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c.54 CAESAR, in Britain from July 54, departs.  Dissensions and wars between British tribes from Caesar's departure till next invasion 40CE. 54 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-547, Dur 3-110, 176, GHH, atl1, ttjc     53 wikGW '  
Caesar's Gaul Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886
Celtica
Celtica 60-50 BCE     GNU FDL
DRUIDISM, according to Caesar, began in Britain, then spread to Gaul. wikCiB '  
c.54 Drought causes poor harvests and grain shortage, which causes widespread rebellion in northeast Gaul.  Therefore Caesar must separate his troops into different parts of Gaul. 54 DGRBM 1-547, DGRG 1-958, hifiCT, wikJC, wikMCJC
54/3 wikGW '  
c.54 EBURONES between the Meuse and Rhine under Ambiorix and Cativolcus surrounds a legion and 5 cohorts encamped under Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurelius Cotta.  Sabinus, against wishes of Cotta, negotiates safe conduct to a nearby legion.  The Romans are attacked and annihilated by Ambiorix. 54 DGRBM 1-547, atl1, hifiArv '  
c.54 CAVARINUS, puppet king of the Senones, is condemned to death by his people, and flees to the Romans.  Most Gauls side with the Senones, but the Aeduii and Remi remain loyal to the Romans. 54 hifiArv, hifiSn '  
c.54 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, writes  De Analogia  about linguistics. 54 atl1 '  
c.54 L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS is legate of Caesar in Gaul until 53. 54 DGRBM 3-382 '  
c.54 The Treveri attack the camp of Labienus on their borders.  But Indutiomarus, leader of the Treveri, is killed, and the assailants are defeated. 54 DGRG 1-958, atl1, hifiArv '  
54 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, learns of dau Julia's death, tries to get niece Octavia Minor to divorce husband C. Claudius Marcellus, and marry Pompey.  He also proposes that he marry Pompey's dau who is presently wife of Faustus Sulla. 54 DGRBM 1-547 '  
54/3 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, winters in Gaul. 54 atl1 '  
54/3 C. Trebonius with 1 legion winters with the Belgae at Samarobriva "Somme bridge" (Amiens), central settlement of the Ambiani. 54/3 wikTrb '  
54/3 15 Roman cohorts are wiped out at Aduatuca Tungri in Belgica. 54/3 wikGW '  
54/3 L. Munatius PLANCUS is among legates of Caesar during winter in Gaul. 54/3 DGRBM 3-382 '  
52 Feb 13 The CARNUTES, under Cotuatus and Conetodunus, murder Roman negotiators and traders at Cenabum (Orleans), and an eques in Caesar's commissariat department.  The Arverni learn of it that morning. 52 DGRG 1-523, 986, hifiArv, hifiCT, hifiHlv, hwGW '  
c.53 Q. Tullius CICERO, camp commander in Eburone territory, besieged by the Nervii from 54 and Eburones 53, (60,000 men) rescued by Caesar and Trebonius. 54 DGRBM 1-547, atl1     53 OCD 51 '  
c.53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, raises 3 new legions, one of which is lent by Pompey. 53 DGRBM 1-902, DGRG 2-194 '  
c.53 C. Trebonius is given a special command against the Eburones, specifically to harass the area of Huy. 53 wikTrb '  
53 Caesar enters Nervii land in winter.  Before they have time to rally or escape he takes prisoners, drives away cattle, and ravages their land. 53 DGRG 2-420 '  
53 NERVII (a subtribe of Belgae), rebelling from 54, pacified by Caesar before his meeting. 53 B76 4-861, DGRG 1-958, atl1 '  
53 EBURONE power is destoyed by Caesar, and their territory between the Meuse and Rhine devastated, but Ambiorix escapes and continues rebelion until 51.  Caesar invites anyone interested to destroy the rest of the Eburones. 53 B76 4-861, OCD 51, atl1, wikGW '  
c.53 A SICAMBRI raiding party crosses the Rhine to take advantage of Caesar's war with the Eburones.  They take cattle, slaves and plunder, then move against the Romans.  They attack a legion, and when the remains of it withdraws into Aduatuca, the Sicambri go back across the Rhine. 53 wikScm '  
53 spring CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, summons the states of Gaul to assemble, his usual practice.  All come except the Carnutes, Senones, and Treveri, meaning that they were involved in the revolt.  Caesar does not mention the location, but he moves the meeting to Lutetia (Paris), to be nearer to the Senones and Carnutes.  His main business now is with the Treveri and Ambiorix, king of the Eburones, who had cut off the Roman troops in the previous winter.  The Menapii are friends to Ambiorix, and they had never sent ambassadors to Caesar. 53 DGRG 1-958, 2-220, 963, hwGW '  
53 DIVITIACUS, chief of the Aeduii from ?, ends.  (only druid recorded by name) 53 hifiAd '  
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, marches from Lutetia to Senones land.  Senones yield in spite of Acco, the rebel leader.  Caesar takes with him Cavarinus and the cavalry of the Senones. 53 DGRG 2-963, atl1, hwGW '  
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, invades Menapii land with his forces in 3 divisions, burns whatever, takes many cattle and prisoners. 53 DGRG 1-958 '  
c.53 COMMIUS, king of the Atrebates of Belgica 57-35, serves under Caesar, against the Menapii. 53 DGRBM 1-816 '  
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, suppresses the Menapii, sets off to punish the Treveri, who had got Ambiorix some friends among the Germans east of the Rhine.  But before Caesar gets there, LABIENUS defeats the Treveri. 53 DGRG 1-958, atl1 '  
Rhine bridge Caesar's
Rhine bridge: John Soan 1814

map: Ekem
53 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, general under Caesar, builds a 2nd wood bridge across the Rhine upriver from where he built the 1st in 55.  Caesar crosses into Germania.  The Ubii immediately submit. 53 B76 3-577, DGRBM 1-547, DGRG 1-958, LEWH 109, atl1, hifiCT, hwGW, sjsu, ttjc, wikCRB '  
53 CAESAR moves to attack the Suevi, who retreat into boundless woods, where it is pointless to chase them.  Caesar fortifies the bridge that connects to the Ubii and stations 12 cohorts there 53 DGRBM 1-547, atl1, hifiCT '  
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, after a wasted German campaign, returns from east of the Rhine.  German mercenaries appear in Roman army from this time. 53 DGRBM 1-547, GHH, hwGW '  
53 UBII, pro-Roman Germans east of the Rhine are transported to west bank by M. Agrippa and settled in Eburone land between the Meuse and Rhine. 53 B76 4-861, CAH 9 '  
53 CAESAR, supported by Senones cavalry led by exiled Cavarinus, their former puppet king, attacks Ambiorix, devastates Eburone land.  While thus occupied, some Germanic SICAMBRI cross west over the Rhine, and surprise attack and loot the camp of Q. Cicero. 53 DGRBM 1-547, DGRG 1-959, atl1, hifiCT '  
53 Despite support by Treveri cavalry, the rebellious Ambiorix flees before the Romans.  Cativolcus suicides by poison. 53 hifiCT '  
c.53 The SENONES, under chief Acco, along Sequana (Seine) Valley fight Romans until 51. 53 B76 IX-58, DGRBM 1-6 '  
c.53 Germanic CHERUSCI of north Rhine valley first mentioned by Caesar. 53 hifiTtn '  
c.53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, after devastating Eburone land, summons a meeting of Gauls at Durocortorum (Rheims), where he inquires into the conspiracy of the Senones and Carnutes.  Acco, who had been the cause of the rising, is flogged to death, and his accomplices flee. 53 DGRG 1-959, hwGW
52 DGRG 2-420 '  
c.53 AEDUI tribe, under Rome from 58, comes back under the Arverni until 52. 53 rcC '  
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, leaves main force in north Gaul among the Treveri, Lingones, and Senones, returns to winter in north Italy until early 52.  Cavalry commander Mark Antony accompanies. 53 DGRBM 1-214, 547-8, DGRG 1-959, Dur 3-176 '  
53 Dec CAESAR puts 2 legions in Lingones land, not to keep the Lingones obedient, but because it's a good position 53 DGRG 2-194 '  
53/2 COMMIUS, king of the Atrebates of Belgica, uses his contacts with the Bellovaci to convince them to contribute 2,000 men to an army that will join other Gauls to relieve Alesia. 53/2 hifiCT '  
c.52 early VERCINGETORIX, chief of the ARVERNI, unites almost all tribes at Bibracte into a Confederation in south-central Gaul, which rebels.  The Aulerci, Cadurci, Lemovices, Parisii, Pictones, Senones, and Turones join him, as do the tribes that border the ocean.  The Treveri support the revolt, but are pinned down by Germans.  Vercingetorix knows he would probably loose a pitched battle, so he cuts off Roman supply lines and cuts off Caesar from his troops in the north. 53 GHH 52 B76 I-566, X-394, 3-577, CAH 9, CDCC 375, 924, DGRG 2-900, Dur 3-110, 176, MCAW 254, OCD 166, atl1, hifiArv, hifiCT, hwGW, sjsu, wikJC, wikMCJC, wikVrc '  
52 early CAESAR, in north Italy from late 53, hears of Vercingetorix rebellion, returns to Gaul until ?.  Can't get to his main troops in north, leads a small detachment against Arverni land, so that the Arverni would summon Vercingetorix, and Caesar can sneak around him. 53 DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-176 '  
52 early VERCINGETORIX brings troops to defend Arverni land against Caesar. 53 Dur 3-176 '  
52 early CAESAR leaves Decimus(7) Brutus in charge of Arverni land.  Disguises himself and rides with a few men to his troops in the north. 52 DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-177 '  
52 early CAESAR reaches his army safely, brings all his legions together at Agedincum.  It is still winter, and Caesar has no reliable source of supplies. 52 CAH 9-410 '  
c.52 C. CANINIUS REBILUS is among Caesar's legates in Gaul until 51. 52 DGRBM 3-641 '  
c.52 The CENOMANI join Vercingetorix' rebellion. 53 DGRG 1-584 '  
c.52 LUCTERIUS of the Cadurci is sent by Vercingetorix into Ruteni territory to gain their support, while Ver. marches in person to the Bituriges, who send to the Aeduii for help to resist the Arverni, but are forced to join the revolt. 52 DGRBM 2-830, DGRG 1-780, 2-860, hifiCT '  
52 LUCTERIUS of the Cadurci continues to the Gabali and Nitiobroges and wins their support, collecting a large force ahead of an advance into Narbonensis.  Caesar gets to Narbonensis first and rallies the Ruteni and Volcae Arecomisci.  Lucterius fights Caesar, but is forced to retreat. 52 CAH 10-500, hifiCT '  
c.52 The PICTONES from south of the Rhone join Vercingetorix' rebellion. 53 DGRG 2-629 '  
c.52 NARBO is threatened by Lucterius the Cadurean. 52 DGRG 2-398 '  
c.52 Legio V Alauda, or Gallic legion established by Caesar to fight Vercingetorix.  1st legion to comprise provincials.  In Gaul until 49. 55 GHH 52 wikLVA '  
52 L.(5) Julius Caesar, son of L.(4), becomes legate to CAESAR until ?, in Gaul until 49.  He is given 10,000 men, and placed in charge of Narbonensis Gaul. 52 DGRBM 1-538, OCD 190, wikL5JC'  
52 Mark ANTONY, now a quaestor, rejoins Caesar in Gaul until 51.  He is assigned mop up operations. 52 DGRBM 1-214, MCAW 254, atl1 '  
c.52 ALLOBROGES of Narbonensis, under Caesar 61-?, remain loyal. 52 OCD 47 '  
c.52 Aedui chiefs EPOREDORIX and VIRDUMARUS first use their influence to prevent the Aedui from joining the rest of the Gauls, then they help Caesar against Vercingetorix. 52 DGRBM 2-41, 3-1271 '  
c.52 VERCINGETORIX is defeated at Vellaunodunum and Noviodunum. 52 hifiCT '  
c.52 CAESAR marches 8 of his 10 legions out of Agedincum, and attacks Cenabum, in vengeance for Romans who had been killed there.  52 CAH 9-410 '  
c.52 CENABUM (Orleans), capital of the Carnutes, besieged, taken, sacked, burnt by CAESAR.  Men massacred, women & kids enslaved.  Caesar gives the plunder to his soldiers. 52 CAH 9-410, DGRG 1-523, 2-449, Dur 3-177, hifiCT '  
c.52 VERCINGETORIX summons a council in which it is decided that the Romans should be prevented from gathering supplies.  A scorched earth policy is adopted.  Over 20 Bituriges towns are burned in one day, but Avaricum is spared.  Vercingetorix camps main force near Avaricum. 52 CAH 9-410, hifiCT '  
52 After Cenabum Caesar crosses the Loire, besieges Avaricum, a stronghold of the Bituriges. 52 DGRG 1-986, hifiCT, hwGW '  
52 Mar AVARICUM, chief town of the Bituriges, taken, sacked by Caesar.  All inhabitants massacred.  Caesar now has all the supplies he needs. 52 DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-177, atl1, hifiCT, ttjc '  
52 After Avaricum, CAESAR splits army in 2 parts:  4 legions under T. Labienus go north against the Senones and Parisii.  6 legions under Caesar go south to Arverni land. 52 CAH 9-411, DGRBM 1-548, DGRG 2-221, hwGW '  
52 T. LABIENUS with 4 legions marches against the Senones and Parisii of Lutetia, and makes head-quarters at Agedincum (Agendicum).  Gauls from neighboring states gather to oppose him, under old but wise Camulogenus of the Aulerci.  Labienus pulls back to Melodunum of the Senones, takes Melodunum, and marches again against Camulogenus, who is killed in the ensuing battle. 52 DGRBM 2-696, atl1, hifiCT, thtc '  
52 T. LABIENUS defeats the Parisii at Agedincum. 52 wikTLb '  
c.52 LUTETIA, an island in the Seine, capital of the Parisi from 250?, burnt by T. Labienus, legate of Caesar. 52 DGRG 2-220, OCD 626 '  
52 CAESAR with 6 legions advances into Arverni territory, and captures a hill near their stronghold, Gergovia, a town of recently resettled Boii. 52 atl1 '  
52 Litaviccus urges the Aedui to rebel, but is suppressed by Caesar. 52 atl1 '  
c.52 Apr CAESAR with 6 legions besieges Vercingetorix in Gergovia. 53 DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-177 52 CAH 9-411, LEWH 109, MCAW 254, atl1, thtc, ttjc '  
c.52 CONVICTOLITAVIS, chief of the generally pro-Roman Aeduii, rebels, against Caesar at Gergovia. 52 hifiCT
c.52 The Nitiobroges send troops to aid Vercingetorix at Gergovia. 52 hifiCT '  
c.52 CAESAR with 6 legions tries to take Gergovia by storm is repulsed with heavy losses, 46 centurions and 700 men. 52 CAH 9-411, LEWH 109, MCAW 254, atl1, hifiCT, thtc, ttjc '  
c.52 After Gergovia, the AEDUII tribe defects to Vercingetorix, but with only mild support. 52 CAH 9-411, OCD 12, Dur 3-177 '  
c.52 CAESAR calls for cavalry and light infantry from loyal German tribes (including the Ubii).  With these, he defeats Vercingetorix. 52 CAH 9-412, hifiCT '  
52 mid Vercingetorix withdraws in good order to Alesia, a major fort of the Mandubii.  His remaining cavalry are dispatched back to their tribes to bring reinforcements. 52 CAH 9-412, hifiCT '  
52 mid Vercingetorix and 30,000 Gauls are begieged in Alesia by Caesar. 52 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-177, atl1, ttjc '  
52 4 relief forces assemble in Aeduii land.  Demanded from the Gallic tribes are 35,000 men from the Aeduii and their dependents, the Ambivareti, Brannovices, and Segusiavi;  35,000 from the Arverni in conjunction with the Cadurci, Eleuteti, Gabali, and Vellavi;  12,000 each from the Bituriges, Carnutes, Ruteni (mostly archers), Santones, Senones, and Sequani;  10,000 each from the Bellovaci, Helvetii and Lingones;  8,000 each from the Helvii, Parisii, Pictones, and Turones;  6,000 combined from the tribes of Armorica (including Ambibari, Caleti, Curiosolitae, Lemovices, Osismii, Redones, Venelli, Veneti);  5,000 each from the Ambiani, Mediomatrici, Morini, Nervii, Nitiobroges, Petrocorii, and Suessiones;  5,000 from the Aulerci Cenomani;  4,000 from the Atrebates;  3,000 each from the Aulerci Eburovices, Bellocassi, Lexovii, and Veliocasses; plus many sent by the Boii and Raurici.  The Bellovaci refuse, claiming that they would fight the Romans on their own.  But at the request of Commius of the Atrebates, they send 2,000 men.  Commanders are Vercassivellaunos and Sedullos of the Lemovices. 52 DGRG 1-523, 963, 2-1044, hifiCT '  
52 The Aeduii and Arverni warriors are pardoned and released in order to secure the allegiance of these powerful tribes. 52 hifiCT '  
52 The REDONES west of the Senones and along the Liger send troops to attack Caesar during the siege of Alesia. 52 DGRG 2-696 '  
c.52 NOVIODUNUM, Caesar's supply dump taken by the Aedui.  Caesar hurries to join T. Labienus near Agedincum in Senones land. 52 CAH 9-411, DGRBM 1-548, atl1 '  
c.52 CAESAR, now with Labienus and his full 10 legions, marches south thru Lingones land into Sequani land.  Gauls follow him and attack along the way.  Caesar loses his sword in battle but repels Gauls thanks to German allied cavalry. 52 DGRBM 1-548 '  
52 COMMIUS, king of the Atrebates of Belgica 57-35, under Caesar from 57, rebels until 51, contributes 4,000 troops to rescue Gauls besieged at Alesia. 52 DGRBM 1-816, OCD 144, 275, MCAW 254 '  
c.52 Romans try and fail to assassinate Commius. 52 atl1 '  
c.52 NOVIODUNUM, now under the Bituriges, taken by Caesar. 52 atl1 '  
52 250,000 Gauls march from north to rescue Vercingetorix in Alesia.  Caesar learns of it in advance. 52 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-177, atl1 '  
52 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, builds a 2nd circle of trench/mounds around his besiegers outside Alesia. 52 DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-177, hwGW '  
c.52 While CAESAR is trapped in Alesia, the Illyrian ISTRI take and loot TERGESTE (Trieste).  Caesar sends troops. 52 CAH 9-412, OCD 556, atl1
51 DGRG 2-1130 '  
Alesia
Siege of Alesia       revised from sketch of Muriel Gottrop
52 As food becomes scarce, Vercingetorix forces Mandubii women and children to leave Alesia, but Caesar refuses to let them out. 52 atl1, hifiCT '  
52 Gallic relief army reaches Alesia, but 2 attacks on Roman fortifications are repelled with heavy losses.  Relief army and Gauls besieged in Alesia make a co-ordinated attack on Romans, but are decisively defeated. 52 atl1 '  
52 Vercassivellaunos, commander of the relief force, killed. 52 hifiArv '  
52 Sep VERCINGETORIX, king of the ARVERNI Confederation from 58, besieged at ALESIA, starved to surrender to Caesar.  He and his men are sent to Rome as slaves. 52 B76 I-219, DGRBM 1-548, GHH, MCAW 254, atl1, bk, hifiCT, rcC, sjsu, thtc, ttjc, wikGW, wikVrc '  
c.52 After Alesia, the AEDUI and ARVERNI, submit and are pardoned by Caesar.  They come back under Rome until 395CE.  The Arverni come back under Rome until ?. 52 DGRBM 1-548, atl1, rcC, wikRGG '  
52 T. Annius MILO is banished from Rome to Massilia until ?.
c.52 CAESAR settles a dispute between Cotus and Convictolitavis, as to who should be leader of the Aedui. 52 atl1 '  
c.52 The SENONES along Seine Valley come under under Rome until 395CE. 52 rcC '  
52 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, goes into winter quarters: posts 2 legions with the Sequani, 2 with the Remi, 1 each with the Ambivareti and Bituriges and 2 among the Aedui, while he winters at Bibracte in Aedui land. 52 DGRBM 1-548, hwGW '  
52/1 GAUL conquered by Caesar, who makes such lenient peace terms that Gaul doesn't rebel again until ?. 52 Dur 3-177 B76 3-578     51 GHH '  
52/1 T. SEXTIUS, legate of Caesar, at winter quarters among the Bituriges. 52 DGRBM 3-810 '  
51 Jn/Fb CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, attacks the Bituriges, despite harsh winter weather. 51 CAH 9-414, atl1, hwGW '  
51 Mr/Ap CAESAR attacks the Carnutes. 51 atl1, hwGW '  
51 After the Carnutes submit, CAESAR resides at Cenabum.  While there, the Bellovaci, led by Correus and Comius the Atrebatian, gather a strong army, abandon their lands, and pulled back to a strong position surrounded by swamps. 51 hwGW '  
51 CAESAR with 4 legions marches against the Bellovaci, who avoid battle. 51 atl1, hwGW '  
51 The Bellovaci successfully retreat from their camp. 51 atl1 '  
51 CAESAR with 4 legions, sends for 3 more legions. 51 CAH 9-414 '  
51 CAESAR, now with 7 legions, defeats and kills Correus, and forces the Bellovaci to submit, ending the war in the northeast. 51 atl1, hwGW '  
c.51 Pictone warriors decide to supply Vercingetorix 8,000 men, but their chief, Duratios, maintains his alliance with Rome.  This causes a split in the Pictones.  The warriors join the chief of the Andes who heads for Lemonum to besiege Duratios, who sends a messenger to legate, C. Caninius, who comes to his aid from Ruteni territory. 53 hifiAnd '  
c.51 Gauls, led by Dumnacus of the Andes, besieges Limonum (Poitiers) in Pictone land.  2 weak legions under legate C. Caninius Rebilus approach, but Caninius sees that he is not strong enough to attack the much larger Gallic army.  He builds a strong camp a few miles from the siege, and waits for reinforcements. 51 DGRG 2-629, hwGW '  
c.51 C. Fabius with 2.5 legions is sent by Caesar west to reinforce Caninius.  Dumnacus discovers that a 2nd Roman army is on its way, abandons the siege, and tries to flee north, but is caught by Fabius close to the Loire, and his army destroyed. 51 DGRBM 2-830, hwGW '  
c.51 Survivors of Dumnacus army under DRAPPES, a Senone, and Lucterius, a Cadurci, escape south toward Narbonensis.  They discover that Caninius is following them, so they try to defend the Cadurci town of Uxellodunum.  During an attempt to gather supplies, Lucterius flees to the Arverni, and Drappes is captured by C. Caninius Rebilus.  Defenders of Uxellodunum continue to resist until Caesar arrives.  Drappes starves himself to death. 51 hifiCdr, hwGW, wikSn '  
51 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, besieges Gallic rebels in a natural fortress at Uxellodunum.  Romans cut off the water supply to Uxellodunum and the rebels surrender.  Caesar, knowing his command in Gaul will end in the following summer, orders his men to cut off the hands of the rebels to deter future rebellions. 51 CAH 9-416, DGRG 1-960, sjsu '  
c.51 UXELLODUNUM taken by Caesar. 51 atl1 '  
51 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, ravages Eburones land. 51 atl1 '  
51 LUCTERIUS, a Cadurci seeking refuge with the Arverni, is betrayed and handed over to Romans. 51 hifiSn '  
c.51 COMMIUS, king of the Atrebates of Belgica 57-35, continues a guerrilla war with Romans, but eventually agrees to a truce with M. Antony. 51 atl1, hwGW '  
c.51 COMMIUS, rebelling from 52, suppressed by Caesar, flees to Britain, where some Atrebates already are, and rules at Calleva Atrebatum until 20. 52 CEB 7    51 atl1 no date: OCD 144 '  
c.51 The SICAMBRI along the west bank of the Rhine fight and nearly defeat Romans, who are saved by Caesar.  Sicambri retreat across the Rhine. 51 DGRG 2-974 '  
c.51 The SENONES along Seine Valley fighting Romans from 53, quit fighting, settle in Lugdunensis province, and disappear from history. 51 B76 IX-58, hifiSn '  
c.51 P. VATINUS is legate of Caesar. 51 DGRBM 3-1235 '  
51 Q. Fufius CALENUS is legate to Caesar in Gaul. 51 DGRBM 1-562 '  
51 T. LABIENUS is sent by Caesar to Cisalpine Gaul, to defend Roman colonies, against barbarians. 51 DGRBM 2-697 '  
51 T. LABIENUS, on his return to Transalpine Gaul, is again despatched against the Treveri, whom he again subdues without difficulty. 51 CAH 9-416, DGRBM 2-697 '  
51 CAESAR mops up remaining Gaul rebels. 51 B76 3-578 '  
51 CAESAR detours into Aquitania, which he had not yet visited, then goes to Narbo to carry out his judicial duties. 51 CAH 9-416 '  
51 With the collapse of the revolt, the Andes are overrun by Romans.  Part of their territory is granted to the Pictones.  Dumnacus goes into voluntary exile. no date: hifiAnd '  
51 Gaul made a Roman province. 51 GHH '  
51 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, distributing his legions strategically round the whole country, then goes from Narbo to winter quarters at Nemetocenna (Roman Nemetacum) in Belgae land. 51 CAH 9-416, DGRBM 1-549, atl1 '  
51 Q. Tullius CICERO, legate of Caesar from 54, returns to Italy. 51 OCD 239 '  
50 early C. Trebonius is put in charge of winter quarters in Belgica. 50 wikTrb '  
c. 50 GALLIC WARS from 58, end.  Last Gaulish rebels are defeated.  T. Labienus is Caesar's senior legate, having rank of propraetor.  Other prominent men include his relative L. Julius Caesar, Crassus' sons P. and M.,  Cicero's bro Q. Decimus Brutus, and Mark Antony.  Plutarch says the army had fought against 3,000,000 men in the Gallic Wars, of whom 1 million died, and another million were enslaved.  300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed.  Almost the entire population of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered.  Caesar reports that 368,000 of the Helvetii left home, of whom 92,000 could bear arms, and only 110,000 returned after the campaign.  These figures are disputed. 51 wikMCJC 50 wikGW, wikTAR '  
Empire at 50BCE
Europe c.50BCE       map: Cristiano64

Europe 50-0
V