Italy
57 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER and Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS 57 CAH 9-387, DGRBM 2-731, 1062, OCD 678, csm, wikCon, wikPCLS, wikQ9MN
57 Jan 1 Consul P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER moves for immediate recall of Cicero. 57 DGRBM 2-731, wikPCLS
57 Jan 1 Former consul L. Aurelius COTTA asks for recall of Cicero.  A unanimous resolution votes for it.  Tribune Sextus Atilius Serranus Gavianus blocks it. 57 CAH 9-387, atl1
57 Jan 23 Tribune T. Annius MILO, optimate, but pro-Pompey, asks for recall of Cicero.  Praetors C. Cornutus and M. Calidius support Milo.  One of the new tribunes Q. FABRICIUS proposes recall of Cicero.  P. CLODIUS PULCHER, no longer a tribune, brings an armed gang to Mars Field to supervise voting on Cicero's return.  Pompey authorizes tribunes Fabricius, Milo and P. Sestius to raise their own gangs to oppose Clodius' thugs.  Q. Cicero is wounded.  The vote is thwarted.  Pompey is prudently out of Rome. 57 B76 VI-901, CAH 9-387, DGRBM 1-773, 858, 2-132, Dur 3-173, LEWH 108, OCD 193, 687, atl1, wikPCP, wikQ9MN
57 early Tribune T. Annius MILO Papianus tries to prosecute Clodius, but is obstructed by Metellus Nepos.  Milo gathers armed supporters, and engages in street fighting with Clodius.  Street fighting continues thru the first half of 57. 57 atl1
57 early Tribune P. SESTIUS tries to announce adverse auspices, but is wounded by Clodius' supporters.  He gathers his own band of armed supporters. 57 atl1
57 early CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, with his 2 new legions, returns to Gaul. 57 DGRBM 1-545
57 Jan









57 Jan
Pleb tribunes include:
C. CURTIUS Peducaeanus.
57 DGRBM 1-905
T. Annius MILO Papianus, who works for recall of Cicero from exile 57 wikTAM
Q. FABRICIUS 57 DGRBM 2-132
Q. NUMERIUS RUFUS, who opposes Cicero's recall. 57 DGRBM 2-1214, 3-676
AELIUS LIGUR, who tries to prevent recall of Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 2-786
T. Fadius GALLUS, who works for recall of Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 2-228
C.(1) Antistius VETUS, who supports Cicero in opposition to Clodius. 57 DGRBM 3-1251
Sextus Atilius SERRANUS GAVIANUS, who is is bought by Cicero's enemies to prevent his recal from exile. 57 DGRBM 3-788
P. SESTIUS, who supports recall of Cicero.  Like Milo, he keeps a band of armed retainers to oppose P. Clodius and his partizans. 57 DGRBM 3-796
M. CISPIUS 57 DGRBM 1-758
57 Jan Pleb tribune P. SESTIUS is attacked by slaves and gladiators of Clodius in the temple of Castor, and left for dead. 57 DGRBM 2-728
57 Praetors include:
M. CALIDIUS, advocates recalling Cicero from exile and restoring his house.
57 DGRBM 1-563
C. SEPTIMIUS, advocates recalling Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 3-784
P. Licinius CRASSUS, favors recall of Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 1-882
Sex. Quintilius VARUS, favors recall of Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 3-1230
L. CAECILIUS RUFUS, half bro of P. Sulla, supports recall of Cicero, so a hired mob of P. Clodius attacks his house. 57 DGRBM 3-671
Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS Pulcher, supports bro P. CLODIUS Pulcher. 57 B76 II-977, DGRBM 1-770, OCD 247
c.57 C.(3) COSCONIUS is aedile. 57 DGRBM 1-863
c.57 Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO is probably a curule aedile.  He exhibits gladiatorial games in honor of his dead father, Metellus Pius. 57 DGRBM 2-1062, wikMS
c.57 M. Caelius Rufus has affair until 56 with Clodia Pulchra, dau of Ap. Claudius Pulcher, widow of Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer d.59.  One of her many affairs, causes scandal. 57 wikCP, wikMCR
c.57 Senate meets in Marius' temple of Virtue, and passes a decree instructing provincial governors to protect Cicero. 57 atl1
c.57  Lex Pupia  forbids senate meetings on days in which popular assemblies are convoked. 57 EDRL 558
57 Senator P.(1) Servilius VATIA advocates recalling Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 3-1233, wikPSV
c.57 Tribune T. Annius MILO marries Fausta, a dau of dictator Sulla, and ex-wife of C. Memmius.  She cuckolds him. 57 DGRBM 2-1086, wikTAM
c.57 POMPEY retaliates against P. Clodius Pulcher by supporting recall of Cicero.  Makes a secret deal with Cicero for his support. 57 Dur 3-173, atl1, ttpm
c.57 Since Clodius had offended both Pompey and Caesar, consul Q. Metellus NEPOS, out of respect to Pompey and Caesar, and pressured by consul Lentulus Spinther and Pompey, suppresses his animosity towards Cicero, and tells the senate that he would not oppose Cicero's recall from exile.  Spinther sponsors a vote of the centuriate for Cicero's return, and both consuls propose the motion to the people. 57 DGRBM 2-1062, unrv, wikQ9MN
57 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO is pontifex maximus until 53. 57 B76 3-302, DGRBM 1-902
57 Senate meets in temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and summons citizens from thruout Italy to come to Rome and vote on the recall of Cicero. 57 Dur 3-173, atl1
57 L.(1) GELLIUS PUBLICOLA speaks for recall of Cicero from exile. 57 DGRBM 3-601
57 Jul Rome is crowded for the ludi Apollinares and the elections.  Consuls had written to the municipalities summoning all patriotic citizens to the capital.  Several senatorial decrees are passed while the urban crowd is outnumbered. 57 CAH 9-388
57 Aug 4 Citizens meet in a centuriate assembly.  With support of tribunes P. Sestius and T. Annius Milo, who had raised their own forces to counter Clodius' men, recall of Cicero from exile, and restoration of his property, overwhelmingly passes by popular vote. 57 B76 4-607, CAH 9-389, DGRBM 1-714, 3-485, OCD 235, 687, atl1
57 Aug 4 RIOTS between CLODIUS and MILO begin until 52. 57 B76 VI-901, 4-607, CAH 9, OCD 235, 687
57 Tribune T. Annius MILO sues P. Clodius Pulcher, who escapes by being elected aedile for 56.  Clodius then starts proceedings against T. Annius Milo for inciting violence. 57 OCD 687, atl1, wik1Tr
57 A.(5) GABINIUS, consul 58, becomes proconsul of Syria until 54. 57 CAH 9-271, DGRBM 2-193
57 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER changes his gens in order to become an augur. 57 atl1
57 C.(4) MEMMIUS, anti-Caesar, becomes gov of Bithynia until ?.  Poet C. Valerius Catulus is on his staff until 56. 57 Dur 3-155, OCD 216, 668, wikCtls
c.57 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS, made proconsul of Macedonia by law of Clodius in 58, goes to Macedonia until 55. 57 DGRBM 3-372, OCD 836, wikLCPC
57 Aug M. Tullius CICERO, exiled in Greece from 58, sails from Dyrrhachium to Brundisium, where his wife and dau Tullia meet him.  Exuberant crowd escorts him along the Appian Way.  He arrives in Rome on Sept. 4.  Amid cheers, he ascends the capitol and gives homage at the temple of jupiter Maximus.  He is now resented by the senate and endebted to Pompey. 57 CDCC 149, 913, DGRBM 1-714, 3-485, GHH, MCAW 252, atl1, wik1Tr, wikCc
57 Sep 4 M. Tullius CICERO arrives in Rome, to a welcome, in which the hungry populace participates. 57 CAH 9-389
57 Sep 5 M. Tullius CICERO rants at the senate.  Speeches: Post Reditum ad Quirites, Post Reditum in Senatu. 57 B76 4-610, 14-794, CAH 9, Dur 3-110, 173, OCD 235, atl1, wikCc
57 Sep 7 1st day of the ludi Komani in honor of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.  Senate meets in his temple.  The Capitol is crowded.  Senior senators who opposed Pompey stay away. 58 CAH 9-390
57 Sep 7 GRAIN SHORTAGE because P. Clodius gave it away in 58.  Cicero maneuvres senate into putting Pompey in charge of food supply.
 Lex Cornelia et Caecilia de Gn. Pompeius  by consuls; gives Pompey extraordinary powers to supervise food supply, including ports and trade for 5 years.
58 wikPm
57 B76 14-794, CAH 9-390, CDCC 708, Dur 3-174, GHH, OCD 66, 858, atl1, rtp, unrv
57
Sep 29
M. Tullius CICERO speech: De Domo Sua on his house. 57 B76 4-610, 14-794, CAH 9, Dur 3-110, 173, OCD 235, atl1, wikCc
c.57 C. CALPURNIUS PISO FRUGI dies.  Wife from 63 TULLIA, dau of Cicero, remarries 56. 57 CDCC 913
57 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., appointed Pompey's legate in Sardinia until 56.  This is to ensure good behavior of M. 57 OCD 239
57 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, leads legions to winter quarters in Gaul, returns to Cisalpine Gaul, notifies senate that Gaul is conquered. 57 DGRBM 1-545, atl1
57 Senate decrees 15 days of public thanksgiving for Caesar's conquest of Gaul.  (Thanks given to Pompey was only 10 days.)  Topped in 55. 57 DGRBM 1-545, atl1
57 Nov Consul Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS tries to obtain aedileship for Clodius. 57 DGRBM 2-1062
57 Nov Workmen begin to restore Cicero's house.  P. Clodius Pulcher attacks and drives them off, pulls down the newly rebuilt porticoe of Catulus, burns house of Q. Cicero. 57 DGRBM 1-773
57 Nov P. CLODIUS Pulcher assaults Cicero in the street.  Cicero flees to a neighboring house.  Clodius attacks Milo's house, and is driven off by Q. Flaccus. 57 DGRBM 1-773
c.57 late Ptolemy-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES, former king of Egypt 80-59, sails from Cyprus to Italy to seek support for his restoration as king of Egypt, lives at Pompey's villa, bribes Pompey to restore him to throneP-XII is opposed by Alexandrians, who send envoys to Rome, but they are murdered.  P-XII contacts money lender C. Rabirius and other creditors, and explains that he can't pay them back unless they invest more money in him to restore him to the throne.  Successful. 58 B76 VIII-282, 57 B76 I-994, CAH 9-271, DGRBM 3-512, GHH, atl1, lvPt12
57 Dec Jupiter statue on Mt. Alban destroyed by lightning.  Baaaad omen. 57 AΨΨ 379, DGRBM 2-731
57 Dec Consul P.(8) Cornelius Lentulus Spinther gets a senatorial decree authorizing Lentulus as proconsul of Cilicia to restore P-12 Auletes to throne of Egypt in 56. 57 B76 I-994 56 CAH 9-272
57 Dec Λ SIBYLLINE BOOKS V are consulted.  They say, "If the King of Egypt comes to you asking for help, refuse him not your friendship, yet grant him not any army, or you will have toil and danger." 57 CAH 9-391 55 wikSB
c.57 late Senate does not agree to support Ptolemy-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES as king of EgyptP-XII sails to Ephesus with bribe money for Gabinius to make him king of Egypt. 57 B76 I-994, lvPt12 , wikP12
57/6 M. Tullius CICERO, tries to get Pompey to renounce Caesar. winter 57/6 B76 4-607
56 Jan. CONSULS:  Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS MARCELLINUS and L.(3) MARCIUS PHILIPPUS 56 DGRBM 2-935, OCD 549, 817, csm, wikCon
56 Jan 13 Senate debates whether to enthrone Ptolemy-XII Dionysius Auletes as king of Egypt, and overwhelmingly agrees that no army should be used.  56 CAH 9-392
56
Jan 13
P.(1) Servilius VATIA opposes restoration of P-XII Auletes, preferring instead to annex Egypt as a Roman province. 56 CAH 9-392, wikPSV
56 Jan Pleb tribunes include:
P. RUTILIUS LUPUS, who proposes to repeal Caesar's agrarian law 59.
DGRBM 2-840
L. Scribonius LIBO, who supports Pompey's views on Egypt. DGRBM 2-771
L.(1) Caninius GALLUS, who supports Pompey. DGRBM 2-226
C. MESSIUS, who proposes Cicero's recall from exile. DGRBM 2-1054
Gn. PLANCIUS, known for moderation DGRBM 3-382, atl1
PROCILLIUS DGRBM 3-532
L. RACILIUS, friend of Cicero and Lentulus Spinther.  He attacks Clodius in the senate. DGRBM 3-640
56 Jan P. CLODIUS Pulcher becomes aedile, quickly prosecutes T. Annius MILO (now no longer a tribune) for violence. 56 DGRBM 1-773, OCD 254, 687, wikPCP
56 early Alexandrians send embassy to Rome to oppose P-XII AuletesTheir leader is murdered.  P. Asicius, agent of P-XII Auletes is tried for the murder.  Cicero, at Pompey's request, gets him acquitted. 56 CAH 9-392
56 early On Caesar's unrealistic proclamation of the conquest of Gaul, senate declares it a province. 56 Dur 3-175
56
Feb 2
C. Porcius Cato puts a bill to the people rescinding Lentulus Spinther's proconsulship of Cilicia. 56 CAH 9-392
56
Feb 9
T. Annius MILO is tried.  Pompey stands to defend him.  Clodius' party tries to shout him down.  When Clodius speaks, Milo's party does same.  Fight ensues.  Court is adjourned, and delayed several times until May, then dropped. 56 CAH 9-393, DGRBM 1-773, atl1
56 Feb 12 T. Pomponius Atticus marries PILIA, dau of ?. 56 DGRBM 3-366
c.56 Military tribune Q. VELANIUS is sent by Caesar, now in Cisalpine Gaul, to the Veneti to get grain. 56 DGRBM 3-1236
56 C. Porcius CATO is pleb tribune.  He prevents senate from loaning troops to P-XII Auletes with troops by getting priests to point out Sibylline verses which predict bad news for Rome if it helps a king of Egypt.  Cato sides with Clodius. 56 DGRBM 1-650
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are Veneti in Brittany and Veneti northeast Italy.
56 Apr CAESAR returns from Gaul, meets M.(2) CRASSUS at Ravenna. 56 CAH 9-394, OCD 295
56 Apr Aedile P. CLODIUS Pulcher hosts Megalensian Games, admits so many slaves that the free citizens have no room. 56 DGRBM 1-773, atl1
56 Apr M. CAELIUS RUFUS, prosecuted by L. Sempronius Atratinus for vis (violence) for murdering an ambassador, defended by M.(2) Licinius Crassus and Cicero who writes  Pro Caelio , aquitted. 56 B76 II-432, 4-610, OCD 188, 254, atl1, wikCc, wikMCR
56 Apr L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, candidate for consul, says if elected he will remove Caesar from command in Gaul, and investigate the legitimacy of the Julian laws of 59. 56 B76 I-151, CAH 9-393, DGRBM 1-85, OCD 361, wikLDA
56 Apr 1st TRIUMVIRATE (Pompey, Caesar, M.(2) Crassus) meets at LUCA in Tuscia to formally renew their alliance against the optimates.  Caesar says if elections are delayed until after the campaign season, when some of Caesar's troops could get to Rome and vote, then L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus could be kept out, and Pompey and Crassus elected consuls for 55.  Pompey to govern Spain, Crassus to govern Syria for 5 years.  Caesar's troops will be paid from the public treasury.  The question of who succeeds Caesar in Gaul is not to be raised in the senate until March 1, 50.  This ensures Caesar's command until end of 49. 56 B76 3-578, 14-794, CAH 9-272, CDCC 708, DGRBM 1-545, Dur 3-110, 175, GHH, MCAW 252, atl1, sjsu, ttjc, ttpm, vrm, wik1Tr, wikCc, wikJC, wikMCJC, wikMLC
120 senators also attend. bk
120 lictors and 200 senators also attend. DGRBM 1-546, wik1Tr
c.56 M. Claudius MARCELLUS is curule aedile. 56 DGRBM 2-932
c.56 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS is praetor.  He presides in the court in which P. Sestius is accused. 56 DGRBM 3-737, wikMAS
56 spring CAESAR uses loot from Gaul to finance campaigns of his friends, provide jobs for unemployed Romans, build public buildings, bribe senators to quit considering repeal of his laws of 59. 56 Dur 3-176
56 spring CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, learns of rebellion, returns to Gaul. 56 CAH 9-394, DGRBM 1-546, atl1, hifiCT, hwGW
56 May? M. Tullius CICERO, pressured by Pompey, decides not to attack the Campanian land law on 15 May, as he had planned, allies with 1st triumvirate briefly. 56 B76 4-607, CAH 9-394
56 May Senate refuses Aulus(5) Gabinius a thanksgiving for his Jewish campaign, and support the publicani in an attack on his fiscal arrangements. 56 CAH 9-396
c.56 Cicero's friends MILO and SESTIUS, who had taken a leading part in his recal, are accused.  P. Vatinius is a witness against them.  Cicero writes speech Against Vatinius.  The trial of Milo occurrs earlier in the year than that of Sestius. 56 DGRBM 3-1234, atl1
56 Senate finally votes on Vatia's Jan 13 proposal not to restore P-XII Auletes, and approves it, but it is vetoed. 56 CAH 9-392
c.56 Praetor Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS becomes governor of Nearer Spain until 55. 56 DGRBM 2-1062, rcIb, wikQ9MN
c.56 AFFAIR of Marcus Caelius Rufus and Clodia Pulchra from 57, ends.  She accuses him of trying to poison her. 56 wikCP, wikMCR
c.56 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER becomes governor of Cilicia (with Cyprus) until 53. 56 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-731, wikPCLS
56 TULLIA, dau of Cicero, widow from 57, marries Furrius Crassipes until 51. 56 CDCC 913, DGRBM 3-1182
56 Niece of C.(4) Julius Caesar, widow of C.(2) Octavius, mom of C.(3) Octavius age 6, ATIA BALBA CAESONIA, marries consul L.(3) Marcius Philippus, who is indifferent to Octavius, so Octavius is raised by his grandmother (Julius Caesar's sis), Julia, who dies in 54. 56 wikELA
c.56 M. CAELIUS RUFUS prosecutes L. BESTIA for ambitus (bribery).  Cicero defends him.  Acquitted. 56 OCD 188
56 P. SESTIUS (Sextius) accused of bribery and violence by Gn. NERIUS.  P. Vatinius is a witness against him.  Cicero defends Sestius and writes  Pro Sestio .  Trial presided by M. Aemilius Lepidus.  C.(3) Cosconius is a judge. 56 B76 4-610, DGRBM 2-1160, 3-795, OCD 1110, 958, atl1, wikCc
56 L. Cornelius LENTULUS NIGER is a judge in the assault case of P. Sextius 57.  Niger dies same year. 56 DGRBM 2-733
c.56 ARISTOBULUS-II and son Matt Antigonus, imprisoned in Rome from 63, released, returns to Judea until later 56. Wars 1:8:6
57 DGRBM 1-301 56 Jud 2-584, 3-65
56 ARISTOBULUS-II and his family, sent back by A.(5) Gabinius to Rome, with the same recommendation to release the family.  Senate again releases the family.  Aristobulus remains until 49. Wars 1:8:6
56 Jud 2-584, 3-441
c.56 Aedile P. Clodius Pulcher tries to persuade Pompey that Crassus is trying to kill him. 56 B76 14-794
56 L.(2) Calpurnius BESTIA tried for bribery in praetor election 57, condemned. 56 DGRBM 1-486
56 Despite pressure from Pompey and Lentulus Spinther, the senate does not agree to restore P-XII Auletes as king of Egypt. 56 DGRBM 2-226, atl1
56 Pleb tribune L.(1) Caninius GALLUS tries to prevent P. Lentulus Spinther, proconsul of Cilicia, from restoring P-XII Auletes as king of Egypt.  Gallus proposes that Pompey, without an army, and accompanied only by 2 lictors, be sent with P-XII to Alexandria, and try to reconcile the king to his people.  It doesn't pass. 56 CAH 9-392, DGRBM 2-226
56 Egyptian envoy AMMONIUS comes to Rome to seek help for P-XII Auletes against the Alexandrians. 56 DGRBM 1-146
56 Roman nobles concoct religious impediments to prevent Pompey's military expedition to Egypt. 56 B76 14-794
Roman world 56
Roman world during Luca conference 56       map: Cristiano64
56 After Luca, POMPEY sails to Sardinia talks to his legate Q. Cicero, tels him to remind his bro M. Cicero of his debt to Pompey. 56 CAH 9-394
c.56 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS Pulcher becomes governor of Sardinia until 55.  Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., Pompey's legate in Sardinia from 58, returns to Rome. 57 B76 II-977, DGRBM 1-770
56 After establishment of Roman forts in north Friuli, the Taurisci, Liburni and Iapodi are forced to pay tribute to Rome 56 hifiNT
56 Several poor harvests produce a grain shortage.  Optimates blame Caesar's Agrarian Law. 57 ttjc 56 ttpm
56 POMPEY carries out a census of freedmen, in order to assess grain dole.  He drafts a register of grain recipients. 56 CAH 10-808, atl1
56 POMPEY restores Rome's grain supply. 56 atl1
56 Q. ANCHARIUS, anti-triumvir conservative, becomes praetor. 56 DGRBM 1-168
56 C.(9) CLAUDIUS Pulcher becomes praetor, helps bro P. Clodius when he at first tries to prevent Cicero and Milo from removing from the capitol the tablets containing Clodius decree of Cicero's banishment. 56 DGRBM 1-770, 774
c.56 M.(6) Porcius CATO, anti-triumvir conservative, commissioner to Cyprus from 58, returns to Rome loaded with loot from Cyprus. 57 B76 II-645, DGRBM 1-648, Dur 3-174
56 CAH 9, atl1, bk
c.56 M.(6) Porcius CATO defends legality of aedile Clodius' acts as tribune, including his own appointment in Cyprus. 56 atl1
c.56 M.(6) Porcius CATO declines an offer by senate to allow him to stand as candidate for praetor before normal time. 56 atl1
c.56 Aedile P. CLODIUS denounces M.(6) Porcius Cato's conduct in Cyprus. 56 atl1
56 May? M. Tullius CICERO proposes a motion to revise Caesar's Campanian Land Law 59.  Proposes that on May 25, the senate vote on voiding Caesar's laws. 56 B76 4-607, atl1, bk
56 M. Tullius CICERO persuades senate to pay Caesar's troops in Gaul. 56 Dur 3-174
56 POMPEY advises CICERO (via his bro Quintus) to abandon his motion about Campanian land. 56 atl1
56 M. Tullius CICERO tries to buy a property at Lavinium (Lanuvium) in Latium, because of expense of rebuilding his existing houses. 56 atl1
56 M. Tullius CICERO writes a speech for tribune L. Racilius, an opponent of P. Clodius. 56 atl1
c.56 Sculptor ARCESILAUS makes models and statues for L.(4) Licinius Lucullus. 56 atl1
c.56 Senate passes a decree to safeguard a loan given by M. Scaptius (debt-collector of M. Brutus) to town of Salamis in Cyprus. 56 atl1
56 Envoys from Issa, a town on an island off the coast of Illyria, meet Caesar at Aquileia. 56 atl1
56 Pleb tribune C. Porcius CATO attacks Pompey's Egyptian dealings, proposes to abrogate P. Lentulus Spinther. 56 OCD 215
56 Q. HOTRENSIUS Hortalus wants to marry a dau of M.(6) Porcius Cato - Porcia Catonis, who is already married to M. Calpurnius Bibulus, and had bore him 2 children.  M.(6) Porcius CATO refuses, but offers his own wife, Marcia, to Hortensius, on the condition that Marcia's father, L.(3) Marcius Philippus, approve.  Hortensius goes for it.  Philippus approves.  Hortensius marries Marcia, until Hortensius dies in 50. 57 DGRBM 1-648, 939, wikQHr
55 atl1
56 mid An attempt is made to have one or both of Caesar's Gallic provinces assigned to the consuls about to be elected.  Cicero defeats it with a speech in praise of Caesar. 56 CAH 9-394
56 mid Poet C. Valerius CATULUS, on staff of C.(4) Memmius in Bithyinia from 57, returns to Rome. 56 wikCtls
c.56 M. CAECILIUS RUFUS defended by Cicero. 56 DGRBM 3-671
56 M. Tullius CICERO writes  De Haruspicum Responso .  Rebuts religious objections to rebuilding of his house. 56 B76 4-610, atl1, wikCc
56 M. Tullius CICERO writes  De Provinciis Consularibus  about allocation of provinces for 55.  Supports 1st Triumvirate. 56 B76 4-608, 610, atl1, wikCc
c.56 P. VATINIUS, running for praetor, presents a gladiator show. 56 atl1
c.56 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS dies age 61.  Retired to his estate near Tusculum Latium in decadence and luxury, and mind-rotted from drugs. 57/6 wikLcl 56 atl1
56 M. Tullius CICERO writes  In Vatinum , cross examination of Vatinius. 56 B76 4-610, wikCc
c.56? Aedile P. CLODIUS PULCHER, now an enemy of Pompey, accepts optimates invitation to rejoin their services. no date Dur 3-174
c.56 L.(1) Cornelius BALBUS, a Spaniard with Roman citizenship, prosecuted for illegally assuming the rights of a Roman citizen, a charge equally directed against his friends the triumvirs.  He is defended by Pompey, Crassus, & Cicero, and acquitted. 56 B76 4-610, OCD 160, wikCc, wikL1Bl 55 DGRBM 1-456
c.56 Pompey and Crassus seek to be elected consuls, without formally declaring themselves candidates. 56 atl1
c.56 Senate votes to put on mourning clothes in protest of delays in holding elections. 56 atl1
56 late P.(6) Licinius CRASSUS Dives, legate of Caesar in Gaul, is sent by Caesar to Italy with troops and 1,000 Gallic cavalry to enforce election of Pompey and M.(2) Crassus. 56 DGRBM 1-879, LEWH 108, OCD 90, 295
56 ARISTOBULUS-II and his family are sent to Rome by A.(5) Gabinius, who recommends release of his kids, Jonathan Alexander, Matt Antigonus, and Alexandra.  The 3 kids are released by senate.  Aristobulus remains until 49. Wars 1:8:6 56 Jud 3-65
c. 56 T. LUCRETIUS Carus, Roman Epicurean, poet, philosopher, publishes  De Rerum Natura  "On the Nature of Things".  Begun 59.  An argument in 6 books.  Books 1 & 2 establish the main principles of an atomic universe, refutes theories of Anaxagoras, Heracleitus, Empedocles, and attacks the Stoics.  Book 3 demonstrates atomic structure and mortality of the soul.  "Death is nothing to us."  "The sum of all sums is eternity."  Book 4 describes the mechanics of sense perception, thought, some bodily functions, and condemns passion.  Book 5 describes cosmogony, cosmology, celestial mechanics, evolution of life and human society.  Book 6 explains physical phenomena, especially lightning & thunder. 58
MCAW 253 57 MNDQ 361, TTPC 56 SHWC
no date: B76 11-174
56 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, returns to Cisalpine Gaul until 55. 56 Dur 3-175, wik1Tr
c.56  Lex de Bonis Cedendis , securing; to debtors their personal liberty who gave up their property to creditors. 56 GHH
56 In consular ELECTIONS for 55, L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus is attacked by supporters of Pompey and M.(2) Crassus, and driven by force from Campus Martius.  He drops out of the election.  Elections are delayed until 55. 56 DGRBM 1-85, atl1
56 M. NONIUS SUFENAS is pleb tribune.  In conjunction with colleagues C. Porcius Cato and Procilius, prevents consular comitia from being held, in consequence of which an interregnum ensues and thus Pompey and Crassus are elected consuls. 56 DGRBM 3-931
55 Jan Consular elections for 55 are finally held. 56 CAH 9-397, DGRBM 3-486, 1234, atl1
55 CONSULS:  M.(3) LICINIUS CRASSUS DIVES (2nd) and Gn. POMPEIUS MAGNUS (2nd) due to much bribery 55 B76 14-794, 15-1105, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-876, LEWH 109, MCAW 252, atl1, bk, csm, ttpm, wikCon, wikMLC
55 early CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, returns to Gaul until ?, to prepare for war against Germans. 55 DGRBM 1-546
55 Λ CENSORS V patrician M.(4) Valerius MESSALA NIGER and pleb P.(1) Servilius VATIA Isauricus. 55 DGRBM 2-1050, 3-1233, OCD 674, 980, wikCns, wikPSV
55 Failing to get consulship, the aristocracy promote M.(6) Porcius Cato for praetor.  But Pompey and Crassus push to make P. Vatinius praetor.  They use bribery and force, defeat Cato, get Vatinius elected. 55 DGRBM 3-1234, atl1
55 Praetors include:
Optimate P. VATINIUS, elected by support of consuls.
55 DGRBM 3-1234, OCD 215, 1110, wikPV
Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO. 55 wikMS
T. Annius MILO. 55 B76 VI-901, OCD 687
55 Praetor C.(9) CLAUDIUS Pulcher becomes proconsul of Asia until 53 succeeding C. SEPTIMIUS, proconsul from 56. 55 DGRBM 1-770, wikLRGA
55 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, governor of Sardinia from 56, returns to Rome to run for consul.  Praetor M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS succeeds until 54. 55 B76 II-977, VIII-949, OCD 247, 958, DGRBM 3-737 53 DGRG 2-910
55 L.(1) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS PAULLUS is aedile.  He restores an ancient basilica in the middle of the forum, and begins a new one, Basilica Aemilia, of extraordinary size and splendor. 55 DGRBM 2-765, wikL1ALP
55 C. TREBONIUS is pleb tribune.  He gets Tribal Assembly and senate to pass  Lex Trebonia , authorizes 5 year proconsular terms for consul Pompey in Spain, and consul Crassus in Syria, and for Caesar in Gaul and Illyricum: 1 Jan. 53 to end of 49.  Also gives them recruiting power.  It is supported by L. Ninnius Quadratus and Favonius.  M.(6) Porcius Cato opposes by filibuster, prompting Trebonius to expel him from the Forum, then order him imprisoned.  But the large crowd which follows Cato causes Trebonius to order his release.  For his services Trebonius is made a legate of Caesar in Gaul until 50. 55 B76 14-794, CAH 9-605, CDCC 708, DGRBM 1-546, 2-138, 3-631, 1171, Jud 4-758, GHH, LEWH 109, OCD 189, 295, 1090, atl1, unrv, wikTrb
55 Helvius Mancia, in trial of L. Scribonius Libo before censors, criticises Pompey's earlier ruthlessness. 55 atl1
55 M.(6) Porcius CATO leaves the theater during Floralia to avoid seeing naked women on stage. 55 atl1
55 Consul M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS is accused by Plotius of an improper relationship with Vestal virgin Licinia. 55 atl1
55 Aristodemus of Nysa gives grammar lessons to sons of Pompey. 55 atl1
55 Splendid palaces of Roman nobles. Luxury, refinement, excesses, vice. 55 GHH
55 Poet P. VERGILIUS Maro (Virgil), studying at a school in Cremona from 58, moves to Mediolanum north of the Po. 55 atl1
55 L.(1) Caninius GALLUS is accused of ??? by M. Colonius and defended by Cicero, at the request of Pompey. 55 DGRBM 2-226
c.55 TEMPLE of CONCORD west of the Vulcanal, restored from 121, destroyed in Clodian riots until 51. no date DGRG 2-788
c.55 Consul Pompey is appointed to Spain, but resides at Rome until 51 and governs Spain thru legati.  He sends M. Petreius. 55 B76 14-794, CAH 9-605, CDCC 708, DGRBM 1-55, 3-213, 486, GHH, Jud 4-758, OCD 295, 858
54 CAH 9, rcIb
55 Consul M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS, proconsul of Syria 55-53, is authorized to make war on Parthia, an unpopular move.  Parthia had given no provocation. 55 CAH 9-605, Jud 4-758, GHH, OCD 295
55 C. Ateius CAPITO and Aquilius GALLUS become pleb tribunes and oppose consul Pompey & Crassus. 55 DGRBM 1-599
55 FAUSTA, dau of Sulla, wife of C.(4) Memmius from ?, divorced.  Remarries 54. 55 OCD 668
55 Consul Pompey passes a bill allowing a man to run for consul while absent from Rome.  Repealed 52. 55 Dur 3-180
55 Apr News of A.(5) Gabinius invasion of Egypt reaches Puteoli. 55 CAH 9-399
55 SEXTUS Pompeius marries SCRIBONIA, dau of L. Scribonius Libo. 55 wikLSL
55  Lex Pompeia de culleo  Abolishes drowning a condemned culprit in a leather sack (culleus). 55 EDRL 558
55 L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS, proconsul of Macedonia, and plundering it from 57, recalled to Rome.  Succeeded by Q. ANCHARIUS. 55 DGRBM 1-168, 3-372, wikLCPC
55 M. Tullius CICERO speaks in senate against attrocities of former proconsul of Macedonia, L.(7) Calpurnius Piso.  Delivers speech In Pisonem.  For this, Cicero loses friendship of Caesar. 55 B76 4-610, CAH 9-476, DGRBM 3-372, Dur 3-179, wikCc
c. 55 Theater of Pompey1st STONE THEATER in Rome, begun 61 on Campus Martius, completed and dedicated by Pompey.  Has 17,500 seats and a large porticoed park.  Pompey holds magnificent games in September to celebrate opening of his theater and dedication of temple of Venus Victrix (the afterthought on the lower right).  It remains Rome's only permanent theater until 13.  Destroyed 22CE. reconstruc. L.VII.C.

55 CAH 9-400, Dur 3-110, 133, DGRG 2-844, HRE 145, MCAW 253, OCD 858, iath, wikTP, ahe
52 OCD 200
55 ACCIUS'  Clytemnestra  is performed at the opening of Pompey's theater.   Equos Troianus  by either Livius Andronicus or Gn. Naevius is also performed. 55 CDCC 286, wikTP
55 Tragic actor CLODIUS AESOPUS is brought out of retirement to give his last performance at the dedication of Pompey's theater.  A friend of Cicero, and apparently a method actor who once got so far into the role of Artreus that he killed another actor on stage. 55 B76 I-115, wikTP
Curia of Pompey
reconstruction: Lasha Tskhondia L.VII.C.
55 Pompey's CURIA is the front (square) end of his theater.  Here Caesar will be assassinated 44.  While the theater complex will stand for centuries, the curia will be walled up after the assassination 55 B76 I-115, wikCP
55 mid News of Caesar crossing the Rhine reaches Rome. 55 CAH 9-400
55 P. Licinius CRASSUS, younger son of M.L.C. marries CORNELIA, dau of Q. Caecilius Metellus Scipio, until 53. 55 OCD 291
55 Tribune C. Ateius CAPITO opposes consuls Pompey & Crassus, denounces Crassus proposed invasion of Parthia as unprovoked aggression. 55 OCD 202
55 Cato sues for censorship.  Suit rejected. 55 GHH
55 Flourishing period of Roman literature. 55 GHH
55 fall Senate decrees 20 days of public thanksgiving (topping the 15 days in 57) for Caesar's victories in Gaul, despite opposition of M.(6) Porcius Cato. Caes:BGall_4.38'5
55 CAH 9-400, atl1
c.55 Oct T. LUCRETIUS Carus, Roman Epicurean, poet, philosopher, suicides.  Main focus: knowledge of nature.  Philosophy is basis of moral regeneration.  Expounded on Democritus and Epicurus. 55 B76 2-349, 6-912, DGRBM 2-828, EoΦ 99, GHH, OCD 622, SHWC, TToH, atl1, bk, wikLcr     55 or 51 Dur 3-146
53 BNTH     52 CAH 9
55  Lex Licinia Pompeia  by consuls Pompey and Crassus prolong Caesar's proconsulship in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul for another 5 years. 55 CAH 9-605, LEWH 109, OCD 189, unrv, wikLRL
55  Lex Licinia sodaliciis  against a special type of associations organized during the electoral period to support a candidate by unfair practices which are considered a form of ambitus (bribery). 55 EDRL 555, atl1
55 Consuls propose a law to curtail spending on luxury, but the law is successfully opposed by Q. Hortensius Hortalus. 55 atl1
55 M. Tullius CICERO writes treatise  De Oratore ad Quintum fratrem libri tres  On the Orator, 3 books on rhetoric for his bro Quintus. 55 atl1, wikCc
55 M. Tullius CICERO writes letter  ad Fam. v. 12  to historian L. LUCCEIUS, asking him to abandon his history of the Social and first Civil War, and to devote a separate work to the period from Catiline's conspiracy to Cicero's recall from banishment.  Cicero specifically asks for unrealistic flattery.  Lucceius promises compliance, but never does it. 55 DGRBM 2-809
55 Historian L. LUCCEIUS goes to Sardinia. 55 DGRBM 2-809
55 M. Tullius CICERO completes  De Oratore 1-3 . 55 B76 4-608, 610, TToH, bk
55 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of the orator, appointed legate of Caesar until 51. 55 DGRBM 1-746
55 POMPEY passes a law about selection of juries. 55 atl1
55  Lex Pompeia de Parricidiis  by Pompey further defines penalties for parricide.  Defines parricidium to assassination of parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, bros, uncles, a consort or fiance, and some other relatives. 55 unrv
55 or 52 EDRL 558
55  Lex Mamilia Roscia Peducaea Alliena Fabia , perhaps a follow-up to the agrarian law of 59, passed by 5 tribunes friendly to the triumvirs. 55 CAH 9-451
55 P.(6) Licinius CRASSUS Dives, legate of Caesar, defeats the Aquitani, returns to Italy. 55 rcLC
55 M.(6) Porcius CATO actively helps L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus campaign for consul. 55 DGRBM 1-648
c.55 T. Ampius BALBUS, consul 59, fails to be elected consul of 54, despite support of Pompey. 55 atl1
c.55 A.(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-4, is recalled by senate, but does not leave until M.(2) Crassus arrives to replace him. 55 DGRBM 2-194
c.55 Now that P-XII Auletes is restored to the Egyptian throne, his main creditor, money lender C. RABIRIUS Postumus, goes to Alexandria until 54. 55 DGRBM 3-512
c.55 TIMAGENES, Greek writer, historian, rhetorician, brought from Alexandria, to Rome by Gabinius, bought by Faustus, the son of Sulla. 55 OCD 1074, wikTm
no date: DGRBM 3-1131
55 fall CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, returns to Cisalpine Gaul until 54.  Senate tops its previous thanksgiving by declaring 20 day thanksgiving, despite opposition by M.(6) Porcius Cato. 55 DGRBM 1-546-7
55 Nov Consul M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS, proconsul of Syria 55-53, estimates his wealth at 7,100 talents, then musters an army despite opposition of tribunes. 55 atl1
55 Nov Consul M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS, proconsul of Syria 55-53 leaves Italy with his army from Brundisium for Syria via Asia.  Son Publius accompanies. 55 CAH 9-400, DGRBM 1-874, GHH, OCD 202, 295, atl1     54 atl1
55 Dec Elections held. 55 CAH 9-401
54 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER and L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS 54 B76 I-151, II-977, DGRBM 1-85, 770, OCD 247, 361, csm, wikCon, wikLDA
54 Gn.(7) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is praetor, and presides at trial of M. Coelius. 54 DGRBM 1-86
54 T. LIGARIUS is quaestor, and supports Caesar. 54 atl1
54 Fresh disputes arise between citizens of Reate and Interamna.  Reate appeals to Cicero as their patron.  Cicero pleads their cause before the arbiters appointed by the senate. On this occasion Cicero visits Reate in person, and inspects the lakes and channels of the Velinus. 54 DGRG 2-695
54 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO accuses C. Porcius CATO because of the disturbances Cato had caused in 56 as pleb tribune.  Cato is defended by C. Licinius Calvus and M.(2) Aemilius Scaurus.  As his illegal acts had been to elect Pompey and Crassus consuls, he is now supported by them, and acquitted. 54 DGRBM 3-437, GHH, wikGAP
54 M. CURTIUS POSTUMUS, on recommendation of Cicero, becomes military tribune under Caesar. 54 DGRBM 3-511
54 The TIBER overflows.  Censors Messala and Vatia try to regulate the flood. 54 DGRG 2-1198, wikPSV
54 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, prepares for improvements financed from Gallic booty:  begins the Saepta Julia, a marble enclosure for voting purposes on Campus Martius, and pays 100 million sesterces to buy the site for his Forum Julium, north of the old Forum, which like the Basilica Iulia facing the original Forum provides more space for lawcourts.  Dedicated 46. 54 CAH 9-453, atl1
54 CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, detours to Illyricum before returning to Gaul. 54 DGRBM 1-547
54 M.(6) Porcius CATO, anti-triumvir conservative, becomes praetor.  Cato and the Optimates try to force a break between Pompey and Caesar. 54 CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-649, OCD 215, wik1Tr, wikCY
54 Aug X-praetor P. VATINIUS charged with bribery by C. Licinius Calvus, defended by Cicero at request of Caesar, aquitted. 54 DGRBM 3-1234, OCD 235, 1110, atl1, wikPV
54 FAUSTA, dau of Sulla, divorcee of C.(4) Memmius 55, marries praetor T. Annius Milo until 48. 54
OCD 687
54 mid Gn. PLANCIUS and A. PLOTINUS (Plotius?) are elected curule aediles.  But before they take office M. Juventius Laterensis, and L. Cassius Longinus, accuse Plancius of bribing the tribes by means of illegal associations, in accordance with the Lex Licinia, which had been proposed by consul Licinius Crassus in 55.  Cicero defends Plancius and writes  Pro Plancio  54 B76 4-610, DGRBM 2-725, 802, 3-382, 428
c.54 Former tribunes M. Nonius Sufenas, C. Porcius Cato, and Procilius, are tried for violent conduct.  Procilius is condemned, but Sufenas and Cato skate thru influence of Pompey. 54 DGRBM 3-931
c.54 Cicero and Calvus defend Messius on a charge of bribery. 54 atl1
54 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS, praetor in Sardinia from 55, returns to Rome, plans to run for consul, but his competitors get P. Valerius Triarius and 3 others to accuse him of extortion.  Praetor M.(6) Porcius Cato presides.  Scaurus is defended by Cicero, Hortensius, M. Calidius, M' Acilius Glabrio, M. Claudius Marcellus, M. Perperna, L. Volcatics Tullus, and M.(4) Valerius Messalla.  He is almost unanymously acquitted Sep 2, despite obvious guilt. 54 B76 VIII-949, DGRBM 1-563, 2-272, 932, 1050, 3-202, 732, 737, 1172, 1190, atl1
no date OCD 958
c.54 Public opinion at Rome turns against Gabinius, and he is even blamed for a severe flood. 54 atl1
54 Cicero and Caesar reconciled. 54 GHH
54 Poet C. Valerius CATULUS is reconciled with Caesar. 54 atl1  
54 Poet C. Valerius CATULUS dies.  Wrote about personal life rather than classical heroes, mostly sensuous love poems.  Influenced Ovid, Horace, Virgil. 54 B76 3-1009, CDCC 173, TToH, bk, wikCtls
Flourishes 54. CAH 9, SHWC
c.54 C. POMPTINUS finally has triumph for victory over the Allobroges in 61. 54 atl1
c.54 "IRON RAIN" in Lucania is taken as an omen of disaster for Crassus' army. 54 atl1
54 Ag/Sp Dau of C.(4) Julius Caesar & Cornelia, JULIA dies.  Wife of Pompey from 59, dies giving birth to a girl who also dies a few days later.  Grandson C.(3) Octavius delivers funeral oration, getting the attention of Julius Caesar.  His mother Atia and stepfather L.(3) Marcius Philippus now raise him. 54 B76 3-578, 14-794, 15-1105, CAH 9, CDCC 708, DGRBM 1-547, 2-641, 3-486, LEWH 109, MCAW 254, OCD 566, atl1, bk, rtp, sjsu, ttjc, ttpm, vrm, wik1Tr, wikPm
52 wikELA
52/1 DGRBM 2-640, wikAg
54 Sep A.(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria from 57, returns to Italy.  Cavalry commander Mark Antony and writer Timagenes accompany.  Gabinius waits until Sep 28 and enters Rome by night to avoid insults.  10 days later he appears in Senate to account for his governorship.  Equites, who as tax collectors had suffered heavy losses during the disturbances in Syria, charge him on 3 capital offenses. 54 CAH 9-401, 604, DGRBM 2-194, Jud 4-758, OCD 235, atl1, rcS, wikAG, wikP12, wikRGS
54 Oct Aulus(5) GABINIUS accused by M.(2) Aemilius Scaurus of:
  1. maiestas (treason) for leaving his province for Egypt without consent of Senate.  Cicero, under pressure from Pompey to defend his old enemy Gabinius, refrains from prosecuting him, but gives evidence with moderation.  Gabinius is acquitted.
  2. repetundae (extortion), for taking 10,000 talents paid by Ptolemy-XII for his restoration.  Cicero yields to Pompey, and defends Gabinius.  Despite defense evidence offered by Pompey and witnesses from Alexandria, and the eloquence of Cicero, Gabinius is found guilty.
  3. ambitus (illegalities committed during canvass for consulship), is dropped.
    Gabinius goes into exile until 49, and his property confiscated.
54 CAH 9-401, DGRBM 2-733, GHH, atl1, wikAGb
54 Oct C.(5) MEMMIUS, son of C.(4), is pleb tribune.  He prosecutes A. Gabinius, consul 58, for malversation in Syria. 54 DGRBM 2-1027
54 Oct L. CAECILIUS RUFUS supports accusations against Gabinius. 54 DGRBM 3-671
54 FAUSTUS Cornelius Sulla is quaestor. 54 DGRBM 3-943
54 C. Alfius FLAVUS is praetor. 54 DGRBM 2-174
c.54 Mom of Julius Caesar, AURELIA dies. 54 DGRBM 1-436
54 P.(2) Servilius VATIA ISAURICUS is praetor.  He opposes C. Pomptinua's bid for a triumph. 54 DGRBM 3-1233
c.54 Servius(5) Sulipcius GALBA is urban praetor. 54 DGRBM 2-206
c.54 Dau of C.(2) Octavius & Atia Balba Caesonia, sis of Augustus, OCTAVIA Minor marries C.(2) Claudius Marcellus until 40. by 54 DGRBM 3-3 54 B76 VII-477
c.54 L.(2) GELLIUS PUBLICOLA (son of L.(1)) investigates accusations that his son has tried to murder him, but decides that he is innocent. 54 atl1
c.54 Money lender C. RABIRIUS Postumus, in Alexandria from 55, returns to Rome.  He is accused of repetundis (extortion), defended by M. Tullius CICERO, who writes  Pro Rabirio Postumo .  Outcome unknown. 54 B76 4-610, DGRBM 3-512, atl1, wikCc, wikP12
54 M. Tullius CICERO starts to write his philosophical dialogue about the Republic. 54 atl1
54 M. Tullius CICERO writes  Oratore Partitiones . 54 B76 4-610
54 Praetor M.(6) Porcius Cato tries to stop corruption in elections for new consuls. 54 atl1
54 Q.(4) POMPEIUS RUFUS accuses M. Messalla, because he had gained his election to consulship by bribery. 54 DGRBM 3-476
54 P. CLODIUS PULCHER prosecutes x-tribune of 56, PROCILLIUS, and colleagues, C. Cato and Nonius Sufenas, for violent acts including murder.  Cato and Nonius are acquitted, but Procillius is condemned. 54 DGRBM 1-774, 3-532
54 LIVIUS DRUSUS accused by Q. Lucretius of praevaricatio. 54 DGRBM 2-828
54 M.(5) ANTONIUS (Mark Antony), cav officer under A.(5) Gabinius from 57, thru influence of P. Clodius Pulcher, is assigned to Caesar's staff in Gaul until 53. 54 DGRBM 1-214, OCD 77, wikMA
54 Aulus HIRTIUS joins Caesar in Gaul until ?. 50 B76 V-61, OCD 520
54  Lex Caecilia De Censoria  repeals a law passed by tribune Clodius in 58, which had regulated the Censors. 54 wikLRL
54  Decretum de Tacito Iudicio  by praetor M.(6) Porcius Cato, persuades senate to decree that magistrates elect, in case they had no accuser, should freely come before a sworn court and submit accounts of their election (an attempt to purge election bribery and illegal canvassing of votes). 54 unrv
54 CONSULAR ELECTIONS are corrupted by much bribery and rigged by consuls Claudius & L.(3) Ahenobarbus to favor candidates L. Memmius & Gn. Domitius Calvinus.  Riots prevent elections until July 53. 54 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-585, GHH, OCD 107, 247
54 C.(4) MEMMIUS GEMELLUS, friend of Caesar, runs for consul, enters a huge bribery deal with the consuls and one of his competitors, then reveals the details of it, which ruins his chances. 54 CAH 9-401, OCD 668
54 late Praetor T. Annius MILO hosts expensive games, announces candidacy for consul of 52 against Hypsaeus & Metellus Scipio. 54 OCD 687
54 late CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, learns of dau Julia's death.  This does not immediately break ties between Pompey and Caesar (now in Britain or Gaul), who tries to get niece Octavia Minor to divorce husband C.(2) Claudius Marcellus, and marry Pompey.  Caesar also proposes that he marry Pompey's dau who is presently wife of Faustus Sulla. 54 DGRBM 1-547, wikGCMn, wikOcY
53 Jan There are no consuls in office, and only tribunes and pleb aediles among the other magistracies.  For the 1st time in 5 years there is no tale of conquest in Gaul. 53 CAH 9-403-4
53 Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO and M. Valerius MESSALA Niger are interreges (short term regents). 53 wikInt, wikMS
53 May 6 Battle of Carrhae (Haran):  A Parthian army decisively defeats a numerically superior Roman invasion force.  M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS is killed.

Italy 53-49
V