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c.100 Middle Iron Age in Britain ends.  Began 400.
Late Iron Age begins until 50.
100 wikBIA
c. 100 Danebury Hill FortDANEBURY Hill Fort in Hampshire from 550, abandoned.  Consists of a rampart behind a ditch, covering 5 acres.  The east gateway is a 4m wide gap in the defences with a timber gatehouse.  At the highest point of the hill are shrines and temples.  They make offerings to the gods and sometimes sacrifices.  Some burials are thought to have been sacrificial.  300 to 400 Iron Age agriculturalists lived here in round houses. photo: Hampshire Hub

100 hnts, wikDb
c. 100 Scratchbury Hill Fort SCRATCHBURY Hill Fort built on Scratchbury Hill in Wiltshire on top of an earlier and smaller D-shaped camp of 8.6 acres built c.250.  Circumference 1,688m covering 37 acres.  Consist of a single large ditch and rampart to the most steeply contoured flanks, with secondary counterscarps to the more accessible sides.  Banks and ditches are uneven in height and depth.  Has 2 original entrances on the east, and a possible 3rd on the northwest.  Contains 7 tumuli (mounds of dirt & stones).  North and west areas have about 100 probable dwelling structures.    drawing: {{PD-US}}

100 wikScr
c.100 GAULS settle on Thames and Humber in Britain. 100 CEB 7
c.100 CAMULODUNUM emerges in southeast Britain, soon to replace Braughing as capital of the Trinovantes.  The name is Latinized from Camulodunon "Stronghold of Camulos".  Camulos is a Celtic god of war equivalent to Mars. 100 CDCC 160
c.100 Carn EunyCARN EUNY iron age village in Cornwall flourishes until the Roman period.  Timber huts from 200 are replaced with interlocking stone court-yard houses  An underground chamber runs just below the surface and is roofed with massive stone slabs.  It is possibly used for storage or defense.  People live from agriculture, livestock, trade, and perhaps tin mining. photo Andy Wright


100 brtT
c.100 Iron bars begin to be used as currency in Britain.  Internal trade and trade with continental Europe flourishes, largely due to Britain's extensive mineral reserves. 100 wikPB
c.100 Belgae begin Kingdom of CASSIVELAUNUS. 100 OCD 164, 181
c.100 BELI MAWR becomes king of the Silures of southeast Wales, and High King of Britain until ?. 100 rcC
c.100 Battersea ShieldBATTERSEA SHIELD deposited in the Thames Londinium, where it will be discovered in 1857.  Made of several pieces of bronze, held together by rivets concealed under the decorative elements - Celtic La Tène style, of circles and spirals.  Too thin for protection in combat, so probably a votive offering. Photo BabelStone


200-0 wikBtSh
c.100 Waterloo Bridge HelmetWATERLOO BRIDGE HELMET dropped in the Thames, where it will be discovered by Waterloo Bridge London in 1868.  A bronze horned helmet - Celtic La Tène style, made from 2 sheets of bronze, front & back, riveted together at sides and top.  A separate crescent-shaped bronze piece is riveted to the bottom of the front, and 2 conical bronze horns with terminal knobs are riveted to the top; too fragile for battle, so probably ceremonial. Photo Ealdgyth


150-50 wikBtSh
c.100 Southern BELGAE, German/Celts between Sequana (Seine) and Rhine, migrate to Britain. 100 OCD 164, 181
Aeduii Confederation map: P L Kessler
c.100 By the beginning of the 1st centuryBC the AEDUII head a tribal confederacy that includes the Ambarri, Aulerci, Bellovaci, Bituriges Cubi, Brannovices, Mandubii, Parisii, Segusiavi, and Senones.  Against them are the Arverni and Sequani.  Aeduii are supreme until 71. c.100 hifiAd
c.100 LA TENE Period-C ends.  Began 300Period-D begins until 30.  Celt power diminished by constant Germanic pressure and invasions from north, and by Romans from south.  Popular items include standard peasant implements.  Silver coins based on Greek and Romans prototypes increase. 100 B76 VI-67
c.100 Havranok houseSLOVAKIA, north of Hungary, under La Tene culture from 400, comes under Dacia until 50CE.
Photo is a reconstruction of a late La Tène period settlement in Havranok Slovakia.
Photo Marek Novotnak

house 200-0 wikClt
100 rcCE
c.100 West Europe:  Large fortified settlements with houses, craft shops, storehouses develop. 100 PW 17
c.100 Southern BELGAE, German/Celts between Sequana (Seine) and Rhine, migrate to Britain. 100 OCD 164, 181
c.100 STEERING improved on 4 wheel carts by Celts.  Front wheels are made to swivel. 100 TTT
c.100 Marcomanni MigrationMARCOMANNI, Germanics between the Rhine & Elbe from ?, migrate south to middle and upper Main valley until 9.
Just as Teutons had done in 200.
100 OCD 647
c.99 A remnant of the German and other tribes, defeated by the Romans, are received into the pay of Mith-VI of Pontus. 99 GHH
c.92 M.(5) Porcius CATO, a candidate for praetor, dies in his province, Narbonensis. 92 atl1
91 wikRGG
c.90 SALYES (Salluvi), Gauls north of Massilia, defeated by C. Caecilius. 90 atl1
c.85 Father of P. Quinctius, C. QUINCTIUS dies while in Gaul with his associate Sextus Naevius. 85 atl1
c.83 SALYES (Salluvi), Gauls north of Massilia, rebel and are crushed. 83 OCD 947
c.83 C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS comes from Rome, becomes propraetor in Gaul until 81. 83 DGRBM 2-159, rcIb, wikGVF
c.83 Populare praetor Q. SERTORIUS escapes Italy thru Gaul to Nearer Spain . 83 DGRBM 3-790, GHH, LEWH 107, MCAW 242, OCD 980, atl1, rcIb
83/2 B76 IX-74
c.82 C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS, propraetor of Gaul, awards Roman citizenship to Helvii chieftain CABURUS. 82 atl1, hifiElu
CONFUSION ALERT!  The Helvetii are not the same as the Helvii (aka Elui), a minor confederation west of the Rhone.
82 L.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO, proscribed by Sulla, flees from Rome, to Massilia, lives there until death. 82 DGRBM 3-748, atl1
c.81 C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS, propraetor in Gaul from 83, returns to Rome. 81 atl1, wikGVF
c.78 L. MANILIUS comes from Rome, becomes proconsul of Narbonensis. 78 DGRBM 2-917
c.78 L. MANILIUS proconsul of Narbonensis, is forced to quit Aquitania with the loss of his baggage.  Legate, L. Valerius Praeconinus is killed by the Sotiates and his army is routed. 78 DGRG 1-955, hifiSt     77 atl1
c.78 L. MANILIUS proconsul of Narbonensis, goes to Spain, with 3 legions and 1500 cav, to assist Q. Cæcilius Metellus against Sertorius. 78 DGRBM 2-917
77 early M. Aemilius LEPIDUS becomes proconsul of Gaul, holds Cisalpine Gaul thru legate M.(6) Brutus, aggitates in Transalpine Gaul, contacts Sertorius in Spain. 77 OCD 597
CONFUSION ALERT!  Though Transalpine Gaul is technically all Gaul north of the Alps, the term is often used to mean specifically Narbonensis.
77 early M.(9) Aemilius LEPIDUS, proconsul of Gaul 77, returns to Italy. 77 OCD 597, 857
c.77 Gn. POMPEY, proconsul of Spain, crosses Alps from Italy to Transalpine Gaul, has to deal with rebellious tribes, crushes rebellion, and is forced to winter at Narbo, then proceeds to Spain. 77 CAH 9-217
76 atl1
c.76 Praetor M. FONTEIUS comes from Italy as governor of Narbonensis Gaul until 73. 76 DGRBM 2-180 74 atl1
c.75 Gundestrup cauldronGUNDESTRUP CAULDRON, largest known example of European Iron Age silver work (diameter: 69cm; height: 42cm), dismantled, with the other pieces stacked inside the base, deposited in a peat bog near Gundestrup Denmark, but probably not made there, because it includes elements of Gaulish and Thracian origin.  It will be discovered in 1891. Photo Nationalmuseet


150-0 wikGnC
c.75 Praetor M. FONTEIUS governor of Narbonensis Gaul 76-3, extorts his province to send provisions, military stores, and recruits to Metellus Pius and Cn. Pompey in Spain. 75 DGRBM 2-180, atl1
c.75 SINGIDUN (Belgrade), occupied by the Scordisci from 250, comes under Rome until ?, incorporated into province of Moesia. 75 wikSng
74/3 POMPEY comes from Spain to winter in Gaul, where supplies are provided to him by governor M. Fonteius. 73 atl1
c.73 Praetor M. FONTEIUS governor of Narbonensis Gaul from 76, having plundered Gaul, returns to RomeC. Annius Bellienus is a legate. 73 DGRBM 2-180 72 72 DGRBM 1-481, atl1
c.72 Aid of king Ariovistus is called in by the Arverni and Sequani against the Aedui. 72 DGRG 1-997
c.72 15,000 Germans under Ariovistus, chief of the Suevi, cross the upper Rhine into Gaul until ?.  Despite the fact that this migration encroaches on Sequani land, the Sequani seek Ariovistus' help against the Aedui.  Germanics remain to establish rule over northeast Gaul. 72 DGRG 1-997, TToH     71 Dur 3-174, OCD 108, atl1     61 wikGW
c.72 The Helvetii join Ariovistus. 72 GHH     71 atl1
c.72 GOBARGONIUS becomes king of the ARVERNI Confederation in south-central Gaul until 58. 72 hifiArv, rcC
c.71 A 2nd and bigger wave of BELGAE arrives in Britain, settle mostly in south.  They drain swampland and farm it with plows. 71 MCAW 246
c.71 AEDUII tribe in east-central Gaul, dominant from 100, comes under the Arverni until 58. 71 atl1, rcC 71-60 hifiAd
c.71 ARIOVISTUS, chief of the Suevi, becomes chief of the Suevi until 58. 71 rcC
Snettisham Hoard photo: Helen Etheridge











70 wikSH 31 MCAW 261
70 SNETTISHAM HOARD:   Over 150 gold/silver/copper alloy torc fragments, over 70 of which form complete torcs, are buried at Snettisham in Iceni land.  High enough quality to have been royal treasure of the Iceni.  Origins unknown.  Includes a coin of the Atrebates.
c.70 ADEL-III, king of Frisia from ?, ends.  ADEL-IV succeeds until 11CE. 70 rcLC
c.67 Consul C.(3) PISO assigned to Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul to suppress uprising of Allobroges. 67 OCD 836, wikRGG
c.66 C.(3) Calpurnius PISO becomes proconsul of Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul until 65 to suppress uprising among Allobroges. 67 OCD 836, wikRGG 66 DGRBM 3-374, DGRG 1-956
c.66 C.(3) CALPURNIUS PISO proconsul of Narbonensis suppresses Allobroge insurrection. 66 DGRBM 3-373
66/5 DGRBM 3-374
c.64 C.(3) CALPURNIUS PISO proconsul of Narbonensis from 66, returns to Rome, succeeded by L. MURENA until ?. 65 DGRG 1-956 64 CAH 9-347
c.63 ALLOBROGES of Narbonensis, under Rome 121-61, send envoys to Rome to protest extortion by local tax collectors. 63 B76 7-960
63 Dec Allobroge envoys return to Narbonensis with empty promises from senate. 63 B76 7-960
c.62 C. POMPTINUS becomes governor of Narbonensis until 60. 62 DGRG 2-1276, wikRGG
c.62 MANLIUS LENTINUS, legate of C. Pomptinus is driven from Ventia (not Venetia) in Narbonensis by Allobroges. 62 DGRG 2-1276
c.62 Q. Caecilius METELLUS CELER meets some Indian traders in Gaul. 62 atl1
c.61 The Helvetii are pressed by migrating Germanic tribes to their north, who now occupy the east bank of the Rhine.  The Helvetii want to move west, but that will take them thru the land of the Aeduii, a Roman ally.  The tribes in between fear that the Helvetii will plunder and destroy as they go. 61 hifiHlv
c.61 ALLOBROGES in Narbonensis, under Rome from 121, rebel briefly because of extortion by tax agents.  King Catugnatus defeats Manlius Lentinus, legate of C. Pomptinus. 65 hifiAlb
62 B76 7-960, hwGW
61 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-652
c.61 ORGETOIX, a wealthy Helveti, forms a conspiracy of chiefs.  He persuades the nobles that it would be easy to conquer their western neighbors.  They do not, however, intend to attack the Sequani, Aedui, or Allobroges south of the Rhone, but to make terms with the Allobroges, to secure passage thru their country.  Orgetorix gets the Helvetii to ready as many waggons and animals as they can, and to sow 2 years worth of food, and emigrate in the 3rd year.  Orgetorix, meanwhile visits the Sequani, and persuades Casticus to overthrow his father Catamantaloedes.  He also persuades Dumnorix, bro of Divitiacus, to do the same among the Aedui, and he gives Dumnorix his dau to wife.  The 3 conspirators are to make themselves kings, and then master all Gaul. 61 DGRBM 3-44, DGRG 1-1041-2, atl1, hwGW
60 hifiSq
c.61 DUMNORIX, chief of the Aedui, conspires with Orgetorix of the Helvetii against Romans. 61 OCD 367, hifiAd
c.61 MANLIUS LENTINUS, legate of C. Pomptinus in Narbonensis, takes Ventia (not Venetia), defeats barbarians. 61 DGRBM 2-921
c.61 ALLOBROGES in Narbonensis, rebelling 61, crushed by proconsul C. Pomptinus.  Much Allobroge wealth goes to Rome.  Allobroges come back under Rome until 395CE. 61 DGRBM 3-495, OCD 47, rcC
c.61 The Helvetii under Orgetorix, pressed by Germans, move into Gaul. 61 B76 IV-1009
c.61 ORGETORIX conspiracy is discovered by Helvetii magistrates.  Orgetorix is summoned to trial.  The punishment for treason is burning.  Orgetorix appears on the trial date with 10,000 slaves and dependents in open rebellion.  The magistrates assemble a force to put him down. 61 DGRG 1-1041-2
c.61 ORGETORIX dies.  Attempted usurper of the Helvetii, suicides.  DIVICO becomes chief until 58. 61 DGRG 1-1042, hifiHlv, hwGW, rcC
c.61 C. Pomptinus defeats Catugnatus, leader of Allobroges, in Narbonensis and captures Solonium (location unknown). 61 DGRG 2-1020, atl1
c.61 The Sequani and Arverni, rivals of the Aedui, enlist aid of the German Suevi under Ariovistus. 61 CAH 9, Dur 3-174, OCD 357, wikGW
c.61 German king ARIOVISTUS defeats Gauls at Magetobriga.  The Aedui are defeated and massacred by combined forces of Sequani and Arverni tribes. 63 wikBM     61 CAH 9, Dur 3-174, OCD 357, atl1, hwGW, wikGW
c.61 DIVITIACUS (Diviciacus), chief of the pro-Roman party of Aedui, goes to Rome to appeal for help against the Sequani and Ariovistus.  Senate confirms alliance with the Aedui. 61 CAH 9, Dur 3-174, OCD 357, atl1
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is a Divitiacus of the Suessiones, and a Divitiacus of the Aeduii.
c.61 ARIOVISTUS, chief of the Suevi, settles the land with 120,000 of his people.  When 24,000 Germanic Harudes join him, Ariovistus demands that the Sequani give him more land to accommodate them. 61 wikGW
c.61 BUREBISTA becomes king of the Getae and Dacian tribes until 45/4.  He begins conquests. 82-61 wikBrb
c.60 GLASTONBURY, a village in Wessex from c.300, becomes a town.  Undisturbed until Roman invasion 55 60 B76 IV-570
c.60 CASSIVELLAUNUS becomes king of the Catuvellauni and high king of Britain until 48. 60 hifiKB, rcC
c.60 Sciold appointed first king of Denmark. 60 GHH
c.60 DIVITIACUS of the Suessiones rules among Continental Belgic tribes and also over parts of southeast Britain. 60 hifiCT
Belgic tribes recently migrated to Britain, such as the Belgae, Cantii, and perhaps the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes are probably united, as reflected in their triple-tailed horse coins. 60 hifiCT
c.60 Roman colonies in Helvetia. 60 TToH
c.60 BURDIGALA, main town of the Bituriges Vivisci, comes under Rome. 60 hifiBtc
c.60 DACIA, divided from ?, united under BUREBISTA until 44, begins expanding. 60 B76 2-615, OCD 185, 309
Bohemia to Dacia
c.60 BOII of Bohemia are defeated by Dacians under Burebista.  2 Boii groups now exist, along the Danube, one in Pannonia Superior and the other in Dacia. 60 wikBo
c.60 The HELVETII and 3,200 BOII of Bohemia migrate west, invade Gaul. 60 CAH 9, wikBo
60 Gn. Cornelius Lentulus CLODIANUS, Q.(7) METELLUS CRETICUS and L. FLACCUS are sent from Rome to check on a possible uprising caused by Helvetii migration into Gaul, but their services are not required. 60 DGRBM 2-732, 1064
c.60 Germanic MARCOMANI in Main Valley, invade Gaul until 58, join Ariovistus. no date: OCD 647
c.59 BOII of Bohemia from ?, cross Danube, invade Roman Noricum, remain until 50. 59 DGRG 2-447
c.59 ARIOVISTUS becomes a Roman ally, recognised as "king and friend" by the Senate. 59 atl1, wikArv
58 early AquileiaRomans no longer believe the Helvetii would migrate.  Caesar has 4 legions, 3 at Aquileia, where there is a threat from the Dacians, and only 1 in Transalpine Gaul.  Roman politics keep Caesar as close to Rome as possible and still reach Transalpine Gaul until mid-March. 58 hwGW
58 early EUROPE, peaceful from 101, the HELVETI are now pressured by German tribes to north and east.  They send emissaries to neighboring tribes to negotiate peaceful transit westward.  Helveti king Orgetorix allies with Sequani chieftain Casticus and arranges marriage of his dau to Aedui chieftain, Dumnorix. 58 wikGW
58 Mar The RAURACI join the Helveti migration. 58 DGRG 2-695
58 Mar HELVETI under Orgetorix migrate southwest.  Orgetorix's personal ambitions are discovered and he is scheduled for trial, with the penalty being death by fire if convicted.  Orgetorix escapes with help of his many debtors, but dies during flight. 58 MCAW 252, wikGW
58 Mar HELVETI cross the territories of the Sequani, and pillage lands of the Aedui, Ambarri, and Allobroges. 58 atl1, wikGW
58
Mar 28
The Helvetii, Tulingi, Latovici and Boii, having burnt their homes, gather at the Rhone, facing Transalpine Gaul.  Caesar estimates 368,000 people, including 90,000 fighting men. 58 CAH 9-383, hwGW
CONFUSION ALERT!  Though Transalpine Gaul is technically all Gaul north of the Alps, the term is often used to mean specifically Narbonensis.
c.58 Mar CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, now in Cisalpine Gaul, learns of the Helveti migration.  With 4 legions provided by government and another 4 paid for by himself.  He marches with only 1 legion to Geneva in 8 days, arriving March 27, remains mostly in Gaul until 49. 59 bk     58 B76 3-577, CAH 9-383, DGRBM 1-544, Dur 3-175, OCD 295, 574, 793, atl1, vrm, wikGW, wikMCJC
58 Mar The Aedui, Ambarri, and Allobroges, unable to oppose the Helvetii, ask for Caesar's help. 58 wikGW
58 Mar the Helvetii confederation asks permission to cross the RhoneCaesar at Geneva knows that with only 1 legion he can't stop the migration.  He tells the Helvetii that he would consider their request and present his answer on 12 April.  Then he orders new forces recruited from the Roman province. 58 CAH 9-383, hwGW
58 Mr/Ap CAESAR leaves T. Labienus in charge, and returns to Cisalpine Gaul, mobilizes his other 3 legions at Aquileia, levies 2 new legions, marches these 5 legions across Alps, where the Ceutrones, Garoceli, and Caturiges try to block his passage. 58 CAH 9-383, DGRBM 1-544, DGRG 2-951, hifiHlv, hwGW
58 Mr/Ap CAESAR marches his 5 legions into Allobroge land, then crosses the Rhone into Segusiavi land. 58 DGRBM 1-544, DGRG 2-951, hwGW
58 Mr/Ap While Caesar marches, groups from several local tribes join the Helvetii, including the Latobrigi, Rauraci, and Tulingi.  They also join the Boii who have crossed the Rhine to assault the Taurisci. 58 hifiHlv
58 Apr Romans at Geneva destroy the bridge over the Rhone and build 19 miles of fortifications on their side of the border. 58 CAH 9-383, hwGW
58
Apr 28
CAESAR tells the Helvetii they don't have permission to cross Transalpine Gaul. 58 hwGW
58 Ap/My The Helvetii call on some contacts that Orgetorix had established. Orgetorix's dau was married to Dumnorix, a leader of the anti-Roman faction in the Aedui.  Dumnorix convinces the Sequani to allow the Helvetii to cross their land, and the migration begins.  Aquitania seems to be their target, where they hope to join some Boii who have settled there. 58 CAH 9-383, hifiHlv, hwGW
c.58 Liscus accuses Dumnorix of trying to undermine alliance between the Aedui and Romans. 58 atl1
c.58 BOII of Bohemia occupy Roman Noricum. 58 DGRG 2-447

Gallic Wars 58-50
V