Italy
53 May 6 Battle of CARRHAE (Haran):  Parthian army decisively defeats a numerically superior Roman invasion force.  M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS is killed May 9.
53 M. CAELIUS VINICIANUS is pleb tribune.  He tries to raise Pompey to dictator. 53 DGRBM 3-1262
c.53 C.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, proconsul of Asia from 55, returns to Rome, and is accused of extortion by M. Servilius, who is bribed to drop the charge.  Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS succeeds in Asia until 51. 53 DGRBM 1-771, 3-288, wikLRGA
53 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER becomes governor of Cilicia until 51.  M.(7) Brutus is his quaestor, M.(3) Octavius is legate. 53 B76 II-977, DGRBM 1-512, 770, OCD 183, 247, wikMJB
53 Aulus(5) GABINIUS is charged with extortion, but confident of victory from previous acquittals.  He doesn't pay Cicero much to defend him.  Convicted. 53 atl1
53 C.(4) Scribonius CURIO builds 2 wooden semi-circular theaters back to back on a pivot, turnable while spectators are seated around it. 53 Dur 3-133
53 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO dies.  Pontifex maximus from 57. 53 B76 III-302, DGRBM 1-902, OCD 302, wikGSC
53 M. Tullius CICERO is elected augur to replace P. Licinius Crassus in 52. 53 OCD 235, atl1 52 CAH 9-411
53 L.(?) AEMILIUS PAULUS is aedile.  He rebuilds the Basilica Fulvia. 53 DGRG 2-787
53 L.(1) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS PAULUS is praetor. 53 DGRBM 2-765, wikL1ALP
53 P. SESTIUS is praetor. 53 DGRBM 3-796
53 C. LUCCEIUS (Lucilius ?) Hirrus is pleb tribune.  He proposes that Pompey be made dictator, and is nearly deposed because of it. 53 DGRBM 2-809, atl1
53 CICERO speaks in senate, to rebut Clodius' claim that Milo's debts should bar him from standing for consul. 53 atl1
53 P. CLODIUS PULCHER is forced to flee when he is violently assaulted by Mark Antony, a candidate for quaestor. 53 atl1
53 Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO is candidate for consul along with Plautius Hypsaeus and Milo, and is supported by the Clodian mob, since he was opposed to Milo.  Candidates use bribery and violence. 53 DGRBM 2-1062
53  Digest of Roman laws  by Servius(2) Sulpicius Lemonia Rufus. 53 GHH
53 C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus is appointed quaestor under Crassus in Syria until 51. 53 B76 II-617, OCD 212
53 POMPEY sees that he is losing 1st place to Caesar in popularity, does nothing to stop rioting between partisans of Clodius and Milo in hopes of being appointed dictator. 53 DGRBM 1-549
53 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS demolishes a house which belonged to Gn. Octavius, in order to build an extension to his own house. 53 atl1
c.53 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS, accused of ambitus (bribery) by P. Valerius Triarius, again defended by Cicero, condemned, goes into exile and disappears from history. 54 DGRBM 3-737 53 wikMAS       52 B76 VIII-949, atl1
53 In elections of 53, Milo is a candidate for consul and Clodius for praetor.  Violent clashes erupted in the streets between gangs of Clodius and Milo, twice delaying the election. 53 DGRBM 1-774, 2-1085, GHH, wikPCP, wikTAM
53 Jul CONSULAR ELECTION finally held despite continued rioting between partisans of Clodius and Milo.  Milo's cause strengthens daily.  Clodius drops out of praetor elections. 53 CAH 9, DGRBM 3-486, GHH, atl1
53 Jul CONSULS for remainder of 53:  M.(5) Valerius MESSALLA RUFUS and Gn. Domitius CALVINUS 53 DGRBM 2-1050, OCD 197, 674, csm, wikCon, wikGnDC
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, leaves main force in north Gaul, returns to winter in north Italy until early 52.  Cavalry commander Mark Antony accompanies. 53 DGRBM 1-214, 548, Dur 3-176, trtMA
53 Jul P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER governor of Cilicia (with Cyprus) from 56, returns to Rome.  Triumph delayed until 51.  Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER succeeds until 51.  M.(7) Brutus is his quaestor. 53 B76 II-977, VI-146, DGRBM 2-731, OCD 183, 247, atl1, wikPCLS
53 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, in north Italy, raises 3 new legions, one of which is lent by Pompey. 53 DGRBM 1-902, DGRG 2-194
53 CAESAR, in north Italy, decides to divorce wife from 59 CALPURNIA, and marry Pompeia, dau of Pompey & Mucia.  Never happens. 53 OCD 197, ency
53 Pompey begins to ally with conservatives. 53 Dur 3-179
53 AESOPUS, son and heir of Clodius, swallows pearls dissolved in vinegar.  If so, this stunt did not originate with Cleo-VII. 53 atl1
c.53 Private worship of ISIS forbidden by senatorial decree.  Chapels to Isis are ordered destroyed. 53 DGRBM 2-631
52 Jan 1 Elections are void because of excessive use of tribune veto.  52 begins with an interregnum.  Consuls are unable to hold elections for 52, because of violent clashes between candidates. 52 atl1, wikTAM
By this time, the Roman calendar is several months in advance of the "real" Julian calendar, so that events reported in January actually happened late in 53. atl1
52 Jan Fray between slaves and gladiators of Clodius and Milo. 52 Jan GHH
52 CONSULS:  Gn. POMPEIUS MAGNUS (3rd)  Becomes sole consul Feb 25 - Aug. 52 B76 VI-836, csm, wikCon, wikMS
52 Jan 18- 20 T. Annius MILO, with his wife and an escort including gladiators, goes on Appian Way toward Lanuvium.  He meets P. CLODIUS PULCHER returning from Aricia Latium to Rome, also accompanied by armed men.  They meet near Bovillae 18km southeast of Rome.  They pass without incident until the last pair at the back of each train scuffle.  Clodius turns back and is hit by a javelin thrown by a gladiator in Milo's party.  He is brought to an inn, and his slaves are killed or driven off.  Milo orders his gladiators to kill Clodius.  P. CLODIUS PULCHER is murdered by Milo's gang.  Wife from 62, Fulvia will remarry 51. 52 B76 II-1003, VI-901, 14-794, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-548, 774, 2-1086, Dur 3-110, 180, GHH, LEWH 109, MCAW 254, OCD 179, 254, 687, atl1, bk, rtp, ttpm, wikMA, wikPCP, wikTAM
52 Jan Riot in Rome because of murder of Clodius.  Clodius' wife and 2 tribunes rally his supporters to use the Curia as Clodius' funeral pyre.  A mob attacks the house of interrex M.(10) Aemilius Lepidus. 52 DGRBM 1-774, GHH, OCD 254, 302, atl1, ttpm, wikMA, wikPCP, wikTAM
52 Jan CURIA (senate house) restored from 70, burnt by Clodian partisans (all plebs).  Gone until 44. 52 DGRBM 1-774, OCD 254, 302, atl1, ttpm, wikTAM
52 Senator C. VIBIENUS killed in the riots. 52 DGRBM 3-1252
52 BASILICA PORCIA, built 184, destroyed during funeral of P. Clodius Pulcher when the fire from his pyre spreads to the front of the Curia and then to the basilica. 52 wikBsPr
52 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, in Cisalpine Gaul, learns of murder of Clodius and the following riots. 52 DGRBM 1-548
52 Mark ANTONY, with Caesar from 54, returns to Rome, and with support of Cicero, is elected quaestor for 52. 53 DGRBM 1-214 52 MCAW 254, trtMA, wikMA
52 M. FAVONIUS, helped by M.(6) Porcius Cato, elected aedile.  In his games he gives M.(6) Porcius Cato a place of honor. 53 atl1
52  Senatus Consulta de Pompei Legato  Authorizes Pompey to levy troops to quell street violence between gangs of Clodius and Milo. 52 atl1, unrv
52 Feb? POMPEY foments disturbances in Rome to get himself appointed dictator. 52 DGRBM 3-476
52 Pleb tribunes include:
Q.(4) POMPEIUS RUFUS, Pompey partisan.
52 DGRBM 3-476
Q. MANILIUS CUMANUS. 52 DGRBM 2-917
T. Munatius PLANCUS, pro-Pompey. 52 DGRBM 3-384
M. CAECILIUS RUFUS, committed optimate, friend of Cicero, anti-Pompey. 52 B76 II-432, CAH 9-408, DGRBM 3-671, OCD 188, atl1
SALLUSTIUS (C. Sallustius Crispus), anti-Cicero & Milo, Caesar partisan. 52 DGRBM 3-384, 696, OCD 946, wikSls
c.52 Feb? Tribune Q.(4) POMPEIUS RUFUS supports Pompey's aggitation, and to increase the confusion, he will not allow elections to be held.  The senate imprisons Rufus, despite his sacred character as tribune, but this only strengthens his influence.  He retaliates by imprisoning one of the most active supporters of the senatorial party, aedile M. Favonius. 52 DGRBM 3-476
52 Feb Senator M. Calpurnius BIBULUS, optimate, proposes an illegal resolution  Senatus Consulta de Pompei Solus Consulibus , which the senate accepts, allowing Pompey to serve as sole consul (i.e. dictator) to deal with disorder in Rome. 52 B76 II-3, DGRBM 2-1062, GHH, OCD 166, unrv, wikBb
52 Feb 25 POMPEY, the only recognized authority backed by optimates, elected sole-consul (i.e. dictator) until August.  Even M.(6) Porcius Cato supports him. 52 CAH 9, DGRBM 3-486, Dur 3-110, MCAW 254, OCD 858, rtp, sjsu
52 early CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, in north Italy from late 53, hears of Vercingetorix rebellion, hurries back to Gaul despite cold weather, remains until ?. 53 DGRBM 1-548, Dur 3-176, atl1
52 Tribunes C. SALLUSTIUS and Q. POMPEIUS call for prosecution of Milo. 52 atl1, wikSls
52 Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio denounces Milo in senate. 52 atl1
52 Senate passes a decree condemning murder of Clodius, burning of senate-house, and attack on Lepidus' house. 52 atl1
52 M.(6) Porcius CATO declines an invitation to become one of Pompey's advisers. 52 CAH 9-412, atl1
52 Apr 4 T. Annius MILO is impeached for murdering Clodius by the 2 Clodii, nephews of the deceased, de Vi, by Q. Petulcius and L. Cornificius, de Ambitu, and by P. Fulvius Neratus, de Sodalitiis.  Pompey handpicks the jury.  L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus, a consular, presides.  Milo is defended by M. Tullius Cicero, M. Caelius Rufus, and M.(10) Marcellus, and supported by Q. Pompeius Rufus, T. Munatius Plancus and C. Sallustius Crispus.  All Rome and thousands of spectators from Italy throng the forum and its avenues from dawn to sunset.  The court is heavily guarded, but Milo's adversaries insult and obstruct the witnesses, the process, and the conductors of the defense.  Defense attorney Cicero doesn't dare speak.  M. Callidius and M.(10) Claudius Marcellus support Milo. 52 CAH 9-409, DGRBM 1-85, 563, 2-932, 1086, 3-141, 512, Dur 3-110, OCD 193, 235, 687, atl1, wikLDA, wikTAM
52 Apr M. Tullius CICERO speech Pro Milone remains undelivered at the trial because Cicero is afraid. 52 B76 VI-901, 4-610, wikCc
52 Tribune T. Munatius PLANCUS makes public speech urging people of Rome not to allow Milo to escape unpunished. 52 atl1
52 Apr 7 T. Annius MILO is convicted, 38 votes to 13, banished to Massilia until ?, a heavy blow to his numerous creditors.  His houses at Rome, and villas, and his bands of fighting men are auctioned.  Cicero is suspected of having purchased thru agent, Philotimus, some of the Annian property below its worth. 52 CAH 9, DGRBM 2-1086, Dur 3-110, GHH, OCD 235, 687, atl1, wikTAM
52 Apr 8 T. Annius MILO is convicted on another charge, of bribery, and also separately on 2 other charges. 52 atl1
52 M. SAUFEIUS, a henchman of Milo, is tried twice, but acquitted both times. 52 atl1
52 Sextus CLOELIUS, main henchman of Milo, is tried and convicted. 52 atl1
52 Senate decrees 20 days of public thanksgiving (same as in 55) for Caesar's victories in Gaul.  According to  Caes:BGall_7.90'8 , this is a separate incident. 52 atl1
52 C.(4) Scribonius CURIO holds games honoring his dead father.  Features a rotating stage he built in 53. 53 atl1
c.52 M. SAUFEIUS is accused by M. Seius, and defended by Cicero. 52 DGRBM 3-768
52 P. Attius VARUS comes from Italy to Africa, becomes governor until 51. 56 rcNA
52 wikAf     49 atl1
c.52 2 sons of C. Claudius, Pulcher ask for permission to interrogate slaves of Milo. 52 atl1
c.52 M. CAECILIUS RUFUS (anti-Pompey, friend of Cicero) is pleb tribune.  He supports Milo, and opposes measures proposed by Pompey.  He proposes a bill in conjunction with his 9 colleagues to allow Caesar to run for a 2nd consulship in absentia. 52 B76 II-432, DGRBM 3-671, OCD 188, atl1, wikMCR
52 C.(4) MEMMIUS condemned for ambitu (bribery), exiled, goes to Athens. 52 OCD 668, atl1
52 Q.(3) CASSIUS LONGINUS is made quaestor under Pompey and sent to Farther Spain until ?. 54 DGRBM 2-802 52 OCD 212, atl1
52 Mark ANTONY, now a quaestor, rejoins Caesar in Gaul until 51. 52 DGRBM 1-214, atl1
52 P. PLAUTIUS HYPSAEUS is convicted of bribery in consular election against Milo and Scipio, who were also guilty, but not convicted. 52 atl1
52 SANFEIUS accused of vis, defended by Cicero and M. Terentius Varro Gibba. 52 DGRBM 1-214, DGRBM 3-1223
52 Caesar again urges Pompey to marry Octavia, grand-dau of Caesar's sis, tho she is already married. 52 atl1
52 Sole consul POMPEY marries 5th wife, Cornelia Mettella, widow of Crassus's younger son, and dau of Q.(10) Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (anti-Caesar), whom Pompey takes on as his consular colleague for the rest of the year. 52 DGRBM 1-854, 2-1062, OCD 291, 858, atl1, rtp, ttpm
52 POMPEY is entitled "defender of the Republic". 52 GHH
52 POMPEY's proconsulship of Spain from 54 is extended another 5 years. 52 atl1
52 Q. Fufius CALENUS, after Clodius is murdered, supports the Clodian party. 52 DGRBM 1-562
52 Jul Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO, dad-in-law of sole consul Gn. POMPEIUS MAGNUS, is elected to the vacant consulship, and takes office in Aug. 52 CAH 9-410, wikMS
52 FAUSTUS Cornelius Sulla is commissioned to rebuild the Curia Hostilia, which had been burnt down in tumults following the murder of Clodius.  It is now called Curia Cornelia, in honor of Faustus and his father. 52 DGRBM 3-943
52 M. Aufidius LURCO prosecutes and gets conviction of Sextus Clodius for bringing the corpse of P. Clodius into the Curia Hostilia, and for other acts of violence. 52 DGRBM 2-841
52









52
 Leges Pompeiae  by sole consul Pompey. 52 EDRL 558, OCD 604, unrv
 de judiciaria  establishes special courts to prosecute violence cases. 55 OCD 604
52 DGRBM 3-476, atl1, unrv
 de Iure Magistratuum  makes election in absentia illegal, but Caesar is exempted for the upcoming election.  This is amended retroactively, after suspicion is aroused regarding Pompey's attitude towards Caesar. 52 EDRL 558, OCD 604, atl1, unrv
 de Provinciis  sets a 5 year gap after a magistrate's year of office, before he can govern a province. 52 EDRL 558, 659, OCD 604, unrv
 de Λ Ambitu V  to set up special courts to judge cases of election bribery (retrospective to 70). 52 B76 14-794, OCD 604, atl1, unrv
52  Lex De Vi simplifies procedure and increases penalty of Lex Plautia 64. 52 OCD 604
52  Lex? Decemtribunis? de Caesaris Absentiis?  Proposed by the 10 tribunes authorizes Caesar to run for consul in absentia. 52 B76 3-578, unrv
52  Lex Caecilia Abrogatio Clodia de Censoribus  by consul Metellus, annulls de Censoribus of P. Clodius (58) that limited the power of censors. 52 atl1, unrv
c.52 Gallic prisoners from Alesia are sent to Rome and enslaved.  VERCINGETORIX is imprisoned in Tullianum in Rome until 46. 52 rcC
c.52 2,000 pounds of gold are stolen from throne of Jupiter Capitolinus. 52 atl1
52 L.(5) Julius Caesar, son of L.(4), becomes legate to CAESAR until ?, in Gaul until 49. 52 DGRBM 1-539, OCD 190
52 M. Tullius CICERO completes  De Republica 1-6 . 54 TToH     52 B76 4-608, 610, bk
52 M. Tullius CICERO writes  De Optimo Genere Oratorum . 52 B76 4-610
c.52 M. Tullius CICERO returns to Cilicia until 50. 52 CAH 9-265
52 Italy exports olive oil to Roman provinces. 52 atl1
52 Jul Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS Scipio (anti-Caesar) is rescued from a bribery charge by son-in-law Pompey. 52 OCD 678, atl1
52 Aug 1 Sole consul Pompey makes dad-in-law Q.(10) Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (anti-Caesar) his consular colleague for the rest of the year.  This is an open alliance with optimates. 52 DGRBM 2-1062, LEWH 109, OCD 678, 858, atl1, rtp, ttpm
52 M.(6) Porcius CATO runs for consul unsuccessfully, in a time of rampant bribery and electoral fraud. 52 atl1, wikCY
52/1 C.(4) Scribonius CURIO marries FULVIA, dau of M. Fulvius Bambalio & Sempronia, widow of Clodius 62-52.  Marriage lasts until 49. 52 wikGSC 52/1 wikFlv
c.51 Jan. CONSULS:  M.(10) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS and Servius(2) SULPICIUS LEMONIA RUFUS 51 B76 VI-601, IX-664, DGRBM 2-932, OCD 235, 646, 1023, csm, wikCon
51  Rogatio Claudia de Provinciis  by consul Marcellus, tries to appoint a new governor of Gaul and recall Caesar to Rome before his term expires.  Doesn't pass. 51 atl1, unrv, wikPm
51 Pleb tribunes include:
P. Licinius CRASSUS.
51 DGRBM 1-882
C. Vibius PANSA: vetos acts against Caesar. 51 DGRBM 3-112, wikGVP
L. VINICIUS: vetos a senatus consultum against Caesar. 51 DGRBM 3-1262
C. Valerius TRIARIUS. 51 DGRBM 3-436
51 M. Juventius LATERENSIS is praetor. 51 DGRBM 2-725
c.51 POMPEY is reconciled to the aristocracy, and is now their acknowledged head, though he never obtains their full confidence. 51 DGRBM 3-487
c.51 M. TUCCIUS accuses C. SEMPRONIUS RUFUS of vis and is then accused by Rufus of the same offense. 51 DGRBM 3-1181
c.51 M. CAECILIUS RUFUS (anti-Pompey) accuses Q.(4) POMPEIUS RUFUS of vis under the provisions of the law which Rufus had taken so active a part in passing.  Rufus is accused of murdering Cicero on his journey to Cilicia.  This is the last mention of him. 51 DGRBM 3-476, 672
c.51 M. SEIUS is involved in the condemnation of Plaetorius. 51 DGRBM 3-768
51  Senatus Consulta de Senatus Auctoritates  attempted senatorial decrees, apparently originating with consul M.(10) Marcellus.
With approval of Pompey, it calls for Caesar to quit his province after March 1 of 50 (ending his proconsular imperium).  Passed.
Says a tribune who interferes with motions brought before the senate or people shall be considered to have acted against the Republic.  Vetoed.
Says Caesar's veterans in Gaul who want to be discharged should have their claims reviewed by the senate in order to grant those requests.  Vetoed.
Clarifies the imperium of pro-praetors and their appointment to provinces.  Vetoed.
51 CAH 9, OCD 189, 646, unrv
51 Consul M.(10) Claudius Marcellus, in the Senate, proposes "extreme" measures against Caesar. 51 GHH
51 Consul M.(10) Claudius Marcellus flogs a magistrate from Comum, and refuses to accept his claim to be a Roman citizen. 51 atl1
51 P. VATINIUS returns to Gaul as again legate for Julius Caesar. 51 wikPV
51 Q. Fufius CALENUS is legate to Caesar in Gaul. 51 DGRBM 1-562
51 Senator M. Calpurnius BIBULUS is appointed governor of Syria until 49. 51 wikBb
51 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER finally has his triumph for victories while governor of Cilicia, which was delayed from 53. 51 DGRBM 2-731, atl1
51 Tribunes C. Vibius PANSA & M. Caelius Rufus, L. Vinicius and other colleagues, oppose acts of consul M.(10) Marcellus and veto senatorial decrees against Caesar. 51 DGRBM 3-112, 532, 1262, wikGVP
51 A. PLOTIUS is urban praetor. 51 DGRBM 3-428
51 CAESAR publishes  De Bella Gallico    "Gallic Wars"  Contains earliest description of Druids, says their capital is in Britain. 52 MCAW 253
51 B76 3-579, CDCC 375, vrm
51 M.(5) Valerius MESSALLA Rufus prosecuted for bribery, defended by uncle Q. Hortensius Hortalus, acquitted, but fined for another charge. 51 OCD 674, atl1
c.51 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian residing mainly in Rhodes from 95, moves to Rome, and dies soon after. 51 DGRBM 3-507, MCAW 253, ISBE 3-910, atl1, wikPs
51 M. SERVILIUS accused of repetundae (extortion) by Q. Pilius Celer and Appius Claudius on 2 separate charges. 51 DGRBM 3-366, 794, atl1
51 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS, proconsul of Syria from 53, returns to Rome. 51 B76 II-3, CAH 9, DGRG 2-1078, Jud 5-234, OCD 166, atl1, rcS, wikRGS, wikBb     50 wikGCL
51 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER governor of Cilicia & Cyprus from 53, returns to Rome.  M. Tullius CICERO is appointed to succeed. 51 B76 II-977, 4-608, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-746, 770, 3-495, 672, Dur 3-110, 180, OCD 183, 247, 235, wikCc
51 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, is appointed to the college of quindecimviri. 51 DGRBM 1-1058
51 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER charged with ambitu and misconduct in Cilicia.  Prosecuted by P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella, but helped by Cicero, Pompey, and M.(7) Brutus.  Acquitted. 51 B76 II-977, OCD 249
50 DGRBM 1-1058
51 T. Munatius PLANCUS and Q. POMPEIUS RUFUS, tribunes of 52, are convicted on charge of violence, and expelled from Rome. 51 atl1
51 POMPEY, governor of Spain, but residing at Rome from 55, leaves Rome, but stays in Italy (including a visit to Ariminum). 51 CAH 9-415, atl1
51 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, supports claims of people north of the Po, to ciitzenship rights. 51 GHH
51 Mark ANTONY becomes quaestor. 51 B76 1-999
51 M. Valerius MESSALA accused of bribery in running for consul.  Defended by uncle Q. Hortensius.  Acquitted.  Next day he enters the theater and is hissed by the people.  First hissing on record. 51 DGRBM 2-527
51 Q. Tullius CICERO, legate of Caesar from 54, returns from Gaul to Italy, becomes legate to his bro - the orator. 51 DGRBM 1-746, OCD 239
51 M. Tullius CICERO writes  Commentarii de Bello Gallico  (aka Bellum Gallicum) as a 3rd-person narrative.  Caesar describes the 9 years he spent fighting between the Channel and Lugdunum. 58-49 wikCBG 51 TToH
51 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  De Re Publica  On the commonwealth. 51 wikCc
51 M. Tullius CICERO sent to Cilicia as governor until 50.  Bro Quintus and M. Anneius become his legates and accompany him. 51 CDCC 198, DGRBM 1-180, GHH, OCD 239, wikCc
51 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, governor of Cilicia from 53, and quaestor M.(7) Brutus return to Rome. 53 B76 II-977, DGRBM 1-512, OCD 247
51 TULLIA, dau of Cicero, wife of Furrius Crassipes from 56, divorced.  Single until 50. 51 CDCC 913
51 Maximum interest rate set at 12% by senate. 51 IDB 4-105
51 M. CALLIDIUS runs for consul.  He is accused of bribery by Q. Gallius, whom he had accused of same in 64. 51 DGRBM 1-563
51 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50 wins support of L.(1) Aemilius Lepidus Paullus and C.(4) Scribonius Curio for year 50, by large bribes. 51 atl1
51 T. LABIENUS is sent by Caesar from Gaul to Cisalpine Gaul, to defend Roman colonies, against barbarians.  He returns same year. 51 DGRBM 2-697
c.51 P. Attius VARUS, governor of Africa from 52, ends.  C. Considius LONGUS succeeds until 50. 51 wikAf 50 rcNA
51 Dispatches from Cicero and C. Cassius, about Parthian invasion of Syria, are read at a senate meeting. 51 atl1
51 TEMPLE of CONCORD west of the Vulcanal, destroyed in Clodian riots 55, rebuilt by Faustus Sulla.  Stands until 45. 51 DGRG 2-788
51 Sep 1 Senate is convened by consul M.(10) Marcellus to discuss allocation of provinces, a debate which Marcellus had threatened, but kept postponing.  It is held at the temple of Apollo, outside the pomoerium so that Pompey can attend.  By now it is known that Pompey favors new proconsuls being allotted to the Gallic provinces next spring. 51 CAH 9-416, atl1
51 Sep Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS Scipio proposes that the senate should take into consideration the Gallic provinces on the March 1, 50, but as this proposition is considered a declaration of hostility against Caesar, it is decreed that the consular provinces in general should be brought before the senate on March 1. 51 CAH 9-416, DGRBM 2-1063
51 Consul designate C.(2) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS is prosecuted for bribery, probably by M. Calidius, who is himself tried by sons of Q. Gallius. 51 atl1
51 Nov News of the Parthian invasion of Syria reaches Rome.  Some want to send Pompey; others says Pompey should remain near Rome; others want to send Caesar with his army; others the consuls. 51 CAH 9-417
51 late POMPEY says he will not consider the suggestion that Caesar become consul-designate while still in command of his army. 51 B76 14-794
51 late Consuls and tribunes are elected for 50. 51 atl1
51/50 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher, in Rome from 51, dies. 51 B76 VIII 149, Jud 3-784
51/0 Jud 13-928, OCD 167
50 B76 14-540, MCAW 253
50 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(1) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS PAULUS and C.(2) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS 50 DGRBM 1-549, 2-765, 933, OCD 646, 858, csm, wikL1ALP, wikCon, wikGCMn
50 Λ CENSORS V patrician Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER (who is surprisingly severe) and pleb L.(7) Calpurnius PISO Caesoninus. 50 B76 II-977, DGRBM 3-372, 696, 771, OCD 247, 836, atl1, wikCns
50 Jan C.(4) Scribonius CURIO (elected because he is anti-Caesar) becomes tribune.  But he now becomes a supporter of Caesar. 50 B76 14-795, CAH 9-415, DGRBM 1-902, OCD 302, wikGSC
50 Jan  Rogatio Scribonia de Intercalando  by tribune C.(4) Scribonius Curio on behalf of Caesar, proposes an intercalary month in the calendar this year, presumably to give Caesar more time before his imperium in Gaul expires.  Doesn't pass. 50 Jan atl1, unrv
50 M.(3) OCTAVIUS and M. CAELIUS RUFUS are curule aediles.  Both are friends of Cicero, and ask him (then in Cilicia), to send them panthers to exhibit for their games. 50 DGRBM 3-8, 672
50 Aedile M. CAELIUS quarrels with censor Ap. Claudius Pulcher, and L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus, who had been the colleague of Claudius in consulship, thus weakening his ties with the aristocracy. 50 DGRBM 3-672
50 C.(2) FURNIUS is pleb tribune.  He opposes senatorial demand for Caesar to resign Gaul. 50 DGRBM 2-191
50 C. TITIUS RUFUS is urban praetor. 50 DGRBM 3-1159
50 T. FURFANIUS POSTUMUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily until 49. 50 DGRBM 3-512
50 C. Coelius CALDUS is made quaestor and sent to Cilicia under Cicero. 50 DGRBM 1-561
50 Philosopher Athenodorus spends last part of his life with M.(6) Porcius Cato. 50 atl1
50 Basilica AemiliaConsul L.(1) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS PAULUS is bought off by Caesar for 1,500 talents.  He uses the money to reconstruct the BASILICA AEMILIA, 100m x 30m, with part of his bribe money.  Rebuilt again 34. reconst. L.VII.C

50 DGRBM 2-765/6, wikL1ALP
50 M. CAELIUS RUFUS is curule aedile, writes letters to Cicero, now proconsul of Cilicia.  One in March says:
"As things stand, Pompeius seems to be putting his weight along with the Senate in demanding that Caesar leave his province on the Ides of November.  Curio is resolved to let that happen only over his dead body, and has given up the rest of his program ... [Pompeius] regards the idea of Caesar being elected consul before he hands over his province and army with disfavor ..."
50 CAH 9-419, wikMCR
50 FIRE at Rome.  Of course it's an omen. 50 atl1
50 Tribune C.(4) Scribonius CURIO proposes  Rogatiae Scriboniae  to gain popular support:
 Viaria  appoints a commission of curators for a 5 year term to oversee road building and repairs, for which Curio himself would have been nominated.
 Agraria  proposes to annex Numidia and distribute lands to the people.  This angers king Juba-I of Numidia.
 Alimentaria  proposes that aediles should measure the sale of provisions.
50 B76 V-621, CAH 9-418, DGRBM 2-635, EDRL 559, atl1, unrv
50 Very rich optimate Q. HORTENSIUS Hortalus dies.  Wife from 56 Marcia inherits everything, and is taken back by her previous husband M.(6) Porcius Cato, who had given her to Hortensius. 50 DGRBM 2-527, 940, atl1, wikQHr
c.50 Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS drops out of history, probably dies.  He leaves everything to C. Carrinas (consul 43), passing over all the Metelli and Claudii, with whom he was connected. 55 DGRBM 2-1062
50 atl1
c.50 Gallic Wars from 58, end.  Last Gaulish rebels are defeated. 50 wikGW, wikTAR
50 spring CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, goes to Cisalpine Gaul briefly at election time, hears that Mark Antony his ex-quaestor had defeated L.(3) Ahenobarbus for augur, but his ex-legate Servius(5) Sulipcius Galba had been kept out of consulship by L.(12) Lentulus Crus and C.(3) Claudius Marcellus. 50 CAH 9-419, DGRBM 1-549, atl1
50 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO joins Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul. 50 DGRBM 3-437
50 CAESAR, in Cisalpine Gaul, seeks re-election as proconsul. 49 B76 3-578, SHWC
50 CIVIDALE (Forum Julii) founded in east Cisalpine Gaul 40km north of Aquileia by Caesar. 49 wikCd
50 Mar 1  Rogatio Claudia , an attempt by consul C.(2) Claudius Marcellus to fix the date of Caesar's ending imperium in Gaul on November 13 and recall him to Rome without his army.  While supported by Pompey, it is opposed and defeated by tribune C.(4) Scribonius Curio. 50 DGRBM 1-549, 2-934, atl1, sjsu, unrv
50  Rogatio Scribonia de Pompeii et Caesaris  by tribune C.(4) Scribonius Curio tries to persuade the senate and Pompey that Caesar will lay down his arms and imperium in Gaul, if Pompey does same. 50 B76 III-302, 14-795, atl1, rtp, sjsu, unrv
50 Historian SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) caught in adultery by T. Annius Milo. 50 DGRBM 3-696, GHH, OCD 946
50 Historian SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) expelled from senate until 47 and fined because of investigation by censors Ap. Claudius & Piso, allegedly showing adultery with Fausta, dau of dictator Sulla, and wife of T. Annius Milo.  Sallust joins Caesar's party. 50 DGRBM 3-696, GHH, OCD 946, atl1, wikSls
50 MANLIUS CRISPUS, a friend of Pompey, is prosecuted by Gn.(4) Calpurnius Piso. 50 atl1
50 Will of M. Anneius, which names Tullianus as heir, is rescinded in favor of Anneius' son. 50 atl1
50 P.(8) Cornelius Lentulus Spinther is named heir of T. Barrus, but inherits nothing from him. 50 atl1
50 Tribune C.(4) Scribonius CURIO then secretly offers Pompey command of all troops in Italy.  This would have been independent of Pompey's command as governor.  Pompey accepts. 50 sjsu
50 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is charged with treason and corrupt practices while governor of Cilicia 53-51 by P. Cornelius Dolabella.  Former quaestor M.(7) Brutus and Q. Hortensius Hortalus defend him.  Claudius is acquitted. 50 DGRBM 1-512, atl1, wikQHr
50 While Cicero is in Cilicia, his dau TULLIA, single from 51, marries known profligate P. Cornelius DOLABELLA until 46.  He divorces his wife Fabia to marry Tullia. 50 CDCC 913, DGRBM 3-1182, atl1
50 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, sends message to senate that he would relinquish his command if Pompey would do likewise at the same time.  It is so popular that people adorn his messengers with flowers. 50 Dur 3-181, sjsu
50 CAESAR sends much bribe money to Rome, buys support of consul Lepidus and tribune C.(4) Curio. 50 DGRBM 1-549
50 Tribune C.(4) Scribonius CURIO, already resentful of warlike optimates, and now bribed by Caesar, deserts the aristocracy, and proposes that both Caesar and Pompey disarm. 50 CAH 9, GHH, OCD 304
50 Jun  Rogatio Pompeia  by proconsul Pompey, offers to lay down his arms with Caesar as proposed by tribune C.(4) Scribonius Curio.  However, Curio rejects it because Pompey would not show good faith by giving up his command first. 50 Jun atl1, unrv
c.50 P. SYRUS, Latin slave mime writer, writes  Senteniae .
"He who is feared by many must fear many."
"Accept a favor, and you sell your liberty."
"To die at the will of another is to die twice."
"Think long when you may decide only once."
"Anyone can steer the ship when the sea is calm."
"Familiarity breeds contempt."
50 MNDQ 259, 273, 329, 384, 393, 394, 515
c.50 VIRGIL:  Early poems are sometimes ascribed to Virgil:   Catalepton, Culex, Ciris, Copa, Moretum . no date: OCD 1124
50 A rotary hand mill is referenced in  Moretum  attributed to Virgil. no date: SHT 2-111
50 M.(5) ANTONY, with Caesar from 52, now in Cisalpine Gaul, is sent to Rome to protect Caesar's cause.  By Caesar's influence, he is elected augur over L.(3) Ahenobarbus and is chosen one of 10 pleb tribunes, an office which he begins December 10. 50 DGRBM 1-85, 214, GHH, atl1, trtMA, wikLDA, wikMA
50 D.(7) Junius BRUTUS ALBINUS marries Paula Valeria. 50 DGRBM 1-510
50 A water-powered mill, already used in Greece, erected on the Tiber. (?) 50 GHH, MCAW 257
50 Aretaeus, a physician of Cappadocia, introduces the use of blisters at Rome. 50 GHH
50 Caesar's supporters in the senate propose allowing him to stand for consul outside of Rome.  His cause in Rome advances notwithstanding efforts made to crush him. 50 Dur 3-181, GHH
50 mid POMPEY is sick at Neapolis.  Sacrifices are offered thruout Italy for his recovery.  When he recovers the people of Neapolis offer thanksgiving sacrifices.  This celebration spreads thruout Italy.  Pompey is honored in towns he travels returning to Rome. 50 CAH 9, 10-78, atl1, wik1Tr
c.50 SILK, an industry in China from 2700, traded to Rome. 50 PW 17
Villa of Myseries
GFDL
c.50 "Villa of Myseries" is painted at Pompeii, a frieze showing Dionysiac mysteries. 50 MCAW 257
no date: wikVotM
c.50 Senate orders destruction of temples of Isis and Serapis.  None of the workmen dares touch them.  Consul L.(1) Aemilius Lepidus Paullus removes his official gown, takes an axe, and hacks the Isis temple doors.  Temples of ISIS are destroyed. 50 DGRBM 2-631, atl1, wikL1ALP
50 Aug Aedile M. CAELIUS RUFUS opts for Caesar. 50 DGRBM 3-672, OCD 188     49 B76 II-432
50 Aug  Decretum de Legionis Syria  A senatorial decree requiring both Pompey and Caesar to send one legion each to Syria in the wake of the defeat of Crassus by Parthia (53).  Both legions ultimately come from Caesar, as he sends 1 that Pompey had loaned to him for the war in Gaul and 1 of his own.  However neither legion goes to Syria but rather stays in Italy under Pompey. 50 CAH 9-419, atl1, unrv
c.50 Sep? CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, in Cisalpine Gaul from spring, leaves T. Labienus in charge of Cisalpine Gaul, and returns to Gaul, stations troops in winter quarters: 4 legions among the Belgae and 4 among the Aedui. 51 wikTLb
50 DGRBM 1-549, 2-697
50 C. Considius LONGUS, governor of Africa from 51, returns to Rome to run for consul.  L. Aelius Tubero is assigned for 49, but may never have assumed the post. 50 DGRBM 2-786, wikAf     49 rcNA
50 Legion lent to Caesar by Pompey, plus another legion of Caesar are brought back from Gaul by Ap. Claudius Pulcher. 50 DGRBM 1-774
c.50  IGUVINE TABLETS , begun c.250, completed.  7 bronze tablets, earliest written in Umbrian alphabet; latest in Latin alphabet; all in Umbrian language.  Religious inscriptions about acts and rites of the Atiedian Bros, 12 priests of Jupiter with municipal functions at Iguvium.  They present early Roman religion, the archaic triad related to Jupiter. 100-0 wikIT
50
Nov 24
M. Tullius CICERO, governor of Cilicia from 51, and son M.(2), in Greece from July, lands at Brundisium, then goes to Rome. 50 CAH 9-420, CDCC 198, DGRBM 1-716, MCAW 256, OCD 235, wikCc
50 Nov Senate votes to approve a supplication for Cicero's victories in Cilicia, despite opposition of M.(6) Porcius Cato. 50 atl1
50 late CAESAR, at Ravenna, writes cordially, makes the most of Cato's niggling opposition to the triumph proposal, says he should be allowed to stay on as governor of Cisalpine Gaul and IllyricumSenate rejects. 50 CAH 9-421, DGRBM 1-549, 2-697
50 Dec 1  Rogatio Antonia  A senatorial vote overwhelmingly supports the earlier Rogatio Scribonia (reintroduced by tribune M.(5) Antonius) that both Pompey and Caesar lay down their commands simultaneously.  The vote (if it took place) is negated by opposition of consul C.(2) Metellus and consul elect L.(12) Lentulus Crus. 50 atl1, unrv, wikCCW
50 Dec 2  Edictum Aemilia et Claudia  Consuls L.(1) Lepidus and C.(2) Marcellus, without Senate agreement, authorize Pompey to take up arms to defend the Republic against Caesar, based on a false rumor that Caesar had crossed the Alps with his army. 50 B76 14-795, atl1, unrv
50 Dec 2 Consul C.(2) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS, without the backing of the Senate, tells Pompey to take command of 2 legions at Capua and raise more troops.  Lentulus, as consul-elect joins with him in this, possibly C.(3) Marcellus Major too. 50 OCD 646, wikGCMj
50 Dec 9  Rogatio Julia  Final proposal by Caesar, offers to give up all but 2 legions, but retain proconsular authority in Gaul and Illyria and be appointed consul for 49.  Accepted by Pompey but rejected by the consuls. 50 unrv
50
Dec 10
Tribune C.(4) Scribonius CURIO's tribunate expires.  He then joins Caesar in Ravenna. 50 CAH 9-422
50 Dec CAESAR returns from Gaul to Cisalpine Gaul, stays at Ravenna. 50 DGRBM 1-549, 2-697     49 bk
50 Dec Aulus HIRTIUS, officer under Caesar 54- ?, is sent from Ravenna to Rome with a commission to L.(1) Cornelius Balbus.  Hirtius arrives and leaves in the same night, causing suspicion and alarm to Pompey, whom he visits next.  He returns to Gaul in 49. 50 B76 V-61, DGRBM 2-496, OCD 520
50 Dec An envoy of Caesar threatens that Caesar will assert his rights by force. 50 atl1
50
Dec 20
Tribune Mark Antony denounces Pompey's whole career, complains that the condemnations under the laws he had passed in 52 were a travesty of justice. 50 CAH 9-422
50 end Senate says if Caesar doesn't disband army by July 1, 49, he is a public enemy. 50 Dur 3-181
49 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS (anti-Caesar) and C.(3) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS. 49 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-732, 933, OCD 594, 646, csm, wikCon, wikGCMj
49 Jan 1 C.(4) Scribonius CURIO, with Caesar in Ravenna from 50, returns to Rome, reads a letter from Caesar in which he agrees to disband 10 of his 12 legions if he is allowed to retain proconsulship until 48.  C.(4) Scribonius Curio says refusal means war.  In his final speech as tribune, Curio denounces Pompey and consuls. 50 CAH 9-422, atl1     49 DGRBM 1-550, Dur 3-181, wikGCMj
49 Jan 1 Letter from Caesar to the Senate, offering to resign command of his army if Pompey would also resign. 49 GHH, wikCCW
49 Jan 1 M. Tullius CICERO favors Caesar's proposal.  Pompey agrees to it.  Consul L.(12) Lentulus Crus rejects it, and drives C.(4) Scribonius Curio and Antony from senate house.  Pompey then persuades senate to order Caesar to disband his army. 49 Dur 3-181, OCD 189
49 Jan 1 M. CALLIDIUS advocates that Pompey depart for his province (Spain) to prevent war with Caesar.  M. Caelius Rufus agrees. 49 DGRBM 1-563, 3-672
49 Jan 1 Senate, persuaded by M.(6) Porcius Cato, L.(12) Lentulus Crus, and Marcellus, commissions Pompey to "see that no harm should come to the state".  i.e. Pompey is dictator. 49 Dur 3-181
49 Jan 1 C.(5) and cousin Q.(3) CASSIUS LONGINUS, are pleb tribunes.  C.(5) will side with the senate and be given a naval command.  Q.(3) supports Caesar. 49 B76 II-617, DGRBM 2-800, 802, OCD 212, wikGCL, wikQCL
49 Jan 1 L.(8) Caecilius METELLUS CRETICUS, is pleb tribune.  He supports the senate. 49 DGRBM 2-1065
49 Jan 4 M. Tullius CICERO arrives at Rome, but does not enter because of the tumult. 49 CAH 9-422, DGRBM 1-716, atl1
49 Jan CAESAR returns from Ravenna to Gaul. 49 Jan implied
49 Jan CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, leaves 9 legions in Gaul, takes his 13th legion across Alps into Cisalpine Gaul.  C. Caninius Rebilus and L.(5) Julius Caesar accompany. 49 DGRBM 1-538, 3-641, sjsu
49 Jan Q. HORTENSIUS HORTALUS joins Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul. 49 DGRBM 2-528
49 Jan Censor L.(7) Calpurnius PISO offers to act as mediator with Caesar, but optimates refuse any conciliation. 49 DGRBM 3-373
49 Jan Pompey is given command of the republican army. 49 GHH
49 Jan 7 Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS Scipio proposes that Caesar be declared public enemy if he doesn't disband his army by a certain day.  Senate does so. 49 B76 VI-836, 14-795, 15-1105, DGRBM 1-550, 2-1063, LEWH 109, wikMS
49 Jan 7  Senatus Consulta Ultimum  Orders the consuls and Pompey to defend Rome, and that Caesar lay down his arms immediately or be declared an enemy of the state.  Tribunes Antony and Q. Cassius veto, but the senate threatens their lives.  They disguise themselves as slaves and flee with C.(4) Curio and M. Caelius Rufus to Caesar at Ravenna.  Senate declares war on Caesar. 49 B76 II-617, CAH 9-422, DGRBM 1-214, 215, 550, 2-802, 3-487, 672, IDB 1-478, LEWH 109, atl1, rtp, trtMA, unrv, wikGCMj, wikMA
49 Jan Caesar tries to negotiate, at one point agreeing to give up all but one of his provinces and legions.  This satisfies Pompey, but Cato, and consul Lentulus, refuse to back down. 49 wikCY
49 Jan 10 CAESAR with only his 13th legion (5,000 inf & 300 cav) illegally crosses the RUBICON into Italy, a violation of Lex Cornelia maiestatis.  Cousin Lucius and C.(1) Asinius Pollio are with him.  Civil War begins until 45. 50 CAH 9, wikMCJC     49 B76 VIII-705, 3-578, 14-795, CAH 9-424, DGRBM 1-550, 3-437, Dur 3-110, 182, GHH, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, OCD 189, ahe, unrv, ttjc, ttpm, wikCCW, wikGAP, wikJC, wikL5JC, wikTAR
Plutarch and Suetonius say Caesar quoted Athenian playwright Menander, in Greek, "The die is cast".  Erasmus says the more accurate Latin translation of the Greek imperative would be "alea iacta esto" Let the die be cast. 49 atl1, wikJC
49 Jan 10 Under leadership of M.(6) Porcius Cato and with tacit support of Pompey, the Senate passes senatus a consultum ultimum stripping Caesar of his command and ordering him to return to Rome as a civilian and thus without proconsular legal immunity. 49 Jan 10 rtp, sjsu, unrv, wikCY, wikMA
49
Jan 11
L.(1) Cornelius BALBUS tries to get Cicero to mediate between Caesar and Pompey, with the object of preventing Cicero from siding with Pompey. 49 wikL1Bl
c.49 Jan CAESAR splits his single legion into 2 parts.  Caesar marches with 5 cohorts to Ariminum, and sends Antony, probably immediately, to Arretium to block the route from Rome by Via Cassia. 49 CAH 9-424
c.49 Jan CAESAR, on reaching Ancona, holds the head of Via Flaminia. 49 CAH 9-424
c.49 Jan In the division of the provinces, Syria falls to Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS Scipio, who goes there immediately. 50 wikRGS
49 B76 II-3, DGRBM 2-1063, wikMS
49 Jan Pompeyan legate L. Scribonius LIBO is given command of Etruria.  When Caesar approaches, he withdraws to Campania to join the rest of the republicans. 49 DGRBM 2-771, wikLSL
49 Jan PISAURUM Umbria is taken by Caesar's advanced 5 cohorts. 49 DGRG 2-633
49 Jan Italian cities enthusiastically welcome Caesar as his army proceeds south.  e.g. Arretium, Pisaurum, Fanum Fortunae, Ancona, Iguvium, Auximum.  Many of Pompey's troops defect to Caesar. 49 DGRBM 3-487
49 Jan AUXIMUM and all Picenum declares overwhelmingly for Caesar.  L. Attius VARUS, Pompeian commander at Auximum, retreats from Caesar.  Most of his troops desert.  He flees south to Apulia. 49 DGRBM 2-786, 3-1229, DGRG 2-627
49 Jan At beginning of war, POMPEY sends son Gn.(3) Pompeius to sail to Alexandria to fetch ships and troops. 49 DGRBM 3-488
49
Jan 17
Senate is informed that Caesar has reached Ancona.  Pompey insists on abandoning the panic-stricken city, and retiring to Campania. 49 CAH 9-424
49
Jan 17
Consuls L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS and C.(3) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS follow Pompey in leaving Rome. 49 wikGCMj
49
Jan 17
M. Tullius CICERO joins Pompey outside of Rome, and is commissioned to supervise recruiting in Campania. 49 B76 4-608
49
Jan 17
M. Tullius CICERO leaves the area of Rome and goes to Formiae. 49 DGRBM 1-716
49
Jan 17
Senate and Pompey, far outnumbering Caesar but with raw troops, quit Rome, forgetting to take the treasury, and flee to Teanum Campania. 49 wikGCMj
49 Jan P. Attius VARUS, proconsul of Africa with 12th legion, sails to Italy, tries to hold Caesar in Picenum.  12th legion defects to Caesar.  Varus goes south to Apulia. 49 Dur 3-182, OCD 1108
49 Jan Caesar advances down the east coast of Italy.  Only Corfinium resists.  Antony holds Arretium. 49 DGRBM 1-550, trtMA
49 Jan L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is appointed proconsul of Gaul by senate, takes son Gn.(6) and marches 8th legion north, garrisons Corfinium with @20 cohorts, expecting to be soon supported by Pompey. 49 B76 I-151, CAH 9-424, DGRBM 1-85, 550, OCD 361, wikLDA
49 Jan L. VIBULLIUS RUFUS sent by Pompey to take control of Picenum, but all the towns opt for Caesar, so he goes to Corfinium, which is held by L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus. 49 DGRBM 3-1256
49 Jan P. RUTILIUS LUPUS is made praetor and stationed at Terracina Latium with 3 cohorts.  He is deserted by his men as soon as they see Caesar's cavalry.  He returns to Rome. 49 DGRBM 2-840
49 Jan L. ROSCIUS FABNATUS becomes praetor. 49 DGRBM 3-65
49 Jan Pompeyan P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER commands 10 cohorts in Picenum.  At the approach of Caesar, he flees and joins L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus at Corfinium. 49 DGRBM 2-731
49 Jan L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS with 8th legion at Corfinium, forced by his own troops to capitulate to Caesar and is pardoned along with his son Gn.(6).  Ahenobarbus and 8th legion defect to Caesar. 49 B76 I-151, CAH 9-424, DGRBM 1-85, 550, Dur 3-182, OCD 361, atl1, wikGnDA, wikLDA
49 Jan Pompeyan P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER is captured at Corfinium, pardoned by Caesar, defects back to Pompey. 49 B76 VI-146
49 Jan Senators L. RUBIRIUS and L. VIBULLIUS RUFUS are captured at Corfinium, pardoned by Caesar, dismissed uninjured. 49 DGRBM 3-664, 1256
49 Jan Sextus Quintilius VARUS is captured at Corfinium, pardoned by Caesar, dismissed uninjured. 49 DGRBM 3-664
c.49 Jan L.(3) Manlius TORQUATUS is praetor, and stationed at Alba with 6 cohorts.  (Which Alba is not stated.)  But on the fall of Corfinium he abandons Alba and his troops go over to Caesar.  He sides with Pompey. 49 DGRBM 3-1165
49 Jan CAESAR makes up 3 more legions from prisoners, volunteers, and draft. 49 Dur 3-182
49 Jan After Corfinium, L. VIBULLIUS RUFUS is sent by Pompey to Spain to help L. Afranius and M. Petreius. 49 DGRBM 3-1256
49 Jan T. LABIENUS, main legate of Caesar from 58, defects to Pompey, brings 3,700 Gallic and German cavalry with him. 49 DGRBM 2-697, MCAW 256, OCD 574, atl1, wikTLb
49 Jan Senate and Pompey flee from Teanum Campania to Capua. 49 DGRBM 1-550, Dur 3-183, DGRBM 3-487, bk, rtp, wikGCMj
49 Jan Octavian, great-nephew of Caesar, is sent away from Rome to protect him from potential enemies. 49 atl1
49 Jan 22 L.(5) Julius Caesar, a kinsman serving with C.(4) Caesar, brings conciliatory proposals from Caesar.  Today, and Jan 23 he carries messages between Caesar and Pompey.  For the next 2 years L.(5) remains in Rome, garnering support for C.(4). 49 atl1, wikGCMj, wikL5JC
49
Jan 23
Consul L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS meets Cicero at Formiae. 49 DGRBM 2-732
49 Jan 25 CICERO meets consul L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS at Capua.  He reports to his correspondent, Atticus, that all are anxious that Caesar should stand by his offer and they had sent messages back to him.  The location of consul Marcellus is unknown. 49 wikGCMj
49 Jan 27 Consul L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS and others at Capua agree to Caesar's offer.  Crus is asked by tribune (C.(5) or Q.(3)?) Cassius to go to Rome and fetch the treasury, but Crus doesn't go. 49 DGRBM 2-732
49 Jn/Fb Caesar leaves troops in nearby towns, enters Rome unarmed, proclaims general amnesty, restores municipal administration, forcibly opens the treasury, tho a tribune had the seal placed on it. 49 DGRBM 3-487, GHH, rtp, wikJC Mar 16 Dur 3-183
49 Jn/Fb Pleb tribune L.(8) Caecilius METELLUS CRETICUS remains in Rome, tries to prevent Caesar from taking the treasury, until threatened with death.  He soon leaves for Capua. 49 DGRBM 2-1065, atl1
49
Feb 7
Consul C.(3) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS is 2 days late for a meeting with consul Lentulus and Cicero, who writes that the consuls were useless and that no recruiting was being done. 49 wikGCMj
49 Feb? T. Ampius BALBUS raises troops for Pompey at Capua. 49 DGRBM 1-455, OCD 159
49 Feb? M. CAELIUS RUFUS is sent by Caesar to suppress an insurrection at Intemelium in far west Liguria. 49 DGRBM 3-672
49
Feb 17
POMPEY writes from Luceria to consuls Marcellus and Lentulus to collect all the troops they can and join him at Brundisium. 49 wikGCMj
20
by Feb
Consuls L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS and C.(3) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS have gathered all the troops they can and join Pompey at Brundisium. by Feb 20 wikGCMj
49 Feb late L.(1) Cornelius BALBUS is sent by Caesar on a secret mission to win over consul Lentulus with the bribe of a lucrative province.  There is no hint that he made such offer to C.(3) Marcellus, who now drops out of history.  Balbus will arrive at Brundisium too late. late Feb wikGCMj
49 P. SULPICIUS GALBA is augur. 49 DGRBM 2-206
49 Pompeyan C. SOSIUS is praetor. 49 DGRBM 3-885
49 Caesarean M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is praetor. 49 wikLpd
49 Mar C.(2) FURNIUS is sent by Caesar to deliver letters to Cicero. 49 DGRBM 2-191
49 Pompeyan praetor POSTUMIUS is assigned to Sicily, but refuses to go.  Pompeyan C. FANNIUS is made praetor, and sent instead. 49 DGRBM 2-136, 3-510, 512
49 SULMO occupied by Domitius Calvinus with a garrison of 7 cohorts; but the citizens, who prefer Caesar, open their gates to his lieutenant M. Antony. 49 DGRBM 1-406, wikSlm
49 L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, senatorial proconsul of Gaul from January, made proconsul of Transalpine Gaul by Caesar. 49 CAH 9-428
49 M. Considius NONIANUS is made propraetor to succeed Julius Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul. 49 CAH 9-428, wikRGG
49 L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, Caesar's appointed proconsul of Transalpine Gaul, goes to Cosa Etruria, assembles a small force and a squadron. 49 DGRG 1-696, DGRBM 1-85
CONFUSION ALERT!  Sources have Ahenobarbus sometimes as republican and sometimes Caesarean and occupying Massilia at different times, because they can't keep it straight as to when he defected.
49 L.(6) JULIUS CAESAR, son of L.(5) legate of Caesar, turns Pompeyan and sails to Africa. DGRBM 1-538
49
















49
















49
Romans not mentioned above who opt for Pompey and/or senate in 49:
M.(7) Junius BRUTUS surprisingly joins Pompey until after Pharsalus 48.
B76 II-327, DGRBM 1-512, wikMJB
L. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, elder bro of Octavian's friend M. Agrippa. wikMVA
Q. Caecilius BASSUS. DGRBM 1-471
Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS who is with Pompey until after Pharsalus 48. B76 II-327, wikGnDA
Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of the orator, with Pompey until after Pharsalus 48. OCD 239
Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER flees Italy, then joins Pompey in Greece. DGRBM 1-771
C. CONSIDIUS LONGINUS, who returns to Africa. DGRBM 1-827
M. CONSIDIUS NONIANUS conducts preparations at Capua. DGRBM 1-827
Senator M. EPPIUS DGRBM 2-42
L.(10) Valerius FLACCUS DGRBM 2-159
C. Lucceius HIRRUS stationed with troops in north Italy DGRBM 2-810
L. LUCCEIUS the historian DGRBM 2-809
L.(7) Calpurnius PISO Caesonius, still a censor, leaves with Pompey, but doesn't go with him to Greece DGRBM 3-373
Q. POMPEIUS BITHYNICUS DGRBM 1-490
P. SESTIUS starts with Pompey, but soon defects to Caesar DGRBM 3-796
Quaestor Sextus Quintilius VARUS DGRBM 1-471, 3-1231, wikGCMn
Q. FABIUS VIRGILIANUS DGRBM 3-1263
C. VIRGILIUS DGRBM 3-1263
49 Aulus(5) GABINIUS, exiled from 54, pardoned by Caesar, recalled to Rome, serves Caesar, but takes no part against his old patron Pompey. 49 DGRBM 2-194, wikAGb     no date: OCD 451
49
















49
Romans not mentioned above who opt for Caesar in 49:
L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS (neph of L.(1)), who is entrusted with several important missions.
DGRBM 1-457, wikL2Bl
D.(7) Junius BRUTUS Albinus wikDJB
Gn. Domitius CALVINUS DGRBM 1-585
L.(4) CASSIUS Longinus, bro of C.(5) DGRBM 2-802
Q. CORNIFICIUS DGRBM 1-857
M. CURTIIUS POSTUMUS DGRBM 3-511
C. FURNIUS DGRBM 2-191
M'(5) Acilius GLABRIO DGRBM 2-272
L. AELIUS LAMIA DGRBM 2-714
Servius(2) SULPICIUS LEMONIA RUFUS and son Servius(3) SULPICIUS RUFUS DGRBM 3-946
M.(5) Valerius MESSALA RUFUS OCD 674
Q. PEDIUS DGRBM 3-164
P.(3) Cornelius SULLA will serve Caesar in Greece. DGRBM 3-944
P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS defects from aristocrats to Caesar.  His dad P.(1) is too old to go either way. DGRBM 3-1233
C.(1) Antistius VETUS DGRBM 3-1251
M. CAELIUS VINICIANUS DGRBM 3-1262
49 Q. TITINIUS opts for Pompey, but his son, who had been adopted by one Pontius, and is therefore called Pontius Titinianus, sides with Caesar. 49 DGRBM 3-1158
49 T. LABIENUS tries to convince Pompey to face Caesar in Italy and not retreat to Spain, insisting that Caesar's army is thin and weakened after his campaign in Gaul. 49 wikTLb
49 M. PERPERNA, consul 92, age 98, dies. 49 DGRBM 3-202, OCD 802, atl1
49 VERONA, Roman colony from 89, becomes a municipium.  The former ford is replaced by 2 bridges.  Under Rome until 396CE. 49 wikHV
49 Senate and Pompey retire from Capua, to Brundisium. 49 CAH 9-424, DGRBM 3-487, 550, GHH, atl1, rtp
49 POMPEY collects troops in Apulia, and orders the consuls to leave a garrison at Capua and join him there. 49 DGRBM 2-732
49 L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS is sent by Caesar to Capua to persuade consul Lentulus to return to Rome with offer of a province. 49 DGRBM 2-457, 732
49 Mar 4 Consuls with part of the forces sail from Brundisium. 49 CAH 9-424
49 Mar 8 Caesar with 6 legions arrives at walls of Brundisium before Pompey and senators leave.  He tries to obstruct the harbor. 49 CAH 9-424, DGRBM 3-487, 487, 550, atl1
49 Q. Fufius CALENUS visits Cicero at his villa, calls Pompey a criminal and the senate stupid, then meets Caesar at Brundisium. 49 DGRBM 1-562
49 Mar NUMERIUS MAGIUS, officer under Pompey, goes to meet Pompey in Brundisium.  He is captured by Caesar's troops.  Caesar sends him back to Pompey to propose a meeting and patch things up. 49 CAH 9-428, DGRBM 2-899
49 Mar Republican M.(6) Porcius CATO is sent to command in Sicily until later 49. 49 B76 II-645, DGRBM 1-649, OCD 215
49 Mar Pompeyan praetor C. SOSIUS defects to Caesar, returns with Lupus to Rome. 49 DGRBM 3-885
49 Mar When Pompey says he will leave Italy, L. ATTIUS VARUS sails from Brundisium to Africa.  Sextus QUINTILIUS VARUS joins him. 49 DGRBM 2-786, 3-1229, 1231
49 Mar 15-17 CORNELIA, wife of Pompey, and youngest son SEXTUS, are sent from Brundisium for Lesbos. 49 DGRBM 1-855
49 Mar 15-17 Senate and Pompey sail from Brundisium to DyrrhachiumCaesar has no ships to follow them, returns to Rome. 49 B76 4-608, CAH 9-425, DGRBM 1-550, 3-487, GHH, MCAW 256, atl1, rtp, wikCCW
49
Mar 17
Caesarean praetor M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is now the highest ranking magistrate in Italy.  He is left in charge of Rome when Caesar sails east. 49 CAH 9-430, DGRBM 2-766, wikLpd
49 L.(4) Marcius PHILIPPUS, pro-Caesar, becomes pleb tribune. 49 DGRBM 3-288, OCD 817
c.49 Sole rule of Ptolemy-XIII, recognized by Caesar, and his enemy, Pompey. 49 ahe
49  Lex Julia de bonis cedendis, Lex Julia de pecuniis mutuis  by dictator Caesar, debt relief and various loan reforms, deduction of interest already paid from the principal, cancellation of interest in arrears for 2 years, admission of payment in land instead of cash. 49 EDRL 554, unrv
c.49 STIPENDIUM (pay to troops), 120 denarii annually, nearly doubled by Caesar to 225 denarii. 49 CAH 10-371
c.49 BERGOMUM, north of the Po, under Rome 196-395CE, becomes a municipality, containing @10,000 inhabitants at its peak. 49 rcNI
48 M. CALLIDIUS dies at Placentia.  Caesarean governor of Cisalpine Gaul 48 DGRBM 1-563
49  Lex Roscia  Caesar, thru tribune L. Roscius, proposes full Latin Rights to Transalpine Gaul. 49 unrv, wikLRL
49 Mar M. Tullius CICERO, district commissioner of Capua, meets Caesar at Formiae, invited to join the rump senate in Rome, politely declines, advises Caesar not to fight the senate. 49 B76 4-608, OCD 235, atl1
49 Mar? M.(5) Valerius MESSALA RUFUS is sent by Caesar to occupy Sardinia. 49 DGRBM 1-550
49 Mar? C.(2) ANTONIUS, bro of Antony is sent by Caesar to occupy Illyricum. 49 DGRBM 1-550
49 Mar CAESAR holds senate meeting outside of Rome. 49 Apr 1 atl1
49 After Pompey flees, C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is sent by Caesar to relieve M.(6) Porcius Cato of command in Sicily. 49 wikGAP
49 Mar Since Pompey's main force is in Spain, CAESAR decides to go there first, allegedly declaring, "I am off to meet an army without a leader;  when I return, I shall meet a leader without an army."  He leaves praetor M. Lepidus in charge of administrative matters in Rome and Antony in command of troops in Italy.  He then takes Q.(3) Cassius and M. Caelius Rufus, marches 27 days thru Gaul to Spain.  Q. Fufius Calenus is his legate. 49 DGRBM 1-215, 550, 3-487, 672, GHH, OCD 191, atl1, rtp, trtMA, ttpm, vrm, wikCCW
49 Apr Q. CASSIUS, cousin? of C.(5) Cassius Longinus, Caesarian tribune, summons senate to negotiate with Caesar. 49 OCD 212
49 Apr CAESAR (in Spain?) asks senate to name him dictator.  Refused.  Asks senate to send envoys to Pompey to negotiate peace.  Refused.  Asks for funds from national treasury.  Vetoed by tribune L.(8) Metellus.  Threatens Metellus.  He is then named dictator. 49 Dur 3-183, bk
c.49 MARK ANTONY, Caesar's rep in Italy, visits many Italian towns. 49 atl1
c.49 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, hounded by creditors, takes refuge in camp of Caesar. 49 DGRBM 1-1059
c.49 Caesar is appointed dictator 1st time, possibly to preside over his own election as consul, and resigns this dictatorship 11 days later. 49 atl1, wikCCW, wikJC
c.49 THURII is deemed by Caesar important enough to be secured with a garrison of Gallic and Spanish cavalry. no date: DGRG 2-1193
c.49 Aulus ALLIENUS, friend of Cicero, is praetor. 49 DGRBM 1-132
49 Jun 7 M. Tullius CICERO, district commissioner of Capua from Jan, sails from Brundisium to Dyrrachium, joins republicans. 49 B76 4-608, DGRBM 1-716, MCAW 256, OCD 235, atl1, wikCc
49 Pompeyan M. Calpurnius BIBULUS proconsul of Syria from 51, returns to Rome. Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO succeeds until 48.  Pompey makes Bibulus fleet commander in Ionian Sea south of Adriatic to ensure that Caesar and his troops could not cross from Brundisium to Epirus. 49 B76 II-3, DGRBM 1-488, 2-1063, wikBb
49 TRANSPADANES (people north of the Po) including the Cenomani, having Latin rights from 89, granted full citizenship by a Lex Roscia of Caesar. 49 CAH 9-443, DGRG 1-584, 2-90, 303, LEWH 110, OCD 219, 243, hifiCn
49 MARK ANTONY, with Caesar from 57, re-elected tribune. 49 B76 1-999, OCD 77
c.49 P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA, Caesarean, commands fleet in Adriatic. 49 OCD 358
49 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) is moved to Illyricum until 48. 49 wikSls
49 SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus), after expulsion from senate in 50, restored, probably thru influence of Caesar. 49 wikSls
c.49 ARISTOBULUS-II, imprisoned from 56, released by Caesar, intending to send him against Pompey partisans under Antipater and Hyrcanus-II.  Given 2 Roman legions and sent to Judea. Wars 1:9:1
49 IDB 2-534, Jud 3-65, atl1
49 At Placentia, Mutiny breaks out among Caesar's troops and is quelled by Caesar. 49 DGRG 2-636, atl1
49 Sep CAESAR, in Spain from March, Massilia from Aug, returns to Rome. 49 CAH 9-431, ttjc, vrm, Dec Dur 3-184, wikCCW
c.49 C.(4) Scribonius CURIO is made praetor by Caesar and sent with 2 legions to drive Cato out of Sicily, and to recover control of grain supply. 49 B76 III-302, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-550, 902, Dur 3-183, OCD 502, wikGSC
c.49 CAESAR decides that exile is not sufficient punishment for treason.  Half their property is confiscated also. 49 CDCC 121
c.49 Dec CAESAR relieves credit crisis.  Hoarding of money had depressed prices.  Debtors are refusing to pay back good money on the cheap money they had borrowed.  Caesar forbids enslavement for debt, and says debts may be paid in goods assessed by state arbiters at pre-war prices. 49 Dur 3-184, atl1
c.49 Dec CAESAR cancels all banishments except Milo, now in Massilia. 49 Dur 3-184, OCD 241
c.49 Dec D.(7) Junius BRUTUS, Caesarean, appointed by Caesar to be governor of Transalpine Gaul until 45. 49 wikRGG
48 B76 II-327
no date: OCD 183
c.49 Dec CAESAR puts ANTONY in charge of Rome with orders to collect his main forces from Gaul A.S.A.P.  Joins his 60,000 troops at Brundisium. 49 DGRBM 1-551, OCD 189

Italy 48-44
V