Italy
48 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(4) Julius CAESAR (2nd) and P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS 48 DGRBM 3-1233, LEWH 110, csm, ttjc, wikCon
48 Jan 4 CAESAR has has 60,000 troops at Brundisium, but ships for only 20,000 men.  He leaves chief legate, Mark Antony, at Brundisium, and sails 20,000 to Palaeste Epirus. 49 B76 3-578, wikBb
48 DGRBM 1-551, 3-487, 510, Dur 3-184, MCAW 256, OCD 189, atl1, sjsu, vrm, wikBb, wikCCW, wikTAR
48 early L. Scribonius LIBO commanding Pompey's 50 galleys, blockades Antony at Brundisium, burns several storage ships, captures one full of grain, and lands troops on the island at the entrance to the harbor.  Confident of success, Libo sends a letter to Pompey, saying he had secured the harbor and that the rest of the fleet should be repaired and rested.  But Antony, tricks Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked.  Most of Libo's fleet escapes, but several of his troops are trapped and captured on a harbor island. 48 atl1, wikLSL, wikMA
48 Jan Mark ANTONY, Caesar's rep in Italy, gathers another fleet, sails the remaining 40,000 men from Brundisium to Apollonia. 48 DGRBM 1-215, Dur 3-185, OCD 77
Brundisium to Lissus Illyria atl1
48 Jan Q. Fufius CALENUS sails Caesar's 12 empty ships back from Epirus.  Most of them are captured by Pompeyan M. Calpurnius Bibulus.  Calenus escapes to coast of Italy. 48 DGRBM 1-562, atl1, wikQFC
48 Pompeyan fleet commander M. Calpurnius BIBULUS finally hears of Caesar's crossing.  He orders his rowers to return to their ships, and sails north, hoping to capture the ships carrying Caesar's reinforcements from Brundisium.  Again too slow, he gets there for their return journey to Italy, capturing and burning 30 of Caesar's transports. 48 wikBb
48 Pompeyan fleet commander M. Calpurnius BIBULUS blockades all harbors along the Italian coast, hoping to prevent further crossings from Italy, and leaving Caesar stranded in Epirus.  Unfortunately, Bibulus cannot resupply his own ships without abandoning the blockade, so he tries to bluff Caesar's legates at Oricum into getting Caesar to agree to a temporary truce so that he could resupply.  Caesar sees it was a bluff and pulls out of negotiations. 48 wikBb
48 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA is elected tribune for 47. 48 DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
48 Ti.(4) CLAUDIUS NERO becomes quaestor under Caesar. 48 wikTCN
48 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) probably made quaestor by Caesar. 48 wikSls
48 M. CAELIUS RUFUS is praetor peregrinus - and deeply in debt.  He proposes adjustment of debts. 48 DGRBM 2-1086, 3-672, wikMCR
c.48 P. SULPICIUS GALBA is praetor. 48 DGRBM 3-946
48 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA is elected tribune for 47. 48 DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
48 Arsinoe, claimant to throne of Egypt, is sent captive to Rome. no date: B76 I-547
48 Tribune elect P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella, in opposition to senate, proposes cancelling all debts. 48 DGRBM 1-1059
48 Caesar, goes from Brundisium thru Sinuessa to Rome. 49 DGRG 2-1009
48 C. Vibius PANSA is elected either aedile or praetor. 48 wikGVP
48 C. TREBONIUS made urban praetor until 47 by Caesar, and is put in charge of administering Caesar's debt laws.  He proposes general cancellation of debts. 48 B76 X-105, DGRBM 3-1171, OCD 1090, wikTrb
48 Praetor peregrinus M. Caelius RUFUS had turned against Caesar, whose debt laws robbed Rufus of the chance clear his enormous debts, so he wants to obstruct Trebonius, and to court popularity by siding with debtors.  Rufus sets up his chair next to Trebonius and says that if anyone felt cheated by Trebonius, he would listen to their case favorably.  When no-one took him up on his offer, Rufus proposed instead to cancel all debts, and incited a mob to attack Trebonius, who is driven from his tribunal.  Trebonius continues to oppose Rufus's debt relief measures. 48 B76 II-432, CAH 9-432, DGRBM 3-672, OCD 188, atl1, wikTrb
48 M. Caelius RUFUS, praetor peregrinus, deposed by senate where the Caesarian party have a majority, after claiming to join Caesar, he flees to join MILO in Massilia.  Persuades Milo to invade Italy. 48 B76 II-432, CAH 9-432, DGRBM 3-672, OCD 188, wikMCR, wikTAM
48 Republican C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus now based in Sicily, makes many attacks on the coast Italy. 48 wikGCL
48 Q. PEDIUS, Caesarean praetor, suppresses uprising of MILO. 48 OCD 793
48 Aug 9 PHARSALUS
48 What remains of the government in Rome learns of Pharsalus, appoints CAESAR dictator 2nd time, this time for 12 months. 48 DGRBM 1-552, GHH, atl1, wikCCW, wikJC
48 M. CALIDIUS dies at Placentia. 48 atl1
c.48 Praetor P. SULPICIUS GALBA commands Caesar's fleet at Vibo, when it is attacked by C.(5) Cassius. 48 DGRBM 3-946
48 Q.T. Annius MILO, anti-Caesar, attempts a coup, invades south Italy, driven from Capua to Mt. Tifata (30kn east of it), captured, executed at Cosa or Thurii by Q. Pedius. 48 B76 VI-901, CAH 9, DGRG 2-1207, DGRBM 3-164, OCD 687, atl1, wikTAM
48 M. CAELIUS RUFUS, anti-Caesar, tries to bribe some Spanish and Gallic horsemen to surrender Thurii, captured and executed by them. 48 B76 II-432, CAH 9, DGRBM 3-672, OCD 188
48 Caesarean P. VATINIUS sent by Caesar back to Brundisium, defends Brundisium against D. Laelius, who attacks it with part of the Pompeian fleet. 48 MCAW 259 47 B76 X-362
48 TEMPLE of QUIRINUS on west half of Quirinal Hill, dedicated 292, struck by lightning and burnt.  Will be restored 16. 49 esh
48 DGRG 2-829
48 M. Terentius VARRO Reatinus, who fought against Caesar at Pharsalus, is pardoned and made a librarian. 48 MCAW 259 47 B76 X-362
48 M. Terentius VARRO Reatinus publishes  De Musica . 48 MCAW 257
48 Sextus Caesar is quaestor. 48 OCD 190
48 M.(10) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS becomes proconsul of Nearer Spain until 47. 49 rcIb     48 B76 VI-158, DGRBM 2-766, OCD 517
48 Aulus HIRTIUS passes a law, restricting rights of supporters of Pompey. 48 atl1
48 A cure for elephantiasis is discovered. 48 atl1
48
Oct 18
OCTAVIAN (C.(3) Octavius) turns 15 and wears the toga virillis. 48 wikELA
48 Nov M. Tullius CICERO, in Greece from 49, now pardoned by Caesar, returns with his bro Quintus to Brundisium.  He maintains republican sentiment, but refrains from political activity until after the tyranicide. 48 B76 4-608, CAH 9-433, DGRBM 1-716, MCAW 256, OCD 235, 239, atl1
48 MARK ANTONY, with Caesar in Greece, sent back to Italy as Caesar's rep., arrives shortly after Cicero, but holds no office until 44. 48 OCD 77, atl1
48 FOOD:  About 500 bargeloads of food and other imports are pulled up the Tiber monthly.  Pork sausage from Gaul is introduced by Caesar. 48 TTPC
48 CAESAR, still in the east, is given permanent tribune powers. 48 DGRBM 1-552, wikJC
48 CAESAR returns from Dyrrhachium to Rome. 48 guess
48 C.(2) Claudius Marcellus marries Octavia, niece of Julius Caesar (41, 40) 48 GHH
48 White marble QUARRIES at Carrara 1st mentioned.  Manurra uses it for columns in his house. 48 CDCC 166
48/7 Aulus(5) GABINIUS dies of illness. 48/7 DGRBM 2-195, wikAGb
no date: OCD 451
47 Caesar, now in Asia, is made dictator for another 12 months.  He appoints Antony magister equitum. 48 CAH 9-435 47 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-215
No, it's after he returns from Asia. 47 GHH, sjsu
47 MARK ANTONY, as Caesar's magister equitum, tries to maintain order in Italy. 47 GHH
c.47 C. Antonius HYBRIDA, exiled on Cephalenia island from 59, recalled by Caesar. 47 wikGAH 44 atl1
47 ANTONIA Hybrida Minor, dau of C. Antonius, cousin and 2nd wife of Mark Antony from 63, accused of intrigue with P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella and divorced. 47 DGRBM 1-209, 215, OCD 77, atl1
47 Hyrcanus-II sends envoys from Judea to Rome, to confirm a treaty of friendship. Ant 14:10:1 47 atl1
47 Pompeyan M. AQUINIUS pardoned by Caesar. 47 DGRBM 1-253
47 Tribune P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA renews agitation on behalf of debtors. 47 CAH 9-435
47 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is pleb tribune.  He opposes efforts of tribune P. Dolabella to cancel debts. 47 DGRBM 3-437, GHH
c.47 L. TREBELLIUS is pleb tribune.  To please Caesar, he opposes efforts of tribune Dolabella to cancel debts. 47 DGRBM 3-1170
47 C. TREBONIUS is made propraetor of Farther Spain until ? by Caesar. 48 wikTrb     47 B76 II-617, X-105, DGRBM 3-1171, OCD 212, 1090, rcIb
47  Lex de Fenore  regulates differences between creditors and debtors. 47 GHH
47  Rogatio Cornelia de Novis Tabellis  by tribune P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella while M.(5) Antonius is Caesar's Magister Equitum in Rome, calls for total debt relief, essentially in order to free his own debt burdens. 47 unrv
47 Mark ANTONY opposes tribune P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella's law for political and personal reasons.  He thinks Caesar would not support such massive relief, and suspects Dolabella had seduced his wife Antonia.  Dolabella tries to enact the law by force and seizes the Forum, Antony unleashes his soldiers on the assembled mass.  A pleb riot ensues.  Urban prefect L.(5) Julius Caesar is unable to suppress riots.  800 people killed. 47 OCD 190, 358, atl1, wikMA
47 Troops mutiny in Campania for promised discharges and back pay.  Mutineers kill senators C.(3) Cosconius and Galba and threaten praetor C. Sallustius. 47 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-863, atl1, wikSls
47 ANTONY is busy in Campania trying to restrain the mutiny. 47 CAH 9-435
47 Caesarean M.(10) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS proconsul of Nearer Spain from 48, returns to Rome and is granted a triumph, but the only trophy he can present is the money he plundered. 47 DGRBM 2-766
47 Jul CAESAR sails from Asia to Tarentum.  CICERO meets him, asks forgiveness for self and other republicans.  Caesar consents.  Caesar is miffed at Antony for causing riots. 47 CAH 9, MCAW 256, sjsu, wikMA Sep 26 Dur 3-188
Brundisium, not Tarentum 47 atl1
47 The senate had been severely depleted, so Caesar uses his censorial powers to appoint many new senators, which eventually raise Senate membership to 900.  All appointments are Caesar partisans, who rob the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and make the senate more subservient to Caesar. 47 wikJC
47 OCTAVIAN (C.(3) Octavius) is elected to College of Pontiffs, after nomination by Caesar. 47 wikAg
c.47 Temples of ISIS and SERAPIS are ordered destroyed by order of senate.  By mistake, an adjoining temple of Bellona is destroyed, and in it are found pots of human flesh. 48 atl1
47 DGRBM 2-631
47 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) elected praetor for 46. 47 DGRBM 3-696
47 M. Terentius VARRO Reatinus appointed to oversee public library by Caesar. 47 wikMTV
c.47 P. Cornelius Sulla is ordered by Caesar to carry over from Italy to Sicily the legions destined for the African war.  But the 12th legion mutinys and drives him away with stones, demanding pay they had been promised in Greece. 47 DGRBM 3-944
47 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is pleb tribune.  He opposes efforts of tribune Dolabella to cancel debts. 47 DGRBM 3-437, GHH, wikGAP
47 CAESAR introduces measures to help the poor and reduce unrest at Rome. 47 atl1
47 CAESAR sells property of Pompey and other enemies. 47 atl1
47 Brithagoras of Heraclea Pontica, attendant of Caesar for 12 years, dies of old age and over exertion. 47 atl1
47 Gold denarii coins are produced weighing 1/40 pound. 47 atl1
47 M.(7) BRUTUS visits M.(10) Claudius Marcellus in exile, at Mytilene. 47 atl1
47 Aug Campanian mutiny quelled by Caesar, who enacts emergency measures to cope with debt.  Cancels debts under 2,000 sesterces.  Caesar wants these 4 legions to help him in Africa to face the Optimates (who had regrouped under Cato and allied with King Juba of Numidia).  But the legions demand discharges.  Caesar says they are discharged, and that he would go to Africa with his other legions.  The reverse psychology shames them into rejoining Caesar. 47 DGRBM 1-552, CAH 9, atl1, vrm, wikCCW
47
Aug 12
CICERO receives a letter from Caesar, promising to forget the past and accept Cicero as friend. 47 DGRBM 1-717
47 Sep CAESAR arrives back in Rome, treats Cicero cordially.  Since his dictatorship is expiring, he has it renewed and appoints M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus magister equitum. 47 DGRBM 1-552, 717
47 Oct? Caesar had been offered consulship for 5 years, but turns it down, since he was already dictator.  He appoints consuls for the remainder of the year.
CONSULS:  Q. Fufius CALENUS and P. VATINIUS
47 DGRBM 1-552, 562, csm, wikCon
47 Oct CAESAR again leaves Antony in charge of Italy and sails to Lilybaeum, enroute to Africa to deal with sons of Pompey until 46.  Neph Octavian wants to go, but his mom Atia thinks he's too frail. 47 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-215, 424, 552, GHH, atl1, sjsu, vrm
P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella accompanies. DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
47 Oct C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus declines to go with Caesar to Africa because he has friends among the republicans. 46 DGRBM 2-800, wikGCL
47 Dec P. VATINIUS is made consul for a few days. 47 DGRBM 3-1235, wikPV
c. 47/6 MARK ANTONY marries 3rd wife FULVIA (who is already pregnant with their son) until 40.  She is dau of M. Fulvius Bambalio and widow of Clodius 62-52 and Curio 51-49.  Cicero suggests the 2 had had an affair since at least 58. 47 wikMA
47/6 OCD 77, 450 46 DGRBM 1-215, atl1
44 DGRBM 2-188
47/6 Servius Sulpicius RUFUS made proconsul of Achaea by Caesar. 47 OCD 1023 46 B76 IX-664
46 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(4) Julius CAESAR (3rd, now in Africa) and M.(10) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS 46 DGRBM 2-766, LEWH 110, OCD 957, csm, wikCCW, wikCon, wikJC, wikLpd
46 Jan P. VATINUS, technically an X-consul, is sent with 3 legions to Illyricum to oppose Pompeyan M. Octavius. 46 DGRBM 3-1235, wikPV
46 L. Volcacius TULLUS is urban praetor. 46 DGRBM 3-1191
46 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is summoned again to Africa in pursuit of Cato and Metellus Scipio. 46 DGRBM 3-437, wikGAP
46 M.(2) Tullius CICERO, son of the orator, and M. Caesius, both become aediles and go to Arpinum.  Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of the orator, accompanies. 46 DGRBM 1-746
46 Constitution at Arpinum revised with support of Cicero, by his son and his nephew and a colleague. 46 CAH 10-421
46 M. Tullius CICERO writes  Brutus,  Paradoxa Stoicorum,  Orator . 46 B76 4-608, 610, CDCC 199, atl1
46 M. Tullius CICERO speech  Pro Ligario . 46 B76 4-610, atl1, wikCc
46 C. Vibius PANSA governor of Bithynia & Pontus from 47, returns to Rome.  He is appointed by Caesar to be governor of Cisalpine Gaul, but does not go there until 45. 46 OCD 776, wikGVP
46 Pompeyan Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is pardoned by Caesar and returns from Greece? to Italy. 46 DGRBM 1-85, wikGnDA
46 Aulus HIRTIUS is praetor. 46 B76 V-61
46 M. VITRUVIUS, celebrated architect, flourishes. 46 GHH
46
Jul 25
CAESAR returns from Africa to Sardinia to Italy before going to Spain, which he does in Nov. 46 B76 3-579, CAH 9-436, DGRBM 1-552, MCAW 256, atl1, sjsu, vrm
P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella accompanies. DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
46 Jul CAESAR has 4 triumphs on separate days for Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, and Africa.  Octavian attends.  Arsinoe, younger sis of Cleo-VII is paraded thru streets.  Vercingetorix is paraded and strangled. 46 B76 X-394, 2-369, CAH 9-436, CDCC 924, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, atl1, hifiCT     45 DGRBM 3-1240, wikVrc
46 CAESAR sends out further forces, commanded by Q. Pedius and Q. Fabius Maximus, to suppress unrest in Spain. 46 atl1
46 CAESAR forces Antony to pay full amount for purchase of a house that belonged to Pompey. 46 atl1
46 CAESAR is appointed dictator for 10 years.  Consul M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus is made his magister equitum until 44. 46 B76 VI-158, Dur 3-110, CDCC 479, GHH, IDB 1-478, MCAW 256, OCD 597, ttjc, wikCCW, wikJC
46 CAESAR gives himself the title of "Prefect of the Morals", an office new only in name, as its powers are identical to those of the censors.  Thus, he holds censorial powers, while not being subject to the same checks to which ordinary censors were subject. 46 atl1, wikJC
46 CAESAR plans restoration of Carthage and of Corinth. 46 DGRG 1-548
46 TRIBUNI AERARII (semi-equites) acting as jurors from 70, abolished by Caesar in favor of real equites. 46 HRE 42
46 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  Brutus . 46 atl1, wikCc
46 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS, is appointed governor of Cisalpine Gaul until 45 by Caesar.  M. Terentius Varro Gibba is his quaestor. 46 B76 II-327, CAH 9-440, CDCC 150, DGRBM 1-512, 3-1223, OCD 183, atl1, wikMJB
46 Caesar summons CLEOPATRA-VII and 1 year-old Caesarion from Egypt.  They arrive.  Caesar officially acknowledges the child as his son and establishes them in a villa across the Tiber from Rome.  In a letter he lists his political aims as "tranquility for Italy, peace for the provinces, and security for the Empire". 46 B76 VIII-282, atl1, wikC7, vrm
46 C.(3) OCTAVIUS [son of C.(2) Octavius and Atia - dau of M. Atius Balbus + Julia, sis of Caesar], age 17, becomes pontifex. 48 CAH 10-824 46 IDB 1-317, OCD 149
46 Greek PHYSICIANS in Roman Empire, until now slaves or freedmen, granted citizenship by Caesar. 46 TTPC
46  Lex Hirtia de Pompeianis  by praetor Aulus Hirtius, restricts any member of the Pompeius clan from holding a magistracy. 46 unrv
46  Lex Julia de Modo Credendi Possidendique Intra Italiam  by dictator Caesar, defines terms of lending money and holding estates in Italy. 46 atl1, unrv
46  Lex Julia de Provinciis  by dictator Caesar, limits term of propraetors to 1 year, and term of proconsuls to 2 consecutive years, and enacts that no one be allowed to hold any command longer than that. 46 unrv
46  Lex Julia Sumptuaria  by dictator Caesar, checks personal expenditures on entertaining and luxuries. 46 atl1, unrv 45 MCAW 257
46 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) the historian, Caesarean, is made praetor, accompanies Caesar to Africa, and becomes governor of Numidia until 45. 47 GHH
46 GHH, MCAW 259, wikSls
46 C.(2) Claudius MARCELLUS intercedes with Caesar for his cousin M.(10) Claudius Marcellus, former consul of 51 and anti-Caesarian, who is now exiled in Mytilene Lesbos. 46 wikGCMn
46 Sep M.(10) Claudius MARCELLUS dies.  Exiled in Mytilene Lesbos from 48, permitted by Caesar to return to Rome.  Dies enroute. 46 B76 VI-601, OCD 646, atl1
46 M. Tullius CICERO speech Pro Marcello to celebrate return of M.(10) Claudius Marcellus, not knowing he will die enroute. 46 B76 VI-601, 4-610, CAH 9-457, wikCc
46 CAESAR recalls other exiled senators, and reinstates them. 46 atl1
46 CAESAR gives a public banquet and shows of various kinds, some in memory of his dau Julia. 46 atl1
Caesars Forum
reconstruction with permission from altair4.com                 ground plan Cassius Ahenobarbus
Editorial note:  The Romans, seeking to outdo the Greeks, made their temple columns much taller, but straight sided, ignoring the graceful curve of Greek columns, thus illustrating Roman pomposity over Greek taste.
c.46 CAESAR'S FORUM (Forum Julium), begun 54, is dedicated, but still unfinished.  It includes a temple of Venus Genetrix above and Basilica Julia below.  In front of the temple is a statue of Caesar on horseback. 46 CAH 9-453, atl1
45 DGRG 2-797
Basilica Julia
reconstruction Lasha Tskhondia                 ruins Eric Livak-Dahl
46 CENSUS done by Caesar reveals large drop in number of Roman citizens. 46 atl1
46 CAESAR passes a law to change composition of juries. 46 atl1
46  Lex Julia de Calendari?  by dictator Caesar, under guidance of Sosigenes of Alexandria, thru Egyptian astrologists, reforms the calendar to coincide with a more accurate solar year, by insertion of 90 days; hence this year is called "the year of confusion" Bissextile, or leap year, first introduced, creating a 365 day year with 366 every 4th year.  JULIAN CALENDAR. 46 B76 3-601, CAH 11, GHH, MCAW 257, PW 17, TToH, atl1, unrv, wikCCW, wikJC
46 CAESAR is re-elected consul, in elections supervised by consul M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus. 46 atl1
46 Ti.(4) CLAUDIUS NERO is put in charge of settling Caesar's veterans in Narbonensis. 46 OCD 730
45 CAH 10-469
46 Nov CAESAR, in Italy from July, puts Lepidus in charge of Italy and goes to Spain in pursuit of Pompey's sons Gn.(3) and Sextus Pompeius.  Nephew Octavian finally gets his mom to let him go along, but then he gets sick. 46 CAH 9-437, CDCC 111, DGRBM 1-552, 3-489, LEWH 109, atl1, wikCCW, wikTAR     45 B76 2-369, DGRBM 1-424, MCAW 256, wikAg
c.46 late TERENTIA, wife of M. Tullius Cicero from 79, divorced.  CICERO then considers Hirtia, sis of Hirtius, changes his mind, marries his ward, PUBLILIA, a rich & beautiful maiden.  Since Cicero is financially strapped, this causes a scandal.  He divorces her in 45. 51 wikCc       47 atl1 46 CDCC 199, DGRBM 1-717, 2-498, DGRBM 3-602, 3-995, atl1     45 GHH
46 late TULLIA, dau of Cicero, wife of P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA from 50, and now pregnant, divorced by mutual consent. 46 CDCC 913, DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
46 Dec P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA in Italy from summer, goes to Spain. 46 DGRBM 3-1182
46/5 Statue of CLEOPATRA-VII represented as Isis is comissioned by Caesar, and put in temple of Venus Genetrix (mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), in the Forum Julium. no date: wikC7
45 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(4) Julius CAESAR (4th) alone until Oct.
Suffects: Q. Fabius Maximus, C. Trebonius, C. Caninius Rebilus
45 B76 X-105, DGRBM 1-595, LEWH 110, OCD 427, 1079, 1091, csm, wikCCW, wikCon, wikJC, wikTrb
45 Jan 1 JULIAN CALENDAR goes into effect, and remains in effect until superseded by the Gregorian Calendar in 1582. 45 B76 IX-361, TTPC, CDCC 159, bk, ttjc, wikCCW
month days pre-45 days post-45
Januarius 29 31
Februarius common years 28
intercalary years 23/24
28
leap years 29
Mercedonius
(Intercalaris)
leap years only:
27/28 days
abolished
Martius 31 31
Aprilis 29 30
Maius 31 31
Iunius 29 30
Quintilis
(Iulius)
31 31
Sextilis 29 31
September 29 30
October 31 31
November 29 30
December 29 31

45 OCTAVIAN recovers from illness, sails to Spain to join Caesar. 46 wikAg 45 atl1
45 Feb Dau of M. T. Cicero, TULLIA, age 34, dies soon after childbirth in Tusculum.  She had been wife of C. Piso 63-57, Furius Crassipes 56-51, P. Dolabella 50-46.  Such is the detail that comes of being a writer's dau.  Cicero is devastated, and takes care of ker son, M. Tullius Cicero Minor, age 19. 45 CDCC 199, DGRBM 1-717, 3-1183, OCD 1099, atl1, wikCc, wikCM
45 M. Tullius Cicero Minor goes to AthensL. Tullius Montanus accompanies. 45 DGRBM 3-1184
45 PATAVIUM (later Padua), inhabited by @40,000 Veneti, becomes a Roman municipium.  Citizens are assigned to Fabian tribe. 49? 45? 43? wikPd
45 M. APPULEIUS elected augur. 45 DGRBM 1-248
45 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS, governor of Cisalpine Gaul from 46, is succeeded by C. Vibius PANSA until 44.  Brutus publishes his eulogy on Cato, then returns to Rome. 46 DGRBM 3-112 45 DGRBM 1-512, OCD 776, wikGVP, wikRGG
45 T. FURFANIUS POSTUMUS is sent as proconsul to Sicily. 45 DGRBM 3-512
45 AMATIUS (Herophilus), an impostor pretends to be grandson of C. Marius and writes to Cicero, who advises him to take it up with Caesar. 45 atl1
45 C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus retires from Rome to Brundisium, waiting to hear the result of the struggle in Spain, and intending to return to Rome on news of Caesar's victory. 45 DGRBM 2-800
45  Lex Julia Municipalis  sets regulations for the Italian municipalities. 90 CDCC 363
45 wikLJ, wikLRL
45 P. VATINIUS, consul 46, becomes proconsul of Illyria until 43. 45 OCD 1110
45 C. Vibius PANSA is elected augur. 45 wikGVP
c.45 Embassy from Lesbos to Rome until 25 includes CRINAGORAS, eliagic poet of Mytilene. 45 OCD 298
45 2 Curule aediles and 4 Pleb aediles are appointed. 45 GHH
45 End of the African war (begun 46) 45 GHH
45
Mar 17
Civil War from 49 ends with Battle of MUNDA.  News reaches Rome Apr 20. 45 B76 3-579, 15-1106, 17-404, CAH 9-437, CDCC 429, DGRBM 3-489, Dur 3-110, GHH, LEWH 109-10, MCAW 256, OCD 793, 858, atl1, bk, ttjc, wikJC, wikMCJC
45 Apr Games and celebrations are held honoring Caesar still in Spain, for victory at Munda. 45 atl1, wikJC
45 L. Statius MURCUS is made praetor. 45 DGRBM 2-1121
45 C. SEPTIMIUS becomes augur. 45 DGRBM 3-784
c.45 Equite L. Aelius LAMIA is aedile. 45 DGRBM 2-714
45 LIBRARIES in large towns created by Caesar. 45 MCAW 259
45 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, summoned to Rome to answer charge of trying to murder Caesar when he visited Galatia.  His ambassador HIERAS shows up and volunteers for torture to "prove" Deiotaurus' innocence.  M. Tullius CICERO defends in with speech  Pro Rege Deiotaro .  The assassination 44 prevents a verdict. 45 B76 III-438, 4-610, DGRBM 2-451, wikCc
45 P. Cornelius SULLA, neph of L.C.S., associate of Catiline, dies. 45 B76 IX-662, wikPCS
45 M. Tullius CICERO completes  De Finibis  Ch 1-5.  Is the supreme good pleasure or virtue or something else?  Analizes Epicurean and Stoic values.
"Hunger is the best sauce."   "Laws put the safety of all above the safety of one."
45/4 B76 4-610, Dur 3-45, MNDQ 558, 655
45 P.(9) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER divorces his abandoned wife, Metella. 45 DGRBM 2-731
45 M. Tullius CICERO completes  Academica  Ch 1 & 2.  Advocates suspension of judgment. 45/4 B76 4-610, Dur 3-45
45 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  Hortensius , exhortation to philosophy. 45 wikCc
45 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  Consolatio  on grief and consolation. 45 wikCc
45 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum  on ends - good and bad.  The setting is the Academy at Athens, from his visit 79-8. 45 wikCc
45 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  De Natura Deorum  on the nature of the gods. 45 wikCc
45 M. Tullius CICERO writes dialog  Tusculanae Disputationes  Tusculan Disputations. 45 wikCc
45 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  Academica  on academic skepticism. 45 wikCc
45 Now that M. Tullius CICERO has a good income, he divorces his rich wife from 46 PUBLILIA.  He is now required to repay her dowry. 45 DGRBM 3-602, atl1
45 Sep ANTONY goes to Narbonensis to meet Caesar on his return from SpainC. Trebonius suggests they form a plot against Caesar. 45 DGRBM 1-215, atl1
45 Jn-Oc CAESAR and Octavian, in Spain from 46, return via Gaul to Rome.  From this point, Octavian attends theaters and social gatherings with Caesar. 46 B76 , Dur 3-110, GHH, MCAW 256, OCD 597, ttjc     45 B76 3-579, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-424, LEWH 110, MCAW 256, OCD 852, atl1, sjsu, wikELA, wikJC
45 DECIMUS(7) BRUTUS, Caesarean governor of Transalpine Gaul from 49, returns to Rome.  Caesarean praetor of 46, AULUS HIRTIUS succeeds until 44. 45 B76 V-61, CAH 10-520, 522, OCD 520, wikRGG
45 Sep 13 After returning from Spain, CAESAR, having no living legitimate children, writes his will, naming his grandnephew C.(3) Octavius his principal heir, leaving his estate and property including his name.  If Octavian dies before Caesar, Decimus(7) Junius Brutus would be next heir in succession.  He also leaves a substantial gift to the citizens of Rome. 46 wikCCW 45 CAH 9-466, DGRBM 1-552, atl1, ttjc, wikAg, wikJC
45 Sep On Caesar's return, a member of the crowd puts a laurel wreath on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra.  Tribunes C. Epidius Marullus and L. Caesetius Flavus order that the wreath be removed, as it is a symbol of Jupiter and royalty.  Caesar has the tribunes removed from office.  Suetonius (writing almost 150 years later) says that a crowd shouted to him rex "king", to which Caesar replied, "I am Caesar, not Rex". 45 wikAJC
45 TEMPLE of CONCORD west of the Vulcanal, rebuilt 51 by Faustus Sulla, destroyed by Caesar on pretext of having vowed a temple to Felicitas, but really to efface the name of Sulla.  Rebuilt 7. 45 DGRG 2-788
45 On Cicero's return to Rome, Caesar is made perpetual dictator, and electd consul for 10 yrs. 45 GHH
45 DECIMUS LABERIUS, south Italian mime writer, is compelled by Caesar to accept a challenge of his rival Publilius Syrus to appear in one of his own mimes.  "Treat your friend as if he may become your enemy, and your enemy as if he may become your friend."  Caesar awards Publilius victory, but restores Laberius to equestrian rank, which he had forfeited to become a mime.  Laberius dies 43. 46 atl1
46/5 B76 V-967 45 B76 VIII-286, MNDQ 435
45 C. CURTIUS made a senator by Caesar. 45 DGRBM 1-906
45 M. Juventius LATERENSIS is an augur. 45 DGRBM 2-725
45 P. Rutilius is employed by Caesar to assign land grants to his veterans. 45 DGRBM 3-681
45 DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of west Galatia 85-40, is defended by Cicero before Caesar at Caesar's house.  Apparently his son Castor had accused him of planning to kill Caesar when he arrives in Galatia. 45 DGRBM 1-954
45 CAESAR executes his favorite freedman for adultery. 45 MCAW 257
45 CAESAR appoints a commission to simplify laws. 45 MCAW 257
45 Jun M.(7) Junius BRUTUS divorces 1st wife Claudia Pulchra Major, dau of Ap.(15) Claudius Pulcher.  He states no reason, but it is in order to marry his cousin, Porcia, dau of Cato.  His mom, Servilla, opposes this. 45 wikMJB, wikSmB
45 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS marries first cousin PORCIA Catonis, dau of M.(6) Cato Uticensis & Atilia, widow of M. Bibulus. 45 DGRBM 3-497, atl1, wikMJB
45 CAESAR encourages physicians and scientists to come to Rome, begins big engineering projects including draining the Pontine marsh and cutting a Corinthian canal. 45 MCAW 257
45 ASCLEPIADES of Bithynia, Greek physician born at Prusa, flourishes.  Tries to build a theory of disease based on flow of atoms thru pores in the body.  His treatments seek to restore harmony thru use of diet, exercise, and bathing.  Founds a medical school in Rome. 45
MCAW 257 no date: wikAB
45 Fallen statue of Pompey is restored and rededicated by Caesar. 45 MCAW 259
45 late OCTAVIAN, age 18, nephew of Caesar, sent by Caesar with M. Vipsanius Agrippa, Q. Salvidienus Rufus, and C. Maecenas to Apollonia Illyria to complete his studies and learn army life. 45 CAH 10-6 & 7, wikELA, wikMVA 44 B76 1-367, CDCC 111 atl1
45 LEGIONS X and XIII are disbanded by Caesar.  Veterans of Xth legion are settled in Narbo.  Veterans of the XIIIth are given better lands in Italy. 45 wikCCW
45  Aquilian stipulation , a legal formula, is devised by C. Aquilius Gallus. 45 atl1
45 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus), 1st governor of Africa Nova from 46, returns with loot to Rome, buys and begins laying out the gardens on the Quirinal hill known as Horti Sallustiani.  Then retires from public life and writes history. no date: wikSls
45 An impostor, pretending to be son of Asinius Dio, is punished by Caesar. 45 atl1
45 CAESAR starts work on many building projects, including a theater, later called theater of Marcellus. 45 atl1
45 P. VENTIDIUS, who won favor of Caesar during civil wars, continues to as pleb tribune. 45 atl1
45 CAESAR writes  Commentaries . 45 wikCCW
45 CAESAR increases number of praetors from 8 to as many as 16, plus 2 for Sicily.  Quaestors from 20 to 40, increases number of senators from 600 to 900 by adding X-centurions and provincials until 28.  He directly appoints half of the magistrates for 44. 45 LWEH 110, MCAW 257, atl1, unrv
45  Lex Julia Municipalis , or Table of Heraclea by dictator Caesar, published by M.(5) Antonius, regulates the Italian municipalities. 45 GHH, unrv
45 Oct Tribune Pontius AQUILA refuses to stand as Caesar passes in Triumph for Munda. 45 OCD 89
45 Oct Triumphs of Caesar, Fabius, and Q. Pedius.  They arouse discontent because triumphs were reserved for victory over foreign enemies. 45 CAH 9, GHH, LEWH 110, OCD 852, atl1, vrm
45 Oct CAESAR resigns his position as sole consul, and facilitates election of 2 successors for the remainder of the year, which theoretically restores ordinary consulship, since the constitution did not recognize a single consul without a colleague.  They are Q. FABIUS Maximus and C. TREBONIUS. 45 DGRBM 3-1171, atl1, wikJC, wikTrb
45 Nov? CAESAR writes  De Bello Civili  Commentary on the Civil War.  Covers events to 48  It is uncertain how soon they were written after that. 47 TToH
45 B76 3-580, atl1
45 Dec CAESAR, with a large entourage and a guard of 2,000 soldiers visits Campania, dines with Cicero.  Conversation is confined to literature. 45 CAH 9-461
45
Dec 31
When consul Q. Fabius Maximus dies on the morning of his last day of office, Caesar appoints C. Caninius Rebilus consul to serve out the term - from 1:00pm to sundown! 45 DGRBM 3-641, atl1, vrm
44 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(4) Julius CAESAR (5th) and M.(5) ANTONIUS
Suffect: P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella
44 B76 1-1000, DGRBM 1-215, csm, wik2Tr, wikCon
44 Jan 1 Mark ANTONY speaks in senate against appointment of Dolabella as suffect. 44 atl1
44 Jan CICERO writes to a friend in Greece, says he feels shame at living in Rome, describes, as a scandal, how on the last day of 45 when the death of one of the consuls had been announced, Caesar had illegally turned one sort of assembly into another, and had a friend elected consul for an afternoon (so that he could hold the rank of consular). 44 CAH 9-461
44 Jan 26 Ovation of Caesar from the Alban Mount.  Some of crowd call Caesar king during a procession from Alban Mount, but he says that his name is not King, but Caesar.  It gets a confused response. 44 GHH, atl1
44 early X-consul C. TREBONIUS protest to Caesar for Caesar's refusal to stand when the members of the senate came to inform him of the honors the senate had conferred on him.  Caesar apparently simply stared back at him arrogantly without comment. 44 wikTrb
44
Feb 9
Caesar and senate pass a decree confirming friendly relations with Jews.  Formally ratifies this decree April 11. 44 atl1
c.44 Feb 14 CAESAR named dictator perpetuus (dictator for life).  He appoints M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus magister equitum again until later 44. 45 unrv
44 Feb IDB 1-479, atl1, vrm, wikCCW, wikJC, wikLpd
He appoints Gn. Domitius Calvinus. 44 DGRBM 1-585
44 Feb 15 At the feast of Lupercalia, Caesar wears his purple garb for the first time in public.  Antony offers him a diadem (crown).  Caesar refuses it, saying Jupiter alone is king of the Romans (possibly because he saw that people did not want him to accept the diadem, or possibly because he wanted to end once and for all the speculation that he was trying to become king).  M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus appears genuinely shocked at Antony's act. 45 CAH 9-464, DGRBM 1-215, 553
44 CAH 9, CDCC 54, MCAW 256, atl1, vrm, wikMA
44 Feb CAESAR plans an expedition against Parthia, due to leave on March 18. 44 GHH, vrm
44 Feb It is known that the Λ SIBYLLINE BOOKS  predict that only a king could triumph over the land now occupied by Parthia.  This fuels rumors that Caesar aspires to kingship. 44 wikSB
44 Feb CAESAR permits HYRCANUS-II to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, and grants reduction of tribute payment. 44 CAH 10-316
44 CAESAR establishes a police force, appoints officials to carry out his land reforms, and orders the rebuilding of Carthage and Corinth.  He also extends Latin rights thruout the Roman world, and then abolishes the tax system and reverts to the earlier version that allows cities to collect tribute however they want, rather than needing Roman intermediaries. 45 wikJC
44 The POMERIUM (legal and religious boundary of Rome denoted by marker stones, as opposed to walls), fixed in 81, is expanded by Caesar. 44 atl1
44 Senate names Caesar censor for life, pater patriae "Father of the Fatherland", and the month of Quintilis is renamed July.  He is granted a golden chair in the senate, allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and is offered a popular cult, with Mark Antony as his high priest. 45 atl1, wikJC, atl1
44 Pleb tribunes include: L.(4) CASSIUS LONGINUS, L. Caesetius FLAVUS, C. Epidius MARULLUS, L. DECIDIUS SAXA, C. Helvius CINNA, L. ANTONIUS Pietas, bro of Antony. 44 DGRBM 1-216, 2-175, 802, 967, 3-730, OCD 78, 241, 316
44 M.(10) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS, magister equitum from earlier 44, leaves Rome.  Caesar appoints Octavian magister equitum. 44 atl1
44 P. or Sp. OPPIUS is praetor. 44 DGRBM 3-39
44 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS becomes praetor peregrinus, and is to receive the province of Syria.  He is one of few who dares speak against the honors poured on Caesar. 44 B76 II-617, CAH 9-462, DGRBM 2-800, OCD 212, wikGCL
c.44  Lex Cassia  by C. Cassius Longinus (praetor or tribune?), allows dicator Caesar to admit pleb families into the patrician class. 45 EDRL 548, unrv 44 OCD 212, 602, wikLRL
c.44 STATUES of Sulla and Pompey restored to the forum by Caesar. 44 atl1
c.44 CAESAR has received more honors than he can handle.  As he sits above the rostra, praetors and consuls draw near, with the whole senate following them.  Caesar does not rise to receive them, but treats them as private persons, and tells them to hold off on the honors.  They are confused.  All who are not obliged to remain leave.  Caesar recognizes his social blunder, and starts to leave, then turns and shouts to his friends that he is ready to offer his throat to any one who wishes to kill him.  Afterwards he blames it on his epilepsy. 44 atl1
c.44  Lex Coloniae Genetivae (aka Ursonensis)  charter of the Roman colony of Urso in Spain. 45 EDRL 549
44 C.(2) ANTONIUS, bro of Antony, is urban praetor.  He is assigned province of Macedonia. 44 DGRBM 1-216, OCD 78
44 L.(1) Caninius GALLUS dies.  Friend of Cicero and Varro 44 DGRBM 2-226
44 L.(3) Cornelius CINNA is praetor. 44 DGRBM 1-755, OCD 241
44 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS made urban praetor by Caesar.  C.(5) Cassius, who wanted the position, is now miffed at both of them. 44 B76 II-327, DGRBM 1-512, OCD 183, wikMJB
44 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus), former 1st governor of Africa Nova 46-5, charged with extortion, rescued by Caesar.  Never tried. no date: DGRBM 3-696, OCD 446
44 L. Statius MURCUS is made proconsul of Syria and sent with M. CRISPUS by Caesar to deal with renegade Q. Caelius Bassus. 44 CAH 10-18, OCD 703
44 FREE GRAIN, distributed to 300,000 in 58, now distributed to only 150,000 by Caesar.  (See 27) 45 MCAW 257 44 TTPC
44 C.(5) CASSIUS persuades M.(7) Junius BRUTUS to join him in conspiracy against Caesar. 44 atl1
44 Brutus and Cassius bring together many other conspirators. 44 atl1
44 Tribunes L. Caesetius FLAVUS and C. Epidius MARULLUS remove a diadem from a statue of Caesar on the rostra and imprison a man who called Caesar king.  Tribune C. Helvius CINNA carries a law deposing them.  Caesar exiles them, and tries to get Flavus's father to disinherit him.  They are reinstated later 44 thru efforts of praetor L. Cornelius Cinna. 44 CAH 9-464, DGRBM 2-175, 967, OCD 241, atl1
44 CAESAR rejects suggestions that he should have a bodyguard. 44 atl1
44 Tribunes L. Caesetius FLAVUS and C. Epidius MARULLUS remove a diadem from a statue of Caesar on the rostra.  Tribune C. Helvius CINNA carries a law deposing them.  They are reinstated later 44 thru efforts of praetor L. Cornelius Cinna. 44 DGRBM 2-967, OCD 241, atl1
44 Decimus(7) Junius BRUTUS is appointed by Caesar to govern Cisalpine Gaul.  He takes the post in April, and holds it until 43. 44 wikRGG
44 Tribune C. Helvius CINNA proposes that Caesar be allowed more wives to ensure heirs. 44 OCD 241
c.44 Aulus HIRTIUS is assigned to Belgic Gaul but he governs it thru a legate, and attends to Caesar. 44 DGRBM 2-496
44 X-consul C. TREBONIUS is assigned Asia province by Caesar, but he doesn't depart until after the assassination, in which he participates. 44 B76 X-105, CAH 10-18, DGRBM 3-1171
c.44 L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS appointed proconsul of Gallia Comata until 43. 44 CAH 9-470, DGRBM 3-382, OCD 838, wikRGG
44 CURIA CORNELIA (senate house built by Sulla, and rebuilt by Faustus Sulla), destroyed from 52, is ordered rebuilt by Caesar as the CURIA JULIA to redesign both spaces within the Comitium and the Roman Forum.  The alterations within the Comitium reduce the prominence of the senate and clear the original space.  Completed 29. 44 CDCC 246, wikCJ
no date: CAH 9-454
44 C. OCTAVIUS, son of C. Octavius and Atia - dau of M. Atius Balbus + Julia, sis of Julius Caesar, is adopted by Julius Caesar.  He is now named C. Julius Caesar Octavianus until 38. 44 GHH, wikAg
44 Senate decrees that Caesar's son or adopted son should become pontifex maximus after him. 44 CAH 10-827
44 L. Tillius CIMBER, possibly now a praetor, appointed governor of Bithynia and Pontus by Caesar.  He does not leave until after the assassination. 44 wikTC
44 IRIA (Forum Julii) in west Cisalpine Gaul founded by Caesar. 44 atl1
CONFUSION ALERT!  One Forum Julii (Iria, Voghera) is west of Placentia.  Another (Cividale) is on the extreme east.
44 Aulus HIRTIUS and C. Vibius PANSA are nominated consuls for 43 by Caesar. 44 B76 V-61, DGRBM 3-112, wikGVP
44 M'(5) ACILIUS GLABRIO is sent with troops by Caesar to Greece in preparation for his intended Parthian war. 44 DGRBM 2-272
44 Ti. CANUTIUS, enemy of Antony, is pleb tribune. 44 DGRBM 1-597
44 P. Servilius CASCA is pleb tribune. 44 DGRBM 1-618
43 OCD 210, wikSCs
44 M. SERVILIUS is pleb tribune. 44 DGRBM 3-794
44 L.(4) Marcius PHILIPPUS, becomes praetor. 44 DGRBM 3-288
44 Roman COINS have 1st portrait of a living ruler - Caesar of course, ordered by senate. 44 Hre 22, IDB 4-105
44
Mar 14
CAESAR dines at house of M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus.  He comments that the best kind of death is a sudden one. 44 atl1, wikLpd
44
Mar 15
The conspirators plan a gladiator show at Pompey's theater.  The gladiators are provided by Decimus(7) Brutus in case their services are needed. 44 atl1, wikAJC
44 Mar 15 Caesars wife, Calpurnia, who is frightened by her dreams, clings to him and says she would not let him go out that day.  Decimus Brutus dismisses her concerns as unwarranted. 44 wikAJC
44 Mar 15 CAESAR attends the last meeting of the Senate before his departure, held at temporary quarters in the portico of the theater built by Pompey 55.  (The regular meeting house of the senate, the Curia, located in the Forum, had been badly burnt and is being rebuilt). 44 Mar 15 vrm
Curia of Pompey
reconstruction: Lasha Tskhondia L.VII.C.
44
Mar 15
C. TREBONIUS detains Mark ANTONY outside the senate meeting. 44 DGRBM 1-215, 3-1171, OCD 1091, wikAJC, wikTrb
44 Mar 15 L. Tillius CIMBER presents Caesar with a petition to recall his exiled bro.  The other conspirators crowd around to offer their support.  Caesar gestures him away, but Cimber grabs him by the shoulders. Caesar cries to Cimber "Why, this is violence!".  Servilius Casca pulls his dagger, makes a glancing thrust at Caesar's neck but hits his shoulder. 44 wikAJC, wikMA, wikTC
44 Mar 15 Consul & dictator C.(4) Julius CAESAR ASSASSINATED, age 56.  Stabbed 23 times by a conspiracy of 60 senators, led by M.(7) Junius Brutus, C.(5) Cassius Longinus, Decimus(7) Brutus Albinus, Pontius Aquila, C. & P. Servilius Casca, C. Trebonius, and Cassius Parmensis at the base of Pompey's statue.  Suetonius says that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "Kai su, teknon?" "And you, child?".  "Et tu, Brute?" is a concoction of Richard Edes's 1582 Latin play "Caesar Interfectus", copied by Shakespeare. 44 B76 17-950, CAH 10-1, DGRBM 1-554, GHH, IDB 1-479, MCAW 256, OCD 89, 210, 212, bk, ttjc, vrm, wikDJB, wikMA, wikTAR

Italy 44-42
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