Italy
42 Oct 23 Liberators' civil war ends at Philippi: M.(7) Junius Brutus siucides. 42 Oct 23 wikTAR
42  History  by C.(1) Asinius Pollio covers the civil war from 60 to 42. 41 HRE 151
42 After Philippi Caesar's VETERANS and time-served men of the levies of 49-8, who had now fulfilled the 6-year service norm, @40,000 men, are released and given land in Italy.  Many towns selected (e.g. Capua, Ariminum, Bononia) lay at important road junctions, controlling access to Rome.  8,000 veterans who rejected the land-allotments are retained by Octavian and Antony to serve as praetorians.  Eleven legions are formed now from those who had not served the 6-year minimum. 42 CAH 10-375, 384, GHH '  
42  Lex Munatia Aemilia  gives triumvirs the right to grant citizenship and exemption from taxes. 42 atl1
42 Temple of Divus Julius begun by Octavian at the south end of the Forum Romanum on the site of Caesar's cremation, replacing an earlier memorial to Caesar.  Completed 29. 42 pmpc, wikTC
42 Oct? Q. HORATIUS FLACCUS (Horace) republican tribune, flees from Thessaly to Italy, finds his father's farm in Venusia confiscated by Octavian, goes to Rome. 42 B76 8-1072
42 Oct? Dau of Cato Uticensis & Atilia, PORCIA dies.  Widow of M. Bibulus d.48, wife of M.(7) Brutus from 45, learns of Philippi, suicides by stabbing.  Emotion demands the generation of a legend saying she swallowed burning coal. 42 DGRBM 3-498, atl1, wikLCW
Empire at 50BCE
Empire after Philippi 42BCE       map: ColdEel
42 Nov 2nd TRIUMVIRATE, having distributed everything in 43 Oct/Nov, now redistributes everything.  Antony to get Gaul and the job of paying troops and reorganizing the east.  Lepidus, suspected of collaborating with Sextus Pompeius, to get nothing until proven innocent.  Octavian to get Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Africa. 43 B76 VI-158, CAH 10-26
42
Nov 16
Ti.(5) Claudius Nero (future emperor TIBERIUS) is born to Ti.(4) Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla at Fondi. 42 CAH 10-75, HRE 46, atl1, wikTCN, wikTi
41 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS  and L. ANTONIUS Pietas, bro of Antony 41 CAH 10-14, 28, DGRBM 1-216, 3-1233, FHBC 84, OCD 78, csm, wikCon
41 Jan 1 L. Antonius triumphs for victory in Alps. 41 atl1
41 LAND COMMISSION:  C.(1) Asinius Pollio, C. Cornelius Gallus, Alfenus Varus sent by Octavian to Cisalpine Gaul to confiscate land for veterans.  Causes disturbances thruout Italy. 41 DGRBM 2-227, OCD 45, atl1
41 CISALPINE GAUL is so tame that it is no longer assigned as a province. post 42 wikRGG
c.41 VIRGIL, in Cisalpine Gaul, finishes  Ecologue #1 & 9 . 41 OCD 1123
41 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO, on land commission in Cisalpine Gaul, saves Virgil's property from being confiscated. 41 OCD 852
c.41 VIRGIL (P. Vergilius Maro) has his family estate in Cisalpine Gaul confiscated. 41 atl1
Virgil's estate confiscation is complicated. no date: DGRBM 3-1264
c.41 Octavius Musa, appointed to carry out the distribution of land to veterans near Cremona, transgresses the limits of that district and encroaches on the territory of Mantua. 41 HRE 151
c.41 After attempting arbitration between rival parties in Italy, vets declare support for Octavian. 41 atl1
41 Estate of Roman poet Albius Tibullus at Pedum confiscated.  He will recover part of it. 41 B76 IX-996
no date: DGRBM 3-1124
41 CREMONA, Roman colony from 218, territory confiscated for a veteran colony. 41 OCD 297
41 ANTONY, having again threatened Brundusium with 300 ships, C. Maecenas and Cocceius hurry there from Rome, and again conclude an amicable arrangement. 41 DGRG 1-445
41 L. ANTONIUS is forced back to Perusia. 41 fall CAH 10-16
41 Ti.(4) CLAUDIUS NERO and wife Livia Drusilla and infant son Ti.(5) flee from Rome joining Antony's bro Lucius in Perusia. 41 wikTCN
41 FULGINIUM Umbria occupied by Antonine generals Ventidius Bassus and Asinius Pollio. 41 DGRG 1-919
41 Consul L. ANTONIUS Pietas, bro of Antony, champions cause of Italians displaced by Octavian's land grants to vets. 41 OCD 78
41 Octavian becomes augur until 40. 41 CAH 10-824
41 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is nominated consul for 40, but is obliged to consent to the proscription of his father-in-law, L. Quintius. no date: DGRBM 3-437
41 JULIA, dau of L. Julius Caesar & Fulvia, wid of Antonius Creticus and Lentulus Sura, flees from Rome to Sextus Pompeius in Sicily.  She is out of Italy until 39. 41 DGRBM 2-640
41 Centurion NONIUS tries to suppress military disorder in Campus Martius, and is murdered by troops. 41 DGRBM 2-1208
c.41 L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS commands Antony's troops in Italy.  Accordingly when L. Antonius, bro, and Fulvia, wife of the triumvir, declare war against Octavian, they expect help from Plancus; but as Plancus does not know the views of his superior, he keeps aloof from the contest. 41 DGRBM 3-383
41 BRESCIA, a civitas from 89, given citizenship.   Colonized 27. 41 wikBrs
41 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO, on land commission in Cisalpine Gaul, menaces city of Patavium. 41 atl1
41 Minor mutiny of Augustus' troops at Placentia. 41 DGRG 2-636
41 Antony's wife FULVIA and bro LUCIUS think Octavian is getting too popular with troops, raise armies to oppose him.  Partisans of L. Antonius include praetor Ti.(4) Claudius Nero, M. Cocceius Nerva, P. Candidius Crassus, Ti. Canutius, C.(2) Furnius. 41 CAH 10-28, DGRBM 2-191, 1162, OCD 730-1
41 Diehard republican fleet commander Gn.(6) AHENOBARBUS attacks Brundisium, captures some triremes of Octavian, burns others, shuts the inhabitants up in their walls, and plunders their territory. 41 atl1
41 Oligarchical civil wars (30); at Praeneste.  300 senators, and other distinguished Romans, are sacrificed to the manes of Julius Caesar by order of Octavian. 41 GHH
41 Antony's quaestor, M. BARBATIUS POLLIO disagrees with Antony, returns from Ephesus? to Italy, spreads false rumor that Antony was displeased with those who were making war on Octavian.  Some believe him and defect from L. Antonius to Octavian. 41 atl1
41 Perusian War begins until 40; Octavian orders Lepidus to defend Rome, while Octavian & praetor Agrippa besiege L. Antonius in Perusia until Feb 40. 41 B76 VII-898, 1-367, 15-1106, CAH 10-16, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, GHH, HRE 3, MCAW 258, atl1, wik2Tr, wikLpd
41 Antonine Tisienus GALLUS, in Nursia, attacked by Octavian, repels him. 41 DGRBM 2-229
41 Q. Salvidienus Rufus with 6 legions is sent by Octavian to march to Spain, but is blocked by Antonine C.(1) Asinius Pollio. 41 CAH 10-15
Rufus is summoned back to oppose L. Antonius. DGRBM 3-701
41 Antonine L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS is defeated by Octavian, flees to Spoletium. 41 DGRG 2-1033
41 SUTRIUM is occupied by Agrippa in order to cut off communications of L. Antonius with Rome. 41 DGRG 2-1051
41 While Octavian & Agrippa are busy with the Perusian War Sextus Pompeius ravages the coast of Italy unopposed. 41 DGRBM 3-490
41 CLAUDIA Pulchra, stepdau of Antony, wife of Octavian 42-40, sent home to her mom Fulvia at beginning of Perusian War. 41 DGRBM 1-762, atl1
40 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Antonine C.(1) Asinius POLLIO and Gn. Domitius CALVINUS (2nd), but forced to resign before term expires.
Suffects: L.(1) Cornelius Balbus (1st foreign-born consul), P. Canidius Crassus.
Ant 14:14:5     40 CAH 10-460, DGRBM 1-456, 585, 872, FHBC 84, OCD 160, 197, 852 csm, wikCon, wikGAP, wikGnDC, wikL1Bl
Lucius, not Publius Canidius Crassus 40 DGRBM 1-872
40 Jan 1 CALENDAR V is adjusted to avoid having a market day occurring on first day of year. 40 atl1
40 Feb War with Parthia begins in Syria.
c.40 Antonine Q. Fufius CALENUS dies accidentally commanding 11 legions in Italy near the Alps.  His son surrenders his army to Octavian. 41 DGRBM 1-562 40 CAH 10-10, 16, 66, atl1, wikQFC
40 Fb/Mr L. ANTONIUS, besieged in Perusia by Octavian & Agrippa from 41, surrenders.  Octavian pardons him and his men, fearing retribution from Antony.  L. Antonius and Ti.(4) Claudius Nero with his family flee to Praeneste. 40 B76 1-367, CAH 10-16, 29, DGRBM 1-79, 215, DGRG 2-664, GHH, MCAW 260, OCD 78, atl1, wik2Tr, wikAg, wikTCN
40 Fb/Mr PERUSIA burnt, except for the temple of Vulcan.  40 DGRG 2-581
40 Fb/Mr C. FLAVIUS with L. Antonius in Perusia, executed by Octavian 40 DGRBM 2-173
40 Fb/Mr After Perisia, Antony's man P. Ventidius BASSUS joins his army to that of L.(1) Munatius Plancus. 40 DGRBM 3-1238, '  
40 Fb/Mr Ti.(4) Claudius Nero, having defended Antonines in Perusia, escapes with wife Livia Drusilla from Praeneste to Neapolis, vainly tries to organize a slave revolt. 40 DGRBM 1-426, 2-1162, OCD 730, wikTCN
40 Fb/Mr FULVIA, wife of Antony, and L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS, flee from Perusia to GreeceAntony's forces in Italy collapse. 40 DGRBM 3-383, MCAW 260, OCD 838
40 Mar Many supporters of Antony, flee from Italy. 40 atl1
40
Mar 15
400 noble Perusians including 300 senators and equestrians are butchered at the altar of Caesar. 40 DGRBM 1-426, wikAg
40 Mr/Ap ANTONY with only 5 ships meets all 70 ships of republican Gn.(6) Ahenobarbus in the AdriaticAntony and Ahenobarbus are reconciled and sail to Brundisium. 41 CAH 10-42, DGRBM 1-86, MCAW 260
40 B76 I-151, wikGnDA
40 Apr BRUNDISIUM, fearing Gn.(6) Ahenobarbus, who had previously attacked it, closes gates to him and Antony, without orders from Octavian. 40 CAH 10-43
40 Apr ANTONY and Gn.(6) AHENOBARBUS blockade Brundisium and other coastal towns in south Italy, sieze strategic points.  Antony finally allies with Sextus Pompeius. 41 CAH 10-43, DGRBM 3-490, atl1, wikAg
40 CLAUDIA Pulchra, stepdau of Antony, wife of Octavian from 42, having been sent home to her mom Fulvia at beginning of Perusian War, is now divorced, and fades out of history. 40 wikPCP
40 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS opposes recall of Q. Lucretius Vespillo, who was exiled in proscriptions of 43. 40 atl1
40 Octavian's man Q. Salvieienus RUFUS is defeated by Sextus off Rhegium. 40 wikSP
40 May C.(2) Claudius MARCELLUS dies.  Son of M. C. M., husband of Octavia minor (Octavian's sis) from 54, father of Claudia, Claudia, Marcus.  His widow Octavia will marry Antony. 41 B76 VII-477, DGRBM 2-934, 3-3 40 wikGCMn, wikOcY
c. 40  Lex Falcidia  provides that legacies not exceed 3/4 of the testator's estate.  A minimum of a fourth part is reserved to the heir appointed in the testament.  In case of several heirs each must receive at least 1/4 of the share assigned to him.  The part of the legacy exceeding 3/4 is void.  An heir sued by the legatee for the surplus could oppose the exceptio legis Falcidiae.  The value of the estate at the time of the testator's death is decisive.  Later changes do not count.  The law prevents refusal of an inheritance, charged with exorbitant legacies, by the heir. 40 EDRL 552
40 SEXTUS POMPEIUS, now allied with Antony against Octavian, sends troops into south Italy. 40 DGRBM 3-490
c.40 THURII is attacked by Sextus Pompeius, who ravages its territory, but is repulsed from the walls of the city. 40 DGRG 2-1193
40 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA made urban praetor by Octavian, with instructions to defend against Sextus Pompeius. 40 B76 1-367, CDCC 28, OCD 30, wikMVA
40 L. ANTONIUS, younger bro of Antony, given a command in Spain by Octavian. 40 CAH 10-16, OCD 76
40 Equite C. Cilinius MAECENAS negotiates a marriage between Octavian and Scribonia, (38). 40 DGRBM 2-891, GHH, MCAW 260
OCTAVIAN marries SCRIBONIA until 39.  She is sis of L. Scribonius Libo, who is dad of wife of Sextus Pompeius. 40 CAH 10-17, OCD 965, atl1, wikAg
40 Aug Antony and Sextus Pompeius both invade Italy, but not in a coordinated alliance. 40 CAH 10-17, atl1, wikMVA
40 STANDOFF at Brundisium:  Octavian on land, Antony with fleet.  Troops begin to fraternize.  L. Cocceius Nerva mediates between them.  Suspicions and misunderstandings are clarified. 40 CAH 10-43, CDCC 111, OCD 76
40 SIPONTUM garrisoned by Antony until later 40. 40 DGRG 2-1011
40 SIPONTUM, under Antony 40, taken by M. Vipsanius Agrippa. 40 DGRBM 1-79, wikMVA
40 AQUA JULIA aqueduct begun from the Tepula to Rome.  Finished 33. 40 atl1
c.40 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) publishes  De Republica Ordinanda   "Every man is the architect of his own fortune." 40 MNDQ 419
c.40 SALLUST publishes  The Jugurthine War . 40 B76 16-185
c.40 SALLUST publishes  Histories   Covers Rome 78-67. no date:
B76 16-185
c.40 VIRGIL finishes  Ecologue #4   Records Cumean Sibyl predicting the birth of a savior child, and dawning of a Golden Age. 41 CAH 10-19
41/0 wikVE4
40 HRE 152, OCD 1123, NTA 2-705
no date: OCD 984
c.40 CICERO's  De Legibus   is postumously published.  "The aim of justice is to give every man his due."  "The foundation of the law is not opinion, but nature."  "The magistrate is a speaking law; the law is a silent magistrate." 50 MNDQ 626, 655
no date: B76 4-610
40 M. TITIUS, son of L. Titius, captured by Menodorus, spared by Sextus Pompeius for his father's sake. 40 OCD 1079
40 Sp/Oc Reconciliation of Octavian and Antony mediated by C.(1) Asinius Pollio at  Treaty of Brundisium .  Antony to marry Octavia, Octavian's sis.  The Empire is repartitioned:  Octavian's west and Antony's east are divided at the Illyrian town of Scodra.  Lepidus gets Spain, Narbonensis, and Africa until 36.  Senate and people all rejoice at apparent avoidance of war. 40 Ac31 5, CAH 10-44, 548, DGRBM 3-438, GHH, MCAW 260, atl1, bk, wikGAP, wik2Tr, wikNrb
40 Sp/Oc At Treaty of Brundisium, Octavian learns that Q. Salvidienus Rufus had offered to betray him to Antony. 40 wikMVA, '  
40
Oct 12
Signum Concordiae, a monument to mark the accord, erected by magistrates of Casinum. 40 CAH 10-19
40 Oct? After triumvirs reconcile, SEXTUS POMPEIUS, allied with Antony against Octavian, quits raiding south Italy. 40 DGRBM 3-490
40 Oct? Q. SALVIDIENUS RUFUS dies.  Accused by Octavian in the senate, condemned to death, and either suicides or is executed. 40 atl1, DGRBM 3-701, wikMVA
40 Oct Consuls celebrate a festival, to commemorate defeat of Caesar's assassins. 40 atl1
40 Oct Economic depression and a war weary attitude prevent Antony and Octavian from crushing Sextus Pompeius. 40 CAH 10-45
40 Oc/Nv Sextus Pompeius causes famine at Rome by his control of sea.  Roman populace is not content to wait for him to be conquered.  They demand a reconciliation with Sextus. 40 CAH 10-19, DGRBM 3-490, atl1
40 Nov ANTONY marries 4th wife OCTAVIA Minor, Octavian's full sister until 32.  The senate even decrees them married.  She is pregnant widow of C.(3) Claudius Marcellus. 40 CAH 10-51, DGRBM 1-215, wik2Tr, wikAg, wikOcY
40 ANTONY, sends Gn.(6) Ahenobarbus away to be governor of Bithynia.  Sends C.(1) Asinius Pollio to negotiate with Octavian. 40 B76 I-151, CAH 10-43, DGRBM 1-86, OCD 361, wikGnDA
40 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO & wife Livia Drusilla & infant Tiberius, age 2 sail from Neapolis to Sicily, join Sextus Pompeius. 40 OCD 730, atl1, wikTCN
40 late HEROD sails from Alexandria to Rome, received by Antony and Octavian.  Antony is planning an invasion of Parthia, and sees Herod as a potential ally.  On Antony's recommendation, he is made king of Judea by senate.  Samaria is included in his kingdom.  He is crowned in Rome, and in gratitude sacrifices to Jupiter Capitolinus, and leaves Italy 7 days after arrival, sails to Ptolemais. Wars 1:19:3
40 CAH 10-320, 740, DGRBM 2-425, FHBC 230, IDB 2-534, 588, Jud 5-604, atl1
39 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. CALVISIUS SABINUS and L. MARCIUS CENSORINUS
Suffects: P. Alfenus Varus (after Oct.-Dec.), C. Cocceius Balbus (Dec.)
39 DGRBM 1-664, 3-689, FHBC 84, OCD 45, 197, csm, wikCon
39 Jan 1 Consul CENSORINUS has triumph for Macedonia 40 39 atl1
39 early M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, main man of Octavian, made governor of Gaul until 38, leaves for Aquitainia. 39 B76 1-367, CAH 10-46, CDCC 28, OCD 30     39/8 wikMVA
39 early Gn. Domitius CALVINUS, Octavian partisan, made proconsul of Spain until 36. 39 CAH 10-46, DGRBM 1-585, wikGnDC
no date: OCD 197
39 early P. Ventidius BASSUS with 11 legions sent by Antony to oppose Q. Labienus in Asia and expel Parthians from Asia and Syria. 40 CAH 10-21       39 B76 X-390, CAH 10-46, 47, 49, DGRBM 3-1238, GHH, OCD 1113
39 OCTAVIAN and ANYONY negotiate an agreement to stop the piracy of Sextus Pompeius. 39 wik2Tr
39 M.(13) Claudius MARCELLUS is betrothed to dau of Sextus Pompeius, as a condition of the peace concluded in 39 between Sextus and Octavian.  But the marriage never happens. 40 DGRBM 2-934
39 M.(3) Junius SILANUS, with Antony from 43, having fallen from favor with both triumvirs, goes to Sicily, joins Sextus Pompeius until later 39. 39 OCD 988
39 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO & wife Livia & son Tiberius age 3, Antonines in Achaea from 40, take advantage of Misenum amnesty, return to Rome. 40 DGRBM 2-1162
39 OCD 730, wikTCN
39 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO with 11 legions sent by Antony to subdue the Parthini of Illyria until later 39. 39 CAH 10-46, 47, 49, GHH, wikGAP
39 MUCIA TERTIA, divorcee of Pompey 62, at earnest request of the Roman people, goes to Sicily to mediate between her son Sextus Pompeius and Octavian. 39 DGRBM 2-1117
39 spring Preliminary meeting of negotiators at Aenaria Island west of Cape Misenum.  L. Scribonius Libo represents Sextus.  They agree to meet at Cape Misenum. 39 CAH 10-20
39 spring  Treaty of MISENUM Octavian and Antony make peace with Sextus Pompeius, give him Sicily, Corsica/Sardinia, and Achaia, and promise a consulship in 35, and general amnesty for republican exiles in exchange for cooperation, i.e. leave grain ships alone, and cease hostilities.  Consulships are agreed for every year till 32:  Libo is promised 34 and Sextus 33.  Pompeia, dau of Sextus Pompeius, is betrothed to M. Claudius Marcellus, son of Octavia, sis of Octavian, and a stepson of Antony, but marriage never happens.  Treaty threatens Octavian more than Antony. 39 Ac31 6, B76 VIII-107, 8-1072, CAH 10-20, 46, CDCC 111, DGRBM 1-215, 426, 3-473, GHH, MCAW 260, OCD 694, 1079, wik2Tr, wikAg, wikSP, wikSPm
39 M.(2) Tullius CICERO, son of the orator, with Sextus Pompeius from 42, takes advantage of amnesty, returns from Sicily to Rome. 39 OCD 239
39 Triumvirs secure a senatorial decree to ratify all their past and future acts. 39 CAH 10-20
39 OCTAVIAN, triumvir of west 40- , learns that Sextus Pompeius supports pirates, determines reprisals. 39 CAH 10-56
39 OCTAVIAN, husband of Scribonia, starts an affair with LIVIA Drusilla, wife of Ti.(4) Claudius Nero 43-38. 39 CAH 10-56
38 DGRBM 2-788, 1162, wikTCN
39 fall JULIA the Elder, dau of Octavian & Scribonia born.  On the same day, SCRIBONIA receives a bill of divorce from Octavian, thus ending ties with Sextus Pompeius.  Octavian writes afterward that he was "utterly disgusted with her disagreeable temper". 39 Ac31 6, CAH 10-24, 56, GHH, atl1
39 Antonine C.(1) Asinius POLLIO, in Illyricum 39, returns to Rome and triumphs Oct. 25 for defeating the Parthini.  After this he withdraws from political life, to devote himself to studying literature until death 4CE. 39 CAH 10, DGRBM 3-438, OCD 852, GHH, wikGAP
39 After peace of Misenum, M.(3) Junius SILANUS, in Sicily 39, returns to Rome and eventually wins favor of Octavian. 39 DGRBM 3-820
39 1st public LIBRARY in Rome built in Atrium Libertatis, a building containing the offices of the censors, donated by C.(1) Asinius Pollio from his vast private library and loot taken from Illyria. 40 Dur 3-159
39 ISBE 3-127, OCD 852
37 atl1
39 Oct? Vibius Maximus, a quaestor designate, is identified as a slave and reclaimed by his master. 39 atl1
39 Oct? Occia is appointed priestess of Vesta until her death in 19CE. 39 atl1
c.39 VIRGIL finishes  Ecologue #8 . 39 OCD 1123
39 Oct? ANTONY & wife Octavia, after birth of their dau Antonia in Aug/Sep, sail to Greece, stay at Athens.  Antony never returns to Rome. 39 CAH 10-21, 51, DGRBM 3-438, MCAW 260
39 Oct 25 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO has triumph over the Parthini. 39 atl1
38 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER (Jan-Jun) and C. Norbanus FLACCUS (Jan-Aug)
Suffects: L. Cornelius Lentulus (Jul-Dec), L. Marcius Philippus (Sep-Dec)
38 DGRBM 1-774, 2-156, FHBC 84, OCD 817, csm, wikCon
38 Jan Ti.(4) Claudius Nero from 43, divorces pregnant wife LIVIA Drusilla to save his skin because Octavian wants her. 39 CAH 10-56
38 DGRBM 2-788, 1162, wikTCN
38 Jan 17 Dau of M. Livius Drusus Claudianus, divorcee of Ti.(4) Claudius Nero, LIVIA Drusilla, age 19, marries OCTAVIAN 3 days after birth of her 2nd son Drusus.  Her 1st son Tiberius(5) Claudius Nero, age 3, now lives with Octavian.  She will never bear any more childern.
Livia is called Julia by Josephus.
38 B76 VI-276, CAH 10-24, 57, DGRBM 2-788, GHH, HRE 46, MCAW 260, atl1, bk, wikTCN
38 early HORACE (Q. Horatius Flaccus) meets C. Cilnius Maecenas, an Etruscan political adviser to Octavian, and is accepted in Maecenas writers' circle. 39 38 B76 8-1072, 11-291, CAH 10-57, wikMcn
38 OCTAVIAN, triumvir of west 40- , amasses a naval fleet to defeat Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 38 ahe '  
38 There are at least 67 praetors this year.  Popular riots continue, including some supporting new favorite, M. Oppius. 38 CAH 10-25, atl1
38 Antonine P. VENTIDIUS BASSUS, in East from ?, in Syria from 39, returns to Rome, has triumph 27 Nov. over Parthians, dies soon after. 38 B76 X-390, CAH 10-24, DGRBM 3-1238, OCD 1113, atl1
38 OCTAVIAN, triumvir of west 40- , accuses Sextus Pompeius of breaking treaty of Misenum 39 (of which there is no evidence). 38 OCD 858
38 OCTAVIAN, triumvir of west 40- , sends message to Antony in Athens, asks Antony to meet him in Brundisium to help against Sextus Pompeius. 38 CAH 10-58
38 C. Calvisius SABINUS appointed admiral in west Medit. until 36 by Octavian, with Menas under him.  Sabinus gathers legions from Gaul and Illyria, orders L. Cornificius to bring fleet from Ravenna to Tarentum. 38 CAH 10-57, DGRBM 3-689, OCD 198
38 M. V. AGRIPPA, governor of Gaul from 39, after great conquests, recalled by Octavian to Rome, refuses a triumph.  Octavian orders him to prepare a new fleet to attack Sextus. 38 B76 1-367, CAH 10-58, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, wikMVA
38 OCTAVIAN, technically C. Julius Caesar Octavianus from 44, replaces praenomen "Caius" and nomen "Julius" with Imperator, officially becoming Imperator Caesar Divi Filius.  His contemporaries call him "Caesar" 38-27.  Historians call him Octavian 44-27. 38 wikAg
38 ANTONY in Greece gathers troops and fleet, sails to Brundisium.  Octavian doesn't show up!  Antony returns to Greece. 38 Ac31, CAH 10-23, 53, 58, atl1
38 A fountain of oil flows from an inn near the Tiber. 38 CAH 10-57, GHH
38 Octavian and Sextus Pompeius again at war.  Octavian employs overcautious naval tactics, loses half his fleet to a south wind off Cape Scyllaeum BrutiumSextus Pompeius gains several advantages. 38 CAH 10-57, GHH
38  Foedus de Tarentum  Treaty of Tarentum establishes peace with Sextus Pompeius in SicilyAntony provides 120 ships for Octavian to use against Pompeius, while Octavian promises 20,000 legionaries to Antony for use in east against Parthia.  Octavian sends only a tenth of those promised. 38 unrv, wikAg, wikMA
38
Dec 31
2nd TRIUMVIRATE 43 legally expires, and is reconfirmed for another 5 years to 33. 38 CAH 10-26, DGRBM 1-216, GHH 37 CDCC 111, bk
38/7 winter M. AGRIPPA, Octavian's main man, cuts thru the strips of land separating Lucrine Lake from the sea, thus forming an outer harbor, while joining the Lucrine Lake to the much deeper Lake Avernus to serve as an inner harbor.  The new harbor-complex is named Portus JuliusHe then builds new fleet on Lucrine Lake, trains sailors. 38 CAH 10-27, 54, 58 37 atl1
37 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(2) Caninius GALLUS and M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA
Suffect: T. Statilius Taurus
37 B76 1-367, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, 2-226, 3-985, FHBC 84, OCD 30, csm, wikCon, wikMVA
37 C. Fonteius Capito and C. Cilnius Maecenas sent to Greece by Octavian to establish friendship with Antony, and seek a pledge of help against Sextus.  Maecenas, accompanied by Poet C. Cornelius Gallus returns to Brundisium.  Capito remains with Antony. 38 CAH 10-25
37 DGRBM 1-602, HRE 154
37 spring Octavian summons Antony to Brundisium for conference. 37 Ac31 11
37 spring ANTONY and wife Octavia Minor leave Greece with whole fleet (300 ships), sail to Brundisium, which refuses to admit this threatening armada, so they sail to TarentumAntony needs troops for Parthian campaign, and hopes to trade ships for men.  Octavian hesitates to meet him because of rumor that Antony conspired with Lepidus. 37 Ac31 11, CAH 10-25, 53, 58, DGRBM 1-216, 426
37 Jul Aug ANTONY and OCTAVIAN meet at Tarentum.  Rupture averted by mediation of Octavia.  They agree to extend the 2nd Triumvirate 5 years, retroactively to Jan 1  (with apparently no input from Lepidus).  This means it will expire at end of 33.  They agree to take back everything from Sextus Pompeius.  Antony trades 120 ships for a promise of 4 legions.  Antony gets 10 Phaseli and 1,000 hand picked men from Octavian's bodyguard.  Antony's son Antyllus is betrothed to Octavian's infant dau Julia. 37 Ac31 11, B76 VII-478, 1-367, 2-369, CAH 10-25, 59, CAH 10-58, DGRBM 1-216, GHH, atl1
37  Lex Titia  of 43 renewed to reconfirm 2nd Triumvirate; and council of Tarentum. 37 CAH 10-67, EDRL 560, OCD 149, atl1
37 Consul M. AGRIPPA marries CAECILIA ATTICA until 28.  She is dau of T. Pomponius Atticus. 37 B76 1-367, OCD 31, 146, atl1, wikMVA
37 PUTEOLI Harbor in Bay of Neapolis built by consul M. Agrippa. 37 B76 1-367
37 More Jew slaves brought to Rome by Sosius. 37 CAH 10-779
c.37 VIRGIL, in Cisalpine Gaul, finishes  Ecologue #10  (the last).  "Love conquers all." 39/8 wikVrg
38/7 OCD 1123 37 MNDQ 723 '  
c.37 C. Cilinius MAECENAS is patron of a literary circle: Virgil, Horace, Varius, Plotinus, Tucca, which goes to Brundisium. 37 OCD 1124, atl1
37 Common people of Rome donate money to M. Oppius, so he can remain aedile.  He is elected aedile. 37 CAH 10-807, atl1
37 fall ANTONY leaves Italy with his 10 Phaseli and 1,000 hand picked men from Octavians bodyguard in his 180 ships, but not having received the 4 legions promised by Octavian.  Antony and wife Octavia proceed to Corcyra. 37 CAH 10-55, 59, DGRBM 1-216, GHH
37 fall OCTAVIA, wife of Antony, in Corcyra, sent back, so Antony can be free to renew relations with Cleo-VII. 37 CAH 10-55, 59, DGRBM 1-216, GHH, MCAW 260
c.36 Jan. CONSULS:  M. Cocceius NERVA (Jan-Jun) and L.(2) GELLIUS PUBLICOLA (Jan-Aug)
Suffect: P. Sulpicius Quirinius (Jun-Dec?), L. Nonius Asprenas (Sep-Dec), A. Didius Gallus, Q. Fabricius
36 DGRBM 2-132, FHBC 84, OCD 457, 731, csm, wikCon
36 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS, Octavian partisan, governor of Spain from 39, returns to Rome, triumphs. 36 CAH 10-47, DGRBM 1-585, OCD 197, atl1, wikGnDC
36 Traditional tribune sanctity restored by Octavian. 36 MCAW 261
36 L.(4) Ahenobarbus, son of Gn.(6), is betrothed to Antonia, dau of Antony & Octavia. 36 DGRBM 1-86
36 M.(11) Aemilius LEPIDUS, son of the triumvir, marries Antonia, dau of Antony & Antonia. 36 DGRBM 1-209
36 C. Calvisius SABINUS, admiral from 38, relieved by Octavian, who gives his fleet to M. Agrippa. 37 CAH 10-59, DGRBM 3-689
36 Jun Consul M. Cocceius NERVA is replaced by suffect P. Sulpicius Quirinius. 36 DGRBM 3-638
36 Part of Octavian's property is struck by lightning.  Later this will be considered reason to build a temple there. 36 CAH 10-832
36 White marble temple of APOLLO on the Palatine, begun until 28. 36 CAH 10-935, HRE 147
36 Octavian summons Lepidus now in Africa for help. 36 CAH 10-34
36 Jul 1 3 FLEETS under Octavian, Agrippa, and Lepidus set out against Sextus Pompeius in Sicily.  He plans to attack from the north, T. Statilius Taurus from the east, Lepidus to attack the west coast. 36 CAH 10-34, 60, wikAg, wikMVA
36 Jul 3 Octavian's FLEET, wrecked by a storm.  Taurus retreats to Tarentum by night.  Octavian is caught while passing Cape Palinurus and forced into the bay of the Elea promontoryExhausted, Octavian asks companions to kill him!  6 of his heavy ships, 26 light ones, and some liburnian galleys are destroyed, many of the rest damaged. 36 Ac31 13, CAH 10-60-1, DGRBM 1-426, DGRG 2-535, atl1, wikMVA
36 Jul OCTAVIAN retreats back to port at Vibo, orders his surviving sailors to man the remaining 28 keels left empty at Tarentum and join Taurus in advancing to a new headquarters 50km from Vibo at Scyllaeum in the Gulf of Squillace. 36 Ac31 13
36 While Octavian repairs at Vibo, MENAS, recent defector to Sextus, defects back to Octavian. 36 Ac31 13
36 Octavian's general L. CORNIFICIUS with 3 legions is cut off at Tauromenium (Naxos) but extricates his men. 36 CAH 10-35, OCD 292 '  
36 Aug OCTAVIAN ferries 3 legions across straits to SicilySextus sees him, withdraws from attacking Agrippa, attacks Octavian with fleet and cavalry.. 36 CAH 10-61
36 Equite C. Cilinius MAECENAS is in Sicily with Octavian, during his expedition against Sextus Pompeius.  Maecenas is twice sent back to Rome as urban prefect to quell disturbances.  He remains urban prefect until 33. Annals 6:11
36 B76 11-291, DGRBM 2-891, OCD 636, wikMcn
36 VIA FLAMINIA is tunneled thru Intercisa (Furlo) Pass. 36 MCAW 261     77CE DGRG 2-1299, wikVF
c.36 MENAS, governor of Sardinia under Octavian from 38, defects back to Sextus Pompeius, who has him closely watched. 36 DGRBM 2-1035, wikMn
36 Sextus Pompeius defeated by Octavian in Sicily. 36 CDCC 111, GHH
36 After the war, C. Calvisius SABINUS is commissioned to clear Italy of bandits. 36 DGRBM 3-689, OCD 198
36 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS triumvir of Africa from 40, now in Sicily, stripped of all power by Octavian, sent off to house arrest in Circeii Italy.  He is allowed to keep his title of pontifex maximus until death 12. 36 Ac31 16, B76 VI-158, 15-1106, CAH 10-63, GHH, MCAW 260, atl1, lvS
36 M.(6) ANTONIUS, son of Antony & Fulvia, still a child, betrothed to Julia, dau of Octavian. 36 DGRBM 1-216
36 C. CARRINUS with 3 legions is sent by Octavian against Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 36 DGRBM 1-615
36 REGIA rebuilt by Domitius Calvinus.  1st use of white marble in a public building. 36 CAH 10-787, CDCC 166
36 M. Terentius VARRO, the historian, publishes  Rerum rusticarum libri III  (3rd of 3 Books on Agriculture, and the only book that survives).  Postulates GERM THEORY of disease.  "Precautions must also be taken in the neighborhood of swamps [...] because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and there cause serious diseases." 37 MCAW 261, OCD 1108
36 wikGTD
36 Portus Julius, 1st harbor constructed as a base for the western fleet, begun 37 by Agrippa between Misenum and Baiae, finished.  After defeat of Sextus it will be abandoned because of silt deposits. 36 wikBi, wikPJ
36 Nov OCTAVIAN returns from Sicily to Rome.  He is awarded honors, perhaps including tribunician power. 36 Ac31 16, atl1
He is given tribune power for life. 36 HRE 12
36
Nov 13
OCTAVIAN, ruler of west, celebrates an ovation, announces civil wars over, begins disbanding armies. 36 CAH 10-64, DGRBM 1-427
36 OCTAVIAN promises to restore the republic, and that he would step down as triumvir - if only Antony would do the same.  Antony refuses. 36 IDB 1-318, wikAg
36 Dec ANTONY, in Egypt, messages Octavian to give him the 4 legions he promised, lies about his loss in Parthia.  Octavian temporizes.  See March. 36 B76 6-483, CDCC 54
35 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. CORNIFICIUS (Jan-Aug) and Sextus POMPEIUS (Jan-Jun) (only remotely related to the son of Pompey)
Suffects: P. Cornelius DOLABELLA (Sep-Dec), T. Peducaeus (Jul-Dec)
35 DGRBM 1-858, 3-476, FHBC 84, OCD 292, csm, wikCon
35 Colony at RHEGIUM founded by Octavian 35 atl1
35 Mar OCTAVIAN, rather than pay up on his promise of 4 legions to Antony, returns 70 of the 120 ships he bought in 37. 35 CAH 10-92
35 Mar Grammarian Pompeius Lenaeus writes a satire attacking Sallust. 35 atl1
35 Mar OCTAVIA, wife of Antony, sends a letter to him in Alexandria, saying Octavian will not give up the promised 4 legions, but that she will sail with 2,000 troops money and provisions for Antony, to Athens. 35 B76 VII-478, CAH 10-77, 92, DGRBM 3-4
35 Mar? OCTAVIA, wife of Antony, sails from Athens, back to Italy, among the most betrayed women of all time.  Octavian orders her to leave Antony's house and reside with him, but she refuses, and educates Antony's younger son, by Fulvia, with her own children. 35 B76 VII-478, CAH 10-77, 92, DGRBM 3-4, GHH
35 Republican L. Scribonius LIBO, with Sextus from ?, defects to triumvirs. 35 DGRBM 2-771
defects to Antony 35 wikLSL
35 spring Octavian's legates advance northeast from Aquileia towards Emona (Ljubljana) and the headwaters of the Save, while Octavian leads an army into the Po Valley to Tergeste. 35 Ac31 18
35 M. AGRIPPA precedes Octavian to Illyricum. 35 Ac31 18, DGRBM 1-79
35 The SALASSI of the Durias Valley (now Val d'Aosta) in the Alps rebel until 34, defy efforts of C.(1) Antistius Vetus. 35 DGRG 2-880
35 OCTAVIAN leaves Italy, joins AGRIPPA.  They campaign against the Iapydes in northern Illyria, besiege 3,000 wariors in their main town Metulus.  Octavian is wounded when a bridge collapses.  War continues against Illyrians and Pannonians. 35 B76 1-367, CAH 10, GHH, atl1
c.35 Poet HORACE publishes  Satires  book 1 of 8. 35 B76 8-1072, DGRBM 2-523, HRE 154
c.35 SALLUST dies.  (C. Sallustius Crispus), author, politician, historian. 35 CDCC 778, OCD 946, TToH
35/4 B76 16-185
34 DGRBM 3-696, GHH, atl1
35 PHILODEMOS of Gadara dies.  Epicurean philosopher, poet, mentor to L. Calpurnius Piso, lived in his villa in Herculaneum. 35 B76 VII-950
c.35 ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR dies.  Greek scholar from Miletus, taken prisoner by Romans, freed, made a citizen, lived in Italy, accidentally burns to death at Laurentum Latium. 35 B76 I-225, Jud 2-583, atl1
35 late OCTAVIAN in Illyria 35 returns to Italy for winter 35/4. 35 CAH 10-173, HRE 96 '  
34 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M.(5) ANTONIUS (2nd)(1 January only) whose suffects are L. Sempronius ATRATINUS (2 Jan-Jun), L.(2) Aemilius LEPIDUS Paulus (Jul-Dec)
and L. SCRIBONIUS LIBO (Jan-Jun), whose suffects are C.(5) Memmius (Jul-Aug), M. Herennius (Sep-Dec)
34 DGRBM 2-408, 766, 768, 771, FHBC 84, OCD 965, csm, wikCon, wikL2ALP, wikLSL
34 Jan 1 Consul M.(5) ANTONIUS resigns in favor of suffete L. Sempronius ATRATINUS. 34 DGRBM 1-407, 1083, atl1
34 The SALASSI of the Durias Valley (now Val d'Aosta) in the Alps rebelling from 35, subdued by C.(1) Antistius Vetus and M.(6) Valerius Messala until 25. 34 CAH 10-169, DGRG 2-880
34 OCTAVIAN implies that he plans an expedition against Britain.   Again 27. 34 CAH 10-189
34 T. Statilius TAURUS, Octavian's governor of Africa from 36, returns to Rome, has triumph.  L. CORNIFICIUS succeeds until 32. 34 CAH 10-47, OCD 1011, atl1, rcNA, wikAf
no date: OCD 292
34 spring OCTAVIAN, in Italy from late 35, returns to Illyricum until 34/3. 34 Ac31, CAH 10-173
34 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS has triumph for victories in Spain. 34 CAH 10-47
34 M.(6) Valerius Messala CORVINUS serves Octavian against the Salassi, a mountain tribe between the Graian and Pennine Alps.  C.(1) Antistius VETUS also fights the Salassi. 34 DGRBM 2-1051, 3-1251
34 L. Marcius PHILIPPUS, former suffete 38, becomes governor of Spain until 33. 34 OCD 617
34 T. Statilius TAURUS joins Octavian in Illyria until 33. 34 OCD 1011
34 Jul 1 Consul L. SCRIBONIUS LIBO is replaced by C.(5) Memmius until Sep 1. 34 wikLSL '  
34 ANTONIA, dau of Antony & cousin Antonia, promised to a son of Lepidus in 44, marries wealthy PYTHODORUS of Tralles. 34 OCD 75
34 Consuls celebrate festival of Venus Genetrix. 34 atl1
34 Sep 3 C. Norbanus has triumph for Spain. 34 atl1
34 Sep 3 Antonine general C. SOSIUS has triumph for victories in Judea. 34 CAH 10-47, DGRBM 3-885, atl1
c.34 M. AGRIPPA repairs public facilities. 34 CAH 10-47, wikMVA
c.34 AQUA MARCIA, finished 140, restored by Agrippa, who extends its pipes to cover more of the city. 34 CAH 10-47, wikMVA
c. 34 Basilica Aemilia BASILICA AEMILIA rebuilt 50, 100m x 30m, rebuilt again by L.(2) Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (Octavian partisan), and dedicated.  2 stories, marble floor, bronze roof tiles.  Burnt 14. reconst. L.VII.C

34 CAH 10-47
34-2 MCAW 261
34/3 OCTAVIAN & AGRIPPA, in Illyria from 35, in Dalmatia 34, return to Rome, sporting the eagles which Gabinius had lost in 48. 34 B76 VI-821, 1-367, CAH 10-87, DGRBM 1-427, 3-985, wikMVA     33 CAH 10-46, IDB 2-681, wikIlrc
34/3 M.(6) Valerius Messala CORVINUS, under Octavian, subdues the Alpine Salassi. 34/3 B76 VI-821, OCD 674
c.34-3 OCTAVIAN repairs many ancient temples. 34-3 MCAW 261
33 Jan 1 CONSULS:  OCTAVIAN (2nd)(1 January only), whose suffects are L. Autronius Paetus (2 Jan-Apr), L. Flavius (May-Jun or Aug), M. Acilius Glabrio (Jul-Aug. or Sep), L. Vinicius (Sep-Dec)
and L. Volcacius TULUS (Jan-Apr), whose suffects are C. Fonteius Capito (May-Jun or Aug), Q. Laronius (Oct-Dec)
33 Ac31, CAH 10-87, DGRBM 1-427, 602, 2-179, 3-85, 1191, 1262, FHBC 84, HRE 97, atl1, csm, wikAg, wikCon
33 Jan 1 Consul OCTAVIAN denounces Antony's Donations of Alexandria in senate, and resigns. 33 Ac31
33 M. VIPSANIUS AGRIPPA becomes aedile (an office well below him), puts on good games for benefit of Octavian, put in charge of aqueducts until 12.  He restores Aquae Appia, and Anienia, and continues Aqua Julia from the Tepula to Rome, and many smaller waterworks within Rome.  He repairs public buildings, drainage systems, streets, provides free baths and theater. 33 B76 1-367, CAH 10-47, 89, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, 427, OCD 30, 89, 149, atl1, wikMVA
33 AQUA JULIA aqueduct, begun 40, finished by Agrippa.  From springs 2 miles above headwaters of Aqua Tepula, on the arches of Aqua Marcia.  Main channel leads to its terminal castellum. 40 or 33 B76 1-1037 33 B76 1-1036, DGRBM 1-79, MCAW 261, TTT, wikAJ
33 C. Cilinius MAECENAS, urban prefect from 36, dismissed by Octavian until 31. 33 OCD 636
33 OCTAVIAN, now an augur, is empowered by the senate to create new patrician families for fulfilling priesthoods. 34-3 MCAW 261 33 CAH 10-90
33 Apr 27 L. Marcius PHILIPPUS has triumph for Spain. 33 CAH 10-47, atl1
33 Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER has triumph for Spain. 33 CAH 10-47
33 ANTONY & Octavian have propaganda war. 33 B76 1-1000
33 Astrologers, fortune-tellers, magicians expelled from Rome by Octavian. 33 CAH 10-90, MCAW 261 '  
33 Public letter of Antony to Octavian:   What has changed your view towards me?  Because I'm screwing the queen?  Is she my wife?  And I've been doing it for 9 years anyway.  And what about you?  Is Livia the only woman you screw?  I bet, when you read this, you'll just have been inside some Tertulla or Terentilla or Rufilla or Salvia Titisenia - or all of them.  Does it matter where and in whom you have your erections?  . 33 CAH 10-43
33 Porticus OctaviaPORTICUS OCTAVIA on Campus Martius restored by Octavian, who displays trophies from Illyria there, including Gabinius' eagles. reconst. {{PD-US}}

34-32 atl1 33 CAH 10-47
27 OCD 200 post-27 wikL1PO
33 Temple of Juno built in the Porticus Octavia with money taken from Dalmatia.  Pasiteles makes statues for it. 33 DGRBM 3-133
33 M. Terentius VARRO recommends a remedy for asp bites. 33 atl1
33 Ti.(4) CLAUDIUS NERO dies.  Probable son of Ti.(3), divorcee of Livia 39, father of Tiberius(emp) and Drusus, leaving Octavian to tutor them. 34/3 DGRBM 2-1162
33 OCD 365, 730, atl1, wikTCN
33 TIBERIUS(5) CLAUDIUS NERO, age 9, delivers eulogy for his biological father at the rostra. 32 wikTi
33 RESURRECTION:  L. Aelius Lamia recovers consciousness on his funeral pyre, but cannot be rescued. 33 atl1
33 Antony's Parthian War ends in failure. 33 wikTAR '  
33 Dissension between Antony and Octavian, which leads to civil war. 33 GHH
33 L. CORNIFICIUS, Octavian's governor of Africa from 34, returns to Italy, has triumph. 33 CAH 10-47, OCD 292, rcNA, wikAf
33 After 33, only Octavian/Augustus and members of his family build temples in Rome.  Senators, now excluded from their traditional opportunity for display in Rome, increase gifts to their native cities. 33 CAH 10-831
33 Dec 3 L. CORNIFICIUS has triumph for Africa. 33 atl1
33 Dec 31 2nd Triumvirate (technically now a douvirate), renewed 38, legally expires.  Antony continues to use the title Triumvir.  Octavian, opting to distance himself from Antony, abandons it. 33 Ac31 31, B76 2-369, CAH 10-48, 94, CDCC 111, atl1, wik2Tr, wikTAR 32 B76 1-1000
33-32 Propaganda war in Rome, with accusations flying between sides.  ANTONY (in Egypt) divorces OCTAVIA Minor and accuses Octavian of being a social upstart, of usurping power, and of forging the adoption papers by Caesar.  Octavian responds with treason charges: of illegally keeping provinces that should be given to other men by lots, and of starting wars against foreign nations (Armenia and Parthia) without senate consent. 33-32 wikMA, wikOcY
32 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Antonines Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS and C. SOSIUS
Suffects: L.(3) Cornelius Cinna, M.(5?) Valerius Messala
32 Ac31 31, B76 I-151, CAH 10-48, 94, DGRBM 1-86, 3-885, FHBC 84, OCD 361, csm, wikCnsc, wikCon, wikGnDA
32 Jan 1 Consul C. SOSIUS speaks in senate, attacks Octavian (now not in Rome) in favor of Antony. 32 DGRBM 3-885, atl1
c.32 Curia of PompeyTemple of APOLLO SOSIANUS on Campus Martius, Rome's 1st temple to Apollo from 431, restored 353, restored again by C. Sosius, for whom it is named.  3 columns have been re-erected, and still stand. photo: Shardan

post-34 wikTAS
32 Jan Antonine consuls seek ratification of Antony's acts, which he did not legally need, but knew it was tactful to seek.  Consuls try to hush up the affair of the Donations of Alexandria. 32 CAH 10-41, 49
32 Jan Antonine consuls decide not to publish Antony's dispatches concerning his activities in eastern provinces. 32 atl1
32 Feb Consul C. SOSIUS takes over the fasces and publicly attacks Octavian.  His motion of censure is vetoed by a tribune. 32 CAH 10-49
32 L. NAEVIUS BALBUS is pleb tribune. 32 DGRBM 1-457
Ahenobarbus Relief
Ahenobarbus Relief pub dom
32 Temple of NEPTUNE built on Campus Martius by consul Gn.(6) Ahenobarbus to commemorate his victory over Gn. Domitius Calvinus.  A sculpture by Scopas is inside showing Neptune, Thetis, and Achilles surrounded by Nereids, Tritons, and sea monsters.  A relief from its altar, made 122-115, survives. 42-38 CAH 10-787
32 OCD 200, wikTN
32 by spring Octavian appears in senate with an armed guard.  Antonine consuls Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS and C. SOSIUS flee for Greece.  1/4 of the senators accompany them. 32 Ac31, CAH 10-49, 99, DGRBM 1-86, atl1, csm, wikCon, wikGnDA
32 Mar 31 T. Pomponius ATTICUS dies.  Epicurean, historian, long time friend of Cicero & Agrippa, dad of Caelia Attica, terminally ill, suicides by voluntary starvation, age 77. 32 B76 I-636, 15-223, DGRBM 1-414, GHH, OCD 146, atl1, wikTPA
32 Ma/Jn OCTAVIA, wife of Antony from 40, receives Antony's messengers from Greece, who present her divorce papers and order her out of Antony's house.  She and their kids leave. 32 Ac31 33, B76 VII-478, CAH 10-96, DGRBM 3-4, GHH, atl1, bk
32 Jun Antonine generals L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS and nephew M. TITIUS see that Antony is turned to mush by Cleo-VII 32 Ac31 33, CAH 10-97, DGRBM 3-383, 1159, OCD 838, 1079, atl1, wikAg
sail from Greece to Italy, defect to Octavian.  (1st of many)  They report that a copy of Antony's will is on deposit with the Vestal Virgins.
32 ANTONY'S WILL is illegally and forcefully siezed from the Vestal Virgins by Octavian, and read in the senate.  It says: Caesarion is true son of Julius Caesar.  All eastern territories of Rome are bequeathed to kids of Cleo-VII.  Antony to be buried in Alexandria.
Octavian reads it to the senate.
32 Ac31 33, CAH 10-97, atl1, bk, wik2Tr
32 M. Junius SILANUS, under Antony in Greece from 34, sails to Italy, defects to Octavian. 32 OCD 988
32 LOYALTY OATH imposed on all Italy by Octavian.  It is also to be taken thruout all the western provinces (probably the Roman citizens in each).  There is apparently little resistance. 32 Ac31, CAH 10-53, MCAW 261, atl1
32 Pompey's THEATER on Campus Martius rebuilt by Octavian at his own expense.  Destroyed 22CE. 34-2 MCAW 261 32 CAH 10-47, 88
32 Temple of Jupiter Feretrius: restoration begun by Octavian. 32 atl1
31 CAH 10-788
32 BATHS on Via Sacra built by Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. 32 atl1
32 M. AGRIPPA appointed fleet commander by Octavian. 32 DGRBM 1-79
32 late Senate authorizes Octavian to annul Antony's powers and consulship in 31, and declare war on Cleo-VII (but not on Antony).  Octavian does so. 32 Ac31 33, CAH 10-54, CDCC 209, SHWC, atl1, wikAg, wikMA
31 IDB 1-318
32 late C.(1) Asinius POLLIO refuses to join the fight against Antony. 32 atl1
c.32/1 Antonine partisan from Rome, GEMINUS goes to Athens to lecture Antony about Cleo-VII.  He can't get a private audience, and is threatened by Cleo-VIIHe returns home. 32/1 DGRBM 2-238, atl1
31 Jan 1 CONSULS:  OCTAVIAN (3rd, and remains consul every year until 23), whose suffects are M.(6) Valerius Messala Corvinus, Gn. Pompeius and officially M. ANTONIUS (only in the east), who is replaced by suffect M.(6) Valerius Messala Corvinus.  Other suffects are M. Titius and Gn. Pompeius. 31 B76 VI-821, CAH 10-99, DGRBM 1-427, 2-1051, 3-1157, 1159, FHBC 84, MCAW 261, OCD 149, 674, 1079, csm, wikCon
31 early OCTAVIAN suppresses all disturbamces in Italy, puts C. Cilinius Maecenas in charge of Rome and Italy, protects west provinces with his navy, dispatches Cornelus Gallus to Africa to guard against attack from Egypt. 31 CAH 10-99, atl1
31 early M. AGRIPPA sent by Octavian to take Methone on coast of southwest Greece. 31 B76 2-370
31 early C. Cilinius MAECENAS restored as urban prefect until 29, charged with maintaining order in all Italy. 31 CAH 10-99, OCD 636 '  
31 spring OCTAVIAN sails from Brundisium for Corcyra, but is forced to withdraw by a storm. 31 atl1
31 spring OCTAVIAN and many senators sail in 400 ships under M. AGRIPPA into the Adriatic, land at Epirus. 31 B76 1-367, 15-1106, CAH 10-99, wikAg
31 Artorius, a physician employed by Octavian, dies in a shipwreck. 31 atl1
31 DIODORUS SICULUS writes  Historical Library .  Surviving books show an unreliable history of 5th & 4th centuries. 31 MCAW 261
31 Cornelius NEPOS writes  Lives  of Cato the censor, Atticus, and others. 31 MCAW 261
31 Sep 2 ACTIUM
31 Sep AGRIPPA sent by Octavian from Actium to Italy, to help C. Cilinius Maecenas against M.(11), Aemilius Lepidus, son of M.(10). 31 B76 1-367, CAH 10-61, 106
31 Roman veterans in Italy, under Agrippa and Maecenas, get angry about being excluded from the coming plunder of Egypt, become unruly. 31 B76 1-367, CAH 10-106
31 Theater of MARCELLUS, able to seat 11-40,000 persons, begun on Campus Martius by Octavian on site of an earlier theater built by M. Aemilius Lepidus.  Finished 13. 31 GHH
31 Codicils to wills first introduced by the Civilian Trebatius Testa.   See 29. 31 GHH
c.31 HORACE writes  Epode #9   About a Roman soldier, bought and sold, carrying stakes and bearing arms for a woman, even bringing himself to serve under withered eunuchs. 31 CAH 10-42
30 Jan 1 CONSULS:  OCTAVIAN (4th) and M.(4) LICINIUS CRASSUS, whose suffects are C.(1) Antistius Vetus, M.(2) Tullius Cicero, L. Saenius 30 Ac31, CAH 10-117, DGRBM 1-747, 879, 3-693, 1251, FHBC 84, OCD 75, 295, wikCon, lvM4LC
30 Jan Mutiny at Brundisium. 30 atl1
30  Lex Saenia  enables Octavian to replenish the exhausted patrician class by admission of new families.  He does so in 29. 30
HRE 8
30 Jan OCTAVIAN, at urgent request of M. Agrippa, returns from Samos to Brundisium to quiet the troops, gives them money and land taken from former Antonines, promises men payoff from Egyptian treasure. 30 Ac31, CAH 10-61, 106, atl1
30 OCTAVIA, wid of Antony, still remains true to the interests of his children.  For Julus, younger son of Antony, by Fulvia, she obtains the favor of Octavian, and she even raises his children by Cleo-VII. DGRBM 3-4
30 Feb OCTAVIAN sails from Brundisium to Ephesus.  Away until 29. 30 Ac31,
CAH 10-61-2
30 TEMPLE of SPES burnt.  Will be restored by Germanicus. 30 DGRG 2-832
30  Lex Julia Papiria , On pecuniary fines.  Fixes equivalents: 10 asses = one sheep, 100 asses = one ox. 30 EDRL 555
30 Aug 1 Final War of the Roman Republic in EgyptAntony's forces defect to Octavian.
M.(5) ANTONY suicides
30 Aug? TIGRANES, son of Artavasdes-II, former king of Armenia 55-34, prisoner in Alexandria from 34, sent to Rome by Octavian, where he remains until 20. no date: OCD 1073,
30 Rome a monarchy from this year; Octavian being sole master of Rome, which event terminates the Roman Republic.  [Most say the Republic exists till 27BCE] 30 GHH
c.30 Temple of CYBELE (Magna Mater) on Palatine Hill, restored 109, burnt until 28. 30 DGRG 2-803, atl2
c.30 GLASS:  High quality bowls and jars, until now made mostly in Alexandria, spreads to Italy.  Glass WINDOWS are in general use in 1st cen. BCE.    (Levant blowing) 30 SHT 2-335
c.30 HORACE publishes  Satires  book 2 of 8. 30 B76 8-1072, DGRBM 2-523, OCD 528
c.30 HORACE publishes  Epodes  17 poems in professed immitation of Archilochus. 30 B76 8-1072, OCD 528 '  
c.30±2 Sextus PROPERTIUS publishes  Elegies  book 1. 33-28 B76 15-46
c.30 ARTAVASDES-I, Arsacid king of Atropatene, ally of Rome from 36, goes to Rome, where he dies c.20. 30 OCD 126, atl1
30 OCTAVIAN is voted tribune power for life, including the right to judge on appeal. 30 BNTH 358, CAH 10-408, 819, IDB 1-318, bk
30
Sep 13
M.(2) Tullius CICERO becomes consul until Nov 1 with Octavian. 30 OCD 239
30 fall Former consul M.(6) Valerius MESSALA Corvinus is sent east.  Poet Albius Tibullus accompanies as far as Corcyra, gets sick, and returns. 30 fall DGRBM 3-1125
30 New colonies for veterans established.  Octavian spends 600,000,000 sesterces on Italian farms for vets. 30 GHH, HRE 5
c.30 Rome / Parthia treaty: Armenia and Osroene are Roman clients.
30 M.(11), Aemilius LEPIDUS dies.  Son of the triumvir, plots to murder Octavian when he returns from the east, discovered by urban prefect C. Maecenas, executed. 30 DGRBM 2-769, GHH, OCD 597, 636, atl1
30 M. Annaeus SENACA the Elder and Latro are students of rhetorician Marullus. 30 atl1
30 Roman citizens in the provinces are given the right to appeal local governors' decisions against them to the Princeps.  (Paul will make use of this.) 30 HRE 34
30 DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus moves from Anatolia to Italy, settles in Rome. 30 B76 III-559, B76 11-3, brit
30 1st Roman standing army: consisting of 10,000 praetorian guards in and around Rome, an army of 400,000 soldiers, and a navy numbering 50,000 seamen. 30 GHH
c.30 Octavian, as adoptive son of Caesar, declares himself Divi Filius "Son of a god". after Antony dies wikMA
30 Twins of Antony and Cleo-VII, ALEXANDER and Cleo SELENE, age 10, and Ptolemy Philadelphus age 5 are brought from Egypt to Rome.  Cleo SELENE remains until 25. 30 B76 VIII-283, DGRBM 1-112, MCAW 264
30 Aug? Ptolemy Philadelphus, son of Cleo-VII and Antony, is spared by Octavian at intercession of Juba-II.  He is brought up by Octavia with her own children.  We hear no more of him. 30 DGRBM 3-566
30 Antony's daus by Octavia Minor are spared, as is his son, Iullus Antonius.  But his elder son, M.(6) Antonius Antyllus, is killed by Octavian's men while pleading for his life in the Caesareum. 30 atl1, wikMA
30 Nov 1 M.(2) Tullius CICERO, consul from Sep 13, becomes governor of Syria until ?. 30 OCD 239
30/29 1st permanent AMPHITHEATER in Rome, begun by T. Statilius TAURUS at his own expence, dedicated, gladiators exhibited.  The people in return allow him to appoint one of the praetors every year.  Amphitheater lasts until Nero's fire. 30 DGRBM 3-985 30/29 CDCC 44
29 Jan 1 CONSULS:  OCTAVIAN (5th) (now at Samos) and Sextus APPULEIUS, whose suffect is Potitus Valerius Messala 29 Ac31, CAH 10-75, 122, DGRBM 1-248, 2-1052, 3-514, FHBC 84, wikCon
29 Jan 1st senate meeting votes further honors for Octavian:  the right to use Imperator as his permanent first name, formal approval of his eastern diplomatic arrangements. 29 CAH 10-75
29 Jan 11 GATES of the TEMPLE OF JANUS, open from 229, indicating that Rome is at war, shut 2nd time until 27. 29 CAH 10-75, DGRBM 1-428, GHH, HRE 8, wikTJ
29 early M. Aemilius LEPIDUS, son of the triumvir, plots to kill Octavian when he returns to Italy.  He does not tell his father, but his mom Junia knows of it.  Maecenas discovers the plot, and arrests both.  Young Lepidus is immediately despatched to Octavian in the East, and is there executed. 29 HRE 6
29 spring OCTAVIAN, away from 30, returns from Corinth to Brundisium.  He is met enthusiastically by senators, equites, etc.  He asks them for money to pay his troops.  They comply. 29 CAH 10-75, 119, DGRBM 1-428, HRE 6, MCAW 264
28 CDCC 111
29 spring Consul M.(4) LICINIUS CRASSUS sent by Octavian to proconsul Macedonia until 27. 30 CAH 10-117
29 DGRBM 1-879, wikBst, lvM4LC, wikMs
29 Aug Octavian returns from Brundisium to Rome. 29 DGRBM 1-428, 3-1118
29 Aug FLAMEN DIVI JULII "Priest of Divine Julius", an office left vacant with death of Antony in 30, is filled as Octavian appoints a successor, whose name is not known, but may be Sextus Apuleius. 29 CAH 10-839, wikFDJ
29 Aug 13-15 OCTAVIAN has 3 triumphs for Illyria, Actium, and Egypt.  Adopted son Tiberius age 13 rides in the triumphal chariot on his left, and Marcellus on his right. 29 Ac31, CAH 10-75, 117, 190, DGRBM 1-428, GHH, MCAW 264, wikTi
29 OCTAVIAN takes an augurium salutis (see 63), at a time when no Roman forces are fighting.  This is the greatest augury by which the safety of the Roman people is sought. 29 CAH 10-825
c.29 VIRGIL, finishes  Georgics , begun 36, a poem of 2,188 lines in 4 books.    He reads it aloud to Octavian after his return from Actium.   "Every creature on earth, man and beast, all rush into the fire of love." 31 MCAW 261
30 bk     29 B76 19-153, HRE 152, OCD 1125, MNDQ 721
29 OCTAVIAN is allowed to choose priests beyond the regular number.  But the number of non-imperial members of the main priestly colleges remains stable. 29 CAH 10-827
29 Arbitrary triumphal legislation is pronounced invalid. 29 B76 15-1109
29 Roman army is reduced from 60 legions to 28.  Over 100,000 veterans are disbanded and settled in colonies. 29 B76 15-1109 27 MCAW 265
29 Roman armies are employed on public works. 29 GHH
c.29 T. Statilius TAURUS sent to Spain. 29 OCD 1011, wikRCH
c.29 C. Cilinius MAECENAS urban prefect from 31, dismissed. 29 CAH 10-99, OCD 636 '  
c.29 Aug 18 Temple of CaesarTemple of DIVUS JULIUS at the south end of the Forum Romanum, begun 42, completed and dedicated by Octavian.  The high platform serves as a rostra and, like the rostra at the opposite end of the Forum, is decorated with beaks of ships taken at Actium. reconstruc. L.VII.C

29 CAH 10-75, IDB 4-126, MCAW 267, pmpc, wikTC
c.29 Statue of Victory placed in the Curia Julia Curia by the senate. 29 CAH 10-192
c.29 Aug 18 Curia JuliaCURIA JULIA, new senate-house at the north end of the Forum Romanum begun by Caesar in 44, completed by Octavian and dedicated.  Thereafter adorned with a growing number of monuments and dedications in honor of the emperor and his family.  A later rebuild survives mostly intact. reconstruc. L.VII.C

29 CAH 10-75, 330, wikCJ
c.29 Senate permits Romans of Asia and Bithynia to dedicate temples at Ephesus and Nicaea to gods Roma and Divus Julius jointly.  Gives same permission to Greeks of Pergamum and Nicomedia for gods Roma and Octavian. 29 CAH 10-485
c.29 Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus1st permanent AMPHITHEATER, begun 30, probably in the south of Campus Martius by T. Statilius Taurus, who paid for it from his own money, finished and dedicated.  It lasts until Nero's fire, and is replaced in 57. reconstruction {{PD-US}}

30 DGRG 2-848, OCD 1011
29 OCD 55, 200, wikAST
29 Λ Codicils to wills declared legal. 29 GHH
29 Direct trade with India for silk. 29 GHH
29 DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus, in Italy 30-?, begins to write his Roman Antiquities (7) 29 GHH
29 Temple of HERCULES Musarum built by Marcius Philippus. 29 CAH 10-787
29 C. CLUVIUS is made consul suffect by Octavian. 29 DGRBM 1-807
29 Statue of Victory installed in the Curia Julia by Octavian. 29 CAH 10-192
29 Surveys of provinces ordered by Octavian.  Rome will finally know the north coast of Europe. 29 DGRG 1-879
29 MOESIA (a general name for everything between the Danube and the Haemus Mountains) annexed to Rome, but not organized as a province until 6CE. 29 wikTAR
29 Cantabrian War begins until 19:  Rome deploys some 80,000 troops against the Cantabri in Spain. 29 wikTAR
29 Pleb L. SCRIBONIUS LIBO becomes a patrician. 29 wikLSL
29 ANTIOCHUS-I THEOS dies.  Former king of Cosmmagene 70-38, charged with murder of an envoy sent to Rome by his bro Mith-II.  He is summoned to Rome, tried, condemned executed. 29 CAH 10-175, OCD 72 '  
c.29 VIRGIL begins  Aenead .  It will be unfinished at his death 19. 29 HRE 153, wikVrg
28 Jan 1 CONSULS:  OCTAVIAN (6th) and M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA (2nd) 28 Ac31, B76 1-367, CAH 10-123, DGRBM 1-79, 428, FHBC 84, wikCon, wikMVA, '  
28 Λ CENSORS V OCTAVIAN and pleb M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, But they do not hold the title Censor.  Octavian purges the senate, reforms the constitution, raises many pleb families to patrician rank. 28 DGRBM 1-428, HRE 8, wikCns, wikCon
28 OCTAVIAN gets all measures which had been taken during the civil wars repealed.  How he does it is not clear. 28 HRE 9
28 OCTAVIAN announces intention to return to the constitutional forms of the republic, by changing the consular fasces, according to custom, with his colleague Agrippa, and thus acknowledging his fellow-consul to be his equal. 28 HRE 9
28 OCTAVIAN begins to restore administration of the provinces to the senate. 28 HRE 10
28 Consul of 29, Sextus APPULEIUS becomes proconsul to Spain. 28 no date: DGRBM 1-248
28 M.(3) Livius DRUSUS Libo is aedile. 28 DGRBM 1-1082
28 Λ CENSUS, 1st since 70 conducted by censors Octavian and Agrippa.  1st complete census of Italy.  Meets resistance in Gaul.  Roman citizens in the empire, 16,500,000, F.C. 17,258,761; census of Rome, 4,164,000 (? 4,101,017, or 4,063,000, F.C.) 29-8 B76 15-1107, CDCC 28
28 B76 1-367, 2-370, CAH 10-123, 429, FHBC 236, GHH, HRE 19, MCAW 264
28 SENATE purged by consul/censors Octavian and Agrippa, reduces it from over 900 senators in 45 back to @800 until 18.  190 senators kicked out for being immoral, irresponsible, or not rich enough.  This supposedly restores its republican power. 29 CAH 10-324-5 28 B76 1-367, DGRBM 1-428, MCAW 265
c.28 M.(6) Valerius MESSALA CORVINUS becomes proconsul of Aquitaine until 27. 31 DGRBM 3-1125
28 CAH 10, DGRBM 2-1051, OCD 674
28 C. Calvisius SABINUS, governor of Spain from ?, returns to Rome, triumphs in May. 28 OCD 198
28 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA marries 2nd wife Claudia MARCELLA Major until 21.  She is dau of C. Claudius Marcellus & Octavia, and niece of Octavian. 28 DGRBM 1-79, OCD 31, 146, wikMVA
28 OCTAVIAN is assigned by the senate to restore temples in city of Rome.  He claims to have restored 82. 29 CAH 10-119
28 CAH 10-475, 830, DGRBM 1-428, IDB 1-319, 4-126
28 Title of PRINCEPS SENATUS conferred on Octavian. 28 HRE 15
28 Temple of CYBELE (Magna Mater) on west slope of the Palatine Hill, burnt from c.30, restored by Octavian.  Stands until 2CE. 28 CAH 10-499
28 OCTAVIAN begins building a Julian family mausoleum, gardens, and crematorium on Campus Martius. 29 IDB 4-126, MCAW 267     28 ISBE 1-259, 4-234, OCD 200
28 Various taxes: direct, on inheritances; indirect (the first), on goods sold; fines, on celibacy, etc. 28 GHH
28 Sep ACTIAN GAMES first celebrated. 28 CAH 10-77
28 Oct 9 White marble Temple of APOLLO on the Palatine, begun 36, completed, dedicated by Octavian.  2nd temple in Rome dedicated to Apollo, after the Temple of Apollo Sosianus 431.  Has ivory doors and holds works of sculpture. 28 CAH 10-77, 788, 935, HRE 147, MCAW 267, wikTAP
28 Custom duties extended, being an ad valorem impost of from 1/40 to 1/8 on all imports and exports. East India and Arabian goods pay highest duty. 28 GHH
28 OCTAVIAN gets sick, and remains so thru winter. 28 CAH 10-78
28 Sabine Rieti marshes drained by means of an 800m canal partly cut in rock, and routed into river Nera. 28 TTT
28 ANAXILAUS, Pythagorean, physician, accused of practicing magic, banished from Italy by Octavian. 28 DGRBM 1-163
27 Jan 1 CONSULS:  OCTAVIAN (7th) and M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA (3rd) 27 B76 1-367, CAH 10-78, 126, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, FHBC 84, HRE 10, OCD 31, wikCon, wikMVA
27 Jan 13 Consul OCTAVIAN declares intent to lay down supreme power to the senate and people.  The people cry out in protest and beg him to retain power.  Senate makes him imperator: commander in chief of the entire army for 10 years. 27 Ac31, B76 15-1107, CAH 10-128, HRE 10, 23, OCD 149, wikAg
c.27 PORTICUS OCTAVIAE built on Campus Martius by Augustus. 27 OCD 200
27 Jan 13 Provinces are classified IMPERIAL or SENATORIAL.  Imperial are unstable ones governed by appointed legates of Octavian: Gaul, Spain, Egypt, Syria, and backward parts of Anatolia.  Senatorial ones are stable, governed by a proconsul or praetorian chosen by lot for 1 year: Macedonia, Achaia, and most of Africa and Asia. 27 B76 15-1107, CAH 10-211, 213, GRBM 1-429, IDB 3-941
c.27 Jan 16 ROME, REPUBLIC from 509, becomes EMPIRE until ?.  On proposal of L.(1) Munatius Plancus, OCTAVIAN is granted titles AUGUSTUS, majestic.  His name officially becomes Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus.  Month of Sextilis is changed to August. 27 Ac31, CAH 10-79, 130, CDCC 113, DGRBM 3-383, GHH, HRE 12, IDB 1-317, ISBE 1-364, LEWH 112, MCAW 264, bk, wikAg, wikTAR

Italy 27-0
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