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55 Aug 26 CAESAR's 1st invasion of Britain, tries to land at Dubris (Dover), but the Britons gather on the overlooking cliffs, close enough to throw javelins down on them.  After waiting at anchor until the 9th hour (@3pm) waiting for supply ships from the 2nd port to come, he orders his subordinates to act on their own, then sails the fleet northeast @11km to an open beach.  The first level beach area after Dover is at Deal (Walmer) Kent.  They are opposed by British cavalry and chariots.  The loaded Roman ships are too low in the water to go close inshore, so troops have to debark in deep water.  The cavalry, delayed by adverse winds, has not arrived 55 wikCiB
55 Aug 26 CAESAR's 1st invasion force, 2 legions (7th & 10th), consists of 12,000 infantry.  He repels Britons, makes camp, and takes a few notes, but is us unable to progress further inland.  The Brits return Commius to him 55 B76 3-577, CAH 9, CEB 7, DGRBM 1-546, Dur 3-176, GHH, MCAW 252, TToH, atl1, bk, sjsu, ttjc, wikCiB, wikGW, wikJC, wikMCJC
55/4 B76 3-194     54 vrm
c.55 Led by Cassivellaunus, several British tribes attack Caesar, and are defeated 55 atl1
55/4 hifiKB
The average tidal range in the Mediterranean is only 28cm, while on the coast of Gaul it reaches up to 4 meters 55 hwGW
c.55 High tides and a storm fill Caesar's beached warships with water.  His transports, riding at anchor, are driven against each other.  Some ships are wrecked, and others rendered unseaworthy. 55 wikCiB
South Britain
South Britain in 1st cen. BCE       map: Notuncurious
c.55 The MORINI in north Gaul rebel while Caesar is in Britain 55 DGRBM 1-546
c.55 TASGETIUS, Roman puppet king of the Carnutes from 57, murdered 55 hifiCrnt
55 CAESAR takes hostages in Britain, and returns to Gaul 55 DGRBM 1-546, MCAW 252, atl1, wikJC
c.55 The Veneti of Brittany introduce iron chain cables 55 GHH
55 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, punishes the Morini and Menapii, stations troops in winter quarters among the Belgae 55 DGRBM 1-546, MCAW 252, atl1, wikJC
c.55 Gallo-Belgic F coins are found in coastal areas of Britain, introducing the triple-tailed horse design on the reverse that becomes widespread over the next few decades.  The existence of so many coins that are linked to the Suessiones, or which ape their design, suggests that the Suessiones form a considerable portion of the Belgae who migrate to Britain from the second century BC.  Caesar says the Belgae entered Britain looking for booty 60-50 hifiKB
55 Greek cities on coast of Black Sea start falling to Burebista, king of Dacia 60-45/4 55 wikBrb
55 fall CAESAR returns to Cisalpine Gaul until 54 55 DGRBM 1-546
c.54 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of Marcus, serves as legate on Caesar's staff until 51 54 OCD 239
c.54 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, visits Illyria again to put down incursions by the Pirustae 56 DGRBM 1-547, hifiAnd
54 hifiCT
c.54 Anti-Roman Treveri chief Indutiomarus opposes pro-Roman Cingetorix.  Indutiomarus persuades his people to join the revolt led by Ambiorix of the Eburones, and declares Cingetorix an enemy of the tribe.  The Treveri and their allies defeat a legion during the revolt, but Cingetorix presents himself to Caesar's legate, T. Labienus, who defeats and kills Indutiomarus in a cavalry battle 54 hifiCT
c.54 After detouring to Illyria, CAESAR goes with 4 legions to Treveri land in lower Moselle valley, makes pro-Roman Treveri chief Cingetorix ruler of the Treveri 54 DGRBM 1-547, 2-573, atl1, hifiCT
c.54 Treveri opposed to Cingetorix cross the Rhine and settle among Germanic tribes there 54 hifiCT
c.54 Q. PILIUS CELER joins Caesar, in Gaul 54 DGRBM 3-366
c.54 CAESAR uses Venetic ship-building technology, builds many ships in Gaul, for 2nd invasion of Britain, but he has to get materials for fitting them out from Spain 55/4 DGRG 2-319 54 DGRG 1-958
c.54 DUMNORIX, bro of Divitiacus chief of the Aedui, is ordered to accompany Caesar to Britain, refuses, flees, killed 54 MCAW 254, OCD 367, atl1, hifiAd, hifiCT
54 Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta are given 1 legion and 5 cohorts in Eburone territory between the Meuse and Rhine to hold it thru winter until Caesar returns from Britain 54 DGRBM 1-139, 869, 3-691, DGRG 1-799
54 spring CAESAR's arrives at Port Itius on north coast of Gaul.  He finds all expected ships except 40-60 built in "Meldi" (up the coast on a small river), which were driven by bad weather back to Meldia 54 DGRG 2-319, hifiCT
54 spring T. LABIENUS is put in charge of Gaul with just 3 legions and 2,000 cavalry 54 hifiAd
54 Jul CAESAR's 2nd invasion of Britain embarks from Port Itius in Morini country on north coast of Gaul5 legions including 30,000 or 30,500 inf, 2,000 cav;  Carried across the channel in 628 ships (Caesar says 800, probably including trader ships).  Lands near Deal unopposed.  Q. Cicero is with them.  They leave Q. Atrius in charge of the ships and marches 19km inland 54 B76 3-577, CAH 9, CEB 7, DGRBM 1-408, 547, DGRG 1-958, 2-99, 372, Dur 3-110, 176, GHH, MCAW 254, OCD 213, 239, atl1, sjsu, ttjc, wikCiB, wikGW, wikMCJC
54 Jul CAESAR encounters Brit forces at a river crossing.  Britons attack and are repulsed.  They regroup at a fortified place in the forests, possibly the hillfort at Bigbury Wood, west of Durovernum (Canterbury), but are defeated and scattered.  Next morning Caesar learns from Atrius that, again, his ships at anchor had been dashed against each other in a storm.  About 40 ships are lost.  He returns to the coast, recalling the legions that had gone ahead, and works day and night for @10 days, repairing ships, and building a fortified camp around them.  Word is sent to T. Labienus to send more ships. 54 wikCiB
c.54 15 days after Sabinus and Cotta are stationed, the EBURONES between the Meuse and Rhine under Ambiorix and Cativolcus rebel and attack them.  Rebellion continues until 51, 54 CDCC 375, DGRBM 1-139, 869, 3-691, DGRG 1-799, OCD 51, wikCn, wikMCJC
54/3 wikGW     53 B76 I-944
54 CASSIVELLAUNUS, king of the Catuvellauni north of the Tamesis (Thames) is appointed by Brits to lead their forces.  Several indecisive skirmishes ensue. 54 wikCiB
c.54 Military tribune Q. Laberius DURUS killed in Britain 54 DGRBM 2-696, wikCiB
54 CASSIVELLAUNUS crosses south across Tamesis (Thames), attacks 3 legions under C. Trebonius in Canti (Kent).  Trebonius routes Cass and pursues him.  Brits revert to guerilla warfare 54 B76 II-617, GHH, MCAW 254, OCD 213, atl1, lvR, wikCiB, wikTrb
54 South British tribes CASSIVELLAUNUS, king of the Catuvellauni, (supposedly with 4,000 chariots) commands confederated British forces.  British tribes who resist the expedition include the Atrebates, Belgae, Cantii, Catuvellauni, and Trinovantes, while others surrender, namely the Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, Cenimagni, and Segontiaci map Nwbeeson


54
B76 X-126, DGRBM 1-625, GHH, atl1
54 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, reaches the Thames sends Commius king of the Atrebates to negotiate with Cassivelaunus 54 CAH 9, Dur 3-110, 176
54 Jul CAESAR crosses Thames 20km west of Londinium at Sunbury, defeats Cassivellaunus 54 MCAW 254, atl1
54 CASSIVELLAUNUS, king of the Catuvellauni, is besieged by Caesar in his capital, possibly the hill fort at Wheathampstead north of Verulamium.  He notifies his allies in Kent, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segovax, (the "4 kings of Cantium"), to attack the Roman beach-head to draw Caesar off, but this fails 54 wikCiB
54 CASSIVELLAUNUS, king of the Catuvellauni, driven from his capital.  [supposedly Verulamium] 54 GHH
c.54 Disunity among British tribes.  Voluntary submission of several tribes 54 GHH
54 Mandubracius, king of the Trinovantes, submits to Caesar 54 atl1, wikMCJC
54 CASSIVELLAUNUS, king of the Catuvellauni, makes peace with Commius, agent of Caesar  Cass agrees to deliver hostages, pay annual tribute and allow independence of the Trinovantes of Essex 54 CAH 9, Dur 3-110, 176, GHH, OCD 213, TToH, atl1, wikCiB, wikGW
c.54 L. Plancus takes a legion to winter among the Carnutes, but his investigations into the murder of Tasgetius are interrupted. About 15 days after the legions enter winter quarters, Ambiorix and Cativolcus of the Eburones instigate a revolt 54 hifiCrnt
54 Q. Titurius Sabinus tricked by Ambiorix of the Eburones and wiped out.  His camp at Aduatuca is destroyed 54 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-139, 3-219, OCD 51, MCAW 254, hifiCT, lvR, thtc, wik1Tr
54 L. Aurunculeius COTTA is defeated and killed by Ambiorix of the Eburones 54 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-139, 3-219, MCAW 254, wik1Tr, wikLAC
54 Death of Cotta and Sabinus reaches M. Crassus among the Bellovaci, 25 miles away.  C. Fabius also marches from the lands of the Morini.  Both forces must negotiate their way thru the lands of the Continental Atrebates 54 hifiCT
c.54 Ambiorix chief of the Eburones approaches the Atuatuci and Nervii, convinces them to a joint attack on the camp of Q. Cicero in Nervii land 54 DGRBM 1-139
c.54 ACAVARINUS, Caesar's appointed king of the Senones from 57, expelled by Senones, runs to Caesar 54 DGRBM 1-656
c.54 T. LABIENUS with 1 legion is stationed among the Remi.  He defeats the Treveri, who had come under command of Indutiomarus 54 DGRBM 2-696 53 hifiAul
54 M.(5) ANTONIUS (Mark Antony), cav officer under Gabinius from 57, is assigned to Caesar's staff goes from Italy to Gaul until 50 54 DGRBM 1-214, MCAW 254, OCD 77, atl1
54 NERVII, under Caesar from ?, inspired by Ambiorix, rebel until 53 54 OCD 51, wikVrc
54 Q. Tullius CICERO, camp commander in Eburone territory between the Meuse and Rhine, besieged by the Eburones and Nervii until Caesar arrives 53 54 DGRBM 1-139, DGRG 2-420, OCD 51, atl1
c.54 CAESAR, in Britain from July 54, departs.  Dissensions and wars between British tribes from Caesar's departure till next invasion 40CE 54 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-547, Dur 3-110, 176, GHH, atl1, ttjc     53 wikGW
Caesar's Gaul Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886

Gallic Wars 54-50
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