1 Oct 17 Son of Liu Xing, king of Zhongshan, and Consort Wei, Liu Jizi, king of Zhongshan from 8, becomes 12th Han Emperor PING TI until 5CE. 1 B76 VII-1017, 4-310, 19-537, CHC 179, 200, 215, 218, HFHD 15, 132, ICMH 181, bril, ckH, frie, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikHD, wikHH, wikPn
c.1 ZHONGSHAN (Changshan), a kingdom from 23, lapses until 1CE. 1 bril
c.1 Oct 17 KUNG KUANG Grandee Secretary, Marquis of Poshan, and Lt. Chancellor from 2, is removed to be Emperor Ping's Grand Tutor, with the rank of one of the Four Coadjutors Serving in the Palace, and ordered to sleep in the palace and be fed by the imperial household. 1 HFHDX 37
c.1 YUANSHOU Era from 2, ends.  YUANSHI Era begins until 5CE. 1 wikAi, wikCM