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c.50 Late Iron Age in Britain ends.  Began 100.
Latest Iron Age begins until 100CE.
50 wikBIA
c. 50 GALLIC WARS from 58, end.  Last Gaulish rebels are defeated.  T. Labienus is Caesar's senior legate, having rank of propraetor.  Other prominent men include his relative L. Julius Caesar, Crassus' sons P. and M.,  Cicero's bro Q., Decimus Brutus, and Mark Antony.  Plutarch says the army had fought against 3,000,000 men in the Gallic Wars, of whom 1 million died, and another million were enslaved.  300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed.  Almost the entire population of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered.  Caesar reports that 368,000 of the Helvetii left home, of whom 92,000 could bear arms, and only 110,000 returned after the campaign.  These figures are disputed. 51 wikMCJC, 50 wikGW, wikTAR '  
50 CAESAR makes a generous peace settlement.  Surviving tribal leaders are won over with gifts.  Required tribute is lower than expected.  During the Civil War there will be no rebellions in Gaul. no date: hwGW '  
Empire at 50BCE Europe c.50BCE

c.50 BOII, in Noricum from 59, destroyed by Burebista king of Dacia. 50 B76 3-1074 '  
50 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, visits Aquitaine. 50 DGRG 1-173 '  
50 CAESAR organizes territories in Gaul. 50 B76 3-578, sjsu '  
c.50 Altburg  house Reconstruction of a late La Tène period settlement in Altburg near Bundenbach. photo gemeinfrei
houses 100-0 wikClt '  
50 spring CAESAR goes to Cisalpine Gaul until Sep. 50 DGRBM 1-549 '  
50±50 BEER brewing begins as an industry in Germania. 100-0 SHT 2-190 '  
50 Sep? CAESAR, in Cisalpine Gaul from spring, returns to Gaul until Dec. 50 DGRBM 1-549, atl1 '  
c.50 Area presently called MOLDAVIA, northwest of Black Sea, under Sarmatians from 200, comes under Roxolanoi until 225. 50 rcEB
Oct 20
C. Trebonius is sent by Caesar with 3 legions to Matisco on the Rhone, and await further instructions.  They arrive in April 49 50 wikTrb '  
50 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, stations 4 legions among the Belgae and 4 legions among the Aedui for winter. 50 atl1 '  
50 Dec CAESAR returns from Gaul to Cisalpine Gaul, stays at Ravenna. 50 DGRBM 1-549, 2-697     49 bk '  
49 Jan CAESAR returns from Ravenna to Gaul. 49 Jan implied
49 Jan CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, leaves 9 legions in Gaul, takes his 13th legion across Alps into Cisalpine Gaul.  C. Caninius Rebilus and L.(5) Julius Caesar accompany. 49 DGRBM 1-538, 3-641, sjsu '  
49 Jan MASSILIA is occupied by troops of still republican L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, before he defects to Caesar. 49 DGRG 1-696 '  
CONFUSION ALERT!  Sources have Ahenobarbus sometimes as republican and sometimes Caesarean and occupying Massilia at different times, because they can't keep it straight as to when he defected.
49 Mar CAESAR enroute from Italy to Spain, blocked at Massilia by republicans, besieges them in Massilia until Sep, puts legate C. Trebonius in charge of siege on land.  Decimus(7) Brutus commands fleet.  Caesar proceeds to Spain. 49 B76 II-327, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-551, 3-1171, DGRG 2-292, Dur 3-184, OCD 189, atl1, ttpm, wikCCW '  
49 Apr MassiliaC. Trebonius with 3 legions arrives at Matisco on the RhoneCaesar then orders him to go to Massilia and take command of 3 newly recruited legions from north Italy and begin the siege of Massilia.  Trebonius arrives at Massilia, takes over land forces, while Decimus(7) Brutus Albinus commands naval forces. map

49 wikTrb '  
49 Apr 19 Siege of Masillia begins until Sep 6. 49 wikTrb '  
c.49 Legio V Alauda, in Gaul from 52, moved to Spain until ?. 49 wikLVA '  
49 July C. Trebonius besieging Massilia, breaks thru the wall.  The Massilians beg him to stop until the arrival of Caesar, when they would agree to capitulate to him.  Trebonius agrees, because Caesar had told him not to storm the town.  His soldiers become disgruntled, and are kept under control with difficulty. 49 wikTrb '  
49 Aug ARELATE, under Rome 123-?, sides with Caesar against republicans. ??? '  
49 Aug The Massilians attack besieger C. Trebonius, destroy his siege equipment.  Trebonius therefore presses the siege.  The Massilians again offer to surrender, and wait for Caesar.  Trebonius agrees, but insists that the defenders surrender their weapons, treasure and ships.  They do so, and everybody waits for Caesar. 49 wikTrb '  
c.49 Sep Decimus(7) BRUTUS, Caesarean, defeats combined Pompeian-Massilian naval forces in naval battle of Massilia. 49 DGRBM 2-1142, atl1, wikCCW '  
49 Sep CAESAR in Spain from March, returns by land for Italy, finds Massilia still under siege, increases pressure.  Massilia surrenders Sep 6.  Much of its territory is given to Arelate.  CAESAR returns to Rome. 49 B76 II-327, CAH 9-431, CDCC 558, DGRBM 1-551, Dur 3-184, LEWH 109, OCD 189, 1090, atl1, ttjc, ttpm, wikCCW, wikTrb '  
49 Sep Q. or L. NASIDIUS sent by Pompey with 16 ships, to relieve Massilia, now besieged by Caesar's troops, under D. Brutus.  Nasidus is defeated by Brutus, and flees to Africa. 49 DGRBM 2-1142, wikCCW '  
c.49 Dec Caesarean, Decimus(7) BRUTUS comes from Italy to be governor of Transalpine Gaul until 45. 49 48 B76 II-327, no date: OCD 183 '  
CONFUSION ALERT!  Though Transalpine Gaul is technically all Gaul north of the Alps, the term is often used to mean specifically Narbonensis.
48 MILO, exiled in Massilia, sarcastically remarks that he is grateful that Cicero did not defend him more successfully. 48 atl1 '  
c.48 BUREBISTA, king of Dacia 60-45/4, comes into conflict with Rome, decides to support Pompey. 48 wikBrb '  
48 Caelius RUFUS, praetor peregrinus, flees Rome to join MILO in Massilia.  Persuades Milo to invade Italy. 48 OCD 188 '  
47 DECIMUS(7) BRUTUS, Caesarean governor of Transalpine Gaul 49-45, defeats the Bellovaci in Belgica. 47 atl1 '  
46 DECIMUS(7) BRUTUS, Caesarean governor of Transalpine Gaul 49-45, suppresses rebellion of the Bellovaci. 46 OCD 183, wikRGG '  
46 Ti.(4) CLAUDIUS NERO is put in charge of settling Caesar's veterans in Narbonensis, arrives from Italy. 46 OCD 730
45 CAH 10-469 '  
45 DECIMUS(7) BRUTUS, Caesarean governor of Transalpine Gaul from 49, returns to Rome.  Caesarean praetor of 46, AULUS HIRTIUS succeeds until 44. 45 B76 V-61, CAH 10-522, OCD 520, wikRGG '  
45 ANTONY goes from Italy to Narbonensis to meet Caesar on his return from SpainC. Trebonius suggests they form a plot against Caesar. 45 DGRBM 1-215, atl1 '  
45 Narbo Martius, in Nearer Spain founded 118, refounded as NARBONNE by Ti.(4) Claudius Nero for veterans of the 10th Legion. 45 CAH 10-469 '  
c.45 ARELATE, under Rome from 123 refounded as ARLES by Ti.(4) Claudius Nero for veterans of the 6th Legion. 46 lvArl
45 CAH 10-469 '  
c.45 VIENNE, capital of the Allobroges, founded as a Latin colony by Ti.(4) Claudius Nero. 47 wikVI
45 CAH 10-470 '  
45 Sep CAESAR and Octavian returning from Spain meet ANTONY at Narbonensis.  They are reconciled, and proceed to Rome. 45 DGRBM 1-215, wikMA '  
c.45/4 BUREBISTA dies.  King of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 61, and of Dacia from 60, murdered by Dacian nobility.  Empire disintegrates. 45/4 wikBrb '  
by 44 All southern Gaul now has Latin status. by 44 CAH 10-473 '  
44 COMMIUS, king of the Atrebates of Belgica 57-35, but residing in Britain 51-20, recognized by senate as king of Atrebates in Gaul until 35. 44 rcC '  
c.44 L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS appointed by Caesar as proconsul of Gallia Comata until 43.  Cispius LAEVUS is his legate.  GALLIA COMATA "Gaul of the long-hairs" is all Gaul except Narbonensis and some Belgic tribes. 44 CAH 9-470, DGRBM 3-382, OCD 838, wikRGG '  
c.44 RAURICA founded on the Rhine in Raurici territory by L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS.  It will be called Augusta Raurica by Augustus in 15. 44 OCD 148, 838, atl1, wikAR 44/3 hifiRr '  
44 Mar 15 C.(4) Julius CAESAR ASSASSINATED
44 Mar M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is sent from Rome by Antony to administer Spain and Narbonensis until 43, he goes thru Gaul to Spain to negotiate with Sextus Pompeius. 44 CAH 10-4, DGRBM 1-457, OCD 852, wikLpd, wikRGG '  
44 Roman colonists of VIENNE from 45 expelled by Allobroges, flee to the Segusiavi (Segusiani) at the confluence of the Saone and Rhone. 44 CAH 10-470 '  
44 mid SEXTUS POMPEIUS, the last Pompeyan, leaves Spain, but holds up with army and fleet at Massilia to await further develpoments. 44 OCD 858 '  
c.43 LUGDUNUM founded on a hill where Caesar camped in 58 west of the confluence of the Rhone and Saone by L.(1) Munatius Plancus and M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus as a military colony.  Settled with Romans of Vienne who were driven out by the Allobroges.  Citizens are assigned to the Galerian tribe. 43 B76 7-461, 11-216, CAH 10-470, CDCC 534, DGRG 2-213, atl1, wikLg '  
43 Apr 27 SEXTUS POMPEIUS, holding up with army and fleet at Massilia from 44, is made naval commander until Aug. by senate. 43 CAH 9-483, OCD 858 42 wikSP '  
c.43 Apr L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS marches south to relieve D.(7) Brutus at Mutina, but he had not crossed the Alps when he learns of defeat of Antony and the relief of Mutina by Octavian, Hirtius and Pansa.  He halts in Allobroge territory and being joined by D. Brutus and his army, prepares for war against Antony. 43 DGRBM 3-382 '  
c.43 Praetor Gn.(2) Munatius PLANCUS is allowed by the senate to join his bro Lucius(1) in Transalpine Gaul. 43 DGRBM 3-384 '  
43 May ANTONY, bro Lucius, & Ventidius BASSUS cross Alps into Narbonensis Gaul. 43 CAH 10-15, DGRBM 1-215 '  
43 May P. Canidius CRASSUS, general under Lepidus in Narbonensis, negotiates with Antony for alliance with Lepidus. 43 DGRBM 1-872, OCD 201 '  
Lucius, not Publius DGRBM
43 May Decimus(7) BRUTUS pursues Antony thru Alps.  He is forced to pay for passage by the Salyes. 44 hifiSls '  
43 May Decimus(7) BRUTUS pursues Antony into Narbonensis Gaul.  Octavian declines to help. 44 CAH 10-16, OCD 597 '  
43 May 29 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS with 7 legions marches from Spain to Gaul to join Antony.  When they meet, large parts of Lepidus's forces join Antony.  Lepidus negotiates an agreement with him, while claiming to the senate that he had no choice.  Lepidus submits a pius resignation to the senate. 43 CAH 10-16, 17, OCD 838, 597, atl1
no date: wikLpd '  
43 Jun Decimus(7) BRUTUS joins L.(1) Munatius Plancus at Cularo on the Isere. 44 CAH 10-16, OCD 184 '  
43 mid C. Asinius POLLIO with 2 legions arrives from Spain to join Antony, persuades L.(1) Munatius Plancus in Gaul to do same. 44 CAH 10-17, OCD 838 '  
43 fall Decimus(7) BRUTUS dies.  Deserted by troops, flees for Aquileia, captured by a Gallic chief, killed by order of Antony. 43 B76 II-327, CAH 9-484, 10-17, OCD 184, wikDJB '  
43 Oct? ANTONY, invited to conference by Octavian, leaves L. Varius Cotyla in charge of his legions in Gaul, and crosses Alps into Italy. 43 DGRBM 1-869 '  
43 Dec SEXTUS POMPEIUS, holding up with army and fleet at Massilia from 44, uses fleet to rescue proscribed fugitives from Italy to Sicily. 44 OCD 858 '  
c.40 CASSIVELLAUNUS, high king of Britain from 60, ends. 48 rcC     30 hifiKB
40 Sp/Oc Treaty of BrundisiumLepidus gets Spain, Narbonensis, and Africa until 36.  Antony gets rest of Gaul. 40 wikNrb '  
39 early M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, new governor of Gaul 39-38, leaves Italy for Aquitaine. 40 CAH 10-490
39 B76 1-367, CAH 10-46, CDCC 28, OCD 30 '  
39 M. AGRIPPA crosses the Rhine into Germania. 39 GHH, wikMVA '  
39 M. AGRIPPA penetrates Germania as far as Catti country. 39 DGRBM 1-79 '  
39 North RhineThe Suevi occupy the Upper Rhine; Marcomani -on the Maine. etc.; Langobards (subtribe of Suevi) on the Elbe; and the Suiones of the Cimbric peninsula are settled in Svithiod (Sweden) where Goths now are.  Besides these, are the Batavii, Frisii, and other less numerous tribes. 39 GHH '  
c.38 The Cherusci (several confederated tribes) live between the Rhine & Weser. 38 GHH '  
c.38 UBII, Germanics friendly to Rome from 55, on east bank of the Rhine from ?, fear incursions of the Catti, moved at their own request to west bank by AGRIPPA, and settled on Eburone land. 39 GHH, wikUb
38 DGRBM 1-79, OCD 264, 1103, 37 DGRG 1-997 '  
38 M. V. AGRIPPA, after settling the Ubii, moves against the Aquitani, and brings them to submission. 38 CAH 10-25, DGRBM 1-79, OCD 90, atl1, wikMVA '  
38 AGRIPPA, governor of Gaul from 39, after great conquests, recalled by Octavian to Rome. 38 B76 1-367, CAH 10-25, 58, CDCC 28, wikMVA '  
c.35 Son of Addedomarus, DUMNOVELLAUNUS (Dubnovellaunus), becomes king of the Canti in Kent until 5. 40-30 wikDbn
35 COMMIUS king of Atrebates in Gaul from 57, but living in Britain 51-20, no longer recognized as king of continental Atrebates. 35 rcC '  
35 The SALYES of the Durias Valley (now Val d'Aosta) in the Alps rebel until 34, defy efforts of C.(1) Antistius Vetus. 35 DGRG 2-880, hifiSls '  
34 The SALYES are attacked by C.(1) Antistius Vetus. 34 CAH 10-169 '  
34 The SALYES of the Durias Valley in the Alps rebelling from 35, subdued by Valerius Messala until 25. 34 DGRG 2-880, hifiSls     31 atl1 '  
33 TERGESTE (Trieste), under Rome 177-?, has a harbor and city walls built by Octavian. Istria 33 B76 X-121
32 DGRG 2-1130 '  
33 Colony of POLA in Istria founded by Octavian. 33 atl1 '  
31 C. CARRINUS is proconsul of Gaul.  He is successful against the Morini, and drives the Suevi across the Rhine 31 DGRBM 1-615 '  
31 DACIA, a state extending from Tisza river to lower Danube from 200, ends. 31 B76 2-615 '  
by 31 A navy squadron is maintained at Forum Julii (Frejus) on the south coast of Gaul. by 31 CAH 10-383 '  
31 Coins increase in Britain, many copies from the Macedonian stater, but with unintelligible figures. 31 MCAW 261 '  
c.30 LA TENE Period-D ends.  Began c.100.  Settlements show typical peasant tools: iron sickles, sithes, axes, saws, plowshares, hammers, most coming from contact with Roman civilization.  Silver coins based on Greek & Roman prototypes are more than in period C. 50-15 B76 VI-67 '  
30 The Morini and Treveri tribes of Gallia Comata province rebel. 30 wikWAg '  
Veneti rebellion
c.30 The Suevi Germans cross the Rhine to support the Morini and Treveri. 30 wikWAg 29 HRE 126 '  
c.30 The Morini are defeated by proconsul of Gaul, C. Carrinas, who goes on to drive out the Suevi. 30 wikWAg 29 HRE 126 '  
29 C. Nonius GALLUS defeats the Treveri and Germans. 29 CAH 10-522, DGRBM 2-228, HRE 126, wikWAg '  
c.29 TREVERI rebellion is crushed. 29 CAH 10-522 '  
c.29 Roman garrison is posted at the largest Treveri town (later called Titelberg), until 16. 29 CAH 10-523 '  
c.29 BASTARNAE of east Europe driven back across the Danube by M. Licinius Crassus 30 DGRBM 1-381 '  
East Europe
28 Aquitanians rebel against Romans, invade Narbonensis. 28 CAH 10-116 '  
28 M.(6) Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS sent from Rome, to be governor of Aquitaine until 27.  Poet Albius Tibullus accompanies. 31 DGRBM 3-1125, 28 DGRBM 2-1051 '  
28 Atax riverMESSALA CORVINUS, governor of Aquitaine defeats Aquitanian rebels at the Atax River and suppresses them. 31 DGRBM 3-1125
28 CAH 10, DGRG 1-173, 966, OCD 674     27 HRE 84, OCD 90 '  
27 M.(6) Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS, governor of Aquitaine from 28, returns to Rome. 30 DGRBM 3-1125
27 DGRBM 2-1051, OCD 674, 1072 '  
27 AUGUSTUS goes from Italy to Narbonne (a city in Narbonensis) to reorganize and complete the census.  Tiberius, age 17, and M.(13) Claudius Marcellus accompany.  They avoid fighting, but study administrating, keeping garrisons alert and fortifications intact. 27 B76 18-370, CAH 10-133, 471, DGRBM 1-429, MCAW 264 '  
27 1st CENSUS in Gaul made at Narbonne by Augustus. 27 CAH 10-471, 490, OCD 220 '  
27 GAUL DIVIDED into 4 provinces by Augustus: Narbonensis, Aquitania, Celtica/Lugdunensis, Belgica. divided Gaul 27 B76 I-945, 7-961, CAH 10-179, DGRG 1-387 '  
27 GALLIA COMATA, "Gaul of the long-hairs", all Gaul except Narbonensis and some Belgic tribes, a single province from ?, divided into 3 provinces by Augustus. 27
CAH 10-487 '  
27 GLANUM in Narbonensis on a road from Cabellio to Arles, under Salyes from ?, comes under Rome. 27 wikGl '  
27 late AUGUSTUS is forced to go from Gaul to Spain because of uprising in northwest.  In Spain until 24. 27 CAH 10-134, DGRBM 1-429, DGRG 1-173, GHH 26 MCAW 264 '  
26/5 ALTAR of AUGUSTAN PEACE at Narbonne dedicated by T. Domitius Romulus in fulfilment of a vow.  Small marble altar with inscription on front, set in an oak garland.  A relief of a bucranium at the back, and laurel trees on the sides.  Height: 95cm, Width: 70cm 26/5 jdrm
25 CAH 10-486 '  
c.25 Western Gaul subdued by Augustus. 25 GHH '  
25 A. Terentius VARRO MURENA is sent by Augustus to attack the Salyes of the Durias Valley in the Alps.  He reduces the Salyes to obedience, sells male prisoners for slaves.  Most of the territory is distributed among Praetorian soldiers, who found Augusta Praetoria Salassorum (later Aosta), and colonize it with 3,000 veterans.  This gives Rome control of the "Punic" passes (on the erroneous belief that Hannibal used them). 25 CAH 10-169, CDCC 389, DGRBM 2-1122, DGRG 2-880, HRE 94, OCD 150, 1108, bk, wikAst, wikWAg '  
25 M. VINICIUS commands successfully in Germania. 25 DGRBM 3-1262 '  
Germanic tribes have republican governments.  Every man has a voice in all public matters.  Chiefs are elected by popular choice; the office of commander-in-chief ceases at the close of the war which occasioned his election.  Every man can vote on laws.  None are taxed but slaves and conquered tribes, who are not required to serve in wars, but to agricultural and handicraft duties.  Independence of the several tribes is maintained;  In danger, confederations are formed against a common enemy.  Military service is required of all freemen, especially land owners. 25 GHH '  
25 The Germani cross the Rhine. 25 GHH, HRE 126 '  
25 The Germani are repulsed by M. Vinicius. 25 HRE 126 '  
22 GALLIA NARBONENSIS, imperial province from 27, changed to senatorial province. 22 CAH 10-473, HRE 71, 83, OCD 150 '  

Europe 21-0