Han commanderies and kingdoms
c.81 JinchengJINCHENG commandery is created in the northwest by detaching 6 counties from existing commanderies of Tianshu, Longxi, and Zhangyi.  This is for administrative efficiency, not from new conquests. 81 CHC 196, HFHD7 21
c.81 FAN MINGYU, Chief Commandant of the Qiang Cavalry, attacks the rebels in Yichou Commandery with troops from the Qiang barbarians. 81 HFHD7 31
c.81 WU PO, Marquis of Kouting in Tsangko Commandery from ?, quells rebellion of the southwest barbarians, made King of Kouting. 81 HFHD7 21
c.81 YANG CHANG, Marquis Ching of Anping from ?, is promoted to Grand Minister of Agriculture until ?.  Anping is a city of Yuchang Commandery. 81 HFHD7 25
c.81 QIANG TEH, Marquis of Liaoyang 89-77, becomes Grand Master of Ceremonies until 77. 81 HFHD7 35
c.81 LIU ANSHIH, King AI of Szushui from ?, dies without heir.  Bro LIU HO succeeds as King Tai of Szushui, and dies same year.  His Chancellor and Prefect of the Capital do not tell Emperor Zhao that he has a posthumous son Liu Huan, and the kingdom of Szushui is disestablished.  But the queen informs Emperor Zhao, who imprisons the Chancellor and Prefect, and makes Liu Huan King of Szushui on Apr 30, 80BC.  Liu Huan reigns until 42. 81 HFHD7 21
c.81 An edict orders the commanderies and kingdoms to recommend capable and good persons and literary scholars to answer the questions of Emperor Zhao about the sufferings of the people.  This causes questions about the salt, wine, and iron monopolies. 81 HFHD7 33
c.81 Salt, wine, and iron monopolies are debated.  Vice premier Sang Hongyang favors these monopolies.  Only the wine monopoly is abolished.  Content of these discussions appears 10 to 20 years later in the YEN-TIEH LUN (Discourses on salt and iron). 81 CHC 185, 187, 234, GHCC, ICMH 172, bk, ckH, wikZao
c.81 Wine monopoly from 98 broken up. 81 bgsp, wikHD, wikHH, wikZao
c.81 Ships in Japan, until now little more than coastal dugouts, emperor Sujin says each province must build a ship for fishing. 81 B76 16-678, TTPC, bk
c.80 Apr 30 LIU HUAN, posthumous son of Liu Anshih, appointed by Emperor Zhao King Chin of Szushui until 42. 80 HFHD7 22
c.80 Xiongnu attack the Wusun in a punitive campaign.  Soon the Wusun monarch requests military support from Han. 80 wikHXW, wikWsn
c.80 The TI in Wudu Commandery rebel. 80 HFHD8 24
c.80 MASHIH CHIEN, Chief of Palace Police in Chang'an 86-80, is sent against the rebellious Ti in Wudu Commandery. 80 HFHD7 23
c.80 FAN MINGYU, Chief Commandant of the Qiang Cavalry, attacks the rebellious Ti in Wudu Commandery. 80 HFHD7 31
c.80 A major Xiongnu raid is defeated with great loss. 80 ICMH 172
c.80 MASHIH CHIEN, Chief of Palace Police in Chang'an from 86, is sentenced for murder, imprisoned, suicides. 80 HFHD7 23
c.80 Mathematician and statesman SANG HONGYANG accused of supporting Emperor Zhao's older bro Liu Dan King of Yen as emperor, executed. 80 wikHH, yutH
c.80 The Shangguans, in thanks to Ding Wairen for setting up the marriage of Empress Shangguan and Emperor Zhao, want Ding created a marquis, but are rebuffed by Ho Guang, as are their subsequent efforts to have Ding made an important official.  This causes Princess Eyi to resent Ho.  The Shangguans, Princess Eyi, Liu Dan King of Yen, and Sang Hongyang (who resents his monopoly system being dismantled), form an anti-Ho conspiracy.  They plot to have a petition come to Emperor Zhao supposedly from Liu Dan King of Yen, saying that Ho Guang had planned rebellion. 81 HFHD6 123
80 wikZao
c.80 LIU DAN King of Yen, reports to Emperor Zhao, that Ho Guang abuses imperial authority.  The conspirators' plan is that as soon as Emperor Zhao authorizes an investigation, Shangguan Jie and Sang Hongyang would arrest and immediately execute Ho.  But 14 year old Emperor Zhao takes no action on the report.  The next day, he exonerates Ho, reasoning that the actions that were accused of Ho had happened so recently that Liu Dan, a long distance away, could not have known them, therefore the report must have been a forgery.  The anti-Ho conspiracy is not discovered, but the empire is impressed with the wisdom of the young emperor. 80 wikES, wikHG, wikZao
c.80 The conspirators' new plan is for Princess Eyi to invite Ho Guang to a feast, and then ambush Ho and kill him, then depose Emperor Zhao and make Prince Liu Dan emperor.  (However, allegedly, the Shangguans conspire to instead, once Prince Dan steps into the capital, to have him killed, and for Shangguan Jie to declare himself emperor.) 80 HFHD8 63, wikES, wikZao
c.80 Commissioner for Rice Fields, Yen Tsang discovers the plot against Ho Guang and tells Yang Chang about it.  Yang Chang dares not do anything and excuses himself on account of illness.  Yen Tsang then tells Grandee Remonstrant Tu Yennien, who reports it.  The conspiracy is revealed by a servant of Princess Eyi, and the conspirators are arrested and executed with their entire clans. 80 HFHD7 25, wikES, wikHG, wikZao
c.80 LIU DAN, son of Wu Ti and consort Li, King of Yen from 117, executed or suicides.  Son Liu Chien is pardoned and becomes a commoner until 73. 80 CHC 176, HFHD6 46, HFHD7 03, 30, bril, wikWu, wikZao
c.80 CHANG ANSHIH becomes General of the Right and Superintendent of the Imperial Household until 74. 80 HFHD7 37
c.80 TIEN KUANGMING, Commander of the Palace Guard from 83, in Yichou Commandery from 83, returns and is made a Kuan-nei Marquis. 80 HFHD7 16
c.80 Oc/Nv SHANGGUAN JIE, one of the triumvirate from 87, is accused of supporting Emperor Zhao's older bro Liu Dan King of Yen as emperor, executed.  Family exterminated. 80 HFHD6 121, 124, HFHD7 03, 17, wikHH, wikZao
c.80 Yen dividedYEN (Yanguo), a kingdom from 117, is divided into Zhuojun, Guangyang and Bohai until 73. 80 CHC 193, bril
c.80 Oc/Nv SHANGGUAN AN, son of Shangguan Jie, Commander of Chariots and Cavalry from 83, Marquis of Sanglo from 82, is induced by Wang Shanshou to enter the office of the Lt. Chancellor, where he is executed.  Family exterminated. 80
CHC 181, HFHD6 121, 124, HFHD7 03, 17, 29
c.80 Oc/Nv SANG HUNGYANG, imperial counsellor from 87 and architect of the plans to systematize China's economy, executed. 80 CHC 181, HFHD6 124, HFHD7 03
c.80 Oc/Nv SU YUAN, son of Su Wu, involved in the plot, executed.  The Chief Justice petitions that Su Wu also be arrested, but Ho Guang refuses.  Su Wu is merely dismissed from office. 80 HFHD7 20
c.80 Oc/Nv DING WAIREN, lover of Princess Eyi, executed. 80 HFHD7 03, 24
c.80 Oc/Nv PRINCESS EYI suicides.  Her son, Wang Wen-xin is pardoned and made a commoner. 80 HFHD6 124, HFHD7 03, 30, bril, wikWu, wikZao
c.80 SHANGGUAN clan is destroyed.  Empress Shangguan is spared, because of her young age and her status as Ho's granddau. 80 bril, wikES, wikZao
c.80 SHIYUAN Era from 86, ends.  YUANFENG Era begins until 75. 80 wikCM, wikZao
c.80 GONGSUN YI is executed. 80 HFHD7 24
c.80 Oct 21 WANG XIN, Western Sustainer from 89, becomes Grandee Secretary until ?. 80 HFHD7 36
c.80 After the incident, Ho Guang executes any possible conspirators.  Victims include ministers, Wang Ping and Xu Ren.  Ho retains the favor of Emperor Zhao. 80 wikZao
c.80 TU YENNIEN is promoted to Chief of the Stud and Senior Division Head Serving in the Inner Apartments. 80 HFHD7 26
c.80 HO GUANG establishes dictatorship until 68, with family members in all governing posts. 80 GHCC 149
c.80 Dec 14 YEN TSANG is made Marquis of Yicheng until 75. 80 HFHD7 25
c.80 Dec 14 JEN KUNG is made Marquis of Yiyang in Nanyang Commandery until 48. 80 HFHD7 29
c.80 Dec 14 TU YENNIEN is made Marquis of Chienping until 66 with income of 2,000 households.  Chienping is in Pei Commandery. 80 HFHD7 26
c.78 May WANG PING, Chief Justice from 82, publicly cut in half at the waist. 80 wikZao
78 HFHD7 13, 27
c.78 The Xiongnu lead a punitive campaign against the Wuhuan of west Manchuria. 78 wikHXW
c.78 Chung-mou Park at Jungyang is abolished. 78 HFHD7 30
c.78 May XU JEN, Privy Treasurer from 84, frees Houshih Wu and is therefore sentenced to death, and suicides.  Eastern Supporter CHIA SHENGHU is also involved and is cut in 2 at the waist. 78 HFHD7 30, 31
c.78 TSAI YI becomes Privy Treasurer until 75/4. 78 HFHD8 18
northeast commanderies
c.78 Ho Guang sends Chief Commandant of the Qiang Cavalry FAN MINGYU with 20,000 cavalry from Liaodong Commandery to impede further incursions by Xiongnu against the Wuhuan.  Generals Zhang Qienqiu and Han You are under him.  When they learn that the Xiongnu had left by the time the army arrived, Fan Mingyu decides to attack the Wuhuan to bring back enough loot to justify the campaign, since the Wuhuan had recently raided Han territory.  3 chiefs are killed;  6,000 heads taken. 78
GHCC 118, HFHD7 31, ICMH 172, wikHXW
c.77 Feb 15 TIAN QIANQIU, Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Fuming from 89, dies. 77 HFHD7 33
c.77 Mar 3 WANG XIN, Grandee Secretary from 80, made Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Yichun until 75. 77 HFHD7 36
c.77 Apr 3 YANG CHANG is promoted to Grandee Secretary. 77 HFHD7 25
c.77 Jul The main hall in the Temple of Emperor Xiaowen burns because of some men of the temple who were drinking at night.
QIANG TEH, Marquis of Liaoyang from 89, Grand Master of Ceremonies from 81, is deposed and dismissed because of it.  His son succeeds to his marquisate.
77 HFHD7 35
c.77 Ho Guang sends imperial messenger Fu Jiezi to assassinate Angui, king of Loulan. 77 wikLln, wikZao
c.77 Expedition into central Asia. 77 GHCC 118
Tarim Basin
c.77 Han general Fu Jiezi goes to Loulan, supposedly to reward Xiyu kings with treasure.  Fu Jiezi meets king Angui privately and gets him drunk.  2 of Fu Jiezi's officers stab Angui in the heart. 77 HFHD7 34, ICMH 173, wikHH, wikHXW, wikLln, wikZao
c.77 ANGUI, king of Loulan, murdered by 2 of Fu Jiezi's officers.  Fu Jiezi then warns that retaliation would bring a large Chinese army.  Fu Jiezi gets Loulan nobles to submit. 77 ICMH 173, wikHH, wikHXW, wikLln, wikZao
c.77 WUTUQI bro of Angui, now in Chang'an, is informed of his bro's death. 77 HFHD7 34, wikHXW, wikLln, wikZao
c.77 WUTUQI bro of Angui, is escorted to Loulan and made king.  Loulan is renamed SHANSHAN.  Capital is moved south out of Xiongnu influence. 77 HFHD7 34, wikHXW, wikLln, wikZao
c.77 Han allies with the Wusun, Dingling, and Wuhuan. 77 wikHH
c.77 SU CHANG, Marquis of Pu 91/0-?, becomes Grand Master of Ceremonies until 67. 77 HFHD8 19
c.77 Sep 10 FAN MINGYU, Chief Commandant of the Qiang Cavalry, is made Marquis of Pingling until 67. 77 HFHD7 31
c.76 QIANG TEH, Marquis of Liaoyang from 89, dies. 76 HFHD7 35
c.76 Xiang commandery, established 214, abolished. 76 HFHD7 36
c.76 Line of forts built in south Manchuria by criminals recently deported to that area.  Canals and roads also built. 76 GHCC 115
c.76 Eunuch ZHANG HE wants to marry his granddau to Liu Bingyi, but his bro Zhang Anshi opposes, fearing that it would bring trouble.  Zhang He instead invites one of his subordinate eunuchs (who had also been castrated by Emperor Wu), Xu Guanghan, to dinner, and persuades him to marry his dau Xu Pingjun to Liu Bingyi.  When Xu's wife hears this, she refuses, but because Zhang He is Xu's superior, Xu does not dare to renege on the promise.  Liu Bingyi and Pingjun are married, in a ceremony entirely paid for by Zhang He (because Liu Bingyi could not afford to). 76 wikYn
c.76 WEI XIEN, Confucian teacher, becomes Grand Herald until 73. 76 HFHD8 28
c.75 Jan 8 WANG XIN, Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Yichun in Jinan Commandery from 77, dies.  Son WANG TAN succeeds as Marquis of Yichun until 31. 75 HFHD7 36, HFHD8 19
c.75 HYONTO state of Korea from 108 abandoned by Chinese. 75 B76 VII-181
c.75 GOGURYO state of Korea first mentioned in Chinese records in reference to a commandery established. 75 wik3KK
c.75 Upper Yalu river area slips out of Han control.  Growing state of GOGURYEO threatens Chinese contact with their only remaining Korean commandery Lolang. 75 ICMH 173
northeast commanderies
c.75 A group of YEMAEK possibly from Goguryeo raid Xuantu Commandery west of the Yalu.  This is the 1st Chinese mention of Goguryeo. 75 wikGgr, wikP3K
c.75 Mar 24 YANG CHANG, Grandee Secretary from 77, becomes Lt. Chancellor and is made Marquis of Anping until 74. 75 HFHD7 25
c.75 LI KUANG becomes Chief Justice until 72. 75 HFHD8 23
c.75 YEN TSANG, Marquis of Yicheng from 80, dies. 75 HFHD7 25
c.75 CHOU TE becomes Western Sustainer until 72. 75 HFHD8 23
c.75 Imperial Great-grandson PING YI (future Emperor Xuan) marries Pingjun (future Empress nee Xu) dau of Xu Kuanghan. 75 HFHD8 16
c.75 YUANFENG Era from 80, ends.  YUANPING Era begins until 74. 75 wikCM, wikZao
c.75 SHIH LOCHENG is made Privy Treasurer until 72. 75 HFHD8 22
c.75 TIEN YENNIEN is made Grand Minister of Agriculture until 72. 75 HFHD8 26
c.75 LINTUN, a commandery from 108, is incorporated into Xuantu. 75 bril
c.75/4 TSAI YI, Privy Treasurer from 78, promoted to Grandee Secretary until October. 75/4 HFHD8 18
c.74 Jan 8 CHANG ANSHIH, General of the Right and Superintendent of the Imperial Household from 80, made Marquis of Fuping until 62. 74 HFHD7 37
c.74 Liu Jieyou, the Han princess who had been married to the Kunmo of the Wusun sends a letter to Chang'an that the Xiongnu had united and had siezed Turfan.  Death of Emperor Zhao Ti delays response. 81 HFHD8 34
74 ICMH 173
c.74 Son of Wu Ti by consort Zhao, ZHAO TI dies.  7th Han emperor from 87 under regent Ho Guang, dies mysteriously age 22 without heir.  (Posthumous name: Emperor ZHAO).  Among the 6 sons of Emperor Zhao, only King of Guangling, Liu Xu, is still alive. 74 B76 4-310, CHAC 990, CHC 176, 183, CHEIA 134, GHCC 125, HFHD6 124, ICMH 173, bgsp, ckH, frie, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikEWZ, wikES, wikHD, wikHG, wikHH, wikHXW, wikZao, yutH     74/3 wnck
c.74 Ho Guang rejects from succession Liu Xu, Prince of Guangling and only surviving son of Emperor Wu, because Emperor Wu himself did not favor Prince Xu, who was known for being compulsive. 74 wikES
c.74 WEI vs. LI clan rivalry breaks out again.  Ho Guang and others choose his nephew Liu Ho to take the throne.  Liu Ho, age 20, king of Zhangye (Shanyang) from 86, is a grandson of Lady Li.  Ho immediately departs from Shanyang and rides for Chang'an, so fast that the horses of his guards fall dead from exhaustion.  LIU HO is enthroned 18 July. 74
CHC 184, HFHD8 12, wikMH
c.74 ZHANGYE, a kingdom from 97, reverts to SHANYANG commandery until 33. 74 CHC 193, bril 73 HFHDX 12
CONFUSION ALERT!  ZHANGYI is a commandery in northwestZHANGYE is a kingdom made from Shanyang Commandery.
c.74 When Liu Ho, is enthroned, Empress nee Shangguan is made Empress Dowager until 49. 74 HFHD7 15, wikES
c.74 LI LING, living with the Xiongnu for 25 years, dies of illness. 74 HFHD6 103
c.74 Ho Guang tells Empress Dowager nee Shangguan to change Chang Anshih to be General of Chariots & Cavalry and Superintendent of the Imperial Household. 74 HFHD7 37
c.74 Aug 14 LIU HO behaves disrespectfully in mourning ceremonies.  Ho Guang and Chang Anshih assemble officials and discuss dismissing Liu Ho.  No one dares say anything.  Tien Yennien draws sword and shouts that he would kill anyone who did not approve of changing the succession.  Thus the matter is decided.  The articles of impeachment list 1127 misconducts that Prince Ho committed during his 27-day reign.  Liu Ho's removal is secured with a memorial signed by all leading ministers and submitted to 15 year old Empress Dowager nee Shangguan.  She approves.  LIU HO is deposed after 27 days. 74 B76 4-310, CHAC 990, CHC 176, 183, HFHD8 26, GHCC 125, ICMH 173, bgsp, ckH, frie, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikES, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikMH, wikZao, yutH     74/3 wnck
c.74 HO GUANG, imperial regent 87-68, finds an emperor candidate he can manipulate, Liu Ju's grandson Liu Bingyi, age 18.  To avoid having a commoner take the throne, 27 days after Liu Ho was removed, Empress Dowager Shangguan creates Liu Bingyi Marquis of Yangwu.  LIU BINGYI becomes 8th Han emperor XUAN TI on 10 Sept. until 49.  Ho Guang controls the government.  His son Ho Yu and great-nephew Ho Shan are leaders of the court.  Chang Anshih is next in power. 74 B76 4-310, CHC 184, HFHD8 09, 16, ICMH 173, frie, tcgHn, wikHH, wikXn, wikZao 74/3 wnck
73 B76 IV-888, hceisH
c.74 Just after Xuan Ti's accession, it is proposed that Ho Chengjun, a dau of Ho Guang, become empress.  Emperor Xuan Ti refuses and insists that his wife Xu Pingjun be empress.  Xu Pingjun is nominated despite Ho Guang's protests. 74 CHC 185, HFHD8 16, wikEHC
c.74 TIEN KUANGMING, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 80, is made a Grandee Secretary until 73. 74 HFHD7 16
c.74 HAN TSENG, Marquis An of Lunglo in Hochien Commandery 88-56, becomes General of the Van until 61. 74 HFHD7 23
c.74 YUANPING Era from 75, ends.  BENSHI Era begins 73-70. 74 wikCM, wikXn, wikZao
c.74 Sep 19 YANG CHANG, Marquis of Anping from 75, dies.  Son YANG CHUNG succeeds 73-63. 74 HFHD7 25 73 HFHD8 18
c.74 Oct 18 TSAI YI, Grandee Secretary from 75/4, is made Marquis of Yangping and Lt. Chancellor until 71. 75/4 HFHD8 18
c.74 Dec 31 XU PINGJUN, wife of Emperor Xuan from 75, becomes Empress XU until 71. 74 HFHD8 16, wikXn
c.73 GI-HYUNG (Hyo Wang) king of Mahan in southwest Korea from 113, ends.  GI-SUP (Yang Wang) succeeds until 58. 73 rcK
c.73 Xiongnu ally with ??? of Ili river Valley and king of Ush in order to get control of the Han princess married to the king of Kuldja. 73 ICMH 173
c.73 Ho Guang offers to resign his responsibilities as regent.  Emperor Xuan declines and orders that all important matters of state still be submitted to Ho first.  He also gives high positions to Ho's son Ho Yu and grandnephews Ho Yun and Ho Shan, as well as Ho's sons-in-law Fan Mingyou and Deng Guanghan.  Emperor Xuan, tho now emperor, remains intimidated by Ho. 73 wikHG, wikXn
c.73 Yen dividedGUANGYANG, a Yen commandery from 80, founded as a kingdom until the end of Former Han.  Son of Liu Dan, LIU CHIEN becomes king until 45. 73 CHC 193 HFHD7 30, bril
c.73 LIU TE is made a Kuan-nei Marquis. 73 HFHD8 11
c.73 LI KUANG, Chief Justice 75-72, is made a Kuan-nei Marquis until 72. 73 HFHD8 23
c.73 CHOU TE, Western Sustainer 75-72, is made a Kuan-nei Marquis until 72. 73 HFHD8 23
c.73 WEI XIEN, Confucian teacher, Grand Herald from 76, is made a Kuan-nei Marquis and Privy Treasurer of Changxin Palace until 71. 73 HFHD8 28
c.73 SUNG CHI, Supervisor of the Household until 72, is made a Kuan-nei Marquis until ?. 73 HFHD8 23
c.73 Ag/Sp JIAOXI, a Han sponsored commandery to the kingdom of Qi from 108, created kingdom of GAOMI by Emperor Xuan until 9CE.  LIU HUNG, younger son of King Li of Guangling, appointed King Ai of Gaomi until 65. 73 CHC 193, HFHD8 31, bril
c.73 Sep 15 CHAO CHUNGKUO becomes Marquis Chuang of Yingping until 52. 73 HFHD8 24
c.73 Sep 15 WANG CHIEN is made Marquis of Pingchiu in Taishan Commandery with income of 1253 families until 68. 73 HFHD8 23
c.73 Sep 15 TIEN YENNIEN, Grand Minister of Agriculture from 75, is made Marquis of Yangcheng (in Henan) with income of 2453 families until 72. 73 HFHD8 27
c.73 TIEN KUANGMING, a Grandee Secretary from 74, is made Marquis of Changshui (in Yuling prefecture of Jinan Commandery) with income of 2700 families until ?. 73 HFHD7 16
c.72 WEI XIANG, Grand Administrator of Henan Commandery, is made Grand Minister of Agriculture until 71. 72 HFHD8 58
c.72 The Kunmo of the Wusun request Han assistance against the Xiongnu. 72 wikHXW, wikWsn
c.72 Chang Hui with 160,000 troops is sent to help the Wusun. 73 ICMH 173
72 HFHD8 34, wikWsn
c.72 spring TIEN YENNIEN, Marquis of Yangcheng from 75, is found guilty of having cheated the government, cuts his throat and dies. 72 HFHD8 27
Tarim Basin
c.72 TIEN KUANGMING, general of the Qilian Mts, leads one of the columns sent into Mongolia.  72 HFHD7 16
c.72 HAN TSENG, Marquis An of Lunglo 88-56, General of the Van from 74, leads 30,000 cavalry out of Yunzhong Commandery, takes 100+ heads, reaches the appointed place on time, and returns. 72 HFHD7 23
c.72 150,000 Han troops get to Hami and Barkul in Turpan Basin without finding any Xiongnu. 72 ICMH 174
Tarim Basin
c.72 Coalition of Han under Chang Hui, 50,000 Wusun cavalry, Dingling, and Wuhuan invade territory of the Luli King of the Right, sack his headquarters.  40,000 Xiongnu and 750,000 head of lifestock are captured before their city is sacked.  The Wusun take the livestock.  Campaign continues until 71.  The Han capture the Tarim Basin city-state of Jushi (Turfan), a previous ally of the Xiongnu. 72 CHEIA 135, GHCC 118, HFHD8 34, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWsn
71 ICMH 174
c.72 The Wusun capture the chanyu's uncle and sister-in-law. 72 HFHD8 34 71 ICMH 174
c.72 TIEN KUANGMING, Marquis of Changshui from 73 encounters no Xiongnu in Mongolia.  He is accused of having known the enemy was ahead and not attacking.  He suicides. 72 HFHD7 16 71 HFHD6 90
c.72 CHANG HUI with 10+ men accompanies the Kunmo back to Wusun land.  Some of the Wusun people rob him of his seal, seal-cord, and credentials.  Chang Hui expects to be executed when he returns to China, but returns anyway in 71. 72 HFHD8 34
c.72 SUNG CHI, Supervisor of the Household from ?, a Kuan-nei Marquis 73-?, becomes Grand Herald until 70. 72 HFHD8 23
c.72 CHOU TE, Western Sustainer from 75, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 73, is dismissed. 72 HFHD8 23
c.72 LI KUANG, Chief Justice from 75, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 73, is dismissed. 72 HFHD8 23
c.72 Sep 15 SHIH LOCHENG, Privy Treasurer from 75, is made Marquis Su of Yuanshih in Shanyang Commandery.  He then dies.  His descendants succeed. 72 HFHD8 22
c.72 fall TIEN SHUN is made general. 72 HFHD8 33
c.72 CHAO CHUNGKUO, Marquis Chuang of Yingping 73-52, is made General of Pulei Lake, and leads an expedition against the Xiongnu, taking several hundred heads. 73-70 HFHD8 24
c.72 CHAO GUANGHAN becomes a general under Chao Chungkuo. 73-70 HFHD8 29
c.72/1 CHAO CHUNGKUO, on expedition against the Xiongnu from 72, returns.  He is made General of the Rear and Privy Treasurer of Changxin Palace. 72/1 HFHD8 24
c.72/1 CHAO GUANGHAN, general under Chao Chungkuo, made acting Governor of the Capital until 71, when he is made actual governor until 64. 73-70 HFHD8 29
c.71 CHANG HUI, in Wusun land from 72, returns to China, expecting punishment for losing his credentials.  But the other 5 Chinese generals had not achieved anything, Chang Hui is rewarded. 72/1 HFHD8 34
c.71 Mar 1 Empress XU, formerly Xu Pingjun, beloved and pregnant wife of Emperor Xuan Ti, murdered by poison shortly after giving birth by instigation of Ho Xien wife of Ho Guang, who learns of it after the fact and doesn't report it.    Discovered 66. 71 CHC 186, HFHD8 16, wikHH, wikXn, wikYn
c.71 Mar 6 General TIEN SHUN is sent against the Xiongnu. 71 HFHD8 33
c.71 CHANG HUI with 500 Han officers and 47,000 Wusun, recaptures Turfan.  71 ICMH 174 70 HFHD8 34
Tarim Basin
c.71 Intervention in Zungaria between Altai and Tianshan Mountains. 71 GHCC 118
c.71 Ho Guang's wife Ho Xien induces woman physician or midwife, Shunyi Yen to poison Emperor Xuan's beloved Empress Xu Pingjun.  Discovered 66. 71 HFHD8 16, wikHG, wikHH, wikXn, wikYn
c.71 Jul 25 TSAI YI, Marquis of Yangping and Lt. Chancellor from 74, dies without heirs.  His marquisate is abolished. 71
HFHD8 18
c.71 Aug 9 WEI XIANG, Grand Minister of Agriculture from 72, promoted to Grandee Secretary until 67. 71 HFHD8 58, 75
c.71 General TIEN SHUN returns from Xiongnu campaign, sentenced for inflating the number of capturives taken, imprisoned, suicides. 71 HFHD8 33
c.71 Sep 7 WEI XIEN, a Kuan-nei Marquis and Privy Treasurer of Changxin Palace from 73, promoted by Ho Guang to Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Fuyang with income of 700 families until 67. 71
HFHD8 28
c.71 fall Xiongnu invade Wusun territory, penetrate into Zungaria, take many prisoners. 71 ICMH 174
c.71 late Xiongnu try to cross the Altai Mountain passes, devastated by a storm. 71 ICMH 174
c.71/0 Various tribes invade and raid Xiongnu territory in Mongolia from all fronts; Wusun from the west, Dingling from the north, Wuhuan from the east.  Han forces in 3 columns invade from the south.  1/3 of all Xiongnu die by famine or sword.  Half of their herd is destroyed.  Xiongnu lose control over their subject states, and decline begins. 71 CHEIA 135, wikHXW
70 ICMH 174
c.70 Apr 17 HO CHENGJUN, dau of Ho Guang, becomes Empress NEE HO until 66.  Accustomed to luxury, her expenditures far exceed late Empress nee Xu. 71 wikHD, wikHH
70 CHC 186, HFHD8 36, wikEHC, wikHG, wikXn, wikYn
c.70 May 25 CHANG HUI is appointed Marquis of Changlo and sent back with gold and silk to give to the Wusun people who had distinguished themselves. 70 HFHD8 34
c.70 CHANG HUI with 500 men, goes to the Wusun to reward them, then starts back, gathering troops for invasion of Kucha, because they had previously killed Han envoy Lai Tan. 70 HFHD8 34
Tarim Basin
c.70 CHANG HUI with 20,000 troops of the Western States, and 20,000 from the states east of Kucha, and 7600 Wusun, invades Kucha in Tarim Basin.  Chang Hui first sends messengers to reprove the King of Kucha for having killed the Chinese envoy.  The King of Kucha replies that the murder was done by a noble Kuyi, in the time of the previous king.  Chang Hui replies that if so, the king should bind Kuyi and bring him, and Chang Hui would hold the King free of blame.  The noble is brought, Chang Hui beheads him, and returns home. 70 HFHD8 34-5, ICMH 174
c.70 Jun 3 EARTHQUAKE in 49 commanderies east of Kuanchung, damaging city walls and houses and killing 6,000+ people.  Emperor orders a general amnesty, and releases Xiahou Sheng and Huang Pa from prison, for the earthquake had vindicated them by showing the condemnation of Heaven upon honoring Emperor Wu. 70 HFHD8 21
c.70 SUNG CHI, a Kuan-nei Marquis 73-?, Grand Herald from 72, becomes Eastern Supporter until later 70. 70 HFHD8 23
c.70 SUNG CHI, a Kuan-nei Marquis 73-?, Eastern Supporter from 70, promoted to Privy Treasurer until 65. 70 HFHD8 23
c.70 XIAHOU SHENG is made a Grandee-remonstrant Serving in the Inner Apartments. 70 HFHD8 21
c.70 HUANG PA is made a Inspector of Yang Privince. 70 HFHD8 21
c.70 fall LIU CHU, son of Liu Chi and nee Wei, king of Guangchuan from 91, suicides on the road.  His Queen is publicly executed.  Son Liu Wen does not succeed until 66.  Liu Chu's grandson Liu Shi survives. 70 GHCC 983, HFHD8-37, 39
c.70 LIU FU, King Xien of Zhongshan from 86, dies. 70 HFHDX 17
c.70 GUANGCHUAN, kingdom under Han from 155, abolished until 66. 70 HFHD8 37, bril
c.70 Reformist desire to reduce public expenditure inspires ECONOMICS EDICT. 70 CHC 196
c.70 The Office of Music is ordered to reduce expenditures.  Again 48. 70 CHC 203
c.70 BENSHI Era from 73, ends.  DIJIE Era begins 69-66. 70 wikCM, wikXn
c.69 LIU YENSHOU, king of Chu from 100, suicides. 69/8 HFHD8-38
c.69 CHU kingdom, under Han from ?, reverts to a commandery, administered as Jiangsu (Pengcheng) until 49. 69 CHC 193, HFHD8 38, bril
c.69 LIU NIEN son of Liu Yang, King Ching of Qinghe (Chingho), becomes King of it until 65. 69 HFHD8 44
c.68 Mar HO GUANG gets seriously ill. 68 HFHD6 125
c.68 Apr HO GUANG, imperial regent from 87, for Xuan Ti from 73, dies of natural causes.  Zhang Anshi and Wei Xiang become Emperor Xuan's most powerful advisors, but Emperor Xuan assumes far more personal powers. 68 B76 4-310, CHC 186, GHCC 149, HFHD6 121, 125, HFHD7 05, HFHD8 36, 41, ICMH 174, bgsp, bk, ckH, wikES, wikHD, wikHG, wikHH, wikXn, wnck, yutH
c.68 Forts beyond great walls abandoned. 68 GHCC
c.68 Jn/Jl WANG CHIEN, Marquis of Pingchiu from 73, sentenced for having taken a bribe, and suicides. 68 HFHD8 23
c.68 CHUANGDI ends.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 85, Younger bro HULUQANGHU succeeds until 60. 69 CHEIA 136, wikHXW
68 HFHD8 68, ICMH 175, rcN
c.68 ZHENG JI leads a small force allied to a large force of nomads on a raid into Xiongnu land. 68 ICMH 174
c.68 Han, to economize, weakens garrisons along Ordos bend, which allows Xiongnu to return. 68 ICMH 175
c.68 HO SHAN, grandson of Ho Chuping, becomes marquis of Loping (in Ching Prefecture of Dong Commandery) until 66, because Ho Guang requested this enfeoffment in order to continue the ancestral sacrifices to Ho Qubing. 68 HFHD8 38
c.68 Grandee Secretary Wei Xiang says Chang Anshih should be made General-in-chief to succeed Ho Guang, and should not be made Superintendent of the Imperial Household, but rather Chang Yenshou should be made Superintendent of the Imperial Household.  Emperor Xuan wants to make these appointments, but Chang Anshih is afraid and begs to be relieved.  Emperor relents until 67. 68 HFHD7 37
c.67 Apr 24 HO YUN, General of the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace from ?, made Marquis of Kuanyang with income of 1800 families until 66, in order to honor Ho Guang. 67 HFHD8 41
c.67 May 24 Anti-Ho reformist CHANG ANSHIH made Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots and Cavalry until 66, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing until 62. 68 HFHD7 05, 67 CHC 186, HFHD7 37
c.67 May 24 Empress Xu's father, XU GUANGHAN becomes Marquis of Pingen until 61. 67 HFHD8 10, wikXn, wikYn
c.67 Based on a submission from Justice Ministry official Lu Wenshu, who is concerned with the harshness of the criminal justice system, Emperor Xuan adds 4 appellate judges who are in charge of hearing final appeals. 67 wikXn
c.67 SU CHANG, Marquis of Pu 91/0-?, Grand Master of Ceremonies from 77, sentenced for having revealed some secret writings of Ho Shan, and is dismissed. 67 HFHD8 19
c.67 Office of Protector-general of the Western Frontier established.  He guards the northern and southern routes thru the Tarim Basin, and keeps peace generally among the 36 (later 50) states in that region.  His headquarters are at Wulei. 67 HFHD8 55
c.67 WEI XIANG, Grandee Secretary 71-67, shows Emperor Xuan the excessive power of the Ho clan and recommends that their power be lessened to prevent secret plots.  He also recommends that the duplicate copy of memorials, which was seen by the Controller of the Business of the Masters of Writing before the memorial was sent to Emperor Xuan and which enabled that official to control what Xuan saw, be eliminated.  Emperor Xuan approves, orders Wei Xiang to be an Official Serving in the Inner Apartments, and follows his ideas. 67 HFHD8 58
c.67 Anti-Ho reformist WEI XIANG becomes imperial counsellor until 59. 67 CHC 186, HFHD7 04, ICMH 175
c.67 Jul 8 WEI XIANG, Grandee Secretary from 71, made Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Kaoping with income of 800 families until . 67 HFHD8 58, 75
c.67 WEI XIEN, a Ho Guang appointee to Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Fuyang from 71, is allowed to resign, returns home until death 62. 67 HFHD8 28
c.67 FAN MINGYU, Marquis of Pingling from 77, Commandant of the Palace Guard from ?, sentenced for plotting rebellion and executed. 67 HFHD7 31
c.67 Han Expedition to TURFAN. 67 GHCC
Tarim Basin
c.67 Han general Zheng Ji besieges Jiaohe, capital of Jushi.  The Xiongnu come to aid Jushi, but retreat when confronted by Zheng Ji and Sima Xi.  Zheng Ji then leaves 20 men to guard the king of Jushi, but he flees to the Wusun. The Xiongnu install Doumo as king of Jushi, and moves the population further east from Jiaohe.  Zheng Ji then sends 300 men to seize the city. 67 wikBJ
c.67 Han general Zheng Ji defeats Xiongnu at Jushi. 67 wikBJ, wikHH, wikHXW, wikT
c.67 JUSHI surrenders to Han, which begins to set up tun-tien settlements there.  Xiongnu leaders begin repeated attacks on tun-tien settlements in Jushi, which remains under Han until 64. 67 CHEIA 134
c.67 MINSHAN, home of the Nan and Mang peoples, a commandery from 111, becomes part of Shu Commandery. 67 bril
c.67 Son of Xuan Ti and deceased Empress Xu, LIU SHI is no more than 9 when he is declared crown prince.  Ping Chi is made Grand Tutor to Liu Shi. 67 CHC 198, HFHD8 06, 36, wikES, wikHG, wikXn, wikYn
c.67 Widow of Ho Guang HO XIEN sees Ho clan power threatened by appointment of Liu Shi as crown prince.  Xien says this boy was a child of Emperor Xuan when he was a commoner, and should not be crown prince, and if a son were born to the Empress, this man should merely be made a king.  So she tells Empress nee Ho to poison Liu Shi.  Empress nee Ho summons Liu Shi several times and gives him food, but his nurse tastes it first every time, so tho Empress nee Ho keeps the poison by her, she can not use it. 67
HFHD8 36, wikXn, wikYn
c.66 Mr/Ap WANG WANGJEN, mother of Lady nee Wang, is made Baronetess of Poping (location unknown) with income of 11,000 households in the towns of Poping and Liwu (in Cho Commandery) until death same year. 66 HFHD8 39
c.66 Mr/Ap XIAO CHIENSHIH, is made Marquis An of Tso with income of 2000 families until 53. 66 HFHD8 39
c.66 May 5 LIU TE, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 73, becomes Marquis of Yangcheng (in Henan) with income of 1140 families until 56. 66 HFHD8 11
c.66 YANG YUN becomes marquis of Pingtung in Poyang prefecture of Jinan Commandery until 56. 66 HFHD8 66
c.66 TU YENNIEN, Marquis of Chienping from 80 with income of 2,000 households, dismissed.  Several months later he is made Grand Administrator of Beidi Commandery until 53. 66 HFHD7 28
c.66 JEN KUNG, Marquis of Yiyang 80-48, becomes Grand Master of Ceremonies until 63. 66 HFHD7 29
c.66 Jn/Fb WENSHAN Commandery (originally Janmang), established 111, disolved.  Territory becomes north end of Shu Commandery. 66 HFHD6 68
by 66 Reformists cancel many lavish spectacles, games, and entertainments installed by Emperor Wu to impress foreign dignitaries because they were excessive and ostentatious. by 66 wikHH
c.66 HO SHAN, marquis of Loping from 68, sentenced for having written secret letters.  Ho Xien offers to pay 1000 horses and turn in to the government her residence west of Chang'an to ransom Ho Shan, but is refused.  Ho Shan suicides. 66 HFHD8 38, 42
c.66 After increasing public rumors that the Hos had murdered Empress Xu, Lady Xien finally reveals to her son and grandnephews that she had murdered Empress Xu. 66 wikES, wikXn, wikYn
c.66 MURDER of Empress Xu 71 by Xien, wife of Ho Guang, is discovered.  Ho clan sees that its only chance of survival lay in treason.  2 plots are laid:  1 to murder the chancellor, 2 to depose emperor Xuan Ti and replace him with Ho Yu.  Both attempts are to be backed by edicts promulgated in the name of the empress dowager, granddau of Ho Guang. 66
CHC 186, ICMH 175, wikXn, wikYn
c.66 Plots are exposed.  HO clan is charged with conspiracy against the throne.  Leading Ho members are eliminated, by execution or suicide. 66 CHC 185-6, GHCC 149, wikHH, wikXn
c.66 CHU YI is made Grand Minister of Agriculture until 61. 66 HFHD8 53
c.66 SHUNYU YEN, female attending physician, probably a midwife, who poisoned Empress nee Xu, probably executed. 66 HFHD8 44
c.66 HO YUN, Marquis of Kuanyang from 67, arrested, suicides. 66 HFHD8 41
c.66 HO XIEN, widow of Ho Guang, with her daus, and older and younger bros are publicly executed. 66 HFHD8 42
c.66 Aug 14 PING CHI, Grand Tutor to the crown prince, promoted to Grandee Secretary. 66 HFHD8 06
c.66 Aug 31 HO YU, son of Ho Guang, Marquis of Polu from ?, executed by being cut in two at the waist. 66 HFHD8 40
c.66 Sep 15 HO CHENGJUN, dau of Ho Guang & Xien, Empress NEE HO from 71, deposed and removed from the palace to live in Chaotai Palace in Shanglin Park until death 55.  Only her granddau, empress dowager of Chaoti, not yet 25 years old, is allowed to survive.  She dies in 37. 66 CHC 186-7, HFHD8 36,42, wikEHC, wikHG, wikHH     64 wikXn
c.66 Sep? Garrison soldiers of the General of Chariots and Cavalry are abolished.  Their commander Chang Anshih is changed to Commander-in-chief and General of the Guard, having as his subordinates the Commandants of the Palace Guard at the two Palaces, the city gates, and the troops of the Northern Army.
Ho Guang's son, Ho Yu is General of the Right, but his unit is abolished.  Ho Yu is given empty honors, but no troops.
66 HFHD7 37-8
c.66 TENG GUANGHAN, husband of Ho Guang's oldest dau, Privy Treasurer of Changxin Palace, executed. 66 HFHD8 43
c.66 JEM SHENG, husband of Ho Guang's 2nd dau, executed. 66 HFHD8 43
c.66 CHAO PING, a son-in-law of Ho Guang, Chief Commandant of Cavalrymen on Leave and Imperial Household Grandee, in charge of garrison soldiers, executed. 66 HFHD8 43
c.66 FAN MINGYOU suicides. 66 ICMH 175
c.66 CHANG SHE executed. 66 HFHD8 40
c.66 LI CHING executed. 66 HFHD8 40
c.66 DIJIE Era from 69, ends.  YUANKANG Era begins 65-61. 66 wikCM, wikXn
c.66 GUANGCHUAN, abolished from 70, becomes a kingdom until 50.  Son of Liu Chu, LIU WEN, becomes king Tai of Guangchuan until 64. 66 HFHD8 39, bril
c.66 Oct 3 YANG YUN and 4 others are enfeoffed, Yang Yun being given Pingtung marquisate, and promoted to General of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace. 66 HFHD8 66
c.66 Oct 3 TUNG CHUNG is made Marquis Chuang of Kaochang in Qiancheng (Chiensheng) Commandery until 48. 66 HFHD8 72
c.66 Oc/Nv On Emperor Xuan's instruction, the Grand Administrator of Shanyang Commandery visits Liu Ho's palace to inspect.  The Grand Administrator talks with Liu Ho and inspects his wives, children, and slaves.  He reports that the former king was crazy.  He had 16 wives and 22 children, 11 male and 11 female. 66 HFHD8 15
c.65 Jn/Fb LIU NIEN son of Liu Yang, King of Qinghe (Chingho) from 69, condemned for incest with his sister and dismissed.  Made a commoner, exiled to Fangling, given a private town with income of 100 households. 65 HFHD8 44
c.65 QINGHE, kingdom from from 114, becomes a commandery until 47. 66 bril
c.65 Jn/Jl City of KUANGMING north of Chang'an, is re-established by Emperor Xuan as FENGMING with associated prefecture. 65 HFHD8 44
c.65 Son of King Ching of Changsha, LIU TU, is made marquis of Chungwu. 65 HFHD99c 79
c.65 Keang-pin, king of Kwei-tsze and his consort come to court. 65 wstn
c.65 Han installs a new King of Kucha (Chiu-tzu) (state north of the Taklamakan Desert) who would be agreeable to Han interests. 65 CHC 197, wikHH
c.65 Pro-Chinese king of SOCHU (Yarkand) Tibet is killed by an uncle.  A Han envoy is also killed.  Han officer Feng Fengsi quickly assembles 15,000 Han allies and storms Sochu. 65 ICMH 175
c.65 QIANG tribes of Tibet, under Han from ?, but constantly rebelling, successfully rebel. 65 ICMH 175
c.65 XIAO WANGCHIH, acting Privy Treasurer from ?, is made Privy Treasurer until 64. 65 HFHD8 75
c.65 LIU HUNG, King Ai of Gaomi from 73, dies. 65 HFHD8 31
c.65 SUNG CHI, a Kuan-nei Marquis 73-?, Privy Treasurer from 70, is punished because he had said that phoenixes had come down at Pengcheng and not at the capital, so the appearance of those phoenixes was not worth praising.  He is demoted to Grand Tutor to the King of Szushui until ?. 65 HFHD8 23
c.65 JUSHI, under Han 67-64 repels a Xiongnu attack. 65 ICMH 175
Tarim Basin
c.64 Han garrison at JUSHI from 67, expelled by Xiongnu.  Jushi is abandoned to Xiongnu.  Most inhabitants migrate to Chuli (Kurla), leaving the Xiongnu with few land cultivators. 64 CHEIA 134 60 ICMH 176
c.64 After Empress nee Ho had been dismissed, Emperor Xuan considers whom to create empress.  He favors Consorts Hua, Zhang, and Wei, each of whom bore him children.  He almost settles on Consort Zhang, mom of his son Liu Qin (later Prince of Huaiyang).  But he remembers how Empress Ho had nearly poisoned crown prince Shi.  He therefore resolves to create an empress who is childless and kind.  He decides on Consort Wang (not among his favorites), and creates her empress. 64 wikXn, wikEWX, wikYn,
no date: HFHD8 46
c.64 Favorite Beauty WANG is made Empress Wang Xiaoxuan by Emperor Xuan Ti until 49, to be foster-mother for his heir Prince Liu Shi. 64 HFHD 212, wikEWX
c.64 WANG FENGGUANG, dad of new Empress Wang Xiaoxuan, is made marquis of Qiongcheng until ?. 64 wikEWX
c.64 Han agents conspire with Wusun kunmo Wengguimi "Fat King", to kill Wusun kunmo Nimi "Mad King".  Han deputy envoy Chi Tu, who brought a doctor to attend to Nimi, is punished by castration when he returns to China. 64 wikWsn
c.64 LIU WEN, son of Liu Chu, king Tai of Guangchuan from 66, dies.  Son LIU HAIYANG succeeds until 50. 64 HFHD8 80
c.64 Wusun kunmo Wengguimi asks for another Han princess. 64 ICMH 175
c.64 Another Han princess is sent to Kunmo Wengguimi, but before she leaves Dunhuang Commandery he dies.  Emperor Xuan Ti then permits the princess to return, since Jieyou had married the new Kunmo, Nimi, son of Cenzou. 64 wikWsn
c.64 CHAO GUANGHAN, Governor of the Capital from 71, is condemned for having judicially murdered an innocent person and several other crimes.  He is condemned to death, and cut in two at the waist. 64 HFHD8 31
c.64 XIAO WANGCHIH, Privy Treasurer from 65, is made Eastern Supporter until 61. 64 HFHD8 75
c.64 Grand Administrator of Shanyang Commandery is instructed by Emperor Xuan to report on the doings of Liu Ho.  He replies that in June 67BC Liu Ho had taken office.  The former king of Zhangye lived in his former palace and his 183 male and female slaves lived in it with the gates closed and only small doors open.  Emperor Xuan knows that he has no reason to be jealous of Liu Ho. 64 HFHD8 15, wikMH
c.64 Han concentrates on defense of southern oasis route on Silk Road. 64 GHCC
c.63 Apr 20 PING CHI, Grandee Secretary from 66, made Marquis of Poyang in Jinan Commandery with income of 1300 families until ?. 63 HFHD8 06
c.63 Apr 20 CHANG PENGTSU, youngest son of Chang Anshih, adopted son of Chang Ho, made Marquis of Yangtu in Chengyang kingdom with income of 1600 families until 57. 63 HFHD8 45
c.63 Apr 20 XU YENSHOU, younger bro of Xu Guanghan, who is father-in-law of Emperor Xuan, made Marquis Ching of Locheng until 53. 63 HFHD8 45
c.63 Apr 20 SHIH XUAN, who was kind to Emperor Xuan when he was a young commoner, made Marquis Kang of Pingtai until 39. 63 HFHD8 45
c.63 Apr 30 SHIH TSENG, son of Shih Kung, who is older bro of Sweet Little Lady nee Shih, made Marquis Ai of Qiangling until 58. 63 HFHD8 45
c.63 Apr 30 XU SHUN, younger bro of Xu Guanghan, who is father-in-law of Emperor Xuan, made Marquis Ching of Powang until 60. 63 HFHD8 45
c.63 May 7 LIU HO is appointed Marquis of Haihun with income of 4000 families until 59. 63 HFHD8 15, wikMH
c.63 Jul 30 HUAIYANG, a kingdom from 155, comes under Han.  Emperor Xuan makes his son LIU QIN King of Huaiyang until 28.  It continues a kingdom under his descendants, Xuan and Yin, to the end of the dynasty. 63 CHC 193, HFHD8 46, bril, wikXn
c.63 YANG CHUNG, Marquis of Anping from 73, dies.  63 HFHD8 18
c.63 The Xienling Qiang ally with other neighboring Qiang in Tibet. 63 HFHD8 24
c.63 When Emperor Xuan hears of the Qiang alliance, he asks Chao Chungkuo about it.  Chao says the Qiang could be easily ruled only when they were divided. 63 HFHD8 25
c.63 HUANG PA, Grand Administrator of Yingchuan Commandery from ?, summoned to be Acting Governor of the Capital, but a few months later, he is accused of a technical crime, and degraded to his previous post. 63 HFHD8 60
c.63/2 The Qiang send a messenger to the Xiongnu to get troops to bar the Chinese road to the western countries. 63/2 HFHD8 25
c.62 HO CHENGSHIH from plots to rebel and is executed. 62 HFHD8 48
c.62 CHANG ANSHIH, Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing gets ill.  He asks to return his honors and retire.  Emperor Xuan refuses and urges him to eat more to lengthen his years.  So Chang Anshih forces himself to attend to business. 62 HFHD7 39
c.62 WEI XIEN, Confucian teacher who rose to Marquis Chieh of Fuyang and Lt. Chancellor 71-67, dies, age 81. 62 HFHD8 27, 28
c.62 Sep 13 CHANG ANSHIH, Marquis of Fuping from 74, Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 68, dies, much honored.  62 HFHD7 05, 39
c.62 WANG SHANSHOU, Grand Administrator of Dai Commandery from ?, deliberately accuses 10 people unjustly of crime.  He is sentenced to death and deprived of rank; but there is an amnesty and he becomes a commoner. 62 HFHD7 29
c.62 LI QIANG, Palace Grandee from ?, is sent by Emperor Xuan to inspect the empire.  He becomes Acting Privy Treasurer until 59. 62 HFHD8 48
c.62 It is proposed that convicted criminals could escape punishment by serving in the campaign to suppress the Qiang rebels.  Xiao Wangchih argues against this. 62 CHC 202
c.62/1 YICHU ANKUO is sent to inspect the Qiang.  when he reaches the Xienling Qiang, he summons their 30+ leaders, and executes the main ones.  His troops attack the Xienling and behead 1000+. 62/1 HFHD8 25
c.61 YUANKANG Era from 65, ends.  SHENJUI Era begins 61-58. 61 wikCM, wikXn
c.61 CHU YI, Grand Minister of Agriculture from 66, dies. 66 HFHD8 53
c.61 CHAO CHUNGKUO suggests the best way to consolidate Chinese influence is not by sporadic small task forces, but by permanent establishment of self-supporting agricultural colonies. 61 CHC 197
c.61 spring YICHU ANKUO Chief Commandant of Cavalry with 3,000 horses encamped to ward off the Qiang, is attacked by the caitiffs, loses his carts and much equipment and leads his troops back to Lingchu in Jincheng Commandery. 61 HFHD8 25
c.61 After a short foray into magic, Emperor Xuan quits seeking immortality. 61 wikXn
c.61 YANG YUN is made Inspector of Officials and Superintendent of the Imperial Household until 57. 61 HFHD8 67
c.61 CHAO CHUNGKUO is sent against the Qiang, some of whom are rebelling and some of whom are considering rebellion.  He marches into east Tibet. 62 wikXn
61 ICMH 176
c.61 XU GUANGHAN Marquis of Pingen from 67, dies without heirs. 61 HFHD8 10
c.61 XIAO WANGCHIH, Eastern Supporter from 64, is promoted to Grand Herald until 59. 61 HFHD8 75
c.61 Han garrison established by Chao Chungkuo at Koko Nur (Qinghai Lake). 61 ICMH 176
c.61 Han garrison established by Zheng Ji at Luntai. 61 ICMH 176
c.61 XIN WUXIEN, Grand Administrator of Jiuquan Commandery, is sent with Chao Chungkuo and Xu Yenshou to subdue the rebellious Qiang.  He is not successful. 61 HFHD8 52
c.61 Han garrison established by Zheng Ji at Wulei (between Kucha and Lop Nur).  It becomes his headquarters. 61 ICMH 176
c.61 HAN TSENG, Marquis An of Lunglo 88-56, General of the Van from 74, becomes Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots & Cavalry and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing until 56. 61 HFHD7 05, 24
c.60 GODUMAK, king of Bukbuyeo Korea from 108, ends.  GOMUSEU succeeds until 58. 60 rcK
c.60 Xiongnu raid Han garrisons at Kuldja and Kashgar. 60 ICMH 176
Tarim Basin
c.60 Xiongnu / Han conflict over control of the oasis city-states in the Tarim Basin from 115 ends.  Han wins. 60 bgsp
c.60 SILK ROAD, under Xiongnu control from ?, no longer blocked in southern route.  But northern (Zungarian) route is still blocked at Turfan. 60 ICMH 176, wnck
c.60 HULUQANGHU dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 68.  His son Kegeushar is forced to flee to the kingdom of his wife's father.  Aided by his mom Chuangu, the younger bro of Empress Chuanchu, Wise King of the West, UYANQUTI succeeds until 58.  His reign name is Luanti Tuchitang.  He kills all important officials of his predecessor, and put his relatives in their places.  He tries to make peace with Han. 60 CHEIA 136, HFHD8 68, ICMH 176, rcN, wikHXW, wnck, wikXng
c.60 XIONGNU split into 5 hostile groups. 60 GHCC 135
c.60 SENGHENDJEN, son of Hulugu, revolts against Uyanquti, leads his horde to join Han. 60 ICMH 176
c.60 The WUHUAN of Manchuria resume raids on Xiongnu and Han. 60 ICMH 176
c.60 The Rizhu King of the western Xiongnu, who controls Jushi, is hostile to chanyu Uyanquti.  He surrenders to Zheng Ji at Kuli.  60 ICMH 177, wikHXW
c.60 Internal discord among Xiongnu rulers, motivates Xianxianshan, Prince Rizhu stationed in the Turpan Basin, to lead 12,000 of his troops and 12 royals to pledge allegiance to Han. 60 wikBJ
Tarim Basin
c.60 ZHENG JI is appointed Protector General of the Western Regions, with his office in Wulei (near Qiuci) to oversee the Tarim Basin west to the Pamir. 60 wikBJ
c.60 Xiongnu lose control of Jushi.  Their uncontested domination of the Western Regions also ends. 60 CHEIA 132
c.60 With loss of the Western Regions, the Xiongnu lose:
  • a major source of grain
  • various kinds of war materials, including iron weapons
  • manpower
  • tax revenue
60 CHEIA 134
c.60 JUSHI occupied by Zheng Ji.  South Jushi (Turpan Basin) becomes one state controlled by the Han.  North Jushi (north of Tienshan Mountains) is divided into 6 insignificant states dominated by Xiongnu. 60 ICMH 177, wikJK
c.60 Han establishes the Protectorate of the Western Regions, which deals with the region's defense and foreign affairs, and conduct relations with the small kingdoms of the Tarim Basin.  Zheng Ji is 1st Protector General until 49. 60 CHEIA 133, bgsp, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikT
60/59 CHC 197, wikPWR     56 GHCC 118, ICMH 177
c.60 The Xiongnu Jihchu Prince XIENXIEN CHAN with 10,000+ Xiongnu, surrenders to the Han. 60 CHEIA 133, HFHD8 54
c.60 HAN YENSHOU is made Acting Eastern Supporter until 59. 60 HFHD8 65
c.60 CHAO CHUNGKUO is again made General of the Rear and Commandant of the Palace Guard at some palace. 60 HFHD8 26
c.60 XU SHUN, Marquis Ching of Powang from 63, dies. 60 HFHD8 45
c.60 SU WU, age 80+, statesman detained 100-81 by Xiongnu, dies. 60 HFHD7 21, wikSW
c.60 fall The Qiang kill 4000+ Xienling Qiang including leaders Yu Fei and Yang Yu.  The Qiang then surrender to the Han. 60 HFHD8 26, 53
c.60 CHAO CHUNGKUO returns from fighting the Qiang. 60 wikXn
c.60 Oct KAI KUANJAO, Colonel in Charge of the Retainers from ?, charged with treason, suicides by throat cut. 60 HFHD8 56
c.59 Apr 10 Reformist WEI XIANG, imperial counsellor from 67, dies.  XIAO WANGCHIH becomes imperial counsellor until 56.  PING CHI becomes imperial counsellor until 52. 59 CHC 192, HFHD7 04, HFHD8 59
c.59 Emperor Xuan gives a 50% increase to those of 100 piculs and below. 59 HFHD 167
c.59 LIANGCHIU HO, Grand Palace Grandee from ?, promoted to Privy Treasurer until ?. 59 HFHD8 79
c.59 LIU HO, former emperor 74, Marquis of Haihun from 63, dies.  His son Liu Daizong is not initially allowed to inherit his title. 59 wikMH
c.59  Contract with a Slave  written by Wang Bao.  Shows tea drinking as an established custom. 59 wikLCI
c.59 LIU HO Marquis of Haihun with income of 4,000 families from 63, dies.  His son, Taitsung is not allowed to succeed.  The marquisate is abolished until 46. 59 HFHD8 16
c.59 XIAO WANGCHIH, Grand Herald from 61, is made Grandee Secretary until 56. 59 HFHD8 76
c.59 HAN YENSHOU, Acting Eastern Supporter from 60, is made titular Eastern Supporter until ?. 59 HFHD8 65
c.59 LI QIANG, acting Privy Treasurer from 62, becomes Grand Herald until 58/7. 59 HFHD8 48
c.59 CHENG CHI made Marquis of Anyuan with income of 1000 households until ?.  He dies in 49. 59 HFHD8 55
c.59 Jun 1 On his arrival in China, the Xiongnu Jihchu Prince XIENXIEN CHAN is created Marquis of Kueitih with income of 2250 households until 34, and Ching Keih is made Marquis of Ganyuen. 59 HFHD8 54, wstn
c.59 Jun 5 PING CHI, Marquis of Poyang from 63, becomes Lt. Chancellor until 55. 59 HFHD8 06
c.59 ZHENG JI, 1st Protector General of the Western Regions 60-49, builds irrigation canal. 59 yutH
c.59 Gui Zi fights invasion led by chanyu Uyanquti. 59 yutH
c.59 TEA:  Wang Bao, of Sichuan Province, writes the 1st known book on buying and preparing tea -  A Contract with a Servant  - establishing that tea is an important part of diet and a commonly traded commodity. 59 glbl
c.58 GOMUSEU, king of Bukbuyeo Korea from 60, ends. 58 rcK
c.58 GI SUP (Yang Wang), king of Mahan in southwest Korea from 73, ends.  GI HUN (Wun Wang) succeeds until 32. 58 rcK
c.58 SHIH TSENG, marquis Ai of Qiangling from 63, Palace Attendant, General of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace, and a Kuan-nei Marquis, dies. 58 HFHD8 45
c.58 My/Jn HUANG PA, Grand Administrator of Yingchuan Commandery, praised by Emperor Xuan and made a Kuan-nei Marquis. 58 HFHD8 60
c.58 SHENJUI Era from 61, ends.  WUFENG Era begins 57-54. 58 wikCM, wikXn
c.58 Jn/Jl LUANTI SHENCHIH, younger bro of Chanyu Uyanquti, is sent to the Han court to renew the peace and friendship. 58 HFHD8 61
c.58 HUHANYE, a half-Chinese Xiongnu prince, enters Han protectorate, but his older bro Zhizhi revolts against him and declares independence.  This causes the Xiongnu Empire to split into 2 separate empires. 59 wikXn, 58 wnck, wikXng
c.58 HUHANYE, defeats troops of Chanyu Uyanquti, who appeals to the Wise King of the West for help, but is refused help because of his evil conduct. 58 HFHD8 68
c.58 UYANQUTI dies.  Chanyu of Xiongnu from 60, deserted by supporters, suicides.  Supported by the southern faction, HUHANYE (Khukhenye)-I, succeeds until 31.  He is opposed by Bosiuytang-Zhuki in the west until 56, Huge in the northwest until 57, Cheli in the southwest until 56, Uji in the northwest until 57. 58 CHEIA 138, HFHD8 68, ICMH 177, bgsp, rcN, wikHXW, wnck, wikXng     51 B76 V-170, wikHD, wikHH
no date: B76 9-597
c.58/7 CHUANG YENNIEN, Grand Administrator of Henan Commandery from ?, sentenced for having been hateful to and critical of the government.  He is publicly executed.  He has 4 bros, including Chuang Pengtsu, all of whom become officials 58/7 HFHD8 63
c.58/7 LI QIANG, Grand Herald from 59, dismissed. 58/7 HFHD8 48
c.57 SILLA kingdom founded in southeast Korea by unification of 6 chiefdoms of the Jinhan confederacy by Pak Hyokkose.  Hykkose Kosogun becomes king until 4CE.  SILLA lasts until 935CE.  Early Silla period begins until 654. 57 B76 10-507, rcK, wikKor, wikP3K, wikSl
c.57 THREE KINGDOMS Period in Korea begins until 668CE.   Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 57 B76 I-357, wik3KK
c.57 Xiongnu civil war breaks out over the succession, which fragments the Xiongnu confederation into 5 contenders.  Almost all 5 have their own regional followings.  Huhanye's greatest rival is his older bro Zhizhi. 57 CHEIA 136, ICMH 177, rcN
c.57 Uji, chanyu contender in northwest from 58, drops out of the game. 57 rcN
c.57 Huge, chanyu contender in northwest from 58, drops out of the game. 57 rcN
c.57 YANG YUN, Inspector of Officials and Superintendent of the Imperial Household from 61, dismissed. 57 HFHD8 67
c.57 CHANG PENGTSU, Marquis of Yangtu in Chengyang kingdom from 63, killed by a concubine. 57 HFHD8 46
c.57 Tibet establishes empire. 57 yutH
c.56 PINGGAN, a kingdom from 91, is again made commandery called GUANGPING until 4. 56 CHC 193, HFHD 110, HFHD6 109, bril
c.56 Tai Changlo deposed and made a commoner. 56 HFHD8 67
c.56 YANG YUN, marquis of Pingtung from 66, deposed and made a commoner, until death 54. 56 HFHD8 66, 67
c.56 TUQI (Bosiuytang-Zhuki), chanyu contender in west from 58, is defeated by Huhanye and suicides.  Junchen succeeds until 54. 56 rcN, wikXng
c.56 CHELI, chanyu contender in southwest from 58, drops out of the game. 56 rcN
c.56 ZHIZHI-Guduhu, older bro of Huhanye, becomes chanyu contender in east until 36. 56 HFHD8 74, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW     55 rcN
c.56 May 7 HAN TSENG, Marquis An of Lunglo from 88, Commander of Chariots & Cavalry and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 61, dies.  Son HAN PAO succeeds until ?. 56 HFHD7 05, 24
c.56 Jun XU YENSHOU, Marquis Ching of Locheng 63-53, General of Strong Bowmen from ?, is made Commander-in-chief until 53. 56 HFHD8 45
c.56 Aug 28 HUANG PA, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 58, Grand Tutor to the crown prince from ?, is made Marquis of Chiencheng with income of 600 families. 56 HFHD8 60
c.56 XIAO WANGCHIH imperial counsellor and Grandee Secretary from 59, removed and made Grand Tutor to the crown prince until 51, an apparent promotion, but really a demotion. 56 CHC 192, HFHD8 76
c.56 LIU TE, Marquis of Yangcheng with income of 1,140 families from 66, dies. 56 HFHD8 11
c.55 spring PING CHI, Marquis of Poyang 63-55, Lt. Chancellor 59-55, gets ill.  Emperor Xuan asks him to recommend his successor.  Ping Chi does not want to do so, but finally recommends Tu Yennien, Yu Tingkuo, and Chen Wannien. 55 HFHD8 07
c.55 Mar 17 PING CHI, Marquis of Poyang from 63, Lt. Chancellor from 59, dies.  HUANG PA becomes Lt. Chancellor until 51. 56 HFHD8 60 55 CHC 210, HFHD8 07
c.55 Apr 7 Husulei is made Marquis of Yiyang with income of 1,500 families until 54. 55 HFHD8 66
c.55 ZHONGSHAN (Chungshan), administered as a kingdom from 154, has unknown status until 43. 55 bril
c.55 Consort Sima, favorite consort of Prince Shi dies of illness.  Prince Shi becomes ill and depressed.  Emperor Xuan has Empress Wang select the most beautiful of the ladies in waiting sent to Prince Shi.  Wang Zhengjun is one of them. 55 wikYn
c.54 JUNCHEN, chanyu contender in west from 56, attacks Zhizhi and is killed by him. 54 HFHD8 74, wikXn, rcN, wikXng
c.54 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, is attacked and routed by older bro ZHIZHI, who occupies the Xiongnu capital.  Huhanye moves south. 54 CHEIA 138, HFHD8 74
c.54 The Eastern Xiongnu withdraw to the Ordos, while Zhizhi and the Western Xiongnu migrate to Sogdiana in Transoxiana. 54 wnck
c.54 Husulei, Marquis of Yiyang from 55, sentenced because his son had plotted rebellion.  He is reduced to rank of Kuan-nei Marquis with income of 1000 families until . 54 HFHD8 66
c.54 Western Xiongnu invasion of Ferghana is defeated. 54 ICMH 177
c.54 WUFENG Era from 57, ends.  GANLU Era begins 53-50. 54 wikCM, wikXn
54 SOLAR ECLIPSE observable at Chang'an.  The Emperor is told that the eclipse is because Yang Yun had not repented of his crime. 54 HFHD8 68
53 May 9 HDSER
c.54 YANG YUN condemned for treason and inhuman conduct, and executed by being cut in 2 at the waist.  His wife and kids are exiled to Jiuquan Commandery, his nephew dismissed from his marquisate and made a commoner, and all those holding positions who were his friends, the Commandant of Weiyang Palace Guard Wei Xuancheng, Governor of the Capital Chang Chang, and Sun Huitsung are dismissed from their positions. 54 HFHD8 68
c.54 HO CHENGJUN, dau of Ho Guang & Xian, 2nd wife of Emperor Xuan Ti, Empress NEE HO from 70, living in Chaotai Palace in Shanglin Park from 66, is moved to Yiin-lin Lodge, siucides. 55 HFHD8 36 54 wikEHC, wikXn
c.54 GUANGLING, a kingdom from 117, reverts to a commandery until 47. 54 bril
c.53 Mar 20 XU YENSHOU, Marquis Ching of Locheng from 63, made Commander-in-chief from 56, General of Chariots and Cavalry from ?, dies. 53 HFHD8 45
c.53 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, presides over a debate between King Ichihtzu of the Left, who advocates submission to Han, and a group of opposing Xiongnu nobility, who maintain that it would cost the Xiongnu their leadership of all non-Chinese peoples.  King Ichihtzu says, Han power is now peakedWusun and other states have all become Han vassals. 53 CHEIA 139
c.53 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, decides to become a Han vassal.  He leads his army south to the stockades, and sends his son Zhulouqutang, the Tuqi King of the Right (Wise King of the West), as hostage to Chang'an. 54 HFHD8 71
53 wikHXW, wikXn, wstn, wikXng
c.53 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender 56-36, also sends his son, the Right Great General Keuyuli-show, as hostage to Chang'an. 53 wikHXW, wikXng, wstn
c.53 WUSUN kingdom splits. 53 ICMH 177
c.53 TARIM BASIN is in such chaos that Han China is the most stable force. 53 ICMH 177
c.53 TU YENNIEN, Grand Administrator of Beidi Commandery from 66, gets sick, retires, dies. 53 HFHD7 28
c.53 RINAN, a commandery from 111, closed.  Territory is assigned variously to Yulin and Zangke [Vietnam]. 53 bril
c.53 At a dinner, Prince Shi suggests that Emperor Xuan employ more Confucian officials in key positions.  Emperor Xuan says Confucian scholars are impractical and cannot be given responsibilities, furthermore that Emperor Yuan would bring the downfall of the Liu imperial clan.  Confucianism at this time includes fortune-telling. 53 wikYn
c.53 Disappointed in crown prince Shi's overreliance on Confucian officials and lack of resolve, Emperor Xuan considers creating Liu Qin, Prince of Huaiyang, crown prince instead, but refrains, remembering how Prince Shi's mother Empress Xu was his first love and had been poisoned, and also how he depended on his father-in-law in his youth. 53 wikXn, wikYn
c.53 XIAO CHIENSHIH, Marquis An of Tso with income of 2000 families from 66, dies. 53 HFHD8 39
c.53 LIU XU, son of Emperor Wu, Prince Li of Guangling (made prince in 117), suicides. 54 HFHD6 47 53 wikWu
c.52 HUHANYE formally requests thru officials at Wuyuan commandery to have an audience with the Han court to pay homage. 52 wikHXW
c.52 During all of 52 Chanyu Huhanye camps outside the Wuyuan stockade waiting for formal admission to pay court to the Emperor in person. 52 wstn
c.52 JIYIN, commandery from 141 or 138, becomes DINGTAO kingdom until 49.  Son of Emperor Xuan, LIU XIAO (Liu Ao) becomes prince of Dingtao until 49. 52 bril, wikXn
c.52 DONGPING, Dahe/Jidong commandery from 116, becomes a kingdom until 4.  LIU YU, son of Emperor Xuan by Kungsun, is made king of Dongping until 21.  He is an evil lawless man. 52 CHC 193, HFHD 141, bril, wikXn
c.52 CHANG LU, Chief Commandant of the Protecting Army, is sent to put down the rebellion in Zhua (Chuyai) Commandery on Hainan island. 52 HFHD8 71
c.52 PING CHI, imperial counsellor from 59, ends. 52 HFHD7 04
c.52 CHAO CHUNGKUO, Marquis Chuang of Yingping from 73, age 85, dies. 52 HFHD8 24, 26, ICMH 177
c.52 ARMILLARY SPHERE representing the celestial sphere, invented by Eratosthenes, reinvented by astronomer Geng Shouchang. 52 GHCC, wikLCI
c.52 LIU XIAO, prince of Dingtao from 52, becomes prince XIAO of Chu until 49. 52 CHC 193, HFHD 195, HFHD8 71, wikXn
c.51 Apr 11 HUANG PA, Lt. Chancellor from 55, dies. 51 CHC 210
c.51 Xiongnu split.  West horde is driven into central Asia.  East horde submits to Han. 51 B76 V-170, CHC 235
c.51 Starting from 51, the Western Xiongnu conquer Wusun, Western Ding Lin, Chien Kun (Khyrghiz) and vassalise the Kingdom of Kang Guo (Samarkand). 51 wnck
c.51 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, is defeated by older bro Zhizhi. 51 ICMH 177
c.51 The WUSUN come under Han Protector General of the Western Regions. 51 wikPWR
c.51 A proposed visit by chanyu Huhanye provokes controversy in court over whether to treat him as equal to the Han kings or below them.  It is decided to treat him generously as part of a policy of winning the friendship of foreigners, rather than forcing their submission. 51 CHC 196
c.51 TUNG CHUNG, Marquis Chuang of Kaochang 66-48, is Commandant of Changlo Palace Guard and is one of the escorts of Huhanye.  Han Chang, a Chief Commandant of Chariots and Cavalry, is also an escort with 16,000 cavalry. 51 CHEIA 140, HFHD8 72
c.51 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, visits Chang'an, personally pays homage to Emperor Xuan during the New Year celebration, stays more than a month.  They make a treaty on equal terms.  He is allowed to settle as an independent king in the Ordos region, and given 20 catties of gold, 200,000 copper, 77 suits of clothes, 8,000 silk fabrics, and 6,000 catties of silk floss.  China also supplies the Xiongnu with needed food. 51 B76 4-314, CHC 266, CHEIA 140, ICMH 177, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikXn, wikXng, wstn
c.51 LIU AO (later Emperor Cheng) is born to Wang Zhengjun, consort of Prince Liu Shi.  Liu Ao will become Emperor Xuan's favorite grandson. 51 wikWZ, wikYn
c.51 An office of Erudit is established for Liangchiu Ho's interpretation of the  Book of Changes . 51 HFHD8 80
c.51 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender 56-36, sends envoys to Chang'an to present tribute to Han, but fails to come personally to pay homage. 51 wikHXW, wstn
c.51 XIAO WANGCHIH, Grand Tutor to the crown prince from 56, dismissed. 51 HFHD8 76
c.51 XIAO WANGCHIH helps decide the official interpretation of the Classics. 51 HFHD8 77
c.51 Confucian classics formalized by Xuan Ti. 51 bk
c.51 Emperor Xuan Ti honors key officials who had helped him.  In an unprecedented move, he has portraits of 11 of them painted on the main gallery of Weiyang Palace:  Ho Guang, Zhang Anshi, Han Zeng, Chao Chungkuo, Wei Xiang, Bing Ji, Du Yannian, Liu De, Liang Qiuhe, Xiao Wangzhi, Su Wu.  Ho Guang is referred only by titles and not by name - which is considered an even greater honor than given to the other 10. 51 wikHG, wikXn
c.51 Western Han Dynasty peaks in territorial size. 51 wikXn
c.51 Emperor Xuan Ti increases the number of ERUDITS to 12 and increases their rank from from 400 to 600 piculs, and doubles the number of their disciples. 51 HFHD 51, HFHD8 32
c.51 XUAN TI, Han Emperor 68-49, orders official discussions about interpretation of classic texts and validity of discrepancies.  Conference is called Pavilion of the Stone Canal.  Texts include  Poetry, History, Changes, Spring & Autumn .  Prominent at the discussions are former imperial counsellor Xiao Wangchih and Liu Xiang 51 B76 4-314, CHC 192, 239, GHCC, wnck
c.50 SILK industry of China from 2700, trades with Rome. 50 PW 17
c.50 CHANG HUI is made General of the Right, and Director of the Right and Director of Dependent States until death 47. 50 HFHD8 35
by 50 BUDDHISM brought by traveling merchants, if not by missionaries to China. by 50 ktkh
c.50 50,000 to 60,000 Xiongnu are attached to Han China. 50 GHCC 138
c.50 HUHANYE and ZHIZHI again sends envoys to Chang'an to present tribute to Han, but Zhizhi again fails to come personally.  Since Huhanye had appeared in person in 51, his homage is honored.  Homage of Zhizhi is rejected. 50 wikHXW, wstn
c.50 LIU HAIYANG, king of Guangchuan from 64, convicted of murder and various sexual perversions, dismissed, exiled to Fangling. 50 HFHD8 80
c.50 GUANGCHUAN, a kingdom from 66, becomes XINDU commandery until 37. 50 bril
by 50 The palace school has 3,000 students. by 50 frie
c.50 GANLU Era from 53, ends.  HUANGLONG Era begins 49-49. 50 wikCM, wikXn
c.50 KUMMARAWITHUDDHI, king of Arkan on west coast of Burma from 137, ends.  WATHUMUNDALA succeeds until 16. 50 rcSAM
c.50 Indian culture appears in Cambodia. 50 MCAW 256
50±50 Chinese inventions:  square pallet chain pump, edge runner mill with water power drive. 50 TTT
c.49 ZHIZHI Chanyu contender 56-36, heads northwest and conquers several Xiyu kingdoms, settling his capital at the old capital of one of those kingdoms, Jiankun. 49 wikYn
c.49 A bro of Tuqi sets himself up as Chanyu and is killed by Zhizhi. 49 wikXng
c.49 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, again visits Chang'an, personally pays homage to Emperor Xuan. 49 CHC 235, HFHD8 68, wikHXW, wikXn, wstn
c.49 HUANGLONG Era from 49, ends.  CHUYUAN Era begins 48-44. 49 wikCM, wikXn
c.49 Emperor XUAN TI gets sick.  He commissions his cousin-once-removed Shi Gao, Prince Shi's teacher Xiao Wangzhi, and Xiao's assistant Zhou Kan to serve as regents. 49 wikYn
c.49 Son of Liu Jun, XUAN TI dies of illness.  8th Han emperor from 68, Son by Empress Xu Pingjun, LIU SHI succeeds as YUAN TI 48-33. 49 B76 IV-888, 4-310, CHAC 984, ICMH 178, ckH, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikXn, wikYn, wstn, yutH     48 bk, frie, wnck

East Asia 49-20
V