c.27 Jan 16 ROME, REPUBLIC from 509, becomes EMPIRE until ?.  On proposal of L.(1) Munatius Plancus, OCTAVIAN is granted titles AUGUSTUS, majestic.  His name officially becomes Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus. 27 CAH 10-79, 130, CDCC 113, DGRBM 3-383, GHH, HRE 12, IDB 1-317, ISBE 1-364, LEWH 112, MCAW 264, bk, wikAg, wikTAR
c.27 Jan AUGUSTUS chooses the humbler title: princeps, first citizen.  By this title he retains power 27-14CE. 27 CAH 10-132
RELIGION V:  Augustus supports traditional gods and religion, condemning all innovation - except of course the imperial cult, which will blossom in Caligula. CDCC 398
c.27 There are 23 legions at this time.  Pay for soldiers is 225 denarii a year. 27 HRE 72
c.27 Some propose that Octavian's name be changed to Romulus. 27 CAH 10-822
c.27 COINAGE V reform:  Senatorial control of coin minting, having been lost to successful generals, is taken over by Augustus.  He reforms the composition and value of Roman currency.  Both senate and Emperor can issue gold and silver coins.  Copper coinage ceases until 19. 27 HRE 37, MCAW 265 23 wikTAR
27 AUGUSTUS implies that he plans an expedition against Britain.  Previous 34.  Next 26. 27 CAH 10-189
27 FIRST SETTLEMENT with C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, henceforth Augustus.  Given proconsular authority thruout the western provinces and Syria (essentially all provinces with legionary presence) and named princeps (first citizen). 27 B76 15-1107, unrv
c.27 AUGUSTUS, princeps 27-14CE, encoruages senators to repair roads.  This fails except for Via Flaminia, so he begins doing it himself. 27 CAH 10-133, CDCC 761, DGRG 2-1299, MCAW 265
c. 27 Via FlaminiaVIA FLAMINIA, from Rome to Ariminum from 220, repaired by Augustus.  A triumphal arch is put at each end. 27 CDCC 469, DGRG 2-1299
c.27 Arch of AugustusArch of Augustus at Ariminum built by senate and dedicated to Augustus. photo: Tobabi1 27 wikAAR
27 GATES of the TEMPLE OF JANUS, shut from 29, opened to indicate beginning of Spanish war until 25. 27 CAH 10-164
27 BRESCIA, having citizenship from 41, colonized by Augustus. 27 B76 II-255, wikBrs
27 1st PANTHEON in Rome begun on Campus Martius by Agrippa with adjoining baths and water gardens. 27 GHH, HRE 145, MCAW 267, OCD 776
27 BASILICA of NEPTUNE built on Campus Martius by Agrippa in memory of his naval victories, and enclosed with a portico called the Portico of the Argonauts.  It will be restored under Hadrian for an unknown use.  Remains of restoration still stand. 33-25 wikBN 27-25 HRE 145
c.27  Lex de Imperio Principiis , by which Augustus sustains the dignity of consul, tribune, imperator, and (after death of M.(10) Lepidus in 12) pontifex maximus.  Augustus accepts sovereign power for 10 years only. 27 GHH
c.27 M. Terentius VARRO Reatinus, historian, Rome's best scholar, satirist, dies age 88. 28 DGRBM 3-1223, GHH
27 B76 X-362, 10-857, CAH 10-905, OCD 1107, wikMTV
c.27 VIRGIL begins  Aeneid , at instigation of Augustus, who wants Romans given a more noble heritage than portrayed by Romulus & Remus. 29 B76 I-110 27 MCAW 267
c.27 Ti.(5) Claudius Nero (future emperor TIBERIUS), age 17, assumes toga virilis. 27 GHH
27 During disturbances at the comitia.  Augustus nominates M.(6) Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS to the revived office of urban prefect.  He resigns it within 6 days, either because he thinks its functions unconstitutional, or himself unequal to the job. 27 DGRBM 2-1051
25 HRE 66, OCD 674, 1072
27 Treasures of Egyptian art brought to Rome. 27 GHH
27 AUGUSTUS fills the aeraeium (national treasury) with loot from his private stash, including spoils from Egypt. 27 MCAW 265
27 Jul 4 Consul M.(4) LICINIUS CRASSUS governor of Macedonia from 30, returns to Rome, has triumph for victory in Thrace, and drops out of history. 27 CAH 10-80, 174, 550, OCD 296, lvM4LC
27 Aug AUGUSTUS, in bad health, goes to Narbonne to reorganize and complete the census.  Tiberius, age 17, and M.(13) Claudius Marcellus accompany.  Augustus leaves no formal representative to run Rome, and is away from Rome until 24. 27 B76 18-370, CAH 10-79, 451, 133, HRE 49, 65, MCAW 264, britTi
27 M.(6) Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS, governor of Aquitaine from 28, returns to Rome, has triumph Sep 25. 30 DGRBM 3-1125 27 DGRBM 2-1051, OCD 674, 1072
27 The TIBER overflows. 27 DGRG 2-1198
27 Sep M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus has triumph for victory in Gaul. 27 CAH 10-80
26 Jan 1 CONSULS:  AUGUSTUS (8th), in Spain 27-24, and T. Statilius TAURUS (2nd) 26 CAH 10-133, DGRBM 3-985, FHBC 84, OCD 1011, wikCon
26 SAEPTA IULIA, voting enclosure on Campus Martius for Comitia Tributa, begun by Julius Caesar, finished by M. Agrippa. 26 CDCC 307, OCD 200, 945
c.26±2 Sextus PROPERTIUS publishes  Elegies  book 2. 28-25 B76 15-46
c.26 Lesbos embassy to Rome until 25 includes CRINAGORAS, eliagic poet of Mytilene. 26 OCD 298
26 Q. Caecilius EPIROTA, freedman of Atticus, friend of Cornelius Gallus, opens a school, introduces study of Virgil and other "new poets". 26 OCD 327
no date: OCD 187
26 C. Cornelius GALLUS dies.  Poet, soldier, suicides in Egypt.
26 Prosperity of manufacturing and commercial interest of Roman empire.  Linen is exported from Spain, silks from Sicily and India, cottons from Malta, purple dyes from Toulon. 26 GHH, bk
25 Jan 1 CONSULS:  AUGUSTUS (9th) in Spain 27-24, and M.(3) Junius SILANUS 25 FHBC 84, OCD 488, wikCon
c.25 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, indicates his nephew M.(13) Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty) as his chosen successor by marrying him to his only dau Julia the Elder, age 14, until 23. 25 B76 VI-601, CAH 10, CDCC 478, 552, DGRBM 2-641, 934, GHH, HRE 48, MCAW 264, OCD 566, 646, wikTAR
25 Equite C. Cilinius MAECENAS the emperor's minister (40) 25 GHH
25 TORANIUS is pleb tribune. 25 DGRBM 3-1105
25 Recalcitrant Alpine tribes suppressed by Romans 25 B76 2-370
25 M. VIPSANIUS AGRIPPA builds on Campus Martius: baths, water gardens, aqueduct, porticoes, Argonautarum. 25 HRE 145, OCD 200
25 PANTHEON, begun on Campus Martius by Agrippa 27, finished by him.  Rectangular with gabled roof, supported on all sides by a colonade.  It will be destroyed except for the facade and restored by Trajan and Hadrian.  It is disputed how much of the existing Pantheon is based on Agrippa's design.  The restoration stands until 80CE. 25 OCD 200, 276
no date: B76 VII-725
25 Golden period of Roman literature; Horace, Virgil, Livy, Strabo, etc. flourish. 25 GHH
25 Greek language introduced at court. 25 GHH
25 TIRIDATES, pretender to Arsacid throne, flees for refuge to Rome.  Tiridates carries with him a son of Phraates-VI, whom he delivers to Augustus. 25 GHH
25 A. Terentius VARRO MURENA is sent by Augustus to attack the Salassi of the Durias Valley (now Val d'Aosta) in the Alps.  He reduces them to obedience, sells the male prisoners for slaves, and most of the territory is distributed among Praetorian soldiers, who found the town of Augusta.  This gives Rome control of the St. Bernard passes. 25 CAH 10-169, CDCC 389, DGRBM 2-1122, DGRG 2-880, OCD 150, 1108, bk
25 M. AGRIPPA goes to Spain to help Augustus against the Cantabri. 25 DGRBM 1-79
25 GATES of the TEMPLE OF JANUS, open from 27, closed 3rd time by order of Augustus (in Spain 27-24).  The date of the next opening is unrecorded.  But Augustus says they are closed 3 times during his principate. 25 CAH 10-164-5, GHH, MCAW 264, wikTJ
25 Augustus, in Spain 27-24, refuses to aid Tiridates in his design of again displacing Phraates, king of Parthia. 25 GHH
25 Dau of Antony and Cleo-VII, CLEO SELENE, in Rome from 30, given by Augustus in marriage to JUBA-II, client king of Mauretania 25BC-23CE. 25 HRE 90
by 20 OCD 566
c.25 Cornelius NEPOS, Roman biographer, friend of Catullus, dies. 25 TToH, wikCN
c.25 Dressel amphoraePOTTERY:  Dressel 1 amphorae, used to transport wine (mostly Italian) from 130?, are replaced by amphorae of a different shape and capacity termed Dressel 2-4. 30-20 CAH 10-479
24 Jan 1 CONSULS:  AUGUSTUS (10th), in Spain 27-24, and C. Norbanus FLACCUS 24 CAH 10-83, DGRBM 2-156, FHBC 84, wikCon
24 Jan 1 Senate takes oath to uphold Augustus' acts.  It is announced that he would give the plebs of 400 sesterces each, whereupon the Senate, by a senatus consultum, "releases him from all compulsion of the laws".  i.e. It exempts Augustus from having to obey any law, including the Cincian law which fixed a maximum for donations. 24 CAH 10-83, DGRBM 1-428, GHH, HRE 35
24 early AUGUSTUS, in Spain from 27, thinks Spain is secure, returns to Italy until ?, declines a triumph. 25 CAH 10-83, 164, OCD 201     24 CAH 10-242, GHH, HRE 49
24 AOSTA founded in northwest Italy as capital of the Salassi. 24 B76 X-340
24 M.(13) Claudius Marcellus admitted to the senate. 24 CAH 10-83
24 AUGUSTA PRAETORIA founded by 3,000 praetorians on the site where A. Terentius Varro had camped in 25. 24 OCD 143
24 Λ RELIGION VIsis worshipped at Rome. 24 GHH
24 Quintilius Varus of Cremona, one of Horace's friends, dies. 24 GHH
24 TIBERIUS elected quaestor for 23, and allowed to stand for further offices 5 years ahead of normal. 24 CAH 10-83, wikTi
23 Jan 1 CONSULS:  AUGUSTUS (11th) (Jan-1 Jul), whose suffect is L. SESTIUS ALBANIANUS QUIRINALIS (1 Jul-Dec).  A. Terentius VARRO MURENA is suffect for 23.  Republican Gn.(4) CALPURNIUS PISO is persuaded by Augustus to succeed, and serves the entire year. 23 CAH 10-136, DGRBM 1-428, 2-1122, 3-375, 796, 1222, FHBC 84, wikAg, wikCon
23 Apr? AUGUSTUS gets serious illness, prepares to turn over government to Piso and Agrippa, doesn't adopt neph M.(13) Claudius Marcellus, cured by doctor Antonius Musa using cold water treatment. 23 B76 1-367, 2-370, CAH 10-84, 136, HRE 49, MCAW 264, OCD 78, wikAg, wikTi
23 ALEXANDER, age 14, and ARISTOBULUS, sons of Herod by 2nd wife Mariamne-I, sent from Judea to Rome for education. 23 CAH 10-327, 332, ISBE 2-691, Jud 2-567, MCAW 264
23 M.(13) Claudius MARCELLUS, husband of Julia dau of Augustus & Scribonia, becomes curule aedile, gives magnificent games, becomes considered a rival to M. Agrippa. 24 HRE 48
23 CAH 10-83, CDCC 552, DGRBM 2-641, 934, OCD 646
23 PLAGUE begins all over Italy until 22. 23 CAH 10-87
23 M.(13) Claudius MARCELLUS, husband of Julia dau of Augustus, is adopted by Augustus and named heir. 23 CDCC 28
23 Senate allows M.(13) Claudius MARCELLUS to stand for consulship 10 years before legal age. 24 HRE 49
23 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, appointed governor of the entire East by Augustus. 23 CAH 10-155
23 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, miffed at Augustus apparent preference for Marcellus, leaves Italy to govern eastern provinces until 21.  Establishes headquarters at Mytilene Lesbos. 23 B76 1-367, CAH 10-142, OCD 31
Agrippa is sent east by Augustus. 23 B76 2-370
no date: DGRBM 1-79
23 AUGUSTUS, tribune from 30, made tribune for life. 23 DGRBM 1-428, GHH, HRE 34
23 Ambassadors from Phraates-IV of Parthia arrive, demanding that Tiridates be given up to him, and also an infant son of Phraates whom Tiridates had carried off(25).  AUGUSTUS refuses to surrender Tiridates, but the child is sent back, on condition that the POWs and standards be restored.  Alliance of Parthia with Romans. 23 CAH 10-262, DGRBM 3-1152 GHH, HRE 120
c.23 HORACE publishes 1st 3 books of  Odes , comprising 88 short poems. 24 HRE 155
23 B76 8-1072, CDCC 438, MCAW 267, OCD 528, bk
c.23±1 Sextus PROPERTIUS publishes  Elegies  book 3. 24-22 B76 15-46
23 Jun 29 SECOND SETTLEMENT of Augustus begins.  He is granted the power of tribunes to convene the senate and the people's assemblies, to veto proposed legislation and oversee elections, complete command of the provinces and legions.  This 2nd settlement essentially ends the Republic, though its institutions continue.  23 unrv
23 Jul 1 SECOND SETTLEMENT ends.  Augustus, consul from 31, sick again, resigns consulship to L. Sestius Quirinalis, and becomes only a proconsul of the majority of provinces.  The senate therefore heaps more power on him to make up for it.  His power becomes less defined, therefore less hampered by tradition.  He does not become consul again until briefly in 5.  Augustus dates his reign from this event. 23 B76 15-1107, CAH 10-78, 85, 137-8, CDCC 113, DGRBM 1-428, MCAW 264
23 EPIDEMIC in Rome is blamed by the masses on divine displeasure at Augustus resignation of consulship. 23 MCAW 265
23 AUGUSTAN CONSTITUTION reaches final form. 23 HRE 14
23 PRAETORS, 12 in number annually from ?, reduced to 10 by Augustus.  They are kept at 10 for a few years. 23 CAH 10-125
23 THEATER of MARCELLUS (M.(13) Claudius) begun on Campus Martius near the Forum Olitorum, built mainly of tuff, but also fired brick, and concrete.  Finished 13. 23 CAH 10-935
23 Under the Republic the Aerarium populi Romani (treasury) was under the quaestors, but Augustus transfers the duty to 2 praefecti aerarii, selected by lot annually by the Senate from ex-praetors.  This lasts until 44CE. 23 HRE 35, wikArr
23 Fannius CAEPIO heads a conspiracy against Augustus.  Consul A. Terentius Varro Murena joins it. 23 DGRBM 2-1122, HRE 60, OCD 188, 1108
23 the TIBER overflows. 23 DGRG 2-1198
23 late M.(13) Claudius MARCELLUS dies.  Son of Octavia Minor sis of Augustus, husband of Julia dau of Augustus from 25, heir of Augustus by adoption, aedile, gets malaria at Baiae.  Physician Musa uses the same cold water treatment that worked on Augustus, but Marcellus dies childless, age 19.  A riot follows this suspicious death. 23 B76 VI-601, CAH 10-84, 143, CDCC 28, 478, 552, DGRBM 1-79, 2-934, 3-4, GHH, MCAW 265, OCD 646, wikAg, wikOcY, wikTAR
23 late TIBER overflows, causing epidemic, which causes untilled fields. 23 CAH 10-143 22 DGRG 2-1198
22 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. ARRUNTIUS and M.(14) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS AESERINUS 22 DGRBM 1-353, 935, FHBC 84, OCD 123, 838, wikCon
22 Grain shortage causes the people to propose to make Augustus dictator and censor for life, but he refuses, but accepts cura annonae, (administrator of the grain-market).  This is the 1st department in Rome that he took into his own hands. 22 CAH 10-794, HRE 19, 64
22 Λ CENSORS V patrician L.(2) Aemilius LEPIDUS Paulus and pleb L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS  This is the last time 2 private citizens are colleagues as censor. 22 DGRBM 2-768, 3-383, wikCns
22 M. PRIMUS, former governor of Macedonia, is charged with attacking the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace, whose king was a Roman ally, without prior approval of the Senate.  He is defended by A. Terentius VARRO MURENA, who tells the court that Primus was ordered to attack Thrace by Augustus.  Such order would have been a breach of the Senate's prerogative, as Macedonia is under the Senate's jurisdiction.  The situation is so serious, that Augustus appears, though he had not been called as a witness.  Augustus says he never gave the order.  Later, Primus says the orders came from recently deceased Marcellus, Augustus's heir apparent.  Primus is found guilty, but some jurors vote to acquit, meaning they don't buy Augustus's testimony. 24/3 wikAg, 22 CAH 10-87, 551, cmb, wikLLVM
His governorship of Macedonia must have been hushed up, because there is no other record of this M. Primus existing.
22 A certain Castricius provides Augustus with information about a conspiracy led by Fannius Caepio against Augustus.  A. Terentius Varro Murena is named among the conspirators.  Murena flees.  A court is convened in his absence, with Tiberius as prosecutor.  The jury finds Murena, and his fellow accused, guilty, and sentenced to death for treason. 22 wikLLVM
22 A. Terentius VARRO MURENA dies.  He is involved in the conspiracy of Fannius Caepio, condemned to death and executed, despite intercession of his bro C. Proculeius and his sis Terentia. 22 DGRBM 2-1122, 3-540, GHH, wikLLVM
no date: OCD 1108
22 L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is aedile. 22 DGRBM 1-86
22 FOOD SHORTAGE in Rome caused by Tiber overflow in 23.  Causes panic.  Many urban plebs call for Augustus to take dictatorial powers.  After a theatrical display of refusal before the Senate, Augustus accepts authority over Rome's grain supply, and quickly ends the crisis. 22 CAH 10-143, OCD 66, wikAg
22 COHORTES VIGILUM, a city watch, is started by Augustus with a force of 600 slaves. 22 CAH 10-794
22 APOLLODORUS of Pergamum dies.  Rhetor in Rome, teacher of Octavian. 22 OCD 85
c.22 FREE GRAIN in Rome, distributed to 150,000 people from 44, increased to 200,000 by Augustus, relieves famine. 22 CAH 10-143, OCD 66
c.22 Fannius Caepio conspires with Murena against Augustus. 22 DGRBM 1-535
22 Temple of JUPITER TONANS built by Augustus in memory of his narrowly escaping lightning, during his Cantabrian expedition. 22 HRE 147
22 Theatrical pantomimic dances introduced at Rome. 22 GHH
22 PLAGUE, all over Italy from 23, ends. 22 CAH 10-87
c.22 Sep AUGUSTUS leaves Rome until 19, begins inspection tour of east provinces, starting with Sicily. 22 B76 1-367, 2-370, CAH 10-89, 144, HRE 50, MCAW 264
21 DGRBM 1-429, HRE 66
22/1 Sedition breaks out between consul candidates Q. Lepidus and M. Silanus. 22/1 HRE 51
21 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M. LOLLIUS.  Senate leaves other seat open expecting that Augustus would take it.  Augustus (still in Sicily) declines.  A power struggle ensues, so Augustus summons M. Agrippa to return from east and take it.  So they give consulship to Q. AEMILIUS LEPIDUS. 21 CAH 10-89, 144, DGRBM 2-769, 797, FHBC 84, OCD 618, wikAg, wikCon
21 Jan M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA returns from Lesbos to take consulship.  His governorship of the east ends until 17. 21 CAH 10-142, Jud 2-418, OCD 31
21 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, again heir apparent, is compelled by Augustus to divorce his wife from 28 Claudia MARCELLA Major, niece of Augustus, and marry Augustus' dau JULIA, widow of Marcellus until 12. 21 B76 2-370, CAH 10-144, DGRBM 1-79, 2-925, GHH, CDCC 28, OCD 566, Jud 2-418, MCAW 264, wikMVA, wikTAR
21 IULLUS ANTONIUS, 2nd son of Antony & Fulvia, marries MARCELLA, niece of Augustus, divorcee of M. Agrippa. 21 OCD 78
c.21 2 INDIAN EMBASSIES from king Porus, having started in 25, arrive at Rome, received by Augustus, probably trade missions.  Gifts include snakes, tortoises, pheasants, tigers, a monk, and an armless boy who can shoot arrows with his feet. 25-21 B76 9-355
21 MCAW 265 20 GHH
21 Λ RELIGION VEgyptian religious rites, popular in Rome, are forbidden within a mile of Rome by consul M. Agrippa. 21 CAH 10-481
21 M. EGNATIUS RUFUS is aedile.  He organizes a private fire brigade, wins enough popularity to make Augustus feel threatened. 21 CAH 10-145, CDCC 349, OCD 373
20 DGRBM 3-673
21 FIRE BRIGADE organized by Augustus.  Slaves are commanded by aediles. 21 B76 15-1068
21/0 TIBERIUS receives message from Augustus on Samos to bring a large army thru Macedonia to Armenia.  He begins raising an army. 21/0 CAH 10-262
20 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M. APPULEIUS and P. SILIUS NERVA 20 DGRBM 1-248, 2-1169, 3-825, FHBC 84, wikCon
M. AGRIPPA remains consul instead of Appuleius. 20 CAH 10-145, OCD 489
20 PUBLIC BATHS opened by M. Agrippa. 20 OCD 163
20 M. EGNATIUS RUFUS, aedile 21, doesn't observe the legal pause before becoming praetor. 20 CAH 10-145, OCD 373
19 DGRBM 3-673
c.20 TIBERIUS summoned by Augustus to Syria to serve under Agrippa. 20 MCAW 268, wikTi
c.20 MAP of the empire, nearly 30 years in the making, completed by M. Agrippa.  It is accurate for Italy, Greece, and Egypt, and rough for the rest. 23 MCAW 265 20 SHT 3-504
c.20 VIRGIL meets Augustus (supposedly in Athens).  No more of the Aeneid is written. 20 MCAW 271 19 B76 I-110
c.20 DIONYSIUS of HALICARNASSUS flourishes. 20 B76 III-559
c.20 HORACE publishes  Epistles book 1 . 20 B76 III-927, 8-1072, HRE 155, OCD 529
c.20 P. OVIDIUS NASO (Ovid) publishes  Amores . 20 B76 VII-640, 13-798
20 The standards taken from M(3). Crassus by Orodes, of Parthia in 53, are restored. 20 GHH
20 Arrival of ambassadors from the Scythians. 20 GHH
20 Λ COINS V commemorating recovery of standards from Parthians are struck by L.(11) Cornelius Lentulus, priest of Mars Ultor. 25 DGRBM 2-733
20 Pantomimics, Bathyllus and Pylades, flourish; theaters are splendid and extensive; 3,000 female singers and an equal number of dancers perform on the stage. 20 GHH
20 CURA VIARUM is instituted for repair of public roads.  A curator is set over each road.  For main roads from Rome to the frontiers, curators are selected from praetorian senators;  for lesser roads, from equites. 20 HRE 66
20 Golden milestone erected in Rome by Augustus, a column of gilded bronze (or marble clad in gilt bronze), regarded as the point from which all main roads of Rome diverge. 20 GHH, CDCC 761, encrm
c.20 Vitruvian ManM. VITRUVIUS Pollio publishes  De Architectura .  10 handbooks in Latin, mostly for architects, based on his own experience, Hermogenes, and Greek models.  The only surviving major book on architecture from classical antiquity, and the last until 1452.  Discusses perfect proportion in architecture and the human body.  His "Vitruvian Man", shown here, will impress Da Vinci. photo: JoJan

20 MCAW 269
20-11 DGRBM 3-1277
no date: B76 X-473, wikVt
c.20 Λ CONCRETE:  Vitruvius distinguishes types of aggregate appropriate for the preparation of lime mortars.  Specifies 1 part lime to 3 parts pozzolana for cement used in buildings, and 1:2 ratio of lime to pozzolana for underwater work, essentially the same ratio mixed today. 25 wikCnc
c.20 SUNDIAL V described by Vitruvius.  More than 12 types exist at this time, some of which are portable. no date: B76 4-743, DHoI 4-401
c.20 GOLD AMALGUM (gold disolved in Mercury) described by Vitruvius. 25 TTT
c.20 WATERWHEEL described by Vitruvius.  Vertical undershot with horizontal axis, used to grind grain.  The most important Roman contribution to mechanics. 20 MCAW 269
no date: B76 11-233
20 Senate sends embassy to Athens to ask Augustus to return to Rome and be consul for 19.  It includes Q. Lucretius Vespillo.  Augustus declines and appoints Vespillo. 20 DGRBM 3-1249
c.20 CAIUS Vipsanius Agrippa born to M. Agrippa and Julia dau of Augustus. 20 CAH 10-144, GHH, MCAW 268, wikGC
20 Temple of MARS ULTOR (the Avenger), vowed by Augustus before Philippi 42, begun at the far end of the new Augustan Forum to house the recovered standards of Crassus.  This is 1st temple of Mars inside the pomerium (religious boundary of Rome).  Finished and dedicated 2. 20 HRE 146, MCAW 269
2 MCAW 273
20 Augustus of Prima PortaAUGUSTUS STATUE is vowed by the senate.  The original is cast in bronze by an unknown artist.  He is barefoot because the gods were portrayed barefoot.  The scene in the cuirase depicts Tiberius' retrieval of Crassus' standards captured by the Parthians, which dates the original to 20 or a little after.  It also suggests that this marble copy was made by Tiberius during his reign 14-37CE.  It will be found at Livia's villa at Prima Porta. photo: GFDL

20 MCAW 269, wikAPP
20 late While Augustus is away, M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA leaves Rome until 19, goes to Gaul.  Adopted son of Augustus, Tiberius age 22 accompanies. 20 B76 1-367, CAH 10-145, CDCC 28, OCD 31
19 DGRBM 1-79, wikTi
20 late The comitia again declines to elect more than one consul, C. Sentius Saturninus, in case Augustus (now in the east) wants the office. 20 CAH 10-89
19 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS Vetulio, is sole consul.  M. Egnatius Rufus contends for consulship.  Saturninus says he won't accept Rufus even if he's elected, sends word to Augustus, and nominates Q. Lucretius Vespillo.  Saturninus remains sole consul until some point between 1 Aug and 12 Oct, at which time suffects M. Vinicius and Q. Lucretius VESPILLO take over. 19 CAH 10-89, 145, DGRBM 3-725, 783, 1249, 1262, FHBC 84, OCD 373, 955, wikCon
19 Popular senator M. EGNATIUS RUFUS, spurned by Saturninus, plots to murder Augustus, discovered, imprisoned, executed. 19 OCD 373, DGRBM 3-674
19 AQUA VIRGO built by M. Agrippa from springs on Lucullan estates 8 miles from Rome to supply baths in Campus Martius.  Circuitous route makes it 14 miles. 19 B76 X-455, 1-1036, GHH, HRE 65
19 Mar L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS proconsul of Africa from 21, returns to Rome. 19 DGRG 2-176, HRE 90, OCD 150, 160, wikAf, wikL2Bl
19 Mar 27 L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS, former proconsul of Africa 21-19, is the last man outside Augustus' family to have a triumph - first triumph granted to a non-Roman citizen by birth, and last one to a private individual until 534.  Triumphs are reserved for members of the "divine family". 19 CAH 10-91, 137, 167, 591, DGRBM 1-457, OCD 160, wikAg, wikL2Bl
c.19 Cantabrian Wars in Spain:  Last major combat operations end.  The Cantabri and Astures are pacified by Agrippa. 19 GHH, wikTAR
19 DRUSUS Claudius Nero gets a senatorial decree to fill all magistracies 5 years before the regular time. 19 DGRBM 1-1084, wikNCD
19 AUGUSTUS, on inspection tour of east provinces from 22, on Samos from 20, returns to Italy, insists on no fanfare.  Senate and people go to Campania to meet him. 19 B76 2-370, CAH 10-137, 145-6, 265, DGRBM 1-429, HRE 51, MCAW 268
Oct 12
AUGUSTUS enters Rome secretly.  Oct 12 is made an annual holiday. 19 DGRBM 1-429, MCAW 268
19 Standards of Crassus, brought back to Rome by Augustus, placed in new temple of Mars Ultor. 19 DGRBM 1-429
19 Senate throws more powers at Augustus: some consular rights to ensure that no other consul interferes with him.  19 B76 15-1107
19 Augustus is granted the right to sit on the president's tribunal at meetings between the 2 consuls. 19 CAH 10-329, HRE 14
19 STRABO, in Egypt from 25, comes to Rome until 7. 19 OCD 1017
c.19 HORACE publishes  Epistles  book 2, including the  Epistle to Florus . 19 B76 8-1072
19 VIRGIL sails from Brundisium intending to go thru Greece and Asia for 3 years.  He gets sick at Megara and returns to Brundisium. 19 OCD 1124, wikVrg
19 Sep 22 VIRGIL dies of fever at Brundisium, age 50.  Rome's greatest poet, leaves instructions that the  Aeneid  be burned.  It is an epic poem in 12 books and almost complete at his death. 19 DGRG 1-445, GHH, OCD 1124-5, TToH, wikVrg
19 3rd settlement of Augustus, who now gets power of a magistrate.  Plebes are not fully aware of the changes that the constitution means for the power of Augustus.  Augustus does not stand for election as consul in 22, 21 and 19.  Fearing that the senate is trying to circumvent his authority, the people riot and only elect one consul in those years in order to reserve a spot for Augustus.  In order to pacify the plebs, the senate grants him the right to wear consular insignia permanently in public regardless of whether or not he had been elected consul. 19 CDCC 113, unrv, wikAg
by 19 MONEY: Λ COINS stabilized by Augustus.  Gold aureus, silver denarius (25 denarii to an aureus), copper (unused from 27) as (16 copper ases to a denarius), and various fractions of the as.  The normal unit of account remaines the sestertius, equivalent to 4 ases.  40 or 42 aurei are struck from one Roman pound of gold, and 84 denarii from one pound of silver.  These standards hold until 64CE.  Augustus reserves for himself the coining of gold and silver, and gives copper coinage to the senate. by 19 CAH 10-317
by 19 From this year the Roman mint produces most imperial bronze coinage.  But in most reigns there are sporadic and sometimes heavy regional issues of imperial type from provincial mints. 23 or 19 CAH 10-317
c.19 Altar to FORTUNA REDUX near the temples of Honos and Virtus outside the Porta Capena (south gate of Servian wall) is dedicated to celebrate the return of Augustus from the East. 19 CAH 10-943
c.19 Basilica at Fanum Fortunae completed by M. VITRUVIUS Pollio.  Now disappeared so completely that its site unknown. 19 wikVt
19/8 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, in Spain 19, out of Italy from 20, returns to Rome until 17. 19 MCAW 268, CDCC 28     18 B76 1-367
18 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Gn.(6) Cornelius LENTULUS and P. Cornelius LENTULUS MARCELLINUS 18 DGRBM 2-733, 936, FHBC 84, OCD 595, wikCon
18 PRINCIPATE of Augustus legally expires, and is renewed for 5 years more with co-regency of M. Agrippa.  It includes proconsular imperium and tribune power. 18 B76 1-367, CAH 10-92, 146, DGRBM 1-79, 429, HRE 51, OCD 31
18 M. LOLLIUS proconsul of Macedonia from 19, recalled and sent to Gaul. 18 OCD 618
18  Lex Julia de Λ ambitu , against bribery at elections  (358 and 8) 18 CAH 10-93, EDRL 553, GHH, MCAW 268
18 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA becomes co-ruler until ?.  His proconsular imperium is augmented to cover the provinces of the Senate.  He is granted tribunicia potestas (powers of a pleb tribune) for 5 years without having to hold the office. 18 CAH 10-92, MCAW 268, wikMVA
18 SENATE, consisting of @800 from 28, reduced further by LECTIO SENATUS.  Each senator must own at least 1,000,000 sesterces, rather than the previous requirement of 400,000. Augustus tries to reduce the senate to nearer its pre-Sullan number of 300, but can't get it down to 600. 19 CAH 10-93, 124, 325
18 Albius TIBULLUS, Roman poet, dies age 36. 19 B76 IX-996     18 DGRBM 3-1124, GHH, MCAW 255
c.18 HORACE publishes  Ars Poetica  "Art of Poetry".  Literary criticism. 19/8 B76 I-547, 8-1072, OCD 529     13 bk
c.18±3 Sextus PROPERTIUS publishes  Elegies book 4 . 21-16 B76 15-46
18  Lex Julia de adulteriis coercendis  makes adultery (by women) a public as well as a private offense, with banishment a possible penalty.  A father may kill his dau and her adulterer, but he must kill them both.  A husband can't kill his wife, but must divorce her, and may sometimes kill the adulterer. 18 CAH 10-93, EDRL 553, HRE 63, wikLRL, wikMAR
18  Lex Julia de annona  against merchants raising market prices of foods or committing other unfair practices in sale or transportation of food. 18 EDRL 553
18  Lex Julia de maritandis ordinibus  by Augustus, marrying-age celibates and young widows who would not marry are barred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games.  Free persons may marry X-slaves.  A senatorial caste is established, distinguishing members and their descendants to the third generation, plus wives. 18 CAH 10-93, 326, 892, EDRL 553, GHH, HRE 62, OCD 650, wikLRL
18  Lex Julia sumptuaria  reiterates various severe provisions against luxury in banquets. 18 EDRL 553
18  Lex Julia de modo aedificiorum  set a maximum height of houses and the thickness of walls. 18 EDRL 553
18/7 HEROD sails from Greece to Rome to see Alexander and Aristobulus, his sons by Mariamne-I.  Sis Salome accompanies, and ingratiates Livia, gets Livia to help her persuade Herod to let her marry Sylleus vizir of Arabia.  Herod refuses.  Herod returns with Alexander, Aristobulus, and Salome(1) to Judea. 18/7 CAH 10-330, 16 GHH
18/7 ALEXANDER and ARISTOBULUS, sons of Herod by Mariamne-I, in Rome from 23, return with Herod and Salome(1) to Judea. 18/7 DGRBM 2-427, Jud 8-381     17 Jud 2-567, MCAW 268
17 Jan CONSULS:  C.(3) FURNIUS (Turnius?) and C. Junius SILANUS 17 DGRBM 2-191, FHBC 84, wikCon
c.17 Augustus adopts sons of Agrippa and Julia, his grandsons CAIUS Caesar and newborn LUCIUS Caesar, as his own sons. 17 B76 II-434, CAH 10, DGRBM 1-79, GHH, HRE 51, OCD 150, 191, wikLC, wikTAR
17 5th celebration of the Λ LUDI SAECULARES, (Secular Games, Decemviri festivals) held for 7 days, celebrating regeneration and traditional values.  Sibylline Books are copied, and old religious customs observed.  Producers include D. Laelius Balbus.  Augustus & Agrippa are both there. 17 B76 1-367, 2-370, CAH 10-92, 137, 834, DGRBM 1-457, GHH, HRE 62, MCAW 268
17 THEATER of MARCELLUS on Campus Martius near the Forum Olitorum, begun 23, finished 13, is now complete enough that part of the ludi saeculares takes place in it. 17 wikTM
May 31
LUSTRUM celebrated.  Purificatory sacrifice usually made after a census every 5 years. 17 CAH 10-94
17 FINES on senators for not attending meetings is reintroduced by Augustus.  Presiding magistrates had always had authority to fine absentees, but not since the second centuryBCE had it been normal practice. 17CAH 10-327
17 L. VIPSANIUS AGRIPPA born to M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder.  Immediately after his birth, Augustus adopts him and his bro Caius from their father by a symbolic sale, and names the 2 boys his heirs.  His name is changed to L. Julius Caesar.  He lives until 2CE. 17 wikLC
17 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA back in Rome from 18, again appointed governor of eastern provinces until 13. 18 CAH 10-651
17 B76 1-367, CAH 10-142, 146, wikMVA
17 Agrippa, accompanied by wife Julia, goes to Asia province. 17 CAH 10-207, DGRBM 1-79, 2-641, GHH     16 CAH 10-95, Jud 2-418, MCAW 268, wikLC
no date: OCD 176
17 Dedication of books first introduced. 17 GHH
17  Lex Julia iudiciorum privatorum .  Eliminates most vestiges of archaic legis actio procedure.  Henceforth, with exception of the centum viral court (which chiefly heard important inheritance cases), all private lawsuits brought at Rome must be initiated thru formulary procedure. 17 CAH 10-406, 962
17  Lex Julia iudiciorum publicorum  deals with questions about judical magistrates and judges, the parties to a trial, and their advocates, witnesses, etc. 17 CAH 10-406, EDRL 554
17  Lex Petronia , criminalizes a master making his slave fight wild beasts. 17 GHH
c.17 HORACE publishes  Carmen Saeculare  "Hymns Secular".  It is sung at the Ludi Saeculares by a choir of traditional size: 27 boys, 27 girls. 17 B76 8-1072, CAH 10-823, 909, DGRBM 2-524, OCD 529, MCAW 271
16 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P.(15) Cornelius SCIPIO (until mid year) and L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, both young nobles   Suffect: L. Tarius Rufus 16 CAH 10-94, DGRBM 3-676, FHBC 84, OCD 361, wikCon
Jan 29
TEMPLE of QUIRINUS, burnt 48, restored by Augustus and dedicated.  Quirinus is supposedly the deified Romulus. 16 CAH 10-151, 822
15 DGRG 2-829
16 Sons of Ti.(4) Claudius Nero & Livia, present wife of Augustus:
TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero Caesar, age 26, becomes praetor.
DRUSUS Claudius Nero, age 23, becomes quaestor.
16 CAH 10-151, MCAW 268
16 DRUSUS Claudius Nero, age 23, marries ANTONIA, dau of Antony & Octavia. 16 B76 III-677
c.16 P. Silius NERVA, governor of Illyricum from 17 goes to fight Noricans and Pannonians in the eastern Alps because there are no troops there. 17/6 CAH 10-169
16 CAH 10-551, wikIlrc
Taking advantage of this, some Pannonians and the Norici enter Istria and pillage it.
c.16 P. Silius NERVA, subdues 2 Alpine tribes, the Camunni and the Vennii, the first at least and perhaps both in the region between Comum and Lake Garda. 17/6 CAH 10-169
16 Consul P.(15) Cornelius SCIPIO ends.
Pleb suffect: L. Tarius Rufus continues until end of year
16 CAH 10-94
16 AUGUSTUS leaves DRUSUS Claudius Nero and urban prefect T. Statilius TAURUS in charge of Rome, while he and Tiberius go to Gaul until 13. 16 CAH 10-95, DGRBM 1-1084, 3-985, GHH, HRE 83, MCAW 268, OCD 150, 1011     14 wikNCD
16 A COIN issued this year shows symbols of each of Augustus' 4 priesthoods. 16 CAH 10-824
16 The 2 schools of Jurisprudence, under Capeto and Labeo, flourish. 16 GHH
15 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(8) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS (the pontifex) and M.(3) Livius DRUSUS LIBO 15 DGRBM 1-1082, 2-771, 3-373, FHBC 84, OCD 837, wikCon, wikLCPC
15  Lex Junia Norbana , annulls informal manumission of slaves. 15 GHH
c.15 M. VITRUVIUS Pollio dies, age 55-56.  Roman author, architect, engineer, artilleryman, designer of siege engines. 15 wikVt
15 DRUSUS Claudius Nero is made quaestor and sent against the Rhaeti bandits in the Alps.  Drusus repels them, gaining honors, but can't smash their forces, and requires reinforcement from Tiberius.  Together they easily defeat the local Alpine tribes. 15 CAH 10-170, 551, DGRBM 1-1084, wikNCD
15 AUGUSTUS tours Spain peacefully until 14. 15 CAH 10-166
15 DRUSUS enters Gaul. 15 CAH 10, OCD 365, wikNCD
15 Equite Vedius POLLIO dies leaving Augustus most of his property including a villa at Pausilypum west of Neapolis.  Pollio is known for feeding his slaves to his lampreys. 15 DGRBM 3-440, MCAW 269
14 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Gn.(7) Cornelius LENTULUS (Augur) and M.(5) LICINIUS CRASSUS 14 DGRBM 1-879, 2-733, FHBC 84, wikCon
14 The LIGURI are subdued, ALPES MARITIMAE annexed and made a province. 14 CAH 10-170, CDCC 40
14 Native dynast Cottius is recognized as prefect to rule over the Cottian Alps in Roman interest. 14 CAH 10-170
c.14 L.(8) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS becomes proconsul of Pamphylia until 11. 14 DGRBM 3-373
14 AUGUSTUS, touring Spain from 15, returns to Rome. 14 CAH 10-166
14 AUGUSTUS spends 600,000,000 sesterces on Italian farms for veterans. 14 HRE 5
14 FIRE in the Forum. 14 wikTCP
14 Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum, restored 73, destroyed.  Gone until 6CE. 14 wikTCP
14 Basilica AemiliaBASILICA AEMILIA, dedicated 34, burnt down in a fire which also destroys the temple of Vesta. reconst. L.VII.C

14 DGRBM 2-766
13 Jan 1 CONSULS:  TIBERIUS(5) CLAUDIUS NERO CAESAR (age 29) and P. QUINTILIUS VARUS 13 B76 X-362, CAH 10-151, DGRBM 3-1118, 1231, FHBC 84, HRE 52, OCD 1108, wikCon
13 early M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, governor of eastern provinces from 17, on Lesbos from ?, recalled & returns to Rome, refuses a triumph for the Bosporus affair.  His co-regency and tribune powers are extended another 5 years, but he dies in 12. Antiq 16:2:4
13 B76 1-367, CAH 10-97, 151, 651, DGRBM 1-79, GHH, OCD 150
c.13 Senate, in Augustus' absence, alarmed at the situation, appoints equites to the lowest set of senatorial posts, the vigintivirate (allowing them to remain equites), and obliges ex-quaestors over age 40 to draw lots for the tribunate. 13 CAH 10-125
13 L.(8) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS proconsul of Pamphylia from 14, becomes proconsul of Galatia-Pamphylia until 11. 13 wikLCPC
no date: DGRBM 3-373
13 AUGUSTUS in Gaul from 16, leaves DRUSUS Claudius Nero in charge of Gaul, and returns with adopted son Tiberius to Rome, sidesteps the honors the senate throws at him, except extension of his imperium.  13 CAH 10-96, 354, 377, DGRBM 1-429, GHH, HRE 84, MCAW 268, OCD 150, 365, wikNCD
12 CDCC 389, wikTi
13 AUGUSTUS fixes army service in legions at 16 years, followed by 4 years in reserve (the republican maximum, but not the norm).  This lasts until 5 [HRE 72].  Survivors get cash (amount not specified) instead of land.  The soldiers prefer land, but it is no longer practical to establish colonies in Italy. 13 CAH 10-377, HRE 72
c.13 Service in the praetorian cohorts is fixed at 12 years until 5CE.  Pay is well above legionary rate. 13 CAH 10-385, HRE 72
13 T. Statilius TAURUS becomes urban prefect. 13 CAH 10-793
c.13 Herod and son Antipater go from Judea to Rome where Antipater is left under guardianship of M. Agrippa to cement his friendship with Rome. Antiq 16:3:3
13 Jud 3-78, 418 12 GHH
13 Jul 4 Senate decree inaugurates a sacred precinct and Ara Pacis (altar of Augustan Peace) in the north of Campus Martius.  It will be dedicated in 9. 13 CAH 10-96, 943
c.13 ARA PACIS "Altar of Peace" on Campus Martius is voted by the senate to commemorate Augustus victory in Spain, and pacification of Gaul.  It is begun by Augustus.  Its surrounding walls are covered with reliefs including female portraiture.  Dedicated in 9. 13 CAH 10-136, 166, 193, MCAW 268, 269
9 MCAW 273
c.13 Augustus boasts that his troops had proclaimed him "imperator" on 21 occasions. 19 wikAg
c.13 LUCIUS and CAIUS Julius Caesar, sons of Agrippa, but adopted by Octavian in 17, participate in the Trojan games with the other patrician youths at the dedication of the Theatre of Marcellus. 13 wikGC, wikLC
c.13 IULLUS ANTONIUS, 2nd son of Antony & Fulvia, becomes praetor.  He gives the games for Augustus' birthday. 13 CAH 10-103, DGRBM 1-217, OCD 78
c.13 THEATER of L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS on Campus Martius, west of and adjacent to the Crypta Balbi, finished and dedicated by Augustus.  Smallest of Rome's 3 stone amphitheaters, seating 7,000.  On dedication day, the Tiber floods.  Balbus and other participants must arrive by boat.  Damaged 80CE. 13 CDCC 877, iath
11 HRE 146
c.13 While Augustus is away, the Senate, alarmed at the crisis of recruitment in the governing class, appoints equites to the lowest set of senatorial posts, the "vigintivirate" (allowing them to remain equites), and obliges ex-quaestors over 40 to draw lots for the tribunate. 13 CAH 10-125
Theater of Marcellus
Theater of Marcellus   Top section (cropped off) is added later.
photo: Geobia
13 THEATER of MARCELLUS (M.(13) Claudius), begun 23 on Campus Martius near the Forum Olitorum, finished.  111m diameter, holds 11-20,000 spectators, faced with stones in the opus reticulatum pattern, sheathed in white travertine limestone.  Earliest example of Corinthian pillars in Rome.  Dedicated by Augustus 12/11 to his nephew. 14 DGRBM 2-935
13 B76 VI-601, DGRBM 1-457, OCD 200, wikL2Bl
13 or 11 CDCC 877
12 DGRG 2-845, wikTM
11 HRE 146, MCAW 271
c.13 C. CAESAR, age 7, and L. Vipsanius Agrippa (aka L. Caesar), age 4, join other patrician kids in Trojan games at dedication of Temple of Marcellus. 13 DGRBM 1-555, wikLC
c.13 HORACE publishes  Odes book 4 , eulogizing military fame of Tiberius and Drusus.
"We are dust and shadow.".
13 B76 8-1072, CDCC 438, HRE 155, MCAW 271, MNDQ 738, OCD 529
c.13 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA goes to Pannonia until 12, deals with problems. 13 CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, MCAW 268, OCD 775, wikGC     12 CAH 10-152, OCD 31
12 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P. SULPICIUS QUIRINIUS (Jan-after 29 Aug) and M.(7) VALERIUS MESSALA BARBATUS APPIANUS (dies 6 Mar).  C. Valgius Rufus (Mar-after 29 Aug).  C. Caninius REBILUS (until dies in office).  L. Volusius SATURNINUS (until Dec). 12 CAH 10-152, 184, DGRBM 2-1052, 3-638, 641, ENBD 1069, FHBC 84, HRE 85, IDB 3-976, ISBE 4-12, OCD 646, 908, 1107, lvPSQ, wikCon, wikQrn
12 Feb? Pontifex maximus from 44, M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS dies in Rome. 13 CAH 10-825, DGRBM 2-768
13/2 OCD 597, wikLpd     12 B76 2-371, 15-1107, CAH 10-152, DGRBM 1-428, GHH, OCD 150
c.12 There is again a shortage for the tribunate, and equites are forced into it, with a choice, at the end, which order to stay in. 12 CAH 10-125
12 L.(2) Aemilius LEPIDUS PAULLUS, son of L.(1), marries CLAUDIA MARCELLA Minor, dau of consul C. Claudius Marcellus Minor and Octavia Minor. 12 wikL2ALP
12 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA in Pannonia from 13, gets sick returns to Rome, retires to Campania. 12 B76 1-367, CAH 10-152, DGRBM 1-79, OCD 31
12 Mar 6 AUGUSTUS made pontifex maximus, thus reuniting the civil and religious power which had been distinct since the days of Tarquins.  This title will be held by all emperors until Theodosius. 12 B76 15-1107, CAH 10-97, 137, 790, 825, 827, DGRBM 1-428, GHH, HRE 18, IDB 4-107, MCAW 269, wikAg
12  SIBYLLINE BOOKS , kept in the Capitoline Temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva from 69, are examined, copied, and moved by Augustus (now pontifex maximus) to the temple of Apollo Patrous on the Palatine until 405CE. 12 wikSB
12 Mar M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA dies.  2nd husband of Julia dau of Augustus, co-princeps of Rome from 13, dies of illness, age 51, in Campania.  Widow Julia is pregnant with son Agrippa Postumus. 12 B76 1-367, 18-370, CAH 10-97, 152, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, 430, 2-641, GHH, HRE 51, Jud 2-418, OCD 31, wikAg, wikMVA, wikTAR
c.12 Germanic Wars:  Roman forces cross Rhine into Germania. 12 wikTAR
12 C. Sentius SATURNINUS, proconsul of Africa from 14, returns to Rome.  L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS succeeds until 9. 12 OCD 361, rcNA
12 TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero Caesar goes to Pannonia, takes over Agrippa's command until 9. 12 CAH 10-153, 175, HRE 98, LEWH 115, MCAW 268
c.12 AUGUSTUS goes to Aquileia and other northern towns, to be in touch with the German war. 12 CAH 10-97
c.12 Herod takes sons Alexander and Aristobulus from Judea to Aquileia to be tried.  Antipater accompanies as a witness. Wars 1:25:3
12 ISBE 2-627, 692, Jud 2-567, wikHG
11 DGRBM 2-427
12 MEETING at AQUILEIA:  Herod accuses sons Alexander and Aristobulus of trying to kill him.  Other son Antipater bears witness against them.  Augustus affects official reconciliation between Herod and his sons Alexander & Aristobulus.  At Herods death, his kingdom is to be trisected between them and Antipater, with Antipater in chief. 13 CAH 10-742 12 CAH 10-334, ISBE 2-692, Jud 2-567, wikHG
11 DGRBM 1-301, GHH
12 Antipater under guardianship of his uncle Agrippa goes to Rome. 12 GHH
12 HEROD in Italy, buys half interest in copper mines at Cyprus from Augustus for 300 talents. 12 BNTH 21, CAH 10-33
12 Herod, Alexander & Aristobulus sail from Italy to Greece. 12 implied
12 Ag-Oc HALLEY'S COMET appears, but is only recorded by Chinese. 12 MCAW 269, wikHC
11 ISBE 1-344
c.12 Temple to VESTA on Palatine Hill dedicated. 12 MCAW 271
11 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Paulus FABIUS MAXIMUS and Q. AELIUS TUBERO 11 FHBC 84, OCD 427, wikCon
11 Jan DRUSUS Claudius Nero, in charge of Gaul from 13, returns to Rome until later 11, and is made urban praetor. 11 B76 III-677, CAH 10-153, DGRBM 1-1084, OCD 366, wikNCD
11 TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero Caesar, age 30, is forced to divorce much loved 1st wife Vipsania Agrippina dau of M. Agrippa, and become 3rd husband of JULIA, age 27, dau of Augustus, twice a widow, mother of 5, and chronic adultress.  Tiberius' happiness is over. 12 DGRBM 1-430, OCD 31, 457     11 CAH 10-97, 153, DGRBM 3-1118, GHH, HRE 51, ISBE 4-847, OCD 1071, MCAW 268, wikTAR, wikTi     10 bk
11 Regular games on Augustus' birthday begin until end of his reign. 11 CAH 10-137
11 Recent divorcee VIPSANIA AGRIPPINA marries C. Asinius GALLUS son of C. Asinius Pollio.  She will bear him 5 sons. no date: OCD 457
11 DRUSUS Claudius Nero, now urban praetor, celebrates ovatio, then returns to Gaul. 11 CAH 10-153, OCD 366, wikNCD
11 A private company owned by Agrippa is set up for maintenance of aqueducts.  M.(6) MESSALA CORVINUS becomes curator aquarum (superintendant of aqueducts). 11 B76 VI-821, CAH 10-794
11 VIA LATINA, last restored 370, from Tusculum to Alba restored by M.(6) Messala Corvinus. 11 B76 VI-821
c.11 Theatre of Marcellus, completed 13, dedicated by Augustus. 11 GHH, wikTAR
11 Office of FLAMEN DIALIS, high priest of Jupiter, vacant from 87, assigned by Augustus until ?. 11 CAH 10-828
c.11 OCTAVIA Minor dies.  Dau of C. Octavius & Atia Balba Caesonia, favorite sis of Augustus, wid of C. Claudius Marcellus d40, div of Antony 40-32.  Octavia had 5 children, 3 by Marcellus, a son and 2 daus, and 2 daus by Antony.  Her son, M. Marcellus, was adopted by Octavian, and named his successor, but died 23. 11 B76 VII-477, CAH 10-98, DGRBM 3-4, 1277, GHH, HRE 51, wikOcY, wikTAR
c.11 Senate list revised, but not significantly reduced.  About 600 senators.  Performed by virtue of censoria potestas. 13-11 CAH 10-325 11 CAH 10-97
c.11 Senatorial quorum of 400 senators abolished by Augustus.  But 400 are still required for any measure passed to be valid. 11 CAH 10-328
10 Jan 1 CONSULS:  [Africanus] Paullus FABIUS MAXIMUS and IULLUS ANTONIUS son of Antony & Fulvia 10 DGRBM 1-217, FHBC 84, OCD 78, 428, wikCon
10 Large Λ SUNDIAL built on Campus Martius. 10 OCD 200
10 Λ Religious rites and mysteries of Egypt displace national Roman religion. 10 GHH
c.10 Sextus PROPERTIUS, eliagic poet, dies. 10 CDCC 725
c.10  Elogium of Tusculum  written.  Records how a legate of Illyricum negotiates peace or war with the Celtic Cotini and Anarti tribes of Germania. 10 hifiCtn, wikGt
10 Aug 1 Ti. CLAUDIUS Drusus Nero, 2nd son of Drusus & Antonia, born at Lugdunum.  Partly paralized, and believed to be stupid. 10 CAH 10-98, CDCC 208, GHH, IDB 1-640, OCD 245, TAWH 304
10 DRUSUS and family return from Gaul to Rome. 10 OCD 366
9 DGRBM 1-429, wikNCD
10 DRUSUS Claudius Nero is made proconsul and returns to Gaul. 10 wikNCD
10 AUGUSTUS returns to Gaul to inspect the Altar of the 3 Gauls at Lugdunum and to observe the German situation. 10 CAH 10-98, 180, HRE 83, wikNCD
no date: B76 III-677
c.10 PHRATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, sends 4 sons to live in Rome, not to signify subordination, but to defuse opposition at home and stabilize his hold on the throne. 18 GHH
10 CAH 10-160
10 AUGUSTUS, TIBERIUS, DRUSUS all return from Gaul to Rome. 10 OCD 366
9 DGRBM 1-429, wikNCD
10/9 Consul Paullus FABIUS MAXIMUS becomes proconsul of Asia province until 7. 10 OCD3 582
no date: OCD 427
Jan 1
CONSULS:  DRUSUS Claudius Nero and T. QUINCTIUS CRISPINUS (Sulpicianus) 9 B76 III-677, CAH 10-98, FHBD 84, wikCon, wikNCD
9 Jan Consul DRUSUS Claudius Nero returns to Germany. 9 B76 III-677, CAH 10-153, OCD 366
9 Jan 30 Ara PacisOn the wedding aniversary of Augustus & Livia, the ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE, (Altar of Peace) on Campus Martius, begun 13, commemorating Augustus safe return from Gaul & Spain, dedicated by senate. photo: Manfred Heyde

13 DGRG 2-838, 9 CAH 10-96, 194, 943, CDCC 62, IDB 4-126, ISBE 4-234, OCD 90, 200, wikAP
c.9 Capitoline Temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, rebuilt 69, renovated by Augustus. 69 OCD 203
c.9 C. NONIUS Asprenas is accused of poisoning 30 guests at a banquet by Cassius Severus.  Defense is by Asinius Pollio.  Asprenas is a friend of Augustus, and is acquitted. 69 DGRBM 2-1208, 3-804
c.9 Livy's  History of Rome  ends. 10 hifiCT
9 GHH, IDB 4-107
c.9 Decline of the Comitia Tributa. 9 GHH
c.9  Lex Papia Poppaea  9 GHH
c.9  Lex Quinctia  settles penalties for damages to aqueducts and other constructions connected with water supply. 9 EDRL 558
9  Lex Julia de senatu habendo  increases fines on senators for absence from meetings, but they prove as ineffective as ever, and are quietly dropped, never to be revived.  A quorum of only 200 introduced for every kind of business.  Codifies senatorial procedure, previously governed by custom, rather than written statute. 8 CAH 10-328
c.9 SYLLAEUS, vizir of Nabataea and ambassadors of Herod both go to Rome and appeal to Augustus. 9 Jud 12-743
c.9 SYLLAEUS, vizir of Nabataea, persuades Augustus that Herod's invasion was unjust. 9 lvHG, wikHG 8 GHH
c.9 L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, proconsul of Africa from 12, returns to Rome until 7.  P. Quinctilius VARUS succeeds until 6. 9 wikAf 7 rcNA
9 TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero Caesar, in Balkans 12-9, is given proconsular imperium by Augustus. 9 HRE 52
9 Sep 14 DRUSUS dies near the Rhine.
9 Sep Body of Drusus is brought back from Germania by Tiberius, and burnt on Mars Field.  There is no record of any suffect consul filling the brief vacancy.  Tiberius delivers funeral oration in the forum.  Widow Antonia Minor remains unmarried until death 37CE.  His family is granted the hereditary honorific title "Germanicus", which is given to his eldest son before passing to his youngest.  His children are Germanicus, Livilla, and Claudius. 9 B76 III-677, CAH 10-98, 154, DGRBM 1-1086, 3-1118, LEWH 115, MCAW 272, OCD 75, 366, wikNCD, wikTAR
9 TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero Caesar returns to Germania. 9 DGRBM 3-1118
Jan 1
8 Λ CENSORS:  AUGUSTUS is sole censor. 8 wikCns
8 Alpine tribes finally subdued. 8 DGRG 2-1113
8 All magistrates are accused of electoral bribery.  Augustus declines to peer into that too closely, but he makes new rules to reduce bribery at future consular elections. 8 CAH 10-99
8 Augustus gets his imperiun renewed by the senate for an another 5 (10?) years (27, 18, 12) 8 CAH 10-154, GHH, MCAW 272
8 Augustus calls for another census. 8 CAH 10-154, Hre 19, MCAW 273
8 CENSUS completed by consular imperium (a special, conceivably celebratory, grant), with a revision of the Senate list.  Rome has 4,233,000 citizens. 8 CAH 10-99, GHH
8 AUGUSTUS goes to Gaul 4th time. 8 HRE 83
8 Λ CALENDAR corrected by Augustus because leap years had been inserted every 3 years. 9 MCAW 273
8 B76 15-1107, CDCC 159, GHH
8 Month of SEXTILIS (following Quinctilis which was changed to July in 44) is changed to AUGUST. 8 B76 15-1107, CAH 10-99, wikSx no date: CDCC 157
8  Lex Julia de Ambitu  (see 18), requires deposits from candidates for office. 8 CAH 10-125, GHH
8 A rule is made that slaves could be compulsorily purchased by the state, so as to make them available as witnesses against their former masters in cases of treason. 8 CAH 10-98
8 Equite, C. Cilnius MAECENAS, friend of Horace, former urban prefect 36-33, 31-29, dies childless, leaving his estate to Augustus.  He was a good minister, and hard to replace. 8 B76 2-371, 8-1072, 11-291, CAH 10-949, CDCC 543, DGRBM 1-430, 2-895, GHH, HRE 3, 59, OCD 636, wikMcn
8 HEROD sails from Judea to Rome, accuses sons Alexander and Aristobulus of treason.  Herod reconciles with Augustus, who permists him to proceed legally against his sons. 8 GHH, wikHG
8 Herod obtains authority from a Roman consul to kill his 2 sons by Mariamne. 8 GHH
8 HEROD sails from Italy to Judea. 8 implied
8 DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus completes  Roman Archaeology .  Seeks to prove that Romans are not barbarians, by tracing mythical connection between Rome and Greece. 8 HRE 161
Nov 17
HORACE dies.  Official poet of Augustus, age 56, dies unexpectedly leaving everything to Augustus. 8 B76 13-798, DGRBM 2-521, GHH, HRE 156, SHWC, TToH
8/7 AUGUSTUS is persuaded by Nicolas of Damascus and Aretas-IV of Nabataea that Sillaeus lied about Herod in 9.  Augustus renews relations with Herod, but not as before because of Herod's family feuds. 8/7 CAH 10-334
Jan 1
CONSULS:  TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero (2nd) (now in Gaul) and Gn.(5) CALPURNIUS PISO 7 CAH 10-99, 154, DGRBM 3-375, Dur 3- , FHBC 84, MCAW 272, OCD 837, wikCon, wikTi
7 TIBERIUS, commander of the Rhine from 9, returns to Rome, triumphs over the Sicambri, becomes consul. 7 CAH 10, DGRBM 3-1118, HRE 130, wikTi
7 L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS becomes legate of Illyricum until 2, but is sent against the Marcomanni on the upper Rhine, where he is commander in chief until 1CE. 7 GHH, OCD 361 7-2 OCD 361
6 CAH 10-526
no date: DGRBM 1-86, wikLDA
c.7 FIRE in Rome just before the funeral games of Agrippa.  Augustus reorganizes the city into 14 "regions", with 265 "blocks", to be responsible for fire precautions.  It fails. 7 CAH 10-100, 794, 823
c.7 Augustus permits trial of Alexander & Aristobulus outside of Herod's domain at Berytus Syria, with Roman officials playing the main parts.  Comments "Its safer to be Herod's pig (Greek hus) than his son (Greek huios)." 7 CAH 10-335
7 DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus publishes 1st parts of  Roman Antiquities , 1st of a series of 20 volumes.  10 survive.  "All men judge the acts of others by what they would have done themselves."  "Time is the best interpreter of every doubtful law."  "Love of liberty is planted by nature in the hearts of men." 7 B76 III-559, CAH 10-885, GHH, MCAW 273, MNDQ 621, 655, 680, OCD 351
7 TEMPLE of CONCORD at west end of the Forum, destroyed 45 by Caesar, rebuilding begun by Tiberius.  Finished 10CE. 7 CAH 10-99, wikTC
7 14 regiones Rome is divided into 14 regiones identified by landmarks.  The regiones are subdivided into 265 vici for local administration. map: Nuno Tavares

7 CAH 10-823, MCAW 273, OCD 911, wik14r
7 ANTIPATER, son of Herod sails from Judea, to Tarentum to avoid suspicion when Herod is poisoned. 7 GHH
7 Strabo's EuropeSTRABO, Greek geographer, philosopher, historian, publishes 1st edition of  Geographica . Strabo's Europe {{PD-US}}

7 wikGg 6 MCAW 273
Strabo's world
Strabo's world     {{PD-US}}
7 STRABO, in Rome from 19 , moves to Amasia Pontus until death 23. 7 OCD 1017
c.7/6 IULLUS ANTONIUS, 2nd son of Antony & Fulvia, becomes proconsul of Asia until 6, then returns to Rome.  C. Asinius GALLUS succeeds until 5. 7/6 OCD 78, 457
Jan 1
CONSULS:  C.(2) ANTISTIUS VETUS and Decimus LAELIUS BALBUS 6 DGRBM 1-457, 3-1251, FHBC 84, wikCon
6 ANTIPATER, son of Herod, in Tarentum, learns that Pheroras is dead, fears that his plot may be exposed.  He also receives a friendly letter from Herod summoning him to return.  He sails back for Caesarea. Wars 1:31:3
5 CAH 10-742
6 AUGUSTUS appoints TIBERIUS(5) to go settle the Armenian succession.  Ti. refuses to go. 6 CAH 10-160, HRE 20
6 Stepson / son-in-law of Augustus, TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero, age 36, is made co-princeps of Rome until 27CE by senate on order of stepdad / dad-in-law Augustus.  He is also offered tribune power for 5 years and imperium over the eastern half of the Empire.  Tiberius, furious at honors given to Augustus grandsons, refuses, announces intent to leave Rome.  Augustus stages illness to detain him, but it does not work.  Ti. leaves wife Julia to frolic in Rome, and retires to Rhodes until 2CE.  Ti. reportedly regrets his departure and asks to return to Rome several times, but Augustus refuses. 6 B76 2-371, 18-370, CAH 10-100, 154-5, 634, DGRBM 1-430, 2-641, 3-1118, GHH, HRE 52, 130, IDB 4-640, MCAW 272, 273, OCD 1071, wikAg, wikTAR, wikTi
5 CAH 10-155
5 Jan 1 CONSULS:  AUGUSTUS (12th) and L. Cornelius SULLA (both Jan-after 11 Apr)   Q. Haterius (before 1 Jul-Dec)   L. VINICIUS (until 16 Jul or 13 Aug)   C. Sulpicius GALBA (until end of year) 5 B76 IV-384, 15-1107, CAH 10-154, DGRBM 3-944, FHBC 84, wikAg, wikCon
5 Tenure of CONSULS changed by Augustus.  The 2 "ordinary" consuls rule half the year, and 2 suffect consuls rule for the rest of it. 5 CAH 10-100, 327
5 Son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia, CAIUS CAESAR VIPSANIUS, age 15 nominated for consul by the people.  Augustus forbids it. 6 CAH 10-100, wikGC
5 DGRBM 1-555, HRE 52
5 CAIUS CAESAR VIPSANIUS assumes toga virilis, and is introduced to political life.  He is allowed to attend senate meetings, and designated consul upon reaching age 20 in 1CE. 6 wikGC     5 CAH 10-100, 154, GHH, HRE 52, MCAW 272, OCD 191
5 CAIUS CAESAR VIPSANIUS is made pontifex. 5 CAH 10-100, 154, GHH, HRE 52, MCAW 272, OCD 191, wikGC
5 Herodian embassy to Rome to request Augustus' final decision respecting Antipater.  Remains until 4. 5 GHH
Jan 1
Suffects: C. Caelius (Rufus?), Galus Sulpicius
4 DGRBM 3-676, 689, FHBC 84, OCD 198, wikCon
4 early Herodian embassy to Rome from 5 returns to Judea with permission to kill or exile Antipater. 3 GHH
4 REPETUNDAE (extortion) charges against Roman magistrates by provincials, until now a public affair, are henceforth judged by a small panel of senators in all but capital cases.  This is by a senatus consultum proposed by Augustus.  The good-old-boys now have each other's backs. 4 CAH 10-101, 333
4 Nicolas of Damascus sent by Archelaus from Judea to Rome to contend for Archelaus' succession. 4 CAH 10-377, Jud 3-333, 12-1140
4 A Consilium is assembled to determine the fate of Judea after death of Herod.  Caius Caesar is on it. 4 CAH 10-100
c.4 ARCHELAUS, ANTIPAS, and SALOME(1), in Rome from April, return with Augustus' succession verdict to Judea. 4 guess
4 Extremist Jews sends a delegation from Judea to Italy to ask Augustus to abolish the whole house of Herod and annex Judea to Syria.  8,000 Roman Jews escourt them to Rome. 4 Jud 3-334, 14-240
4 Apr ANTIPAS, 2nd son of Herod & Malthace go from Judea to Rome to persuade Augustus that Herod's previous will, in which Antipas was named king, was the correct one.  He remains until later that year. Wars 2:2:3 4 CAH 10-337
4 Apr ARCHELAUS now figures he better go in person to Rome.  Salome accompanies him supposedly to support him, but really to accuse him before Augustus.  They remain until later that year. Wars 2:2:2 4 CAH 10-377
4 AUGUSTUS hears the case of Judean succession, gives chief seat among the judges to Caius Caesar, 1st son of M. Agrippa & Julia. Wars 2:2:4
5 B76 2-371
4 AUGUSTUS breaks up Herods kingdom, reduces it to an ethnarchy and 2 tetrarchies under a single procurator - Sabinus until ?.  He gives Gaza, Gadara, Hippos, and Abilene to Syria. Wars 2:6:3 4 CAH 10-338, IDB 1-9
4 L. Aemilius PAULUS, son of Lepidus A.P. & Cornelia, marries JULIA until 8CE, dau of M. V. Agrippa & Julia. 4 OCD 567, 792
4 M. Porcius LATHRO, rhetorician, dies. 4 DGRBM 2-726
Jan 1
CONSULS:  L.(13) Cornelius LENTULUS and M.(9) VALERIUS MESSALA MESSALINUS 3 DGRBM 2-733, FHBC 84, OCD 674, wikCon
Jan 1
CONSULS:  AUGUSTUS (13th) (Jan-Aug) and M. PLAUTIUS SILVANUS (Jan-Jun)   L.(3) Caninius GALLUS (Jul-Dec)   C. Fufius GEMINUS (Sep-Oct)   Q. FABRICIUS (Nov-Dec) 2 B76 15-1107, CAH 10, DGRBM 3-826, FHBC 84, wikAg, wikCon
c.2 Feb 5 Messala Corvinus proposes to entitle Augustus Pater Patriae "father of the country".  Augustus likes it, so the senate, equites, and people oblige. 2 B76 2-371, 15-1107, CAH 10-101, 137, 794, HRE 18, MCAW 272, OCD 674, wikAg, wikTAR
c.2 JULIA, dau of Augustus, wife of Tiberius and abandoned by him from 6, is accused of adultery with many men including Iullus Antonius, son of Antony.  This is the only senate meeting that Augustus skips.  He sends a letter instead. 2 CAH 10-329, MCAW 272
2 LUCIUS Caesar, age 14, 2nd son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia, assumes toga virilis, and is introduced to political life.  He is made augur, allowed to attend senate meetings and is designated consul upon reaching age 20 in 4CE. 2 B76 2-371, CAH 10-100, 155, GHH, HRE 53, wikLC
c.2 Suffect consuls, L. Caninius Gallus and C. Fufius Geminus, put thru the comitia  Lex Fufia Caninia   No master may free more than 100 slaves upon death.  This may be related to another change whereby the number of recipients of free grain is cut down to 200,000. 2 CAH 10-104, 894, EDRL 552, IDB Sup-830, MCAW 273, wikLRL
c.2 PRAETORIAN GUARD (Cohors Praetoria), used by powerful generals from republican times, formed by Augustus, 9 cohorts of @500 men each, (legion size), minimum service 12 years.  3 are stationed in Rome, the other 6 garrisoned thruout Italy.  Previously ruled by Augustus personally, they are now governed by 2 equestrian prefects until 14CE. 27 CAH 10-103, 128, 341, 384, britPG
2 HRE 70, MCAW 272
no date: unrvPG
2 LIVIA Drusilla, wife of Augustus, gets a friend of Lucius Caesar to make a list of Julia's sex partners, gets Lucius to show the list to Augustus. "I Claudius" by Robert Graves
c.2 JULIA, only child of Augustus & Scribonia, convicted of adultery and treason by Augustus, who annulls her marriage to Tiberius, and exiles her along with Scribonia, wid of Marcellus 23, Agrippa 12, div of Tiberius 5 to Pandateria island off the coast of Campania until 4CE.. 2 CAH 10-102, 156, GHH, HRE 53
exiled to Ventotene. 2 wikTAR
2 2nd son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia, LUCIUS Caesar dies in Massilia. 2 B76 18-370
2CE DGRBM 1-556, HRE 53, wikLC
2 M. LOLLIUS (enemy of Tiberius from 16) is appointed by Augustus as a tutor to his adopted son and grandson Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East and to learn about government. 2/1 wikML
2 CAIUS CAESAR receives proconsular imperium for the whole east, departs.  M. Lollius accompanies 2 CAH 10-104, 191, DGRBM 2-797, HRE 52
2 Augustan Forum AUGUSTAN FORUM, begun 27?, inaugurated, but still not finished or dedicated. plan: Cassius Ahenobarbus

art: S.B. Platner

2 wikFA
Temple of Mars Ultor
Temple of Mars Ultor     Bruce McAdam
2 Aug 1 Temple of MARS ULTOR (the Avenger), begun 20 at the far end of the still incomplete Augustan Forum, is finished and dedicated by Caius & Julius Caesar.  It is the most symbolic and triumphalist of all the Augustan public buildings.  A statue of Augustus victorious in a chariot adorns the front.  Circus-games are founded, including gladiatorial and the long-remembered "Naval Battle of the Greeks and Persians". 2 CAH 10-102, 193, 330, 820, 833, HRE 143, wikFA, wikGC
c.2 Senators accept the fact that it is pointless any longer to take an active, critical part in sessions, when the result seems a foregone conclusion.  ACTA SENATUS, a detailed record of proceedings, instituted by Julius Caesar in 59, are now made public.  Some matters of highest importance are never referred to the Senate at all. 2 CAH 10-330
2 IULLUS ANTONIUS, 2nd son of Antony & Fulvia, accused of adultery with Julia, condemned to death by Augustus, suicides. 2 CAH 10-102, DGRBM 1-217, OCD 78
2 AQUA ALSIETINA built by Augustus.  From Alsetian Lake 20 miles to a basin across the Tibur to stage sea battles. 2 B76 1-1037
Jan 1
CONSULS:  Cossus Cornelius LENTULUS Gaetulicus and L. CALPURNIUS PISO (Augur)
Suffects: A. Plautius, A. Caecina Severus
1 DGRBM 2-733, FHBC 84, OCD 137, 187, 566, wikCon
1 CAIUS [Caligula] Caesar, 1st son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia, betrothed to LIVILLA until 4CE, dau of Drusus d9 & Antonia d37CE. 1 DGRBM 2-789, OCD 191
1 1st son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia, CAIUS Julius Caesar Vipsanius, age 19, is appointed proconsul of Syria with imperium for the whole East, Caius, sent by Augustus with orders to recover Armenia and combat Parthian influenceM. LOLLIUS is his chief of staff until 1CE.  They sail to Athens. 1 B76 II-434, CAH 10-104, 274-5, 552, DGRBM 1-556, MCAW 274, wikGC
c.1 Augustus refuses to let Tiberius return from Rhodes to Rome. 1 MCAW 274
c.1 Envoy of TIGRANES-III, king of Armenia 2BC-1CE, under Parthia from 2, sent with gifts to Rome, asks senate to make Tig-III Armenian king, prefering Roman overlords to Parthian. 1 CAH 10-275, bdrs, hystn
c.1 OVID (P. Ovidius Naso) publishes  Ars Amortia (Amatoria? Amorata?)  "Art of Love". 2 DGRBM 3-72, TToH
1 B76 13-798, MCAW 273     2CE wikAA
c.1 OVID publishes  Remedia Amoris  "Remedies of Love".  Advice and strategies to avoid being hurt by love, or to fall out of love with a stoic overtone 1 MCAW 273