Italy
44 Mar 15 Consul & dictator C.(4) Julius CAESAR ASSASSINATED, age 56.  Stabbed 23 times by a conspiracy of 60 senators, led by M.(7) Junius Brutus, C.(5) Cassius Longinus, Decimus(7) Brutus Albinus, Pontius Aquila, C. & P. Servilius Casca, C. Trebonius, and Cassius Parmensis at the base of Pompey's statue.  Suetonius says that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "Kai su, teknon?" "And you, child?".  "Et tu, Brute?" is a concoction of Richard Edes's 1582 Latin play "Caesar Interfectus", copied by Shakespeare. 44 B76 17-950, CAH 10-1, DGRBM 1-554, GHH, IDB 1-479, MCAW 256, OCD 89, 210, 212, bk, ttjc, vrm, wikDJB, wikMA, wikTAR
44
Mar 15
Surviving consul MARK ANTONY hears the commotion in the senate house, runs home, fortifies himself in his house. 44 wikJC
44 Mar 15 M.(7) BRUTUS steps forward as if to say something to his fellow senators.  They, however, flee the building.  Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out, "People of Rome, we are once again free!"  Assassins call themselves "Liberators".  Several hours later 3 slaves carry Caesar's body home to Calpurnia.  The conspirators apparently have no long-range plan and do not immediately kill Mark Antony (apparently by decision of M. Brutus). 44 GHH, bk, vrm, wikJC, wikTAR
44 Mar 15 Magister equitum M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS sees the assassination, runs with other friends of Caesar, stays home a few hours, gathers troops, withdraws across the Tiber to Campus Martius. 44 DGRBM 2-767, wikLpd
44 Mar 15 M. Tullius CICERO rejoices shamelessly at the news. 44 OCD 235
44
Mar 16
M.(7) Brutus makes a speech in defense of conspirators, who send envoys to negotiate with Antony and Lepidus. 44 atl1
44 Mar 16 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS marches over 6,000 troops into Rome to restore order and guard the Caesarian faction.  He tries to incite the people against the assassins.  ANTONY disuades him from violence.  Caesareans and senatorials negotiate, and agree not to fight each other.  Lepidus promises Antony armed support. 44 CAH 10-4, DGRBM 2-767, wikMA
44 Mar 17 Consul ANTONY convenes senators in temple of Tellus near his home, points out that cancellation of Caesar's will would put many of them out of work.  Cicero urges amnesty for conspirators.  DECISION:  No investigation.  Caesar's will to be carried out.  Antony agrees to accept his rival P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella as his consular colleague to replace Caesar. 44 B76 4-608, CAH 10-2, wikMA
44 Mar 17 GENERAL AMNESTY declared for tyrannicides. 44 atl1, wikAg
44
Mar 17
Praetor L.(3) Cornelius CINNA, who expressed approval of the assassination, is attacked enroute to senate, rescued by M.(10) Lepidus. 44 OCD 241
44 Mar 18 Senate authorizes publication of full details of Caesar's will. 44 atl1
44 Mar 19 CAESAR's WILL is read.  It reveals to Antony's surprise that his grand nephew OCTAVIAN (now in Illyricum) is his heir.  P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella is to succeed as consul.  Q. Pedius gets ⅛ of his estate.
ANTONY, with consent of Calpurnia, manages the disposal of Caesar's will, funds, and estate.
44 CAH 10-3, wikMA
44 Mar 20 CAESAR's funeral.  Reading of Caesar's will by Antony causes popular sympathy to turn to riot.  The crowd throws dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum.  The mob attacks the houses of M.(7) Brutus and C.(5) Cassius, and are repelled only with difficulty. 44 CAH 10-3, atl1, ttjc, wikMA
44 Mar 20? C. HELVIUS CINNA, a sycophant for Caesar, is mistaken for republican L.(3) Cornelius Cinna, and torn apart by a mob. 44 CAH 9-470,
OCD 241, wikCnsc
44 Mar 21? Tribune C. CASCA publishes a statement saying he has nothing to do with the 2 conspirators also named Casca. 44 OCD 210, atl1
44 Mar CICERO is now the de facto leader of the senate and opponent of Antony and his Caesarian faction. 44 wikCc
44 Mar Under pretext of not being able to guarantee their safety, Antony relieves M.(7) Brutus and C.(5) Cassius of their judicial duties in Rome. 44 wikMA
44 Mar CLEOPATRA-VII and son Caesarion, in Italy from 46, quietly sail to Egypt. 44 B76 4-712, CAH 9-471, DGRBM 1-801, wikMA
44 Mar P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, an associate of the assassins, becomes consul with Antony. 44 OCD 358
44 Mar ANTONY implements, and allegedly falsifies, written proposals left by Caesar. 44 atl1
44 Mar ANTONY issues  Lex Antonia , abolishes dictatorship, rendering his own office of magister equitum void.  He also issues laws he claims to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, by providing land grants to them. 44 CAH 10-4, EDRL 547, GHH, wikMA
44 Mar ANTONY seizes all of Caesar's money from temple of Ops (goddess, associated with riches). 44 atl1
44 Mar? M.(3) Junius SILANUS supports bro-in-law M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus. 44 OCD 988
44 Mar M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is elected pontifex maximus to replace Caesar in an irregular election.  Lepidus holds this office until death in 12.  Antony's dau Antonia Prima is engaged to Lepidus's son, M.(11) Aemilius Lepidus.  M.(10) Lepidus is sent by Antony thru Gaul to Spain to negotiate with Sextus Pompeius, still at large with 6 legions.  Bro-in-law M.(3) Junius Silanus accompanies. 44 CAH 10-4, 825, DGRBM 1-209, 3-820, atl1, wikMA
43 wik2Tr, wikLpd
44 L. Tillius CIMBER, a tyrannicide, leaves for Bithynia and Pontus, the provinces appointed him by Caesar. 44 DGRBM 1-749, wikTC
44 Apr ANTONY is already using his control of Caesar's papers to propose various measures, such as full citizenship for all Sicily (and numerous individuals) and privileges for foreign dynasts, who got them by huge bribes. 44 CAH 9-473
44 Apr M.(7) Junius BRUTUS, his wife Porcia, and C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus leave Rome.  Hoping for a change of wind, they remain 4 months in Latium and Campania. 44 CAH 10-304, 470, DGRBM 2-800, atl1
44 Apr M. FAVONIUS follows M.(7) Brutus and C.(5) Cassius out of Rome. 44 DGRBM 2-139
44 Apr CAESAR WORSHIP begins in Rome.  Consul Dolabella violently suppresses worshippers to the delight of the republicans.  Antony opposes deification of Caesar and loses support of low class Caesareans. 44 OCD 358, wikAg
44 Apr C. Vibius PANSA, governor of Cisalpine Gaul from 45, returns to RomeDecimus(7) BRUTUS succeeds until 43.  M. Seius is legate under Brutus.  Pansa is based at Campania, waiting for the situation at Rome to settle down after the assassination. 44 B76 II-327, DGRBM 3-768, OCD 184, atl1, wikGVP, wikRGG
44 Apr Senate assigns provinces of Macedonia to Antony and Syria to Dolabella. 44 CAH 10-4, atl1
44 Apr ANTONY leaves Rome to tour veteran settlements in Campania and Samnium, and to drum up support. 44 CAH 10-474
44 AMATIUS (Herophilus), an impostor pretending to be grandson of C. Marius, is executed by Antony, after setting up an altar to Caesar. 44 atl1
44 Ap/Ma OCTAVIAN and M. Vipsanius Agrippa in Illyria from 45, sail from Apollonia to Brundisium, land quietly.  Octavian learns of Caesar's will, and only now decides to become heir to Caesar's position as well as his estate.  He sends agents to get 700 million sesterces stored at Brundisium that Caesar had saved for his intended Parthian war. 44 B76 1-367, CAH 10-8, MCAW 256, atl1, bk, wikAg, wikMA
44 May 6 OCTAVIAN arrives in Rome, finds consul Mark Antony in an uneasy truce with the assassins. 44 atl1, wikAg
44 May OCTAVIAN asks Antony for the moneys Caesar had left, so that he could pay the legacies to the plebs (300 sesterces apiece).  Antony refuses, perhaps because investigation was needed into what was Caesar's and what the state's.  Octavian sells his own property to fulfil his obligation, with aid of 2 cousins who had been named heirs to smaller parts of the estate. 44 CAH 9-471
c.44 L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS, neph of L.(1) is quaestor of Asinius Pollio. 44 DGRBM 2-457
c.44 L.(2) GELLIUS PUBLICOLA (son of L.(1)) sides with republicans. 44 DGRBM 3-601
44 At Neapolis, L.(1) Cornelius Balbus meets Octavian and becomes his partisan. 44 DGRBM 1-456
44 ANTONY, bribed by Deiotarus tetrarch of west Galatia, says Caesar had left instructions that Deiotarus' former possessions are restored. 44 B76 III-438
c.44 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, in Rome from 45, returns to Galatia with his former possessions restored by Antony. 44 B76 III-438
44 A temple of ISIS is ordered because of religious fervor of plebs.  Built 43. 44 MCAW 257
44 M.(2) PISO is praetor.  He praises Cicero for opposing Antony. 44 DGRBM 3-375
44 M' TURRANIUS is praetor.  He refuses a province which was offered him by Antony. 44 DGRBM 3-1193
44 C. Calvisius SABINUS is praetor. 44 DGRBM 3-689, wikAf
44 Caesar's  De Bella Gallico  51, 8th and last book written by Aulus Hirtius. 44 MCAW 259
44 Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS becomes fleet commander until 40, in Adriatic until 42.  Republican until 42. 44 B76 I-151, OCD 361
44 May Consul ANTONY, in Campania, learns that Octavian is publicly proclaiming a right to Caesar's name and money and vengeance on assassins.  Returns. 44 CAH 10-8
44 Consul ANTONY, proconsul of Macedonia, but in Rome, summons his army in Macedonia to sail to Brundisium. 44 atl1
44 May OCTAVIAN visits ANTONY, places his claims before Antony and asks his help.  Antony rebuffs him with patronizing contempt. 44 CAH 10-8, atl1
44 OCTAVIAN expropriates annual tribute that had been sent from Rome's Near Eastern province to Italy. 44 wikAg
44 by June OCTAVIAN had gathered an army of 3,000 loyal veterans, paying each 500 denarii. 44 wikAg
44 Jun 2 ANTONY puts thru the assembly - by irregular legislation because it was not a dies comitialis, due notice had not been given, and violence is used - a bill securing his future by exchanging his province of Macedonia (which his bro Caius would take over after his praetorship) for Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul, which he is to hold for 5 years. 44 CAH 9-474
44 Jun 3 Senate grants ANTONY a 5 year imperium in both Gauls in exchange for Macedonia, but he gets to keep his Macedonian legions.  Grants Syria to Dolabella for 5 years. 44 CAH 9-474, 10-9, bk, wikRGG
44 Jun 5 Senate passes a decree by which praetors M.(7) Brutus and C.(5) Cassius are commissioned to purchase wheat in Sicily and Asia. 44 DGRBM 2-800, OCD 183, 212, wikMA
44 Jun 8 SERVILIA, mom of M.(7) Brutus, holds a council of the Brutii at Antium. 44 CAH 9-475
44 Jun Praetors M.(7) Brutus receives Crete as praetorian province; C.(5) Cassius receives Cyrenaica, but these are poor compensation for the provinces of Syria which Caesar had promised to Cassius and Macedonia, which Caesar had promised to M. Brutus. 44 DGRBM 2-800, OCD 183, 212, atl1
44 Octavian travels across Italy to Terracina in Latium. 44 atl1
44 Caesarean Q. Fufius CALENUS joins Antony. 44 DGRBM 1-562
44 Jun 7 M. Tullius CICERO meets Brutus and Cassius after they are offered an appointment as grain commissioners. 44 atl1
44 by Jun M. Tullius CICERO publicly says Antony should have been killed too. 44 OCD 235
44 mid Octavian wins some Caesarians, who see him as the lesser evil, and hope to manipulate him, or tolerate him while trying to get rid of Antony.  Octavian begins to ally with optimates. 44 wikAg
44 Jul 13 Ludi Apollinares held in Rome, financed extravagantly by praetor M.(7) Junius BRUTUS, now outside of Rome hoping to gain popular favor.  Doesn't work. 44 DGRBM 1-513, 2-801
44
Jul 13
C. Antonius presides over Ludi Apollinares, on behalf of M.(7) Brutus. 44 atl1
44 Jul Ludi Victoriae Caesaris (commemorating the victory of Pharsalus) celebrated by Octavian on money borrowed from Matius and other friends of Caesar. 44 CAH 9-475
44 Jul COMET appears during Ludi Victoriae Caesaris games held in Caesar's honor, interpreted as Caesar's soul going up to heaven. 44 CAH 9-475, IDB 1-479, MCAW 257, atl1
44 Jl/Ag Octavian uses the comet incident to justify putting a statue of Caesar with a star above his head in the temple of Venus Genetrix. 44 CAH 9-475
44 ANTONY passes agrarian law.  His younger bro, tribune L. ANTONIUS is made chairman of a 7 man agrarian commission, which includes Caesennius Lento. 44 DGRBM 2-728, OCD 78, atl1
Legions 44BCE
44 C.(1) Antistius VETUS joins the "Liberators". 44 OCD 75
44 Q. LABIENUS joins the "Liberators". 44 wikQLb
44 Praetor VEHILIUS refuses to receive a province from Antony, and says that he would obey the senate alone. 44 DGRBM 3-1236
44 M. Tullius CICERO declines offer of an appointment to serve on staff of Dolabella in Syria. 44 atl1
44 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  Laelius de Amicitia  Laelius on friendship. 44 wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  Cato Maior de Senectute  Cato the Elder on old age. 44 wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  De Gloria  on glory. 44 wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  De Officiis  on duties. 44 wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes  Disputationes Tusculanae  Ch 1-5  "Are pain and death evil?"  "Do wise men suffer distress or frustration?"  "Is virtue sufficient for blessedness?" 44 B76 4-610, Dur 3-110
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes  De Natura Deorum   "On the nature of the gods"  "The gods have always been, and were never born."  "No man was ever great without a touch of divine inspiration." 48-4 MCAW 257
44 B76 4-608, 610, Dur 3-110, MNDQ 468, 594
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes  De Divinatione   Ch 1 & 2.  Criticizes astrology.
MONOTHEISM:  "There is nothing which god [God] cannot accomplish."
DETERMINISM:  "Nothing has ever happened that has not been predestined."
78 MNDQ 283, 462
48-4 MCAW 257 44 B76 4-610
43 ISBE 1-342, wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes  De Senectute 
AFTERLIFE:  "If I err in my belief that the souls of men are immortal, I err gladly, and I do not wish to lose so delightful an error."
44 B76 4-610
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes treatise  De Fato  on fate. 44 B76 4-610, wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes treatise  De Amicitia  on friendship. 44 B76 4-610 , wikCc
44 M. Tullius CICERO completes  Topica  44 B76 4-610
44 M. Tullius CICERO writes  Ad Atticum   16 books of letters from 68 to 44. no date: OCD 238
44 M. Tullius CICERO writes  Ad Familiares   16 books of letters published by Tiro. no date: OCD 238
44 M.(7) Brutus and C. Cassius issue a manifesto, stating that they wish to be excused from further public duties. 44 atl1
44 P.(1) SERVILIUS VATIA Isauricus dies age 90.  Son P(2) is often confused with him. 44 DGRBM 3-1233, atl1
44 ANTONIA HYBRIDA Major, dau of C.(1) Antonius Hybrida, wife of Mark Antony from ?, divorced 44 wikGAH
44 Gn. SEIUS condemned to death by Antony. 44 atl1
44 Aug 1 L.(7) Calpurnius PISO Caesoninus derides conduct of Antony in senate. 44 CAH 10-10, atl1
44 mid M. Tullius CICERO goes from Sicily to Velia to Vibo by sea, and then to Rhegium. 44 DGRBM 1-717, DGRG 1-1071, 2-171
44 Aug 2 M. Tullius CICERO, at Leucopetra west of Rhegium, plans to go to Greece, but learns of an unexpected attack on Antony in the Senate Aug 1 by Caesar's father-in-law L.(7) Calpurnius Piso, and a likely reconciliation between Antony and senate, decides to return to Rome. 44 CAH 9-476, DGRBM 1-717, DGRG 2-171
44 Aug 17 M. Tullius CICERO, returning north from Leucoptera, at Velia Lucania, meets M.(7) BRUTUS, who says he is leaving Italy to prevent civil war. 44 CAH 10-10
44 Aug C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus quarrels with Antony, sails for Asia hoping to take possession of Syria before Dolabella could arrive there. 44 B76 II-617, DGRBM 2-801, OCD 212, atl1, wikGCL
44 Tyrranicide C. TREBONIUS goes to Asia province as proconsul until ?.  He relieves P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS. 44 B76 X-105, wikLRGA, wikTrb
44 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO proposes that Caesar's assassins be rewarded. 44 DGRBM 2-1162, OCD 730, wikTCN
44  Lex Antonia de Permutatione Provinciae  by consul M.(5) Antonius, after assassination of Caesar, passed by the comitia, transfers Antony's arranged command in Macedonia to Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul (previously assigned to Decimus(7) Brutus). 44 atl1, unrv
44 L.(4) CASSIUS Longinus, bro of C.(5), sides with Octavian. 44 OCD 212
44 ANTONIA, age 8, dau of Antony & cousin Antonia, is promised to a son of Lepidus.  But see 34. 44 OCD 75
44 DIODORUS SICULUS, Greek historian of Sicily, flourishes in many locations.  Writes  Bibliotheca historica  in 40 books.  1-5 and 11-20 survive completely.  He was ignorant of many important cities, and made many errors. 99-1 wikDS
60-30 lvDS 44 GHH
44 Sextus CLOELIUS, exiled from ?, is recalled by Antony. 44 atl1
44 L.(5) Julius CAESAR, cousin of the dictator, openly joins the senatorial faction. 44 wikL5JC
44 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA pulls down an altar and column, which had been erected in honor of Caesar. 44 atl1
44 Consuls are authorized to make a decision about land at Buthrotum on coast of Epirus. 44 atl1
44 T. Pomponius ATTICUS refuses to donate to a fund supporting M. Brutus and C. Cassius. 44 atl1
44 Antony visits Campania, and allocates land to veterans. 44 atl1
44 Octavian raises money and pays 300 sesterces to every Roman citizen, according to terms of Caesar's will. 44 atl1
44 Many lawsuits are brought before consuls for recovery of property from Octavian, as heir of Caesar. 44 atl1
44 Cicero offends Antony by speaking in defense of a person named Sicca. 44 atl1
44 Ag/Sp M.(7) BRUTUS, after quarrel with Antony, leaves wife Porcia at Velia Lucania, leaves Italy, without revealing destination, sails for Athens, intent on taking Macedonia. 44 DGRBM 1-513, 2-801, 3-498, OCD 183, 361, atl1
c.44 Ag/Sp Republican L.(2) GELLIUS PUBLICOLA (son of L.(1)), goes with M.(7) Brutus to Athens. 44 DGRBM 3-601
44 Ag/Sp Republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS sails to Macedonia to join M.(7) Brutus. 44 DGRBM 1-85, OCD 183, 361, wikGnDA
44 Sep 1 Antony summons a senate meeting for honoring Caesar among other things.  Cicero does not to attend. 44 atl1
44 Sep 2 M. Tullius CICERO, encouraged by Octavian, attends senate while Antony is absent, delivers 1st of 14 speeches called Philippics (after Demosthenes' denunciations of Philip 351-41) until April 43.  Speeches oppose Antony, represents his actions as unconstitutional, unpopular with the plebs, and contrary to Caesar's intentions. 44 B76 4-608, 610, CAH 9-477, 10-10, CDCC 199, MCAW 259, OCD 235, atl1, bk, wikAg, wikCc, wikMA
44
Sep 19
Consul ANTONY successfully counters Cicero's 1st Philippic, claiming that Cicero had urged the Pompeians on and instigated the murder of Caesar. 44 CAH 9-477, 10-11, atl1
44 Sep? 4 of Anyony's Macedonian legions arrive at Brundisium.  They are met with pamphlets from Octavian criticising Antony, and promising more money than Antony had promised. 44 CAH 9-478
44 Sep? Octavian visits Cicero and wins some support from him. 44 atl1
44 Oct 9 Consul ANTONY leaves Rome to join legions at Brundisium. 44 atl1
44 Oct Consul ANTONY imprisons some of his own bodyguard on charge of disloyalty, and has them executed, implying conspiracy by Octavian.  Antony claims to fear assassination. 44 CAH 10-11
44 Oct ANTONY prevents Octavian from running for tribune. 44 atl1,
44 Oct ANTONY & OCTAVIAN compete for loyalty of legions with speeches and promises.  Octavian outpromises Antony.  Troops blame Antony that assassins are not punished. 44 CAH 10-11
44 Oct? Soldiers in Rome force a feigned reconciliation between Antony and Octavian. 44 atl1
44 Nov OCTAVIAN recruits 3,000 loyal veterans without authorization and returns to Rome, openly opposing Antony, and urging Cicero to come to Rome. 44 CAH 10-12
44 Nov Octavian is accused of plotting to murder Antony. 44 atl1
44 Nov 2 of Antony's legions defect to Octavian for promise of more money while marching from Brundisium to Rome. 44 CAH 9-478, atl1, wikAg, wikMA
44 Nov Consul ANTONY with a legion arrives at Rome intending to declare Octavian an outlaw, but hears that the 4th legion has gone to Octavian. 44 CAH 10-12
44
Nov 24
Consul ANTONY summons a senate meeting, but then postpones it. 44 atl1
44 Nov 28 Consul ANTONY summons an illegal senate meeting at night in order to declare Octavian an enemy of Rome.  He blocks all opposing tribunes (L.(4) Cassius + 2 others) from entering the Forum, and redistributes all provinces among his partisans.  M.(7) Brutus gets Macedonia.  L.(3) Cornelius Cinna refuses the province assigned to him by Antony. 44 CAH 9-478, 10-12, 19, DGRBM 1-597, 2-802, OCD 241, atl1
44
Nov 28
M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is voted a supplicatio by senate on proposition of Antony. 44 DGRBM 2-767
44 Nov? DECIDIUS SAXA sides with Antony, remains with him until ?. 44 DGRBM 3-730
44 Nov 29? Consul ANTONY, having been assigned Cisalpine Gaul, sends order to Decimus(7) Brutus to leave it.  Antony appoints M. Iccius praetor of Sicily, then departs for Cisalpine Gaul to enforce the order.  L. Trebellius accompanies. 44 CAH 10-12, DGRBM 1-215, 2-559, GHH, atl1, wikAg, wikMA
44 late C. Vibius PANSA in Campania begins negotiating with Octavian and opposing Antony. 44 wikGVP
44 Dec 9 Now that Antony is away, M. Tullius CICERO feels safe enough to return to Rome, arrives in Rome, consults with Pansa. 44 CAH 9-479, 10-12, atl1
44 Dec M. Tullius CICERO proposes that Octavian command the army sent against Antony.  He repeats this proposal in January. 44 DGRBM 1-425
44 Dec Decimus(7) BRUTUS, proconsul? of Cisalpine Gaul, is not due to give up the province until January.  He defies Antony's order, fortifies Mutina Etruria to withstand siege. 44 CAH 10-12, atl1
44 Dec Consul ANTONY besieges Decimus(7) Brutus in Mutina.  L.(2) Calpurnius BESTIA accompanies Antony. 44 B76 II-327, DGRBM 1-215, GHH, atl1, wikMA
44 Dec Consul P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA sets out for his province of Syria via Asia. 44 atl1
44
Dec 20
Senate summoned by tribunes to discuss protection for the new consuls. 44 CAH 9-479
44
Dec 20
M. Tullius CICERO delivers his 3rd  Philippic  to senate, persuades patres to back Decimus(7) Brutus by confirming all governors in their provinces, and to honor and reward Octavian and the 2 legions which had joined him.  He fails to get Antony declared a hostis. 44 CAH 9-479, 10-12
44
Dec 20
Senate orders M.(7) Brutus, Antony's governor of Macedonia from Nov 28, to surrender Macedonia.  (Reverse Feb 43) 44 CAH 10-19
44 Dec Octavian offers to use his legions to fight on behalf of senate against Antony. 44 atl1
44/3 M. Tullius CICERO speech 9th Philippic
NO AFTERLIFE:  "The life of the dead consists in being present in the minds of the living".
60 MNDQ 255
More is known of 43BCE than any other year in Roman history. CAH 9-468
43 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Aulus HIRTIUS, whose suffects are C. Julius Caesar OCTAVIAN, C. Carrinas
and C. VIBIUS PANSA, whose suffects are Q. Pedius, P. Ventidius Bassus
43 B76 V-61, CAH 10-13, DGRBM 2-496, 3-112, FHBC 84, OCD 520, 776, 1113, csm, wik2Tr, wikCon, wikGVP
43 Jan 1 Senate meets to discuss threat of war against Antony.  Consul C. VIBIUS PANSA opens a debate which lasts several days.  Pansa calls on Fufius Calenus, his father-in-law, to speak, and perhaps other consulars, before Cicero. 43 CAH 9-480, atl1
43 Jan 1 M. Tullius CICERO persuades senate to make Octavian a senator, and give him power to vote alongside the former consuls with authority to command an army as pro-praetor, but fails to get the senatus consultum ultimum passed and Antony declared a hostis. 43 CAH 9-480, 10-14, OCD 520, atl1, wikAg, wikMA
43 Jan Senate resolves to pay the 4th and Martian legions the 20,000 sesterces promised them, with demobilization after the campaign, and land to be found in Italy.  Any troops leaving Antony for the consul's army get the same terms. 43 CAH 9-480
43 Jan 4 Senate debates several days, decides to send 3 envoys to order Antony to stop attacking Decimus(7) Brutus, and submit to the senate.  Envoys are L.(7) Calpurnius Piso, Philippus and Servius(2) Sulpicius Lemonia Rufus. 43 CAH 9-480, 10-13, atl1
43 Jan PANSA's debate ends with Octavian receiving praetorian imperium to oppose Antony, and the right to speak among consulars and to stand for consulship 10 years early (which still left him over 10 years to wait). 43 CAH 9-480, atl1
43 Jan OCTAVIAN is given command as pro-praetor together with the 2 consuls to command troops against Antony. 43 CAH 10-14, OCD 520, wikAg, wikMA
43 Jan D.(7) Junius BRUTUS, having been appointed by Caesar, is confirmed governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and goes there. 43 wikDJB
43 Jan CICERO tries to bind Lepidus by proposing a gilded equestrian statue of him in the Forum in gratitude for his coming to terms with Sextus Pompeius. 43 CAH 9-482
43 Jan D.(7) Junius BRUTUS, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, occupies Mutina, laying in provisions for a protracted siege. 43 wikDJB
43 Jan Servius(2) SULPICIUS LEMONIA RUFUS, jurist, returning from embassy to Antony, dies. 43 B76 IX-664, CAH 9-480, 10-964, OCD 1023, atl1
43 Jan Q. Fufius CALENUS defends Antony against Cicero. 43 DGRBM 1-562
43 M. Tullius CICERO delivers his 13th Philippic speech to the senate, dissects a letter of Antony to Hirtius and Octavian, which urges reconciliation of all Caesarians in the face of a Pompeian revival, and deplores use of veterans for purposes other than revenge on Caesar's assassins. 43 CAH 9-482
43 Feb 2 envoys return from embassy to Antony.  Senate votes for emergency measures against Antony. 43 CAH 9-480, atl1
43 Feb News of murder of tyrannicide Trebonius by Dolabella in Smyrna reaches Rome.  Everyone expresses outrage. 43 CAH 9-481
43 Feb L.(7) Calpurnius PISO is an ambassador to Antony at Mutina. 43 DGRBM 3-373
43 P. Ventidius BASSUS, supported by Caesar in 44, becomes praetor, sides with Antony. 43 B76 X-390, DGRBM 3-1238
c.43 Gn. Munatius PLANCUS becomes praetor.  He is allowed by the senate to join his bro Lucius in Transalpine Gaul.  He negotiates on his bro's behalf with Lepidus. 43 DGRBM 3-384
c.43 Equite L. Aelius LAMIA is praetor. 43 DGRBM 2-714
43 Feb ANTONY, besieging Decimus(7) Brutus in Mutina, refuses senatorial order to withdraw, sends L. Varius Cotlya back with counter proposal.  Antony's garrisons also occupy Bononia, Parma, and Rhegium. 44 CAH 10-14, DGRBM 1-869, DGRG 2-378
43 Praetor P. Ventidius BASSUS gathers an army of veterans to support Antony. 43 atl1
43 L. PONTIUS AQUILLA, a tyrannicide, serves as legate of M.(7) Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul.  He defeats Antonine officer T. Munatius Plancus and drive him out of Pollentia. 43 DGRBM 1-253, atl1
43
Feb 23
Cicero is afraid to travel outside Rome on day of the Terminalia festival in honor of god Terminus, who presides over boundaries. 44 atl1
43 Fb/Mr M. Tullius CICERO persuades senate to legalize M.(7) Brutus' position in Macedonia, but fails to achieve the same for Cassius in Syria. 43 CAH 10-15
43 Feb?  Lex Vibia de dictatura tollenda  by consul C. Vibius Pansa, abolishes the office of dictator. 43 EDRL 561, unrv
43 Fb/Mr Senate votes M.(7) BRUTUS command of all troops in Illyria, Macedonia, and Achaea. 44 B76 II-327, OCD 183
43 Fb/Mr Octavian and consul A. Hirtius set out to subdue Antony and his 5 legions at Mutina. 43 B76 V-61, CAH 10-14, DGRBM 2-497, wikMA
43 Fb/Mr BONONIA, under an Antonine garrison from Feb., taken by Octavian and consul A. Hirtius. 43 DGRBM 2-497, DGRG 1-419
43 WAR TAX on peasants, removed from Rome since 201, reintroduced. 43 atl1
43 C. FANNIUS is sent by M.(10) Lepidus as legate to Sextus Pompeius. 43 DGRBM 2-136
43 M.(3) Junius SILANUS sent by bro-in-law M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus with a detachment of troops into Cisalpine Gaul, but with no instructions as to whom to help - consuls Hirtius and Pansa or Antony. 43 DGRBM 3-820
43 L. Marcius CENSORINUS is praetor. 44 DGRBM 1-664
43?  Lex Rubria (or de Gallia Cisalpina)  by Caesar thru tribune Rubria, incorporates Cisalpine Gaul into Italy, granting citizenship in the process. 45-43? unrv
43 GHH
41 CAH 10-403
43 Senate declares P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, proconsul of Syria, now in Asia, a public enemy for killing C. Trebonius.  Consuls Hirtius and Pansa claims right to depose him. 44 OCD 358
43 Mar 5 X-consuls are appointed by the Senate to form a 2nd delegation to Antony, seeking to arrange a truce between Antony and D.(7) Junius Brutus.  They include L.(5) Julius Caesar.  But when 2 of them withdraw from the delegation (M. Tullius Cicero and P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus), the embassy is disbanded. 43 atl1, wikL5JC
43 Mar Consul C. Vibius PANSA with 4 legions marches by Via Cassia to join Hirtius at Bononia. 43 B76 V-61, DGRBM 2-497, OCD 776, wikGVP
43 Mar 20 Letters from Lepidus in Narbonese Gaul (probably inspired by Antony) and Plancus in north Gaul arrive urging peace and preservation of citizen lives. 43 CAH 9-482
43 Mr/Ap M.(3) Junius SILANUS, with bro-in-law M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus from 44, goes over to Antony at Mutina.  With Antony until 39. 43 OCD 988
43 Mr/Ap Servius(2) SULPICIUS LEMONIA RUFUS is sent by senate, with L. Marcius Philippus and L. Calpurnius Piso, on a mission to Antony, who is besieging D.(7) Brutus, in Mutina.  Lemonia dies of bad health.  Son Servius(3) SULPICIUS RUFUS survives. 43 DGRBM 3-964
43 Apr 14 ANTONY, besieging Decimus(7) Brutus in Mutina, learns that consul Pansa approaches with 4 legions, leaves the siege, ambushes and defeats Pansa at Forum Gallorum 20km southeast of Mutina.  Pansa is mortally wounded, but escapes.  While Antony returns in careless disorder, he is routed by consul Hirtius. 43 CAH 9-483, 10-12, DGRBM 2-497, 3-112, DGRG 1-908, OCD 776, atl1, wikAg, wikDJB, wikGVP
43 Apr 21 ANTONY, besieging D.(7) Brutus in MUTINA, gets his camp penetrated by Octavian and consul Hirtius.  D.(7) Brutus, with starving troops, attacks Antony, who is defeated and retreats northwest with bro Lucius. 43 B76 II-327, 1-1000, 15-1106, CAH 9-483, 10-15, DGRBM 1-215, MCAW 258, OCD 184, atl1, bk, wikAg, wikDJB, wikGVP
43
Apr 21
Consul Aulus HIRTIUS is killed in battle at Mutina.  Octavian takes command of his army. 43 B76 V-61, CAH 9-483, 10-15, DGRG 2-378, OCD 184, 520, wikMA
43
Apr 21
C.(4) CASSIUS LONGINUS Varus, son of C.(2), is killed at Mutina. 43 DGRBM 2-799
43
Apr 21
Pontius AQUILA, a tyrannicide serving under D.(7) Brutus killed in battle at Mutina. 43 OCD 90
43
Apr 21
Enemy of Antony, D. Carfulenus (Carsuleius) killed in battle at Mutina. 43 DGRBM 1-613
43
Apr 21
M. Tullius CICERO delivers his 14th and last Philippic speech to the senate against Antony. 44 B76 4-608
43 After Mutina, M.(3) Junius SILANUS returns back thru Gaul to Spain. 43 DGRBM 3-820
43 ANTONY with bro Lucius retreats northwest to Vada Sabata on the Ligurian coast, intending to go to Transalpine Gaul; but his troops balk.  He is joined by P. Ventidius BASSUS with 3 legions, 2 raised in colonies of Caesar, and 1 raised in Picenum. 43 CAH 10-15, DGRBM 3-1238, DGRG 2-645, 1252, OCD 1113
43 Apr 23 Consul C. Vibius PANSA dies of wounds received Apr 21 at Bononia.  His physician Glycon is suspected of poisoning him and imprisoned by quaestor T.(7) Manlius Torquatus.  Octavian, who takes over his army, is suspected of sponsoring it. 43 CAH 9-483, DGRBM 2-278, OCD 776, atl1, wikAg, wikGVP, wikMA
43
Apr 27
On proposal of P.(2) Servilius Vatia, C. CASSIUS' imperium is legalized. 43 CAH 9-483
43
Apr 27
Sextus Pompeius, , holding up with army and fleet at Massilia from 44, is made naval commander until Aug. by senate. 43 CAH 9-483, OCD 858
43 Ap/Ma M. Tullius CICERO says of Octavian, "The young man should be given praise, distinction, and then be disposed of."  Octavian learns of it in May. 44 B76 4-608
43 ANTONY continues to march towards Lepidus, and reaches Forum Julii (Iria, Voghera) in west Cisalpine Gaul. 43 atl1
43 May M.(5) ANTONY, bro Lucius, & P. Ventidius BASSUS cross Alps into Narbonensis. 43 CAH 10-15, DGRBM 1-215
43 May Senate declares ANTONY a hostis (public enemy), confirms M.(7) Brutus and C. Cassius in their provinces, grants Decimus(7) Brutus a triumph, and transfers Octavian's troops to D.(7) Brutus. 44 DGRBM 1-215, 43 CAH 10-15, GHH, OCD 212, wikGCL
43 May OCTAVIAN refuses senatorial order to surrender Pansa's troops to Decimus(7) Brutus.  The rest of Octavian's troops outright refuse to serve under D.(7) Brutus. 43 CAH 10-16, wikAg
43 May Decimus(7) BRUTUS pursues Antony into NarbonensisOctavian declines to help. 44 CAH 10-16, OCD 597
43 May 29 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS with 7 legions in Spain from Mar 44, learns of Mutina, joins Antony in Narbonensis submits a pius resignation to the senate. 43 CAH 10-16, DGRBM 1-215, 717, 767, OCD 597
43
Jun 30
M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is declared a public enemy by the senate, which orders his statue destroyed. 43 DGRBM 2-766, 767, atl1
43 PATAVIUM in Venetia sides with senate against Antony. 43 DGRG 2-556
43 C. Volusenus QUADRATUS is pleb tribune.  He supports Antony. 43 DGRBM 3-632
43 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, best friend of Octavian, becomes pleb tribune, and is assigned to prosecute C. Cassius Longinus, now in Syria, for murder of Caesar. 43 B76 1-367, DGRBM 1-78
43 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS becomes supporter of Octavian. 43 wikGnDA
43 Tyrannicide L. Minucius BASILUS is murdered by his own slaves for cruel treatment.  Crassus and Q. Hortensius Hortalus are named his heirs, but his will is alleged to have been forged. 55 atl1
43 DGRBM 1-470
43  Lex Curiata de Imperio (or Adoptione)  Confirms adoption of C. Octavius (Octavian) by Julius Caesar. 43 unrv
43 L.(5) Julius CAESAR proposes repeal of Agrarian law of Antony.  Senate repeals it. 43 DGRBM 1-538
no date: wikL5JC
c.43 SEXTUS POMPEY is appointed commander of naval forces by senate. 43 atl1
c.43 CISALPINE GAUL becomes a separate province until 42. 43 DGRG 2-76
43 M. Terentius VARRO Reatinus publishes  On the Latin Language . 43 OCD 1108
43 L. VARIUS RUFUS writes poem  De Morte  probably about murder of Julius Caesar. 43 atl1
43 P. TITIUS is pleb tribune.  He deprives colleague P. Servilius Casca of tribunate, because Casca had fled from Rome, fearing vengeance of Octavian. 43 DGRBM 3-1159
43 Jul A band of centurions under CORNELIUS is sent by Octavian to Rome to demand that Octavian be appointed Consul to replace Hirtius and Pansa, and that the decree declaring Antony a public enemy be rescinded.  Senate refuses, and offers a praetorship.  Octavian becomes praetor. 43 CAH 10-16, CDCC 111, DGRBM 1-856, atl1, wikAg, wikMA
43 Jul? Praetor M. Aquilius CRASSUS sent by senate to Picenum to levy troops to resist Octavian. 43 DGRBM 1-872
43 Jul OCTAVIAN with 8 legions marches on Rome to ensure consulship.  Senate tries to negotiate, offers to pay 10,000 sesterces to the 4th and Martian legions (an offer that Octavian hides from his troops).  Senate then tries and fails to organize resistance under the praetors. 43 CAH 9-485, LEWH 110, atl1, wikAg, wikMA
43 Jul Tribune P. Servilius CASCA, tyrannicide, flees from Rome.  Later joins M. Brutus in Macedonia. 43 OCD 210
43 Aug OCTAVIAN with 8 legions camps outside Rome.  3 legions in Rome defect to Octavian.  Commander of one of them, praetor M. Cornutus suicides.  Senate offers 10,000 sesterces to all Octavian's men, and consulship to him.  Cicero voices a rumor that the 4th and Martian legions had mutinied.  Finally the senators streamed miserably out to greet Octavian.  Cicero is one of the last, as Octavian observes. 43 CAH 9-485, DGRBM 1-858
43 Aug 19 OCTAVIAN, age 19, and uncle Q. PEDIUS elected consuls for 42 by senate coerced by Octavian.  Declarations that Antony and P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella were hostes are repealed. 43 CAH 9-486, 10-17, DGRBM 2-767, LEWH 110, OCD 793, atl1, bk, wikAg, wikMA
43 Aug Octavian gets senate to pass  Lex Pedia de Interfectoribus Caesaris  by consuls Q. Pedius and Octavian, banishes (and calls for death of) Caesar's assassins, outlaws Sextus Pompeius at Massilia and M. Favonius.  Troops all get their 10,000 sesterces on account, and plebs received Caesar's legacies in full. 43 B76 VIII-107, DGRBM 1-513, 2-139, 3-489, OCD 793, 858, atl1, unrv, wikMA
43 Aug Republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS (now in Macedonia) condemned by Lex Pedia, though there is no other evidence that he was among the assassins. 43 DGRBM 1-85, wikGnDA
43 Aug? L. CORNIFICIUS, friend of Octavian, prosecutes M. Brutus in absentia. 43 OCD 292     no date: DGRBM 1-858
43 Ag/Sp ATIA Balba Caesonia dies.  Dau of M. Atius Balbus & Julia sis of Caesar, widow of C. Octavius d.58, wife of L. M. Philippus from 58, mother of Octavian & Octavia. 43 DGRBM 1-405, OCD 143, atl1
43 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO marries LIVIA Drusilla, dau of Livius Drusus Claudianus, until 39. 43 CDCC 524, wikTCN
43 Antonine general Q. Terentius CULLEO joins Lentullus. 43 DGRBM 1-900
43 P. VATINIUS proconsul of Illyricum from 46, returns to Rome. 43 DGRBM 3-1235, OCD 1110, atl1
c.43 New temples of ISIS and SERAPIS are built by the triumvirs.  Their worship is sanctioned. 43 DGRBM 2-631, atl1
43 fall Consul OCTAVIAN leaves consul Q. Pedius in charge of Rome, leads 11 legions north to negotiate with Antony & M.(10) Lepidus against Decimus(7) Brutus and Plancus. 43 CAH 9-486, 10-17, wikMA
43 ANTONY is compelled to recross the Apennines, intending to seize Pollentia.  But Decimus Brutus, occupies Pollentia with 5 cohorts. 43 DGRG 2-645
43 DECIMUS(7) BRUTUS dies.  Pursued by Antony in Cisalpine Gaul.  His troops desert.  He is killed by a Gaul chief, at request of Antony. 43 atl1, wikRGG
43 Oct? ANTONY, invited to conference by Octavian, leaves L. Varius Cotyla in charge of his legions in Gaul, and crosses Alps into Italy. 43 DGRBM 1-869
43 Oc/Nv Consul OCTAVIAN, ANTONY, & LEPIDUS meet at Bononia.  After elaborate precautions against treachery, they meet on an island in the Lavinus River in full view of troops.  Meeting lasts 2 days. 43 DGRBM 2-767, LEWH 110, wik2Tr, wikAg, wikMA
Empire at 50BCE
Empire 43BCE       map: ColdEel
43 Oc/Nv 2nd TRIUMVIRATE:  Octavian, Antony, Lepidus formed on an island near Bononia in Cisalpine Gaul.  They agree to wipe out all opposition and take 5 year terms in provinces.  It expires 38, but lasts until 33.  Antony to get Cisalpine and Transalpine GaulLepidus to get Narbonensis and SpainOctavian to get Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Africa.  They leave C.(1) Asinius Pollio to assign land to veterans, and leave for Rome.  This arrangement lasts until Nov 42. 43 B76 VI-158, 2-369, 4-608, CAH 9-486, 10-1, 19, DGRBM 1-215, MCAW 258, OCD 149, atl1, bk, wik2Tr, wikAg
43 Nov Consul OCTAVIAN resigns consulship.  P. Ventidius BASSUS is appointed in his place. 43 CAH 10-20, DGRBM 3-1238, OCD 1113, atl1
43 Nov At insistence of troops, OCTAVIAN marries a relative of Antony - CLAUDIA Pulchra, dau of P. Clodius, stepdau of Antony until 41. 43 CAH 9-486, 10-20, OCD 1113, wikMA
43 Nov 27  Lex Titia  by tribune P. Titius, confirms 2nd Triumvirate; gives Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus full powers for 5 years to defeat assassins of Julius Caesar, make or annul laws without consulting senate or people, exercise jurisdiction without right of appeal, and nominate magistrates of their choice.  It legalizes 2nd triumvirate and massive proscriptions against political opponents.  Renewed 37. 43 CAH 10-1, 20, 67, 345, DGRBM 3-1159, EDRL 560, HRE 8, OCD 149, atl1, unrv, wik2Tr, wikAJC, wikJC, wikLpd, wikLRL, wikMA, wikTAR
43 Nov L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS agrees to proscription of his own bro L.(2) PLautius PLANCUS, who, to save his slaves, who were being tortured to death because they would not betray him, voluntarily surrenders to his executioners. 43 DGRBM 3-383-4
43 Nov 28 PROSCRIPTION begins until January  The triumvirs list 130 people for arrest.    Reign of terror ensues, large bounties, prompt payment.  Old aristocrats are hit hardest:  300 senators, 2,000 equites murdered. 43 CAH 9-486, 10-21, DGRBM 1-215, GHH, bk
43 Nv/Dc L.(4) CASSIUS Longinus, bro of Caius(5), enemy of Antony, proscribed, flees to Asia province. 43 DGRBM 2-802, OCD 212
43 Nv/Dc P. TITIUS dies.  Pleb tribune who deprived Casca of tribunate, is killed. 43 atl1
People proscribed by triumvirs in Nov/Dec 43 include:

M.(1) Tullius CICERO, proscribed by Antony, deserted by friends, flees to his villa in Formiae.
43 LEWH 110, atl1
L.(5) Julius CAESAR, uncle of Antony, allowed to escape. 43 atl1
C. VERRES, criminal exiled from 70, murdered by order of Antony, who wants his art works. 43 B76 X-405, DGRBM 3-1243
M.(6) MESSALA CORVINUS, who escapes to camp of Brutus and Cassius. 43 B76 VI-821, atl1
C. COPONIUS, but his wife gets him pardoned by having sex with Antony. 43 DGRBM 1-850
T. VINIUS, but his wife hides him in a chest at the house of his freedman Philopoemen, and say he is dead.  She later gets him pardoned by Octavian. 43 DGRBM 3-1262
M. VOLUSIUS escapes disguised as a priest of Isis. 43 DGRBM 3-1282, atl1
M. APPULEIUS flees to Brutus in Macedonia. 43 DGRBM 1-248
C. TORANIUS proscribed at request of his son, who wants his property. 43 DGRBM 3-1105
URBINUS PANOPION is saved by a slave who exchanges clothing with his master, who splits out the back door as soldiers enter the front.  The slave sits on the bed of Panopion, and allows himself to be killed as if he were Panopion. 43 DGRBM 3-112
Q. APONIUS, a commander of troops which rebelled in Spain 46. 43 DGRBM 1-247
L.(1) Aemilius LEPIDUS PAULLUS, bro of triumvir M.(10), but M.(10) lets him escape. 43 atl1, wikL1ALP
Praetor L. VILLIUS ANNALIS, betrayed by his son, executed.  His son is killed soon after in a drunken brawl by the same soldiers. 43 DGRBM 1-180
L. PHILISCUS, executed. 43 DGRBM 3-335
Praetor MINUCIUS RUFUS, executed. 43 DGRBM 3-675, atl1
SEPTIMIUS betrayed by his wife to assassins. 43 DGRBM 3-784
Q. SALASSUS sees his wife leading assassins to him, jumps head first from his roof. 43 DGRBM 3-693
STATIUS the Samnite executed. 43 DGRBM 3-901
Q. Lucretius VESPILLO concealed by wife Turia in his house at Rome, till his friends get him pardoned. 43 DGRBM 3-1249, atl1
CAESTIUS RUFUS, beheaded because he owns a house that Antony's wife Fulvia wants. 43 DGRBM 3-672
SITTIUS of Cales Campania, but at the request of his townsmen is allowed to live in exile at his native place. 43 DGRBM 3-844
Pleb tribune SALVIUS, executed late in 43 while entertaining friends at a banquet. 43 DGRBM 3-701, atl1
M. Terentius VARRO Reatinus, the historian, former Pompeyan, proscribed by Antony, loses much of property including his library (@620 books), but escapes. 43 GHH, OCD 1107, atl1, wikMTV
L. Octavius BALBUS, proscribed by triumvirs, flees from his house, tricked by false report that his son was killed, returns home, executed. 42 DGRBM 1-458
Q.(1) Tullius CICERO, bro of M., and his son Q.(2), delivered by their own slaves for the bounty, executed. 43 DGRBM 1-747, OCD 239
People proscribed by triumvirs in Nov/Dec 43 who flee to Sextus Pompeius in Sicily:

Lucius TITIUS and son Marcus   Marcus raises a private fleet, ravages coast of Italy until ?.
43 OCD 1079
C. LUCCEIUS HIRRUS 43 DGRBM 2-810
LENTULUS CRUSCELLIO   Wife Sulpicia follows him. 43 DGRBM 2-733, 3-944
CANINIUS REBILUS 43 DGRBM 3-641
C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS Vetulio 43 DGRBM 3-725
ANTIUS RESTIO preserved by the fidelity of a slave. 43 DGRBM 3-646, atl1
VETULINUS raises an army in south Italy, resists troops sent against him, tries to cross over to Messana, killed. 43 DGRBM 3-1251
M. OPPIUS and his father.  The father is feeble, but his son carries him and reaches Sicily. 43 DGRBM 3-39
ARRUNTIUS executed.  Son Lucius escapes, but dies at sea.  Another ARRUNTIUS escapes to in Sicily until amnesty of 39. 43 DGRBM 1-353, OCD 123
C. FANNIUS flees in Dec. 43 DGRBM 2-136
43 Dec 7 M.(1) Tullius CICERO dies.  Age 63, leaves his villa in Formiae in a litter for the west coast where he hopes to sail to Macedonia.  Antony's agents, centurion Herennius and tribune Popilius arrive.  Cicero's slaves say they had not seen him, but he is betrayed by Philologus, a freed slave of his bro Quintus.  Cicero is captured.  Last words: "There is nothing proper about what you are doing, soldier, but do try to kill me properly."  Herennius kills him, then cuts off his head.  On Antony's instructions his hands, which had penned the Philippics, are also cut off.  His head and hands will be nailed on the Rostra in the Forum Romanum.  Cicero is the only victim of proscription so debased. 43 B76 4-608, CAH 9-487, CDCC 199, DGRBM 1-215, DGRG 1-905, GHH, MCAW 258, atl1, bk, wikCc, wikMA
43 Dec SEXTUS POMPEIUS uses fleet at Massilia to rescue proscribed fugitives from Italy to Sicily. 44 OCD 858, wikSR
43 Dec Antony's wife FULVIA takes Cicero's head, pulls out his tongue, and jabs it repeatedly with her hairpin. 43 atl1, wikCc
43 Dec Consul Q. PEDIUS, son of Julia sis of Caesar, dies of exhaustion trying to manage the panic caused by proscription. 43 OCD 793, wik2Tr
43 Dec Antony's man P. Ventidius BASSUS is made consul to replace Pedius. 43 DGRBM 3-1238
43
Dec 29
L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS has a triumph for a victory in Gaul. 43 DGRBM 3-383, atl1
43
Dec 31
M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is given a triumph for no particular reason. 43 DGRBM 2-768
43/2 Triumvirs sieze much money deposited by proscribed people with the Vestal Virgins. 43/2 CAH 10-91-2
43/2 L.(1) Cornelius BALBUS is praetor. 43 or 42 wikL1Bl
42 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M.(10) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS (2nd) and L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS, both Antony's men 42 B76 VI-158, DGRBM 2-768, 3-382-3, OCD 597, 838, FHBC 84
42 Jan 1 Senate declares Julius Caesar a god "Divus Julius".  Triumvirs swear to uphold his acts, and administer an oath of allegiance to magistrates and senate.  Citizens are compelled to celebrate his birthday. 42 CAH 10-5, 22, 839, CDCC 113, OCD 149, sjsu, wikAg, wikJC, wikMA
42 Jan Proscription officially ends.  All surviving senators are allowed to keep their positions if they sware allegiance to the Triumvirate. 42 wikMA
42 A temple is erected to "Divus Julius" by order of senate.  They add "Divi Filius" (Son of god) to his name to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers by following the deification of Caesar.  Antony is made first flamen divi Julii until death. 42 CAH 10-788, 839, IDB 1-479, wikAg
42 Triumvirs now control 43 legions: probably 40 in the East. 42 CAH 10-05
42 Λ CENSORS V patrician P. SULPICIUS QUIRINIUS RUFUS and pleb C.(1) ANTONIUS HYBRIDA.  They do not complete the lustrum. 42 DGRBM 3-638, OCD 77, atl1, wikCns
42 Q. Salvieienus RUFUS is sent with a fleet by Octavian to guard the coast against Sextus Pompeius.  He does so successfully. 42 DGRBM 3-490
42 spring ANTONY & OCTAVIAN command 28 legions to fight republicans in Greece, under M. Brutus and C. Cassius.  They send 8 legions ahead under L. Decidius Saxa & C. Norbanus Flaccus. 42 CAH 10-5, 22, DGRBM 3-730, wikLCW
c.42 Pons CestiusPONS CESTIUS, a stone bridge from the Tiber island (see62) to the west bank, built by an unknown member of the Cestii.
Photo taken 1880 before reconstruction.
photo: {{PD-US}}

62-27 wikPC
42 Triumvirs introduce new taxes.  TRIBUTUM (property tax), abolished from 147, revived. 42 atl1
42 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO is praetor. 42 DGRBM 2-1162, wikTCN
42 HORTENSIA, dau of Q. Hortensius Hortalus d.50, speaks against the imposition of a special tax on wealthy Roman matrons with such success that part of it is remitted. 42 wikQHr
42 COMET appears during games in Caesar's honor, and is taken as confirmation of his divinity. 42 wikJC
42
Jul 12
Triumvirs promote cult of Julius Caesar, including elaborate celebrations of his birthday. 42 atl1
42 mid ANTONY & OCTAVIAN leave 3 legions under Lepidus to hold Italy, depart with the remaining 17 from Brundisium to Dyrrhachium. 42 CAH 10-22, GHH, atl1, wikAg, wikMA, wikTAR
42 mid Antonines CALENUS and POLLIO are left in Italy with large armies - Pollio in Cisalpine Gaul. 42 CAH 10-5
c.42 CISALPINE GAUL, province from 43, annexed to Italy. 42 CAH 10-349, DGRG 2-76, OCD 243
c.42 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) publishes  Catiline's War  about events of 63. 42 B76 16-185, MCAW 259
c.42 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) publishes  The Jugurthan War . 42 MCAW 259
c.42 VIRGIL (P. Vergilius Maro), in Cisalpine Gaul, finishes  Ecologues #2, 3, 5 . 42 OCD 1123
c.42 VIRGIL (P. Vergilius Maro), in Cisalpine Gaul, starts to write  Ecologues . 42 atl1, wikVrg
42 Jul 31 P. VATINIUS has triumph for victories over Illyria. 42 CAH 10-549, atl1
42 Liberators' civil war: 2nd Triumvirate against republicans in Greece, under M. Brutus and C. Cassius.  Octavian and Antony lead some 30 legions to northern Greece in pursuit of Caesar's assassins M.(7) Junius Brutus and C. Cassius Longinus. 42 GHH, wikTAR
42 Temple of SATURN at the foot of the Capitoline Hill in the west end of the Forum from 497, rebuilt by Munatius Plancus.  It lasts until 283CE.  Contains a wooden statue of Saturn veiled and holding a scythe.  The legs are covered with bands of wool which are removed only on Dec. 17, the Saturnalia. 42 CAH 10-787, ISBE 4-233, wikTS
42 Sextus Pompeius defeats fleet of Octavian's admiral Salvidienus Rufus near promontory of ScyllaeumOctavian can't control the straits. 42 Ac31 7, atl1
42 Oct 3 Octavian partisan Gn. Domitius CALVINUS with reinforcements tries to sail out of Brundisium and is defeated by republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS with 50-70 ships on the day of the first battle of Philippi. 44 wikGnDA, 42 wikLCW
42 Oct PHILIPPI   Oct 3   Oct 23
42 Oct 23 Liberators' civil war ends at Philippi: M.(7) Junius Brutus siucides. 42 Oct 23 wikTAR

Italy 42-30
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