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India 100BC
map by Thomas Lessman
The same Asians, often including Yuezhi, are called Scythians in Greek records, and Sakas in Indian records.
c.100 ANTIALCIDAS, son of Heliocles-II, ruler of Bactria at Taxila from 115, ends. 120 wikAnt     100 MRDK 393, frH     95 coin
c.100 CUCUMBERS, in India from ?, introduced to China. 140-86 B76 19-43
c.100 MAHAYANA "Greater Vehicle" BUDDHISM begins in northwest and south India, where Indians are exposed to Greek and Persian influences.  Results from innovators who label their conservative orthodox predecessors Hinayana "Lesser Vehicle".  Innovators think existing doctrine stale, think dharma requires reformation to meet new needs.  Replaces the arhat as highest ideal with the bodhisattva, who foregoes ultimate release from reincarnation to become a teacher.  They create a new literature as though spoken by the Buddha himself.  Mahayana remains unsystematic until 150CE. 100
CSHB 42
no date: B76 V-49, 3-406
c.100 PULAHATTA, Dravidan Tamil raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 103 murdered by chief minister BAHIYA, who succeeds until 98. 100 wik5D, wikLSM
c.100 SIMUKA becomes Satavahana king of Pratishthan in the Deccan until 70. 100 wikStD
CONFUSION ALERT!  Andhra and Satavahana dynasties are often confused, and may be the same.
c.100 Western king PHILOXENOS briefly occupies all the remaining Greek territory from Gandhara to Western Punjab until 95. 100 wikGB, wikIGK
c.98 APILAKA ends.  8th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 110, ends.  MEGHASVATI succeeds until 80. 98 MRDK 401 55 wikSDLR
c.98 BAHIYA, Dravidan Tamil raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 100 murdered by chief Minister PANYA MARA, who succeeds until 91. 98 wik5D, wikLSM
c.95 Western king PHILOXENOS who occupied the whole remaining Greek territory from Gandhara (Paropamisadae) to Western Punjab from 100, ends.  AMYNTAS, and EPANDER succeed until 90. 95 wikGB, wikIGK
c.95 DIOMEDES becomes ruler of Peshawar until 90. 95 rcCAS, wikIGK
c.93 VAJRAMITRA ends.  8th Sunga Emperor at Pataliputra from 104.  BHAGAVATA succeeds until 85. 93 HCAI 38
c.91 PANYA MARA ends.  Dravidan Tamil raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 98.  Chief Minister PILAYA MARA succeeds until 90. 91 wik5D, wikLSM
c.90 PILAYA MARA dies.  Dravidan Tamil raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 91, murdered by chief Minister DATHIKA, who succeeds until 88. 90 wik5D, wikLSM
c.90 GANDHARA comes under Indo-Scythian Sakas until 60. 90 hifiG
c.90 DIOMEDES ends.  Ruler of Peshawar from 95, ends.  THEOPHILOS succeeds until 85. 90 wikIGK 85 rcCAS
c.90 AMYNTAS and EPANDER, ruling from 95, end.  PEUKOLAOS and THRASO succeed until 85.  HERMAEOS and ARCHEBIOS succeed until 70. 90 wikIGK
c.89 CEYLON, under 5 Dravidian chiefs, Pulahatta, Bahiya, Panya Mara, Pilaya Mara, and Dathika from 103, conquered by VALAGAMBA of Anuradhapura. 89 wikAK, wikHV
c.88 DATHIKA, Dravidan Tamil raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 90 conquered and killed by Valagamba of Anuradhapura.  Dravidan (Pandyan) dynasty ends. Began 103.  Vijaya dynasty resumes until 66CE.  4th son of Saddha Tissa, VALAGAMBA (Vattagamani Abhaya) is 1st raja until 76. 89 MRDK 445, wikAK, wikHV, wikLSM, wikVA
88 wik5D, wikLSM
c.85 BHAGAVATA ends.  9th Sunga Emperor from 93.  Son DEVABHUTI succeeds until 73. 85 MRDK 401
83 wikSng     82 HCAI 38
c.85 THEOPHILOS ends.  Ruler of Peshawar from 90.  AMYNTAS succeeds until 75. 85 wikIGK 80 rcCAS
c.85 PEUKOLAOS, and THRASO, ruling from 90, end.  HERMAEOS and ARCHEBIOS continue until 70. 85 wikIGK
c.80 SAKAS (Scythians) under Maues, on Persian borders from ?, diverted by Parthians into Gandhara until 60.  Saka invasions begin until 20CE. 125 rcCAS     90 hifiG     80 hifiP, wikGB, wikIGK, wikMs
c.80 SAKAS settle in north Indus valley. 88 wikMs
c.80 SAKAS and PAHLAVAS become closely associated during Saka migration. 88 wikMs
c.80 KASHMIR, under Sakas from 130, comes under Suren (a Parthian vassal state), until 60. 80 rcCAE
c.80 MEGHASVATI ends.  9th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 98.  SVATI succeeds until 62. 80 MRDK 429 37 wikSDLR
c.77 VALAGAMBA ends. (Vattagamani Abhaya)  1st Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 88 overthrown by 5 invaders from South India.  SADDHA TISSA succeeds until 58. 77 CHI 641, wikAK, bk, wikHV, wikVA
76 wikHV, wikLSM
MRDK has different list.
DUTTHA GAMANI ends. 77 CHI 641,
Son of Khallatanaga, MAHAKULI MAHATISSA succeeds until 62. 76 MRDK 445, wikAK, wikHV, wikLSM,
c.75 AMYNTAS ends.  Ruler of Peshawar from 85.  HERMAEOS succeeds (already ruling elsewhere) until 70. 75 rcCAS
c.75 East PUNJAB, under Indo-Greeks from 162, SAKA PAHLAVA supremacy begins until 64CE. 75 CHI 644
c.75 TELEPHOS and APOLODOTOS-II begin rule until 70. 75 wikIGK
c.75 KANVA Empire begins until 26.
VASUDEVA becomes 1st Kanva raja of eastern India until 66.
75 bk, wikKD, wikSI
c.73 Sunga Empire ends.  Began 185.
DEVABHUTI dies.  10th Sunga Emperor from 85, killed by a slave girl posing as queen, at instigation of Brahmin minister.  Brahmin minister VASUDEVA succeeds until 66.  Kanva Dynasty begins until 28.
75 HCIP 2-98, MRDK 401
73 B76 IX-625, MRDK 401, jgjs 83 wikSng, wikSI 71 HCAI 38
c.71 SAKAS go thru Bolan pass into Indus Valley. 71 MCAW 246
c.70 TELEPHOS and APOLODOTOS-II, ruling from 75, end. 70 wikIGK
c.70 HERMAEOS dies.  Indo-Greek king of Gandhara from 90, Peshawar from 75.  After death of Hermaeos, the Yuezhi or Sakas rule Gandhara. 80 wikGB, wikIGK 70 wikGB, wikIGK 55 rcCAS
Yavanarajya inscription
c.70  Yavanarajya inscription  aka  Maghera inscription  carved in Sanskrit in Brahmi script on red sandstone near Mathura, notes donation of a water well and tank to the community, built by a Brahmin, on "the last day of year 116 of Yavana dominion".  Yavanas can sometimes mean westerners in general.  The date is the Hindu festival day of Holi, according to the Hindu calendar. photo:
{{PD-US}}

70-69 wikYI
c.70 SIMUKA ends.  Satavahana king of Pratishthan in the Deccan from 100.  KANHA succeeds until 60. 70 wikStD
c.66 VASUDEVA ends.  1st Kanva raja of eastern India from 75.  BHUMIMITRA succeeds until 52. 66 wikKD 59 HCAI 38
c.65 Indo-Greek king HIPPOSTRATOS rules Punjab in northwest India until 55. 65 wikGB, wikIGK
c.65 DIONYSIOS, Indo-Greek king begins until 55. 65 wikIGK
c.62 Son of Khallatanaga, MAHAKULI MAHATISSA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 76.  Cousin CHORA NAGA succeeds until 50. 63 wikAK
62 wikHV, wikLSM
c.62 SVATI ends.  10th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 80, ends.  SCANDASVATI succeeds until 55. 62 MRDK 429
c.60 Indo-Scythian Sakas under Maues, controling Indo-Greek Gandhara from 90, with capital at Taxila in Punjab, end. 60 hifiG
c.60 GANDHARA, under Indo-Scythian Sakas from 90, with capital at Taxila in Punjab, in unknown condition until 20. 60 hifiG 50 rcCAS
c.60 KASHMIR, under Suren (a Parthian vassal state), from 80, remains under Parthia, as a Yuezhi (later Kushan) client until 125CE. 60 rcCAE
c.60 KANHA, Satavahana king of Pratishthan in the Deccan from 70, ends.  SATAKARNI succeeds until ?. 60 wikStD
c.58 MAUES ends.  Chief of Sakas (Yuezhi) from 97. 60 wikMs     58 rcCAS
c.58 SADDHA TISSA ends.  2nd Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 76 ends.  ?????? succeeds until ??. 59 bk       MRDK has different list.
c.57 VIKRAMADITYA, raja at Ujjain (or Pataliputra), defeats Sakas at Ujjain. 57 wikVk
c.56 SAKAS pushed back from central India by Vikramaditya. 56 DGRG 2-49
c.55 Indo-Greek king HIPPOSTRATOS ends.  In northwest India from 65.  Indo-Scythian AZES-I succeeds until 35. 55 wikBk, wikGB, wikGB, wikIGK
c.55 DIONYSIOS ends.  Indo-Greek king from 65.  ZOILOS-II succeeds until 35. 55 wikIGK
c.55 APOLLOPHANES, Indo-Greek king begins until 35. 55 wikIGK
c.55 SCANDASVATI ends.  11th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 62.  MRIGENDRA SVATIKARNA succeeds until 52. 55 MRDK 429
c.55 Indo-Greek king HIPPOSTRATOS in northwest India from 65, lost to Indo-Scythian Azes I, who establishes an Indo-Scythian dynasty. 55 wikIGK
c.55 Last known Indo-Greek ruler, a king named Strato-II, who ruled in the Punjab, ends. 55 wikBk, wikIGK
c.52 MRIGENDRA SVATIKARNA ends.  12th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 55.  KUNTALA SVATIKARNA succeeds until 44. 52 MRDK 429
c.52 BHUMIMITRA ends.  2nd Kanva raja of eastern India from 66.  NARAYANA succeeds until 40. 52 MRDK 402, wikKD 48 HCAI 38
c.50 YUEZHI (later Kushans) capture Saka territory in modern Afghanistan.  They probably also cause the downfall of Indo-Greek King Hermaeus, as they conquer Gandhara in the process.  Sakas consolidate their rule in northern India.  They also fight the Satavahanas in India, and later ally with them. 50 hifiG
c.50 Son of Valagambahu I, CHORA NAGA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 62.  Son of Mahakuli Mahatissa, KUDA TISSA succeeds until 47. 50 wikHV, wikLSM
c.50 KABUL, under Sakas from 125, comes under Parthia until 20. 50 rcCAS
c.50 The Kalingas install a militant king, KHARAVELA, who claims to conquer in the Decan and Burma. 50 MCAW 256
c.50 MAHAYANA BUDDHISM develops in central India.  Has 1st human images of Buddha. 50 PW 17
c.47 Son of Mahakuli Mahatissa, KUDA TISSA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 50.  SIVA-I succeeds and ends.  VATUKA succeeds and ends.  DARBHATIKA TISSA succeeds and ends.  NILIYA succeeds and ends.  Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, ANULA succeeds until 42. 47, wikHV, wikLSM
c.44 KUNTALA SVATIKARNA ends.  13th Satavahana raja of Maharashtra from 52.  SVATIKARNA succeeds until 43. 44 MRDK 429
c.43 SVATIKARNA ends.  14th Satavahana raja of Maharashtra from 44.  PULUMAVI-I succeeds until 19. 43 MRDK 429
c.42 Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, ANULA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 47.  2nd son of Mahakuli Mahatissa, KUTAKANNA TISSA succeeds until 20. 44 wikAK
42 wikHV, wikLSM
c.40 NARAYANA ends.  3rd Kanva raja of eastern India from 52.  SUSHARMAN succeeds until 30. 40 MRDK 402, wikKD 37 HCAI 38
c.40  Ayruveda , basic Hindu medical treatise, compiled. 40 TTT
c.35 ZOILOS-II, Indo-Greek king from 55, ends. 35 wikIGK
c.35 APOLLOPHANES, Indo-Greek king from 55, ends. 35 wikIGK
29 Rome trades with India for silk. 29 GHH
c.29 VATTA GAMANI ABHAYA, former king of Ceylon 44, reinstated until 17.  89 MRDK 445 29 CHI 641
c.29 AMANDAGAMANI becomes a king in Ceylon until 19. 29 wikAK
c.28 SUSHARMAN dies.  4th Kanva raja of eastern India from 40, killed.  KANVA DYNASTY ends.  Began 73ANDHRA Dynasty begins until ?.  SIPRAKA is 1st raja until 7. 30 HCIP 2-99, MRDK 404, bk, wikKD
28 jgjs     27 Wolpert NHoI 75, bblo
26 HCAI 38, wikSI
CONFUSION ALERT!  Andhra and Satavahana dynasties are often confused, and may be the same.
c.25 STRATO-II, Indo-Greek king, begins until ?. 25 wikIGK
c.25 2 INDIAN EMBASSIES set out for Rome, probably trade missions.  They arrive in 21. 25 MCAW 265 25-21 B76 9-355
c.24 ABHAYAGHIR IVIHARA monastery in Ceylon founded. 24 Conze Short hist of Buddh 60
c.20 GANDHARA, in unknown condition from 60, comes under Yuezhi (later Kushans) until 230CE. 20 rcCAS
c.20 KABUL, under Parthia from 50, comes under Kushans until 230CE. 20 rcCAS
c.20 2nd son of Mahakuli Mahatissa, KUTAKANNA TISSA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 42.  Son, BHATIKABHAYA succeeds until 9CE. 22 wikAK     20 wikHV, wikLSM
c.20 SAPADBIZES, 1st documented Yuezhi prince rules in Gandhara. 20 wikGB
c.19 PULUMAVI-I ends.  14th Satavahana raja of Maharashtra from 43.  GAURAKRISHNA succeeds until 6CE. 19 MRDK 429
c.19 AMANDAGAMANI, a king in Ceylon from 29, ends. 19 wikAK
c.17 VATTA GAMANI ABHAYA ends.  King of Ceylon from 29, ends.  Son MAHACHULI MAHATISSA succeeds until 3. 76 MRDK 445 17 CHI 641
c.12 Yuezhi move further to northern India where they establish the Kushan Empire. 12 wikGB
c.7 SIPRAKA ends. 1st Andhra raja of eastern India from 28. 7 HCAI 39
c.3 VATMAHACHULI MAHATISSA ends.  Vijaya king of Ceylon from 17.  Bro CHORANAGA succeeds until 9CE. 62 MRDK 445 3 CHI 641
c.2 PUNJAB taken over by Sakas. 2 wikPnj