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Egypt Go to Mediterranean Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Africa Go to North Africa
c.100 Cleo Berenice-III accepts Ptolemy-XI Alexander, who is still on Kos, as son; the boy is recognized as co-king. 100 lvPtX, lvPt11
c.100  Wisdom of Solomon  written by an Alexandrian Jew in Greek.  Artistic Greek style expressing Hebrew and Greek thought modes.  Main theme: praise of wisdom.  Ch 1-5: Blasts apostate Jews.  Ch 6-12 & 16-19: Defense of Judaism.  Ch 13-15: Blasts pagan gods. 150-50 Sdl 5-277 100-0 B76 IX-338 50 bk
50-30 IDB 4-863
c.100 Egyptian Jew ARTAPANUS writes  On the Jews .  His writings are only known to us 2nd and 3rd hand.  Tries to prove that Egyptian culture is based on Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, and Moses.  Abraham taught the pharaoh astrology.  Jacob established the Egyptian temples at Athos and Heliopolis.  Joseph was appointed viceroy of Egypt and initiated agrarian reforms to ensure that the powerful would not dispossess the weak of their fields.  Identifies Moses with the Greek Musaeus and the Egyptian Hermes-Toth. 200-100 encArt
B76 10-313, CHJ 2-401
c.100  2nd Book of MACCABEES  written not in Judea but probably in Alexandria by unknown author.  A Greek synopsis of a history of the Maccabean Revolt down to 161, written in Hebrew by Jason of Cyrene. 100 CBCNT 58, IDB 3-209
125-150CE AΨA 129
70 ISBE 1-596
41-44CE B76 VI-432
c.100 PURGATORY foreshadowed.  Judas Maccabee "made propitiation for them that had died that they might be released from their sin." 2 Mac 13-39-45
c.100  Additions to Book of ESTHER , 6 passages containing 107 verses written in Greek by an Egyptian Jew and inserted into Esther in LXX.  Contain no Alexandrine doctrine, but introduce prayer into this otherwise secular book. 180-145 CBCNT 58 100 IDB 2-151
100-c.70 AΨA 665
c.100 A royal decree protects sacred fish. 100 CAH 9-326
c.100 THEODOTUS, Jewish apologist, flourishes in Egypt. 100 B76 IX-936
c.90 Dau of P-6 & Cleo-2, CLEOPATRA conspires to kill her son Alexander, but is killed by him. 90 DGRBM 1-800, 3-596, MCAW 240
89 GHH
This Cleo looks suspiciously similar to Cleo-III, d.101.
c.100 Cleo BERENICE-III adopts P-XI Alexander, who is and stays in Greece. 100 lvCB3
c.90 Rebels attack the Latopolite and Pathyrite nomoi in the Thebaid. 90 CAH 9-317
c.89 P-X ALEXANDER-I is totally defeated in a sea-fight by rebels under Tyrrhus, and flees to Myra in LyciaHis bro Lathyrus is now recalled by the Alexandrians to Egypt, a circumstance which leads Alexander to hope that he might rule Cyprus. 89 DGRBM 3-596
c.88 P-X ALEXANDER-I, king of Egypt 110-09, 107-88, expelled from Alexandria by popular and military uprising.  Goes to Levant.  Older bro P-IX Lathyrus rules only Cyprus -81. 89 CAH 9-387, DGRBM 3-596, GHH, nar     88 B76 6-483, GEoP, ISBE 3-1050, ktut, lvCB3     87 B76 VIII-282
c.88 P-X ALEXANDER-I, king of Egypt 110-09, 107-88, with Syrian mercenaries, returns to Alexandria, plunders tomb of Alex the Great to pay them.  Again driven out by a mob. 89 CAH 9-387, atl1
c.88 P-X ALEXANDER-I, king of Egypt 110-09, 107-88, with Lycian, Syrian and Palestinian mercenaries returns again by sea, and is defeated at sea by P-IX Lathyrus. 89 CAH 9-387, lvCB3
c.88 Civil WarPtolemy-X Alexander-I vs. P-IX Lathyrus. 88 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-388, GHH, wikPX     84 GHH
c.88 Thebes rebels against P-IX Lathyrus.  Thebes is besieged until 85. 88 B76 VIII-282,
CAH 9-388     84 GHH
c.88 2nd son of P-8 Physcon & Cleo-3 Ptolemy-X ALEXANDER-I dies.  King of Egypt 110-09, from 107, invades Cyprus, but is defeated and killed by Chaereas at sea near Cyprus.  Ptolemy-IX Soter-II Lathyrus returns from Cyprus and is restored until 81. 89 DGRBM 3-596, MCAW 240
88 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9-316, 387, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, JIAE, Jud 2-589, LEWH 97, Murn, Shaw, ae, anan, frH, ktut, lvPt12, nar, phou, pic, rcE, resh, tig, treg, wikP, wikPX     87 atl1
murdered by P-IX. 88 B76 8-386
expelled again, killed trying to raid Lycian coast. 88 B76 VIII-282
c.88 Ptolemy-IX Soter-II Lathyrus marries dau Cleo BERNICE-III, because as wid of Ptolemy-X she can offer some legitimation. 88 lvCB3
c.88 Platon, as epistrategos of the Thebaid, has at least 1 native commander (Nechthyris) under him. 88 CAH 9-317
c.88 Sons of P-X, P-XI ALEXANDER-II and P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES, on Cos Island from 103, captured by Mith-VI Eupator and taken to Pontus. 88 B76 VIII-282, lvPt11
c.88 P-XII AULETES and other princes are handed over to Mith-VI Eupator of Pontus. 88 lvPt12
c.86 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS with 6 ships sails from Cyrene to Egypt, ask P-IX Lathyrus for help from Egyptian fleet.  But Lathyrus wants to remain neutral, and politely refuses.  Lucullus sails to Cyprus. 87 DGRBM 3-596
86 atl1
c.86 L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS dallies at Alexandria.  He witnesses a shism in the Platonic Academy. 86 wikLcl
c.85 THEBES, rebelling against P-IX Lathyrus from 88, captured and destroyed by him. 87 DGRG 2-1137     86 MCAW 240, atl1     85 CAH 9-388, ISBE 3-1050     82 GHH
c.84 P-XII AULETES is engaged to a dau of Mith-VI Eupator of Pontus. 84 lvPt12
c.81/0 Ptolemy-IX SOTER-II LATHYRUS dies.  King of Egypt 109-07, ruler of Cyprus from 107, Egypt again from 88, dies leaving only dau (and also wife) Cleo BERENICE-III to succeed as regent for 6 months until 80 for P-XI Alexander-II or? P-XII Neos Dionysos. 81 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 9-318, DGRBM 1-483, 3-596, GEoP, atl1, ktut, lvCB3, nar, pic, wikB3
80 CAH 9-388, DMoN, ISBE 3-1050, Jud 13-1349, Murn, Shaw, anan, frH, lvPt12, pic, rcE, treg, wikP
c.80 Son of P-X, P-XI ALEXANDER-II is nominated king of Egypt by Sulla. 81 lvPt11
80 B76 I-994, CAH 9-388, atl1, bk
c.80 Son of P-X, Ptolemy-XI ALEXANDER-II, hostage in Rome from 84, is sent to Egypt with decree from Sulla, takes throne from stepmom & half sis Cleo BERENICE-III, and marries her against her will.  She resists surrendering authority. 81 B76 VIII-282
80 B76 I-994, CAH 9-388, MCAW 244, lvCB3, lvPt11, rcE, resh     80/79 ISBE 3-1050
c.80 Dau of P-IX & Cleo-4 Cleo BERENICE-III dies.  Regent from 81, murdered 19 days after marriage by order of uncle/husband P-XI Alex-II, thus angering the Alexandrians. 82 GHH     80 B76 I-994, DMoN, Murn, Shaw, atl1, ktut, nar, phou, pic, treg, lvCB3, wikB3, wikP, wikP11
c.80 Son of P-X, P-XI ALEXANDER-II dies.  King of Egypt 19 days, dragged to the gymnasium, and lynched by Alexandrian mob.  His will allows Rome to annex Egypt and Cyprus. 80 B76 VIII-282, 8-386, CAH 9-388, DGRBM 3-597, DGRG 1-100, LEWH 97, anan, atl1, frH, lvPt12, nar, rcE, resh, wikP11
P-XI Alexander-II abdicates and retires to Tyre 80 DMoN, GEoP, GHH, Murn, Shaw, ae, tig
c.80 P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES, in Syria from ?, comes to Egypt. 80 B76 VIII-282
c.80 Alexandrians, without a legitimate claimant to the throne, promote 2 illegitimate sons of P-IX Lathyrus.  P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES king of Egypt until 58, but is forced to recognize younger bro Ptolemy (otherwise unnamed) as independent king of Cyprus until 58. 80 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 9-388, GHH, LEWH 97, atl1, frH, lvPt12, nar
c.80 P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES marries sis CLEO-V TRYPHAENA. 80 B76 VIII-282 80/79 lvPt12
79 wikC5
c.78 Greek translation of  Book of ESTHER  introduced into Egypt.  It was written by Lysimachus son of Ptolemy of Jerusalem. 78 IDB 3-967
78/7 Jud 14-1056
c.76 PSHERENPTAH is appointed high priest of Memphis, and presides at coronation of P-XII Dionysos Auletes. 76 atl1
c.76 P-XII DIONYSOS AULETES king of Egypt 80-59, crowned according to Egyptian rites, but in Alexandria rather than Memphis.  He begins helping the native population, and marries an Egyptian. 76 B76 VIII-282, lvPt12
c.65 P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES king of Egypt 80-59, learns that Rome is planning to annex Egypt.  P-XII needs Roman support to hold his throne against the Alexandrians. 65 B76 VIII-282
c.63 CLEOPATRA (VII) born.  2nd dau of P-XII Auletes & ?. 70/69 lvPt12 69 B76 4-712, atl1
63 CDCC 209, wikC7
c.63 P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES king of Egypt 80-59, sends 8,000 cav to help Pompey at Jerusalem.  This implies that he renounces Palestine, which increases his unpopularity with Alexandrians. 63 CAH 9-390
no date: B76 VIII-282
c.63 Egyptian treasury gets 6,250 talents in port dues alone. 63 DGRG 1-100
c.61 P-XIII born. 61 lvPt12
c.60 A royal decree records the free testamentary disposition of land holdings by army veterans.  By now even women might inherit cleruchic land. 60 CAH 9-324
c.59 Insurrection against P-XII Neos Dionysos Auletes. 59 GHH
c.59 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES, king of Egypt from 80, is expelled from Alexandria because he lost Cyprus.  Goes to RomeBerenice-IV and Cleo-V Tryphaena reign jointly until 58. 59 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-604, GHH, LEWH 97,     58 B76 I-994, 4-712, DGRBM 1-483, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, ISBE 3-1050, ae, anan, frH, ktut, nar, rcE, tig, treg, wikP, wikP12 57 MCAW 252,     56 IDB 3-967
c.59 P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES king of Egypt 80-59, gives Pompey and Caesar 6,000 talents. 59 CAH 9-322
c.59 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES, king of Egypt 80.  officially declared "friend and ally" of the Roman people. 59 CAH 9-319
c.58 king Ptolemy AULETES visits M.(6) Porcius CATO at Rhodes. 58 atl1
c.58 Papyrii of 58 record anti-Jew unrest in Egypt. 58 Jud 6-488
c.58 Ptolemy-XII Auletes and Cleo VII flee to Rome again in search of political and military aid against Berenice's elder sis Cleo-V Tryphaena. 58 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, atl1, wikB4 57 GHH
58 DIODORUS SICULUS visits Alexandria, estimates 300,000, free citizens.  An equal number must be added for slaves and casual residents. 60 CDCC 276
59 atl1
58 DGRG 1-99
c.58 Only surely attested wife of P-XII CLEO-V TRYPHAENA dies.  Co-ruler of Egypt from 59.  Parents unknown.  Probable mom of Cleo-VII.  BERENICE-IV rules alone until 55. 69/8 or 57 wikC5, 58 B76 I-994, atl1, resh, wikP, wikB4 57 wikP
At least 2, perhaps 3 Ptolemaic women were called Cleopatra Tryphaena.  Another Cleo Tryphaena may have died in 69 or 68, and may be her mom. wikC5
c.57 Berenice-IV is expected to marry and have a man as a co-regent.  When she does not, her consuls force her to marry Syrian royal Antiochus, but he dies before reaching Egypt.  Then prince Seleucus-VII Cybiosactes, goes to Egypt and marries her. 56 atl1
no date: wikB4
c.57 late P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES sails to Cyprus enroute to Rome. 57 B76 I-994, VIII-282, lvPt12
c.57 late P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES bribes Pompey to restore him to the throne.  P-XII is opposed by Alexandrians, who send envoys to Rome, but they are murdered. 57 B76 I-994
c. 57/6 ARCHELAUS of Comana, son of a general of Mith-VI of Pontus, claims to be son of Mith-VI, arrives in Egypt, marries Cleo Berenice-IV, but he is not co-regent. 57 B76 I-994
56 CAH 9-272, DGRBM 1-263, atl1
56 early Alexandrians send embassy to Rome to oppose P-XII Auletes. 56 CAH 9-392
c.56 Egyptian envoy AMMONIUS goes to Rome to seek help for P-XII Auletes against the Alexandrians. 56 DGRBM 1-146
c.56 Seleucus-VII Cybiosactes, husband of Berenice-IV from 57, strangled, which ends the Seleucids.  Berenice-IV remains sole ruler. 56 atl1 49 GHH
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-54, on orders of Pompey, but with no authority from senate, proceeds thru Levant to invade Egypt in behalf of P-XII AuletesMark Antony is a cav officer under him. Wars 1:8:7     55 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-272, 320, 604, DGRBM 1-214, 263, 3-598, atl1, bk, wikAG, wikP12
c.55 P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES king of Egypt 80-59, gives Gabinius 10,000 talents. 55 CAH 9-322
c.55 Antipater persuades Jews in Egypt to help Gabinius. 56 GHH     55 OCD 74
c.55 ARCHELAUS, husband of Cleo Berenice-IV from 57, defeated in battle by Gabinius and killed. 55 CAH 9-272, DGRBM 1-263, 483, atl1
c.55 Mark Antony likely encounters 14 year old Cleopatra at this time, but there is no evidence of any interaction, despite assertion of Appian of Alexandria, 200 years later. 55 wikMA
c.55 Dau of P-XII & Cleo-V BERENICE-IV Epiphaneia dies.  Queen of Egypt from 58, beheaded by father P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES, who is restored until 51 by Gabinius, according to command of Caesar and Pompey.  Gabinius gets 10,000 talents for it. 55 B76 I-994, VIII-282, 6-483, CAH 9-320, 604, DGRBM 1-483, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, ISBE 3-1050, LEWH 97, MCAW 252, ae, anan, atl1, frH, lvPt12, phou, nar, pic, rcE, resh, tig, wikB4, wikP, wikP12     54 GHH, ktut, treg
c.55 Now that P-XII Auletes is restored to the throne, his main creditor, money lender C. RABIRIUS Postumus comes from Rome to Alexandria until 54, and demands full repayment, which the Alexandrian treasury cannot afford.  P-XII increases taxes and debases coinage. 55 CAH 9-272, DGRBM 3-512, wikP12
c.55 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES purges opponents. 55 MCAW 252
c.55 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES is forced to appoint his main Roman creditor, C. Rabirius Postumus, finance minister in charge of debt repayment.  Rabirius exploits the land too much, and is ousted in a popular insurrecetion 54.  Rabirius is imprisoned for his own protection. 55 B76 VIII-282, DGRBM 3-512, atl1, wikP12
c.55 TIMAGENES the rhetorician, son of the king's banker, imprisoned by Gabinius and taken to Rome 54. 55 DGRBM 3-1131
c.55 Aulus GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-54, leaves 2,000 troops (the Gabiniani) in Egypt to protect P-XII, returns from Egypt to Judea. Wars 1:8:7
55 Jud 2-584, atl1, wikAG
c.54 Money lender C. RABIRIUS Postumus imprisoned from 55, is allowed to escape.  He immediately returns to Rome. 54 wikP12
c.52 P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES king of Egypt 55-51, is forced to accept co-regency with son P-XIII Philopator and dau Cleo-VII, age 17 until 51. 52 B76 6-483
c.51 Egyptian coinage is worth half its value when P-XII came to power in 55. 51 wikP12
c.51 Academic philosopher DEMETRIUS refuses to drink liquor, and is the only man who declines to put on female attire at the Dionysia.  P-XII Auletes forces him to do those things. 51 atl1
c.51 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES, declares that Cleo-VII and her bro Ptolemy-XIII joint heirs.  To safeguard his interests, he makes the people of Rome executors of his will. 51 atl1, wikP12
51 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES dies.  Co-king of Egypt from 52s.  His will bequeaths his kingdom to his Roman creditorsSon age 10-15 P-XIII, Philopator, and dau age 18 CLEOPATRA-VII, succeed jointly until 49. 51 AΨΨ 371, B76 VIII-282, 4-712, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 9-320, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, ISBE 3-1050, JIAE, LEWH 97, MCAW 254, Murn, Shaw, ae, atl1, frH, ktut, lvPt12, nar, phou, pic, rcE, tig, treg, wikC7, wikP, wikP12, wikP13
c.51 CLEOPATRA-VII drops P-XIII from official documents.  Her face appears alone on coins, contrary to Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. 51 wikC7
51 CLEOPATRA-VII goes south to Hermonthis in Upper Egypt, ceremonially escorts the sacred bull (Apis) to its home on March 22. 51 CAH 9-321, MCAW 253
51 Arsinoe-IV opposes Cleo-VII until 47. 51 GEoP
51/0 In Hiera Nesos, the local priests complain that the royal cult has suffered from depletion of the local population. A harvest failure is suggested by a royal order issued on 27 October which forbade, on pain of death, transporting grain and pulses anywhere other than Alexandria. 51/0 CAH 9-323
50 Dissensions between the royal bro and sis, instigated by eunuch Pothinus.  Pothinus and general Achillas support P-XIII. 50 CAH 9-321, GHH
50 CLEOPATRA-VII conflicts with the Gabiniani, Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them to protect Ptolemy-XII. 50 wikC7
c.50 2 sons of M. Calpurnius Bibulus proconsul of Syria, are sent to Egypt to demand recall of the Roman soldiers who had settled there.  The sons are killed by those soldiersCleo-VII sends Bibulus the murderers to be punished. 50 atl1, wikBb
50 Oct PTOLEMY-XIII is promoted to senior ruler over Cleo-VII.  Eunuch Pothinus acts as regent for him. 50 wikP13
50/49 Water shortage causes desertion of Tinteris village by all settlers in the area.  Local farmers are unable to pay taxes. 50/49 CAH 9-323
49 Jan Son of Pompey, Gn.(3) POMPEIUS sent by father from Rome, sails to Alexandria to fetch ships and troops.  He gathers 50 ships and leaves in 48. 49 DGRBM 3-488
49 CLEOPATRA-VII, co-ruler of Egypt from 51, expelled by bro P-XIII, hence civil war until 48.  Vizir POTHINUS takes charge until ?. 49 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-800, GHH, atl1
48 B76 VIII-282
c.49 Sole rule of Ptolemy-XIII, recognized by both Caesar and Pompey. 49 ahe
c.49 CLEOPATRA-VII goes to Syria until 48, where she recruits Arab mercenaries. 49 DGRBM 1-800 48 B76 VIII-282
49 Mar P-XIII supplies troops to help Pompey in Thessaly. 49 B76 VIII-282
48 spring P-XIII and eunuch Pothinus try to depose Cleo-VII. 48 wikC7, wikP13
48 ARSINOE-IV, sis of Cleo-VII starts to claim the throne. 48 wikP13
48 Son of Pompey, Gn.(3) POMPEIUS with 50 Alexandrian ships, sails to join Pompeyan squadron in the Adriatic. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 POMPEY, his wife Cornelia, son Sextus, and 2,000 troops, sail from Pamphylia to Alexandria. 48 DGRBM 3-488, MCAW 256, rtp
48 Sep P-XIII is only 13.  The government is in the hands of eunuch Pothinus, Theodotus of Chios, and Achillas.  These 3, dreading Caesar's anger if they receive Pompey, and fearing Pompey if they forbid him to land, resolve to kill him.  They send Achillas, out in a small boat, take Pompey with 3 or 4 attendants on board, and row for shore near Alexandria. 48 B76 , CAH 9, DGRBM 3-488, Dur 3-186, wikP13
Sep 29
Pompeyan L. Cornelius LENTULLUS CRUS lands in Egypt, and is murdered. 48 B76 VI-146
48 Sep 28 or 29 Gn.(2) POMPEIUS MAGNUS dies, age 58, steps out of the boat, and is stabbed to death by L. Septimius one of his former centurions, now in the service of Ptolemy-XIII.  Achillas, Salvius and the rest draw swords to thwart Pompey's attendants.  He is dragged to shore, stripped, and decapitated.  Q. Pompeius Bithynicus is also killed.  Pompey's wife Cornelia and son Sextus can only look on from the ship.  They sail to Cyprus. 48 B76 14-795, DGRBM 1-490, 855, 3-488, 489, 784, GHH, MCAW 256, OCD 858, atl1, bk, rtp, sjsu, ttpm, wikC7, wikCCW, wikP13, wikSPm
48 Sep On the day after Pompey's murder, consul L.(12) Cornelius LENTULLUS CRUS dies.  He arrives in Egypt, and is captured by agents of P-XIII and executed in prison. 48 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-732
48 Oct 2 CAESAR lands 4,000 legionaries at Alexandria.  Theodotus of Chios gives him (to his professed horror) the head of Pompey.  Theodotus, seeing that this was a social blunder, sneaks away. 48 B76 4-712, 6-483, CAH 9, DGRBM 3-1073, Dur 3-186, GHH, MCAW 256, atl1, sjsu, ttjc, vrm, wikCCW
48 Oct CAESAR demands payment of the 40 million sesterces he is owed because of his military support years earlier for the previous ruler, Ptolemy-XII Auletes.  At this time, P-XII still owes Roman creditors almost 3,000 talents. 48 B76 4-712, CAH 9-322, vrm
48 Oct Thru the treachery of eunuch Pothinus and hostility of the Egyptian people to the Romans, Achillas and an army of 20,000 besiege the palace.  Caesar holds the palace and harbor; he allows young Ptolemy-XIII to join the army of Achillas. 48 DGRBM 3-513, atl1, vrm
c.48 Oct CLEOPATRA-VII in Syria from 49, learns that Caesar is at Alexandria, knows he is her best chance of regaining her throne, takes her Arab mercenaries to Egypt. 48 DGRBM 1-800
48 CLEOPATRA-VII with Arab mercenaries besieges Pelusium. 48 B76 VIII-282
48 Oct CAESAR commands Cleo-VII and Ptolemy-XIII to submit their quarrel to his arbitration. 48 sjsu
48 Caesar affects official detente between P-XIII Philopator and Cleo-VII as co-rulers. 48 Dur 3-187
48 Oct Caesar takes thousands of books from the Alexandrian library before he accidentally burns it. 48 TTT
48 Oct Cleopatra-VII secures favor of CaesarP-XIII and his party refuse to submit to Caesar's dictation. 48 GHH
48 Oct Caesar learns that eunuch Pothinus and Achillas are planning to kill him and his small force. 48 Dur 3-187
48 Oct Caesar sends order to MITHRIDATES of Pergamum to raise auxiliary forces to help him in Alexandria. 48 Dur 3-187
48 Oct Eunuch POTHINUS is murdered by arrangement of Caesar. 48 DGRBM 3-514, Dur 3-187, GHH, atl1, vrm
48 Oct CAESAR besieged in Alexandria by Ptolemy-XIII until 47. 48 GHH, ttjc, wikCCW
48 Oct CAESAR secretly sends for Cleo-VII. 48 Dur 3-187
48 Oct? 2 legions sent by Gn. Domitius Calvinus, governor of Asia, to help Caesar. 48 DGRBM 1-585
48 Oct CLEOPATRA-VII is rolled up in a carpet by attendant Apollodorus and smuggled into the palace in Alexandria.  The rug is supposedly a gift for Caesar. 49 48 Dur 3-187, atl1, vrm
48 Oct Caesar's fleet under quaestor Ti. Claudius NERO is victorious. 48 GHH, OCD 730
48 PTOLEMY-XIII and ARSINOE-IV ally against sis Cleo-VII and Caesar. 48 wikCCW, wikP13
48 General ACHILLAS escapes to the army of P-XIII, raises insurrection against Caesar. 48 Dur 3-187
48 ARSINOE-IV, sis of Cleo-VII, helped by her mentor Ganymedes, escapes from the palace, joins Achillas, and is recognized as queen by Alexandrians. 48 B76 I-547, DGRBM 2-229
47 DGRBM 1-367, GHH, atl1
48 Roman garrison that had been stationed at Alexandria joins insurrection against Caesar. 48 Dur 3-187
48 Caesar orders his own fleet burnt so Achillas won't get it. 48 CAH 10-95, Dur 3-188, GHH, vrm     47 MCAW 259, atl1
48 LIBRARY of Ptolemy-II Philadelphus at Alexandria is accidently burnt by flames from Caesar's fleet. 48 CAH 10-95, Dur 3-188, GHH, vrm
47 ISBE 3-126, MCAW 259, TToH, wikCCW
48 Ganymedes and Achillas quarrel.  Arsinoe-IV orders Achillas executed. no date: B76 I-547, atl1
48 ACHILLAS killed by GANYMEDES, who takes over the siege of Alexandria. 48 DGRBM 2-229, atl1
48 Ganymedes presses Caesars troops, negotiates exchange of Arsinoe-IV for P-XIIICaesar gets reinforcements and defeats Egyptians.  Arsinoe is sent captive to Rome. no date: B76 I-547
48 P-XIII released by Caesar, joins Egyptian forces. 47 atl1
48 Lowest Nile flood ever according to Pliny. 48 CAH 9-323
48 EUPHRANOR, Rhodian admiral under Ti.(4) Claudius Nero killed in battle, prior to Canopus. 47 atl1
48 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO is quaestor under Caesar in Alexandrine war.  He commands a fleet which defeats the Egyptian fleet under Ganymedes at Canopus at the mouth of the Nile. 48 DGRBM 2-1161, wikTCN
47 Feb PHAROS, a lighthouse on an island in the harbor, is necessary for Caesar's relief boats to enter.  After some months under siege, Caesar captures Pharos, loses it and recaptures it a few times.  At one point when cut off from his men, Caesar jumps into the water and swims to safety.  Plutarch says he swam with one hand, using the other to hold some important papers above the water;  Suetonius adds that he also towed his purple general's cloak by holding it in his teeth so that it would not be captured by the Egyptians. 47 Dur 3-188, GHH, atl1, vrm
47 Mar Mithridates of Pergamum with 3,000 men marches from Syria to Pelusium to help Caesar.  It refuses to open to him.  He besieges it. Ant 14:8:1, Wars 1:9:3
47 Mar Caesar had sent for reinforcements, 2 Roman legions and the army of ally, Mithridates of Pergamum; when they arrive outside Alexandria, Caesar marches out to join them, and on March 26 defeats the Egyptian army at Battle of the Nile. 47 B76 4-712, MCAW 256, ttjc, vrm, wikCCW, wikJC
47 Mar Son of P-12 & Cleo-6 P-XIII PHILOPATOR-II dies.  Co-ruler of Egypt with sis Cleo-VII; P-XIII lands his fleet and drowns crossing the NileCLEOPATRA-VII is sole ruler until 30. 48 bk     47 B76 VIII-282, 8-386, CAH 9-434, CDCC 209, GHH, ae, anan, atl1, frH, ktut, nar, phou, pic, rcE, resh, ttjc, wikP, wikP13
47 Mar Though Caesar had been trapped in the palace for nearly 6 months and had been unable to exert a major influence on the conduct of the civil war, which is going badly without him, Caesar nevertheless remains in Egypt until June 47, even cruising up the Nile with Cleo-VII to the southern boundary of her kingdom. 47 atl1, ttjc, vrm, wikJC
47 SOSIGENES, Egyptian astrologist, convinces Caesar that the lunar calendar should be replaced by a solar calendar.  He will accompany Caesar to Rome. no date: B76 3-601
47 GANYMEDES, former eunuch of Arsinoe-IV and general of P-XIII, is killed while fleeing. 47 wikGn
47 CLEOPATRA-VII is forced by Caesar to share rule with younger bro P-XIV, age 11, until later 47.  So they marry - while she carries what is probably Caesar's bastard. 47 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, 8-386, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, ISBE 3-1050, ae, anan, atl1, ktut, phou, pic, resh, treg, wikP
c.47 ANTIPATER, power behind high priest Hyrcanus-II, musters 3,000 Jews, Idumeans, & Arabs, takes them from Judea to Egypt to give token aid to Caesar.  He joins Mithridates of Pergamum at the siege of Pelusium. Ant 14:8:1, Wars 1:9:3-5     48 ISBE 2-689     47 CAH 9-404, Jud 3-748
47 PELUSIUM besieged by Mithridates of Pergamum helped by Antipater, falls.  Ant 14:8:1, Wars 1:9:3
47 Egyptian Jews block Mithridates of PergamumAntipater uses epistles of Hyrcanus-II the high priest to persuade them to both get out of the way and supply money and provisions.  In a subsequent battle, Antipater rescues Mithridates. Ant 14:8:1-2, Wars 1:9:3
c.47 MALIKU (Malchus)-II, king of Nabateans 47-28, sends troops to help Caesar in Alexandria. 47 OCD 642
47 Citizenship of Alexandrian Jews confirmed by Caesar because of Antipater's help. 47 Jud 6-488
47 Jun 23 Caesar, having established Cleo-VII as a client ruler, leaves 3 legions under command of Rufio, as legate, to support her rule, and takes army into Levant.  Antipater accompanies. 47 B76 4-712, CAH 9, GHH, Jud 3-77, MCAW 256, sjsu, wikJC
47 Jun CLEOPATRA-VII bears son Caesarion claiming that he is son of Caesar. 47 B76 6-483, CAH 9-434, vrm
46 CLEOPATRA-VII, client queen of Egypt, is summoned by Caesar to Rome.  She and son Caesarion, sail to Italy. 46 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, CAH 9-434, wikC7
44 Mar 15 C.(4) Julius CAESAR ASSASSINATED
44 Mar CLEOPATRA-VII, client queen of Egypt, and son Caesarion, quietly sail from Italy to Egypt. 44 B76 6-483, atl1
44 Jul Youngest son of P-12 & Cleo-6, PTOLEMY-XIV THEOS PHILOPATOR dies, age 14.  Co-ruler of Egypt from 47, poisoned, probably by sis CLEO-VII, who rules alone, but nominally with son Caesarion, age 3 until 30. 44 B76 VIII-282, CDCC 209, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, OCD 191, ae, anan, atl1, frH, ktut, nar, phou, pic, rcE, resh, treg, wikC7, wikP     43 MCAW 258
43 CLEOPATRA-VII, client queen of Egypt sends 4 legions to Syria to help Dolabella, Caesarian party leader in the east. 44 CAH 10-18
43 Aulus ALIENUS, goes from Egypt to Palestine intending to join Dolabella in Asia. 46 OCD 212
42 CLEOPATRA-VII, client queen of Egypt sails from Alexandria west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarian leaders.  Her ships are damaged by a storm and she gets sick.  She returns to Egypt. 42 atl1, wikC7
42 Dec Q. Dellius, envoy of Antony is sent from Cilicia, summons CLEOPATRA-VII, client queen of Egypt to Tarsus Cilicia. 42 DGRBM 1-215, 801, GHH, wikC7     41 DGRBM 1-801, 956, ISBE 3-1050
41 CLEOPATRA-VII has a barge gold plated and sails it to Tarsus Cilicia. 42 GHH     41 B76 IX-831, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 10-35, 39, CDCC 54, ISBE 3-1050, MCAW 258, anan, atl1
41 Nov? ANTONY goes from Tyre to Alexandria. 41 CAH 10-40, GHH, bk, wikC7
41 CLEOPATRA-VII gets Antony to kill her sister Arsinoe-IV and Serapion former governor of Cyprus. 41 CAH 10-40, wikC7
41 Dau of P-XII Auletes, ARSINOE-IV dies.  Living at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus or Miletus, murdered on the steps of the temple by order of Antony. 41 B76 I-547, DGRBM 1-367, GHH, atl1, wikC7
41/0 ANTONY spends winter with Cleo-VII enjoying extravagant festivities. 41 B76 1-1000, CAH 10-12, 40, GHH     41/0 wikC7     40 atl1
40 Fb/Mr ANTONY in Alexandria, learns of Parthian invasion of Syria, hurries to Tyre. 41 CAH 10-12, 41 40 B76 6-483
40 HEROD, ousted by Parthians, intends to go to Rome via Egypt, learns of Phasael's death enroute to Rhinocolura/Rhinocorura, goes to Pelusium, can't get passage to Rome persuades army captains to take him to Alexandria. Wars 1:14:2     40 CHJ 3, DGRBM 2-425, IDB 2-588, Jud 5-604, atl1, lvHG
40 Sep? CLEO-VII, queen of Egypt, receives Herod well, solicits him to command her troops in a campaign she is planning.  HEROD declines and sails for Rome despite a storm and unrest in Italy. Wars 1:14:2
40 B76 4-713, Jud 5-604
Dec 25
CLEO-VII, queen of Egypt, bears twins to Antony, ALEXANDER Helios and Cleopatra SELENE. 40 CAH 10-30, 41, DGRBM 1-112, wikC7
40 Anti-Jew riots in Alexandria because of Roman governor Flaccus. 40 Jud 2-589
c.40±10  Wisdom of Solomon  Ch 1-6:8 written. 50-30 AΨA 521
37 fall C. Fonteius Capito sent from Syria by Antony, summons CLEOPATRA-VII, queen of Egypt, who sails with her twins to Syria. 37 CAH 10-55
37 fall CLEO-VII marries Antony in Syria.  For wedding gifts she asks for everything formerly owned by P-II Philadelphus, plus Herod's kingdomHis gifts include Cilicia, Tracheia, Cyprus, Cyrene, Phoenicia, Chalcis, part of Nabataea, and control of Syria until 30.  He also grants parts of Herod's kingdom: Joppa, palm groves at Jerusalem, balsam groves, and some commercial monopolies. Wars 1:17:5
37 CAH 10-55, 67 36 GHH     34 atl1 33 SHWC
no date: Jud 9-1250, OCD 642
36 fall CLEO-VII bares Antonys son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. 36 Ac31 20, CAH 10-30
36 Nv/Dc ANTONY, sails from Syria to Egypt, messages Octavian in Rome to give him the 4 legions he promised, lies about his defeat in Parthia. 36 B76 6-483, CDCC 54
36 Dec ANTONY and CLEO-VII shack up in Alexandria and rule the east as though it were independent of Rome. 36 B76 1-1000
36 Dec ANTONY summons Aristobulus-III to Alexandria.  But Herod messages Antony that if A-III were forced to leave by Romans, then anti-Roman riots would ensue.  Antony retracts the summons. 36 Jud 3-442
35 ANTONY at Alexandria, orders M. Titius, general in Syria, to put a stop to the activities of Sextus Pompeius in Asia province. 35 CAH 10-77 '
35 CLEO-VII receives letter from Salome Alexandra saying that Herod had killed her son Aristobulus.  She tells Antony. Ant 15:3:5
35 Mar ANTONY receives message from wife Octavia saying Octavian will not give up the promised 4 legions, but that she will sail with 2,000 troops, money and provisions to AthensAntony sends a detatchment to Athens with a message saying, "Just gimme the stuff and go home". 35 implied '
35 All Asia, from the Mediterranean to the Indus to the Mediterranean, bestowed on Cleo-VII by Antony. 35 GHH
35 mid ANTONY learns that Artavasdes-I of Atropatene has allied with him, and wants Antony to come help him against Parthia.   He sails for Syria. 35 CAH 10-38
35 ANTONY goes from Syria to Alexandria for winter.  He takes prisoners Artavasdes-II and sons Tigranes and Artavasdes with him and leaves them in cutody of Cleo-VII. 35/4 CAH 10-39
35/4 ANTONY winters in Alexandria. 35/4 CAH 10-39
34 early ANTONY sails from Egypt to Syria. 34 CAH 10-39
34 late ANTONY leaves army in Armenia to winter in Alexandria.  He takes prisoners Artavasdes-II and sons Tigranes and Artavasdes with him and leaves them in cutody of Cleo-VII Ant 15:4:3
34 CAH 10-40, 78, OCD 126
34 late ANTONY in Alexandria celebrates a triumph (rarely done outside of Rome), puts Cleo-VII in the role traditionally held by Jupiter, declares Cleo queen of kings, wills the whole eastern empire to her and her children, talks like he's already emperor of the world. 34 B76 1-1000, 4-713, 8-386, CAH 10-40, 80-2, atl1 '
34 Donations of Alexandria ANTONY declares DONATIONS of ALEXANDRIA, gives parts of the empire to Cleo-VII and her kids, says that Caesarion is legal heir of Caesar, implying that Octavian is a usurper.  Alexander Helios is named king of Armenia, Media, and Parthia (not for the most part under Rome).  His twin Selene gets Cyrenaica and LibyaYoung Ptolemy Philadelphus gets Syria and CiliciaCleo is proclaimed Queen of Kings and Queen of Egypt, to rule with Caesarion (Ptolemy-XV Caesar).   Announced in Rome Jan 1. map: Howard Wiseman

34 Ac31, CAH 10-40, 93, CDCC 54, 209, DGRBM 3-566, OCD 191, atl1, wikC7, wikMA
34? Some Jews in Alexandria prophesy that the reign of Cleo-VII as "queen of kings" will signal the end of the age, followed by the reign of the Messiah. 34 no date: CAH 10-82
34 late Cleo-VII and Caesarion are crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus;  Alexander Helios is crowned ruler of Armenia, Media, and ParthiaCleo Selene-II is crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and LibyaPtolemy Philadelphus is crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and CiliciaCleo-VII is also titled "Queen of Kings" by Antony. 34 wikC7
33 early ANTONY hurries from Egypt to Syria. 33 CAH 10-79, wikRPW
32/1 ANTONY and CLEO-VII winter in Greece. 32/1 B76 4-713, CAH 10-99, MCAW 260
31 CLEO-VII spends her whole treasury, 20,000 talents, funding the Actium campaign. 31 Ac31 32
31 Sep 2 ACTIUM
31 Sep After Actium CLEOPATRA-VII, sails back to Alexandria, pretends to have won the battle, , lest the truth foment an insurrection, kills all possible insurrectionists, kills Artavasdes of Armenia, to secure an alliance with Media. 31 Ac31, B76 4-713, CAH 10-106-7, atl1
31 Sep Antonine general P. Canidius CRASSUS deserts his troops, sails from Actium for Egypt. 31 atl1
31 Sep ARTAVASDES-II, former king of Armenia 55-34, prisoner of Antony from 34, in Alexandria from 34, executed by order of Cleo-VII.  She sends his head to Artavasdes-I of Atropatene to secure his helpHis son Tigranes remains her prisoner until 30. 31 CAH 10-106-7, Before Actium OCD 126, wikRtv2 30 DGRBM 1-370, atl1, hifi
31/0 ANTONY travels over Cyrenaica to Alexandria.  C. Cornelius Gallus pursues him. 31 CAH 10-106, GHH, atl1     30 CAH 10-107
30 Octavian invades Egypt, and is admitted into Pelusium by its governor Seleucus.  Egyptian sailors surrender their fleet. 31 DGRG 2-573
30 Ac31, B76 6-483, GHH, IDB 1-318, atl1
30 mid ANTONY drives Octavian's advance parties from suburbs of Alexandria 30 Ac31
30 mid ANTONY at Alexandria, messages Octavian, offers to kill himself if Octavian would spare Cleo-VII.  Octavian doesn't respond. 30 CAH 10-107, atl1
30 Jul CLEO-VII at Alexandria, sends her sceptre and crown to Octavian, asks him to crown one of her sons.  Octavian orders her to disarm, privately assures her that she has nothing to fear if she surrenders her treasure. 30 CAH 10-107, atl1
30 Jul CAESARION sent by mom Cleo-VII south on the Red Sea to Berenice. 30 B76 VIII-282
30 Jul CLEO-VII puts all available treasure in bottom floor of her unfinished tomb on top of some flamable material, occupies top room with 2 maidservants. 30 CAH 10-108
30 Jul? Antony's legate Pinarius SCARPUS surrenders 4 legions to C. Cornelius GALLUS, who then occupies Pharos island, and attacks Paraetonium 240km west of Alexandria. 30 DGRBM 2-227
30 Jul? C. Cornelius GALLUS occupies Paraetonium 240km west of Alexandria.  ANTONY attacks him there unsuccessfully. 30 Ac31, CAH 10-107, DGRBM 2-227, atl1
30 Jul 31 OCTAVIAN arrives at suburbs of Alexandria. 30 CAH 10-63, 108, DGRBM 1-216, atl1
30 Aug 1 OCTAVIAN enters Alexandria without resistance, and in a careful speech forgives of the city. 30 CAH 10-63, atl1
30 Aug 1 ANTONY with a few loyal suicidal troops, attacks Octavian's line, scatters them by their bravado, then his troops surrender.  Antony rides back to Alexandria, hears report that Cleo-VII is dead, stabs himself, but lasts long enough to be brought to CleoANTONY dies, age 57.   Octavian enters Alexandria, sends envoy with orders to take Cleo alive. 30 Ac31, CAH 10-108, CDCC 54, DGRBM 1-216, GHH, LEWH 111, MCAW 264, SHWC, atl1, wikC7, wikMA, wikTAR
30 Aug 1 Final War of the Republic:  Antony's forces defect to Octavian. 30 Aug 1 GHH, wikTAR
30 Aug 2 CLEO-VII negotiates thru a gate with C. Cornelius Gallus.  Other Romans climb thru a window, capture her and take her to Octavian. 30 CAH 10-108
30 Aug OCTAVIAN sends a message to Rome saying he has taken the treasure of Egypt, interviews Cleo, allows her to bury Antony, then kills her sons, Ptolemy-XV Philopator Philometer Caesar and Ptolemy Antonius. 30 CAH 10-64, 109, GHH
30 Aug P.(3) Cornelius DOLABELLA tells Cleo-VII that Octavian plans to take her to Italy. 30 DGRBM 1-1060
30 Aug Dau of P-XII & Cleo-VI CLEOPATRA-VII dies, age 39.  Queen of Egypt from 44, helped by physician Olympus, suicides, by asp bite.
PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY ends.  Began 305.
She is buried beside Antony at her request.  She has 3 kids by Antony:  twins age 10 Alexander and Cleo Selene, and Ptolemy Philadelphus age 5 are taken to Rome by Octavian.  Olympus later publishes an account of her death.
30 Ac31, B76 VIII-283, 4-713, CAH 10-110-1, CDCC 209, DGRBM 1-112, 802, 3-25, GEoP, GHH, ISBE 3-1050, JIAE, Jud 5-604, MCAW 264, Murn, Shaw, SHWC, ae, atl1, frH, ktut, nar, phou, pic, resh, tig, treg, wikC7, wikP, wikTAR
30 Aug? TIGRANES, son of Artavasdes-II, former king of Armenia 55-34, prisoner of Antony from 34, in Alexandria from 34, sent to Rome by Octavian, where he remains until 20. 30 wikTg3
no date: OCD 1073
30 Aug 23 CAESARION dies.  Son of Julius Caesar & Cleo-VII, technically co-ruler with mom from 44, age 17, at Berenice from July, lured back and executed by order of Octavian 30 B76 VIII-282, MCAW 264, anan, atl1, rcE, wikCsn
30 Egyptian army disbanded and tax collection system abolished by Octavian. 30 Jud 6-488
30 Grammarian TYRANNION is captured by OCTAVIAN. 30 atl1
c.30 Antonine general P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS executed by Octavian in Egypt. 30 OCD 201
30 EGYPT, Ptolemaic from 323, annexed by Rome, made a province, put under an equestrian prefect with 3 legions.  Octavian takes title of pharaoh.  C. CORNELIUS GALLUS is 1st prefect until 26.  Egypt remains under Rome until 616CE. 30 CAH 10-148, GHH, MCAW 264, atl1, rcE, wikTAR
30 OCTAVIAN restores statues and other treasures that have been removed from temples by Antony. 30 atl1
30 OCTAVIAN, after settling Egyptian affairs, goes thru Levant to Antioch. 30 CAH 10-254, ISBE 2-691
30 GREEKS of Alexandria are hostile to Romans from the beginning, fail to obtain grant of a city council, suspect Romans of favoring the Jewish minority. 30
30 JEWS of Alexandria had been at peace with Greeks under the Ptolemies, but under Rome they suffer from Greek anti-Romanism, and side with Romans, who confirm their privileges. 31 DGRG 1-97 no date: BNTH 250
30 NICOLAS of Damascus, historian and philosopher, at Egyptian court from ?, goes to Judea, received at Herod's court. 30 MCAW 265
30 C. CORNELIUS GALLUS, 1st prefect of Egypt 30-26, crushes rebellions at Heroonopolis in the Delta and the Thebaid. 30 wikWAg
29 MCAW 264
no date: OCD 456
30 TRIACONTASCHOENOS puppet-state set up under a local petty king by C. CORNELIUS GALLUS, as a buffer-zone between Egypt and Ethiopia (kingdom of Aksum), as well as a loose protectorate over Ethiopia itself. 30 CAH 10-148, wikWAg
30/29 C. CORNELIUS GALLUS, 1st prefect of Egypt 30-26, advances south of 1st cataract, receives king of Ethiopia into Roman protection. no date: OCD 456, wikWAg
29 Apr 15 C. CORNELIUS GALLUS celebrates his achievements in a trilingual inscription (hieroglyph, Latin, Greek) at either Elephantine or Philae.  [Treasures from Elephantine were gradually transferred to Philae by Ptolemies.] 29 CAH 10-148, CDCC 324, MCAW 264
no date: OCD 456
29 Alexandria and Ephesus are the 2 principal places of trade in the Roman empire. 29 GHH
27 Treasures of Egyptian art taken to Rome. 27 GHH
26 C. CORNELIUS GALLUS, 1st prefect of Egypt from 30, sets up statues of himself rather than Augustus, dismissed, banished.  C. PETRONIUS succeeds until 25. 26 CAH 10-134, 148, 240-1, MCAW 264, rcE
26 C. CORNELIUS GALLUS dies  Poet, soldier, and part-architect of Augustus' victory, former 1st prefect of Egypt from 30, suicides. 26 B76 IV-396, CAH 10-80, 134, 148, DGRBM 2-226-7, OCD 187, 456, MCAW 264
25 C. PETRONIUS 2nd prefect of Egypt from 26, ends.  AELIUS GALLUS succeeds until 24. 26 wikWAg
25 DGRBM 2-222, rcE
25 STRABO, Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian, goes from Greece to Egypt until 19, travels with Aelius Gallus, sails up the Nile to Philae. 25 OCD 1017, wikStr 25/4 B76 17-713
24 MCAW 265
25 AELIUS GALLUS, prefect of Egypt, leads 130 freight-ships across the Red Sea against the Sabaeans of Arabia Felix (Yemen). 26 HRE 122, wikWAg 26/5 CAH 10-711
25 ETHIOPIANS raid Egypt, overcome Roman garrisons, ravage Philae, Syene, Elephantine, enslave inhabitants. 25 CAH 10-241 24 AΨΨ 401
24 STRABO the geographer is with his friend Aelius Gallus in Egypt, and travels as far as Syene. 24 DGRBM 3-916
24 AELIUS GALLUS, 3rd prefect of Egypt 25-4, invades Ethiopia and Nubia. 24 DGRG 2-176
24 NICOPOLIS founded east of Alexandria by Augustus on the field where he defeated Antony.  Its impressive ground plan is never executed, and it never amounts to anything. 24 DGRG 2-426
24 AELIUS GALLUS, 3rd prefect of Egypt 25-4, takes most Egyptian legions to Cleopatris, sails 130 freight-ships for Leuke Kome across the Red Sea.  Campaigns against the Sabaeans of Arabia Felix (Yemen). 26 wikWAg
25 B76 1-1044, CAH 10-241, 250
c.24 AELIUS GALLUS, 3rd prefect of Egypt 25-4, marches from Leuke Kome on Arabian campaign, crosses 900 miles of desert.  50 days later they arrive at Negrana, capture and destroy it.  His guide Sylaeus misleads him.  Heat, dehydration, and bad water diseases his army.  He fails to take Mariba in Arabia Felix, and is then driven out by Arabs, having taken nothing but information.  25 IDB 1-183 25/4 MCAW 264 24 B76 , CAH 10-241, 250-3, DGRBM 2-222, DGRG 2-176, GHH
24 AELIUS GALLUS, 3rd prefect of Egypt from 25, ends.  C. PETRONIUS resumes until 13. 25 OCD 457 24 TTPC, rcE
c.24 C. PETRONIUS, prefect of Egypt 24-13, with 10,000 inf and 800 cav, repels Ethiopian invasion, drives out Ethiopians, pursues, invades Ethiopia, and recovers prisoners and property, takes town of Pselcis on the Nile, establishes Roman dominance as far as 1st cataract and Napata.  25 B76 , CAH 10-242
25 or 24 CAH 10-149 23 DGRG 2-176, HRE 123
c.24  3rd Book of MACCABEES  written in Alexandria.  After the battle of Raphia 217, Ptolemy-IV tries to enter the temple at Jerusalem, and is miraculously repulsed. 100 AΨA 155 100-0 CBCNT 58 IDB 3-212
24 B76 VI-432
c.23 Ethiopians, alarmed by approach of Romans to their frontier, harass the neighborhood of Philae and Syene (Souan, near Elephantine), and it becomes necessary to repel their incursions.  C. Petronius tries to drive them back.  Pselcis is one of the towns which submits to him. 23 DGRG 2-675
c.22 JULIAN CALENDAR imposed on Egypt by Augustus. 30 ISBE 2-35 22 FHBC 28
c.22 C. Petronius makes 2nd Roman attempt to conquer Ethiopia.  Establishes Roman supremacy between First and Second Cataracts. 22 CAH 10-150, DGRBM 3-215
c.20 STRABO, in Egypt 25-19, publishes 1st edition of  Historical Sketches , 47 volumes, covers the known world from the Roman conquest of Greece 145 to Actium 31.  Only a few quotes survive. 20 B76 IX-596, 17-713
while he was in Rome 20 wikStr
19 STRABO, in Egypt from 25, goes to Rome until 7. 19 OCD 1017
13 C. PETRONIUS, prefect of Egypt from 24, ends.  RUBRIUS BARBARUS succeeds until 7. 13 rcE
11 AQUILA becomes prefect of Egypt until 10. Ant 19:5:2     11 BNTH 291
10 AQUILA, prefect of Egypt from 11, ends. Ant 19:5:2     10 BNTH 291
c.10±20  Wisdom of Solomon   Ch 12:2 to end  written. 30BC-10CE AΨA 521
9 Alexandrian Jews confirmed in their privileges by Augustus. 9 GHH
7 RUBRIUS BARBARUS, prefect of Egypt from 13, ends.  C. TURRANIUS succeeds until 1CE. 7 rcE
7 STRABO completes 1st draft of  Geography . 7 ISBE 1-90
7BC or 17-18CE wikStr
c.1 CAIUS CAESAR VIPSANIUS, and chief of staff M. LOLLIUS sail from Samos to Egypt to Syria. 1 CAH 10-274-5