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58 GALLIC WARS begin until 50Caesar declares war on the Helvetii. 58 B76 IV-1009, CAH 9, Dur 3-175, wikGW
c.58 Allobroges flee to Caesar for protection against the Helvetii, who are marching thru their country. 58 DGRG 1-105, rcC
c.58 spring CAESAR finds the Helvetii plundering Aedui land.  3 of their clans had crossed the Arar (Saone) river, but the 4th, called Tigurini, remains on the east side.  3 legions, under Caesar, surprise and defeat the Tigurini in the Battle of the Arar.  The remaining Tigurini flee to the woods.  Caesar then bridges the Arar to pursue the remaining Helvetii, who send an embassy led by aged Divico, but negotiations fail.  For 2 weeks, the Romans pursue until they run low on supplies.  Meanwhile Caesar sends 4,000 Roman and allied Aedui cavalry to track the Helvetii.  They are defeated by 500 Helveti cavalry. 58 DGRBM 1-544, 1057, DGRG 1-791, atl1, hwGW, ttjc, wikGW
HELVETII clans:  Ambrones, Tigurini, Toutonoi, Toygeni, Verbigeni
58 spring DUMNORIX, co-chief of the Aedui, commands allied cavalry.  He prevents supplies from reaching the Roman army.  Caesar catches on.  Dumnorix is pardoned by intercession of his bro Divitiacus. 58 DGRBM 1-1057, hwGW
58 spring CAESAR and his 6 legions are forced by lack of supplies to retreat for Bibracte capital of the Aedui.  The Helvetii pursue and harass their rear.  Caesar chooses a hill to defend.  He fights most of the day and barely wins.  The defeated Helvetii surrender, but 6,000 Helvetii flee to avoid capture.  On Caesar's orders, other Gallic tribes capture and return these fugitives, who are executed.  Surrendered Helvetii offer to return to their native land.  Caesar agrees on condition that they accept Roman rule, as they are useful as a buffer between the Romans and the northern tribes.  110,000 of the original 368,000 Helvetii return to Helvetia. 58 B76 II-3, 122, X-370, DGRBM 1-544, Dur 3-175, MCAW 252, OCD 171, atl1, bk, hifiBo, hifiCT, hifiHlv, hwGW, sjsu, ttjc, wikGW, wikTAR
58 spring The TIGURINI subtribe of Helvetii are nearly annihilated at Bibracte. 58 hifiHlv
c.58 spring Ariuvistus 58ARIOVISTUS, chief of the Suevi Germans 71-58, with 120,000 Germans occupies the west bank of the Rhine east of the Vosges Mts. 58 hwGW
c.58 spring HELVETIA, under Helveti from ?, comes under Rome until 395CE. 58 rcCE
58 spring After Caesar's victory over the Helvetii, most Gallic tribes seek to meet Caesar in a general assembly.  Divitiacus, chief of the Aedui and spokesmen for the Gallic delegation, asks Caesar to expel Ariovistus and remove the threat of Germanic invasion, otherwise they would seek refuge in a new land.  The senate had declared Ariovistus a "friend of the Roman people" in 59, so Caesar cannot declare war on the Germanic Suevi. 58 DGRBM 1-544, OCD 357, Dur 3-175, atl1, wikGW
c.58 ARIOVISTUS is chief of the Suevi Germans 71-58, with 120,000 men, between the Vosges Mountains and RhineCaesar sends 2 embassies to invite Ariovistus to discuss the situation.  Ariovistus refuses. 58 DGRBM 1-287, Dur 3-175, MCAW 252, atl1, hwGW
c.58 M. METTIUS is sent by Caesar as legate to Ariovistus, and is imprisoned. 58 DGRBM 2-1072
c.58 Led by Caburus, the Helvii ally with Caesar. 58 hifiElu
CONFUSION ALERT!  The Helvetii are not the same as the Helvii (aka Elui), a minor confederation west of the Rhone.
58 CAESAR, delivers ultimatum to Ariovistus demanding that no Germans cross the Rhine, return of Aedui hostages, and protection of the Aedui and other friends of Rome.  Ariovistus promises that the Aedui hostages would be safe as long as they continue yearly tribute, but says that Rome has no jurisdiction over his actions.  With the attack of the Harudes on the Aedui and the report that 100 clans of Suevi are trying to cross the Rhine into Gaul, Caesar has justification to war against Ariovistus. 58 DGRBM 1-545, wikGW
58 CAESAR, marches east thru Sequani country, learns that Ariovistus intends to seize Vesontio, largest town of the Sequani.  Caesar marches troops toward Vesontio, and arrives first. 58 CAH 9-385, DGRG 2-1281, hwGW, wikGW
58 Ariovistus' confederation now includes the Harudes, Marcomanni, Triboci, Vangiones, Nemetes (not Namnetes), Sedusii (subtribe of Suevi) and the core of the Suevi themselves. 58 hifiCT
58 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, defeats the Suevi and Sequani at the Vosges Mountains near present Ostheim.  Most of Ariovistus' 120,000 men are killed.  Ariovistus and his remaining troops escape across the Rhine, never to engage Rome in battle again. 58 DGRBM 1-879, DGRG 2-1325, MCAW 252, atl1, bk, hifiCT, hwGW, sjsu, thtc, ttjc, wikGW
c.58 ARIOVISTUS, chief of the Suevi Germans from 71, escapes, but soon dies. 58 Dur 3-175, rcC
c.58 P.(6) Licinius CRASSUS Dives, prefect equitum of Caesar 58, promoted to legate until 56. 58 DGRBM 1-879
c.58 The MARCOMANI are driven back across the Rhine by Caesar. 58 DGRG 2-271
c.58 DIVICO, king of the Helvetii from 61, ends. 58 hifiHlv, rcC
c.58 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, after posing to Gauls as liberator, begins establishing Roman rule under pretext of defending against German invasion. 58 Dur 3-175
c.58 GOBARGONIUS, king of the ARVERNI Confederation in south-central Gaul from 72, ends.  Son VERCINGETORIX succeeds until 52. 58 hifiArv, rcC
c.58 AEDUI tribe, under the Arverni from 71, comes under Rome until 53, given independence. 58 DGRG 1-30, rcC
c.58 Aulus HIRTIUS is Caesar's legate in Gaul. 58 DGRBM 2-496
c.58 Roman troops mutiny for fear of Germans.  Caesar quells it. 58 atl1
58 fall CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, stations his legions in winter quarters under T. Labienus at Vesontio among the Sequani, returns to Cisalpine Gaul. 58 DGRBM 1-545, DGRG 2-1281, wikTLb
c.57 early Some Gauls, disappointed in their Roman liberator, ask the BELGAE for help. 57 Dur 3-175
57 early The BELGAE of north Gaul between Seine and Rhine are spurred on by Gauls who are unwilling to see Germanic tribes remaining in Gaul, form a confederacy of 300,000 men against Caesar.  Their leader is GALBA, chief of the Suessiones. 57 DGRBM 1-545, DGRG 1-655, 2-698, MCAW 252, atl1, hifiAd, hifiCT, hifiKB, hwGW
57 early The REMI, a subtribe of Belgae, refuse to join the anti-Roman league. 57 hwGW
57 early CAESAR, with his 2 new legions, returns from Italy to Gaul.  He now has 8 legions. 57 DGRBM 1-545
Belgae
57 early The largest Belgic tribes are Bellovaci 60,000, Suessiones 50,000, Nervii 50,000.  The Atrebates promise 15,000, the Ambiani 10,000, the Morini 25,000, the Menapii 9,000, the Caleti 10,000.  The Velocasses and Veromandui promise as many, meaning either 10,000 between them or 10,000 each.  The Atuatuci promise 19,000 and the Condrusi, Eburones, Cerosi and Paemani, a group of tribes known as the Germans, promise 40,000.  This gives the Belgae 308,000 men (or 298,000 if the Velocasses and Veromandui figure is for a single unit).  Caesar's 8 legions comprise 40,000 men, 10,000 of which are new recruits. 57 hifiCT, hwGW, wikCn
57 early CAESAR encourages his ally, Divitiacus of the Aeduii, to attack the Bellovaci to divert part of the Belgic forces.  The remaining Belgae march against the Romans en masse, attacking the Remi town of Bibrax. 57 hifiCT
57 early BIBRAX, a Remi fortified town, besieged by the Belgae confederation. 57 DGRBM 1-545, hwGW
57 early CAESAR marches into land of the Remi, who submit and ally with him.  He then crosses the Axona (Aisne). 57 DGRBM 1-545, DGRG 1-957, 2-698, hwGW
57 early The Belgae give up siege of Bibrax, encamp within 2 Roman miles of Caesar's camp.  Caesar, outnumbered, builds 2 trenches, each 400 paces long, one on each side of the plain before the Roman camp.  At the end of these trenches, Caesar builds small forts.  Leaving 2 legions in the camp, he draws remaining 6 in battle order.  Belgae do the same.  A small marsh is between the two armies.  Cavalry skirmishes begin the battle, but neither force crosses the marsh.  Belgics circle Caesar's camp and try to attack it via a single fording spot in the AxonaCaesar sends light infantry and cavalry over the bridge, and defeats them.  Belgics withdraw to their camp, call a council, and decide to return home. 57 atl1, hwGW, ttjc, wikBA
Battle of the Axona Battle of the Axona
map: hifiAd
57 early CAESAR defeats Belgae and rebel Gauls at the Sabis, then attacks remaining subtribes (Suessiones, Ambiani) before they can unite.  He sells survivors to Italian slave merchants. 57 DGRBM 1-545, DGRG 1-957, 2-698, Dur 3-175, GHH, LEWH 108, MCAW 252, atl1, hwGW, ttjc
57 early Caesar confronts the Bellovaci in battle, during which they learn that Divitiacus and his Aeduii are approaching their land.  They leave the battle in disorder to head off the Aeduii, but Romans follow them and kill many. 57 hifiCT
57 early Next day Caesar enters Suessione land, to capture Noviodunum. 57 hifiCT
57 early NOVIODUNUM, a Suessione town, submits to Caesar, who marches on the surviving Bellovaci, who take refuge in their town of Bratuspantium (Beauvais). 57 DGRG 2-449, hifiCT
57 early The Suessiones, Bellovaci, and Ambiani (all Belgae subtribes) submit to Caesar. 57 DGRG 1-957, atl1, hifiCT
57 early CAESAR sends Divitiacus with the Aedui to attack Bellovaci land from the west, relieves the siege of Bibrax. 57 DGRBM 1-545, atl1
c.57 DIVITIACUS, leader of the pro-Roman party of Aedui attacks the Bellovaci, gets favorable terms for them. 57 OCD 357
c.57 The BELLOVACI, a subtribe of the Belgae, are pardoned by Caesar at intercession of Dumnorix, chief of the Aedui. 57 DGRBM 1-1057
c.57 The NERVII, refuse to surrender, assemble with the Atrebates and Viromandui to offer battle. 57 hifiCT
57 The BELGAE CONFEDERATION fragments, each returning to its own land. 57 DGRBM 1-545
57 CAESAR resumes the offensive.  The Suessiones, Bellovaci, and Ambiani (all subtribes of the Belgae) are subdued or surrender. 57 DGRBM 1-545, DGRG 1-957
c.57 The REMI tell Caesar that the Suessiones are their kinsmen, have the same constitution and laws, form one political body with them, and have the same chief.  Their land is extensive and fertile and borders on Remi land.  The Suessiones once had a king, Divitiacus, the most powerful prince in Gaul, who even had the dominion of Britannia.  Presently the Remi king is Galba. 57 DGRG 2-1044
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is a Divitiacus of the Suessiones, and a Divitiacus of the Aeduii.
c.57 T. LABIENUS, commanding 9th and 10th legions, defeats the Atrebates and takes the enemy camp.  He sends the 10th Legion against the rear of the Nervii line while they are engaged with the rest of Caesar's army, securing Caesar the victory. 57
OCD 144, wikTLb
c.57 The ATREBATES of Nemetacum (Nemetocenna) in Belgica are defeated by Caesar, who appoints COMMIUS their king until 52, but he remains king until 35.  An anti-Roman faction splits off and goes to Britain. 57 B76 I-630, OCD 144, 275, wikAtr
pre-54 OCD 144
57 Jul CAESAR invades the country of rivers Scheldt and Meuse, makes camp in Nervii land at the Sabis (Sambre) River.  He is surprise attacked from the surrounding woods by NERVII tribes.  Caesar loses all of his standards and most his centurions dead or wounded.  Caesar himself is forced to take up shield and personally rally his forces which are then threatened with envelopment and massacre.  The strong stand by the 10th legion and prompt arrival of reinforcements enables Caesar to repulse the Nervii. 57 DGRBM 1-545, MCAW 252, atl1, bk, hifiCT, lvR, thtc, ttjc, wikGW
c.57 The Belgic ATUATUCI, enroute to join the Nervii, learn of the Nervii defeat, return to their own land, fortify a town on a hill.  They are besieged by Caesar and surrender.  At night they surprise attack Caesar's camp, and are repulsed.  Next day Caesar takes their town and sells 53,000 inhabitants to Italian slave merchants.  Land inhabited by the Atuatuci west of the Rhine is left depopulated. 57 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-545, Dur 3-175, GHH, LEWH 108, MCAW 252, OCD 144, atl1, hifiCT, hwGW, ttjc
57 Jul CAESAR continues east, forces the Atuatuci of eastern Belgica into submission.  He claims almost 60,000 Nervii killed and 53,000 Atuatuci sold as slaves. 57 lvR
c.57 The SUESSIONES, Belgae between Oise and Marne rivers, conquered by Caesar. 57 rcC
c.57 Many anti-Roman leaders flee, especially those of the Bellovaci and probably the Suessiones (both subtribes of Belgae), and end up in Britain, probably as part of a limited wave of refugees.  With this action, northern Gaul has been brought under Roman domination. 57 MCAW 252, hifiKB
57 The BELGAE defeated by Caesar, continue recalcitrance until ?. 57 B76 I-944, 3-577, OCD 164, bk
c.57 Legate L. Valerius PRAECONINUS is defeated and killed by the Aquitani. 57 DGRBM 3-515
c.57 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, visits Illyricum.  Once he has left, war flares up again.  He returns in 57. 57 atl1 56 hifiAul
57 subdued by CrassusP.(6) Licinius CRASSUS sent by Caesar with only the 7th legion into the land of the Veneti, Redones, and other Celtic tribes between the Seine and the Loire, all of whom submit, including the Aulerci, Coriosolitae, Osismii, Redones, [Aulerci] Esuvii, Unelli, and Veneti. 57 B76 3-577, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-545, 879, DGRG 2-697, 1318, OCD 295, atl1, hifiAul, hifiCT, hwGW, sjsu, wikUnl
c.57 MORTIGASUS, a chief of the Senones, ends.  CAVARINUS appointed puppet king of the Senones by Caesar until 53. 57 atl1
no date: wikSn
c.57 TASGETIUS appointed puppet king of the Carnutes by Caesar until 55. 57 atl1, hifiCrnt
c.57 Gylf created king of Svithiod (Sweden). 57 GHH
c.57 T. TERRASIDIUS, one of Caesar's officers is sent to the Unelli to get grain. 57 DGRBM 3-1006
57 fall The EBURONES between the Meuse and Rhine, under Caesar from ? are freed. 57 lvR
57 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, leads legions to winter quarters in land of the Carnutes, Andes, and Turones near the Ligeris (Loire) RiverCaesar then returns to Cisalpine Gaul, after sending Servius Galba ahead with the 12th Legion and part of the cavalry to secure the way. 57 DGRBM 1-545, DGRG 2-1240, atl1, hifiCT
56 Dur 3-175
c.57 late Servius(5) Sulipcius GALBA, commanding 12th legion is sent to protect the Poeninus Pass over the Alps. 57 hwGW, wikBOc
c.57 late Poeninus PassServius(5) Sulipcius GALBA, & 12th legion takes many strong places, receives submission, sends 2 cohorts into Nantuates country, winters with remaining cohorts in Octodurus (Martigny Switzerland), a town of the Veragri in Upper Rhone Valley. 57 hifiCT, hwGW, wikBOc
c.57 late Servius(5) Sulipcius GALBA, & 12th legion at Octodurus, attacked by Seduni and Veragri, defeats them, kills about 1/3 of their 30,000 men (according to Caesar), runs short of supplies, burns Octodurus, and leaves.  Spends the rest of winter with the Allobroges. 58 DGRBM 2-206 57 B76 X-330, atl1, wikBOc
56 hifiCT
57/6 Romans reach "the land of Mogon", site of future Mogontiacum (Mainz). 57/6 lvMg
Roman world 56
Roman world during Luca conference 56       map: Cristiano64
c.56 P.(6) Licinius Crassus and the 7th Legion in the land of the Andes, with grain supplies running low, sends scavenging parties into the land of the Coriosolitae, Esuvii, and Veneti. 56 hifiAnd, hifiAul, hifiCT
c.56 The VENETI of south Brittany seize Q. Velanius and T. Silius, who came to demand provisions. 56 atl1, hwGW
56 early The VENETI, under Caesar from 57, rebel, ally with the Morini on the north coast and the Menapii on lower Rhine. 57 B76 3-577, DGRG 2-372, 1271
56 MCAW 252, hwGW
Strabo says this rebellion was intended to prevent Caesar from going to Britain and disrupting their commercial activity. wikCiB
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are Veneti in Brittany and northeast Italy.
Veneti rebellion
c.56 The Esuvii (a subtribe of Aulerci) and Coriosolitae join the Veneti rebellion, and the rebels soon control most of the coast. 56 GHH, hwGW
c.56 The Veneti and neighbors, anticipating attack by Caesar, ask for help from the Lexovii on the coast west of the Seine, the Osismi, Namnetes (not Nemetes), and others. 56 DGRG 2-173
c.56 The Ambiliati, Aulerci Diablintes, Lexovii, Menapii, Morini, Namnetes, and Osismi join the Veneti rebellion.  The Veneti also send for help from their cousins in Britain. 56 DGRG 2-499, hifiCT
c.56 Many Gallic merchants, aware of the preparations by Caesar for invading Britain, inform British natives of the danger. 56 GHH
56 spring CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, learns of rebellion, returns from Italy to Gaul to a fleet that is being prepared for him by the Roman-led Pictones and Santones on the Loire. 56 CAH 9-394, DGRBM 1-546, atl1, hifiCT, hwGW
c.56 T. SILIUS sent by Caesar to reconnioter the Veneti. 56 DGRBM 3-823
c.56 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, builds ships to attack the Veneti. 56 atl1
c.56 Before engaging the Veneti, CAESAR sends troops, to the Remi, Treveri, and other Belgae to encourage them to hold the Rhine against possible incursions by Germans. 56 hifiCT
56 spring CAESAR divides his army into 4 parts.  He, with the main part and fleet moves to Brittany to attack the Veneti.
Q. Titurius Sabinus is sent with 3 legions to the land of the Unelli (Venelli), Coriosolitae, and Lexovii to prevent them from joining the Veneti.
T. Labienus with cavalry is sent east to Treveri land near the Rhine to prevent a German invasion and watch the Belgae.
P.(6) Licinius Crassus is sent with 12 cohorts and cavalry to Aquitania to prevent the Basques from joining the Veneti.
56 DGRBM 1-546, 879, 3-691, DGRG 1-173, 2-173, 1023, hifiCT, wikQTS
c.56 Q. Titurius SABINUS finds that Viridovix of the Unelli has joined the revolt, along with the Aulerci and Sexovii, who have killed their magistrates for wanting to remain neutral.  Sabinus remains in his fortified camp, until Unelli and their allies venture too far forwards, allowing a Roman sally across the defensive ditch and into the fleeing Celtic ranks.  The Unelli (Venelli) are defeated by Sabinus. 56 atl1, hifiCT
CONFUSION ALERT!  The VENELLI (Unelli) are different from the Veneti.
c.56 mid Decimus(7) Brutus, fleet commander of Caesar destroys the fleet of the Veneti & Britons in Morbihan Bay off south coast of Brittany.  Some Veneti flee to Britain and Ireland where they form 2 tribes of Venicones, one in Pictland and the other in County Donegal, Ireland. 56 B76 II-327, CEB 7, atl1, hifiCT, hifiKB, hwGW, sjsu, thtc, wikDJB
c.56 VENETI land forces surrender to Caesar, and are treated cruelly as an example to others.  Leaders executed. 56 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-546, atl1, hifiKB, sjsu, wikGW, wikMCJC
c.56 BRITTANY, under the Veneti from ?, taken by Caesar.  Romans call it ARMORICA. 56 B76 II-285, 3-194, OCD 183
c.56 A few days after Q. Titurius Sabinus reaches Unelli land, the Aulerci Eburovices and Lexovii murder their magistrates because they are against the war, and join Viridovix chief of the Unelli. 56 DGRG 2-173, 1318
c.56 Gallic confederation led by VIRIDOVIX, chief of the Unelli, is conquered by Q. Titurius Sabinus, Caesar's legate.  All insurgent states submit to his authority. 56 DGRBM 3-691, 1271, DGRG 2-173, 1318
c.56 P.(6) Licinius CRASSUS, legate of Caesar with 12 cohorts and cavalry enters Aquitania from the north, summons men of fighting age from Tolosa, Carcaso, and Narbo, enters Sotiates land, the first of the Aquitani whom he attacks. 56 DGRG 2-398, 1023, hifiCT
c. 56 AquitaniP.(6) Licinius CRASSUS marches into the territories of the Vocates and Tarusates.  He defeats them.  Most tribes of Aquitania surrender to Crassus, including the Ausci, Bigerrones, Cocosates, Elusates, Garites, Garumni, Preciani, Sibulates, Tarbelli, Tarusates, and Vocasates (Vocates?) and presumably the unmentioned Oscidates. 56 hifiCT
c.56 The GARITES of Aquitania between the Elusates and Ausci, submit to P. Crassus. 56 DGRG 1-977
c.56 The PRECIANI in southwest corner of Aquitania submit to P. Crassus. 56 DGRG 2-668
c.56 Several British chiefs send embassies of peace to Caesar, then in Morini land (Calais). 56 GHH
56 By the end of campaigning in 56 only the Morini and Menapii of the coastal Low Countries still hold out. 56 hwGW, hifiCT, wikMCJC
56 AquileiaAfter establishment of Roman forts in north Friuli, the Taurisci of Noricum, the Liburni and Iapodi are forced to pay tribute to Rome 56 hifiNT
c.56 10 MEN sent by senate to organize Gaul into a province. 56 atl1
56 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, campaigns against the Morini and Menapii.  They retreat into the forests and marshes and avoid battle until winter. 56 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-546, atl1, hwGW, sjsu
North campaigns
56 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, recrosses the Sequana (Seine), and camps in Aulerci and Lexovii land (Normandy) for winter. 56 DGRBM 1-546, hifiCT
56 late P.(6) Licinius CRASSUS Dives, legate of Caesar 57-6, having conquered Aquitania, is sent by Caesar to Italy with troops and 1,000 Gallic cavalry to enforce election of Pompey and Crassus. 56 DGRBM 1-879, DGRG 1-402, 822, LEWH 108, OCD 40, 295, atl1
56 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, returns to Cisalpine Gaul until 55. 56 Dur 3-175, wik1Tr
56/5 winter xxxGermanic tribes USIPI (Usipetes) and TENCTERI are driven by the Suevi to cross the Rhine near its mouth into Belgic Gaul, displacing the MENAPII who solicit their aid against Caesar, who estimates their total number at 430,000. 56/5 B76 3-577, DGRBM 1-546 55 DGRG 1-799, 957, atl1, hifiCT, hwGW, wikArv
no date: Dur 3-176
55 early CAESAR, in Cisalpine Gaul from 56, returns to Gaul until ?, to prepare for war against Germans. 55 DGRBM 1-546
c.55 Germanic tribes USIPI and TENCTERI advance into lands of Eburones and Condrusi, who are politically dependent on the Treveri, and theoretically under Roman protection. 55 DGRG 1-799, hwGW, hifiTtn
55 Germans open negotiations with Caesar, but their cavalry attacks and defeats a much larger force of Caesar's Gallic cavalry.  Next day, German chiefs apologize, but Caesar detains them and surprise attacks their people on the Meuse, massacres them, including women and kids.  Only a few get across the Rhine to safety.  Caesar will be criticized by the senate for this. 55 DGRBM 1-546, MCAW 252, atl1
55 mid Germanic tribes USIPI and TENCTERI in Belgic Gaul, massacred by Caesar west of the Rhine where it is intersected by the Lippe. 55 B76 3-577, CAH 9, Dur 3-176, LEWH 108, wikMCJC
c.55 BELGICA comes under Rome until 395CE. 55 rcLC
c.55 BEER introduced to north Europe by Caesar. 55 brgft
c.55 UBII, pro-Roman Germanics east of Rhine ask Caesar for help against the Suevi. 55 OCD 1103
c.55 The SICAMBRI, Germans east of the Rhine near border with Netherlands first mentioned by Caesar, when the Tencteri and Usipi survivors flee across the Rhine to take refuge with them. 55 hwGW, wikSc
55 P.(6) Licinius CRASSUS Dives, legate of Caesar, defeats the Aquitani, returns to Italy. 55 rcLC
c.55 C. TREBONIUS becomes legate of Caesar in Gaul until 50. 55 DGRBM 3-1171, OCD 1090
55±40 COTINI (proto-Goths), originating in Sweden, migrate to south coast of Baltic Sea. 100-10 hifiCtn, hifiTtn
c.55 Exiled prince of Trinovantes MANDUBRATIUS appeals to Caesar. 55 CEB 7
55 CAESAR claims that Britons had supported the mainland Gauls against him, with fugitives from the Gallic Belgae fleeing to Belgic settlements in Britain, and the Veneti of Armorica.  Possibly true, or possibly just a pretext to invade. 55 wikCiB
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are Veneti in Brittany and northeast Italy.
c.55 NETHERLANDS comes under Rome until 300. 55 rcLC
c.55 Tribune C. VOLUSENUS sent by Caesar in a single warship to reconnoiter the British coast.  He scans the Kent coast and returns 5 days later. 55 GHH, atl1, wikCiB
Rhine bridge Caesar's
Rhine bridge: John Soan 1814

map: Ekem
55 mid CAESAR in 10 days builds a wood bridge across the Rhine at Confluente (Coblenz) and spends 18 days raiding Germanic Sicambri land, then returns and dismantles the bridge.  He immediately informs Rome. 55 B76 3-174, 577, CAH 9, CDCC 375, DGRBM 1-546, DGRG 1-150, Dur 3-176, GHH, LEWH 108, MCAW 252, 253, atl1, bk, hwGW, sjsu, ttjc, wikCRB, wikGW, wikJC, wikMCJC
c.55 Envoys from some British states, warned by merchants of impending invasion, arrive promising submission.  Caesar sends them back along with Commius. 55 wikCiB
c.55 COMMIUS, king of the Atrebates 57-35, is sent by Caesar as ambassador to Britain, but really to reconnoiter.  He is put in chains on arrival. 55 CDCC 375, GHH, MCAW 252
55 Aug Caesar's fleet is 80 transport ships, and an unknown number of warships under a quaestor, at an unnamed port in Morini land, probably Portus Itius (Boulogne).  Another 18 transports of cavalry are to sail from a different port.  Clearly in a hurry, Caesar leaves a garrison at the port and departs with 2 legions "at the third watch" (well after midnight) on 23 August, leaving the cavalry to march to their ships, embark, and join him as soon as possible. 55 wikCiB

Invasion of Britain 55-54
V