Italy
63/2 C.(4) Julius CAESAR proposes that Catullus, a prominent optimate, be relieved form restoring the capitol (burnt 83) including the temple of Jupiter, and that the job be given to Pompey.  The optimates strongly oppose.  Caesar drops the issue. 63/2 wik1Tr 62 DGRBM 1-542
62 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Decimus Junius SILANUS and L.(2) LICINIUS MURENA 62 DGRBM 3-820, 1223, OCD 488, 704, csm, wikCon, wikLLVM
62 Jan 1 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, still Pontifex Maximus, becomes praetor. 63 MCAW 250 62 B76 15-1105, CAH 9, CDCC 479, DGRBM 1-542, 656, Dur 3-110, 170, OCD 189, sjsu, vrm, wikJC
62 Jan 1 Cicero attacks tribune Q.(9) Caecilius Metellus Nepos in the senate.  2 days later Metellus replies, upbraiding him with his low origin, denouncing him as a tyrant for condemning Roman citizens to death unheard, and threatening him with impeachment.  Cicero publishes oration against him, entitled  Metellina . 62 DGRBM 2-1061
62 Jan L. Sergius CATILINE tries to cross Appenines into Cisalpine Gaul, but is blocked by Q.(8) Caecilius Metellus Celer, and turns back. 62 B76 II-644
62 Jan C.(1) ANTONIUS Hybrida, former associate of Catiline, marches from Rome to help praetor, Q.(8) Metellus Celer against Catiline in Etruria, but complains of gout, and leaves the fighting to his legate M. Petreius. 63 atl1, wikGAH 62 DGRBM 3-213, wikPtr       no date: OCD 77, 214
62 Jan L. Sergius CATILINE dies.  In Etruria with 3,000 men, trapped between Metellus Celer and M. Petreius, defeated, killed in battle near Pistoria Tuscia by Petreius, and beheaded.  His army is annihilated. 62 B76 II-644, CAH 9, Dur 3-144, GHH, MCAW 250, OCD 214, TToH, atl1, bk, wikBP
62 C.(1) ANTONIUS Hybrida, consul of 64, having been promised Macedonia, goes there as proconsul until 61. 63 CDCC 171
62 DGRBM 1-214, OCD 77, wikGAH
62 P. Servilius GLOBULUS, propraetor of Asia from 63, ends.  L.(9) Valerius FLACCUS is made praetor and succeeds until 61. 62 DGRBM 2-159, DGRG 1-787
62 C. PISO and Q. Lutatius CATULUS try by every means including bribery to induce Cicero to implicate C.(4) Julius Caesar in Catiline's conspiracy. 62 DGRBM 1-541, 656
62 DEMETRIUS of Gadara, freedman of Pompey buys property and gardens in Rome. 62 atl1
62 Praetor C.(2) COSCONIUS is made proconsul of Farther Spain. 62 DGRBM 1-863
62 Praetor, C.(4) Julius CAESAR prosecutes Q. Lutatius Catulus for embezzling public funds. 62 DGRBM 1-656, Dur 3-170, atl1
62 L.(2) Calpurnius BESTIA is pleb tribune. 62 DGRBM 1-486
c.62 Pleb tribune Q.(9) Caecilius Metellus Nepos openly accuses Cicero of executing citizens without trial.  Nepos is supported by Caesar, but vetoed by tribune M. Cato.  Nepos then tries to read the accusation to the people.  Cato tears it out of his hands.  Nepos and Cato fight.  Cato wins.  Riot ensues. 62 DGRBM 1-542, atl1
c.62 Pleb tribune Q.(9) Caecilius Metellus Nepos proposes  Rogatio Caecilia de Pompeia?  to recall Pompey and his legions to Italy to restore order, essentially granting Pompey dictatorial authority.  Nepos is opposed by M. Cato the Younger (pleb tribune but a staunch optimate) and Minucius Thermus.  Nepos arms some of his men.  The dispute comes close to violence.  Senate announces intent to remove Nepos from office but Cato opposes it. 63/2 wik1Tr, wikQ9MN, 62 DGRBM 1-542, atl1, unrv
62 ATILIA, wife of M.(6) Porcius CATO from 73, divorced.  Cato marries MARCIA. 62 atl1
62  Lex Licinia Junia  by consuls, orders that the official text of statutes be deposited in the state archive in the aerarium. 62 EDRL 556, atl1
62 Praetor C.(4) Julius CAESAR supports Pompey partisan Metellus Nepos, and moves to recall Pompey to deal with the emergency, for which his praetorship is suspended.  At first Caesar refuses to stand down, but he hears that some people are ready to coerce him by force, and so retires to his home.  The next day the people demonstrate in favor of his reinstatement. Caesar "restrains them."  The senate thanks him publicly, rescinds the decree and reinstates him. 62 DGRBM 1-542, OCD 189, atl1, wik1Tr
c.62 Q.(8) METELLUS CELER, governor of Cisalpine Gaul from 64, ends. 62 OCD 216
62  Lex Pompeia de Λ ambitu V  a severe statute gainst bribery at elections. 62 EDRL 558
c.62 Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS CRETICUS finally has his triumph for Crete (delayed from 66), but he is robbed of the chief ornaments of his triumph, Lasthenes and Panares, whom a pleb tribune compels him to surrender to Pompey. 62 DGRBM 2-1064, atl1
c.62 L.(3) Manlius Torquatus brings a 2nd accusation against P.(3) Cornelius Sulla whom he now charges with being a party to both of Catiline's conspiracies.  Sulla is defended by Q. Hortensius and Cicero, and aquitted. 62 CAH 9-363, DGRBM 3-1165
c.62 FLORENTIA "flourishing town" founded below the hilltop town of FAESULAE as a colony for Roman soldiers. 62 TToH, TTPC
62 M.(4) Valerius MESSALLA NIGER solicits Cicero to undertake defence of his kinsman, P. Sulla. 62 DGRBM 2-1050
62 A commission is set up to investigate Catiline's conspiracy.  Q. Lutatius Catulus tries to implicate C.(4) Julius Caesar and M.(3) Licinius Crassus in Catiline conspiracy.  Caesar denies it and accuses Catulus of embezzling public funds.  Conspirators L. Vettius and Q. Curius accuse Caesar of having known of the conspiracy.  Caesar calls Cicero to testify that Caesar had given Cicero evidence of the conspiracy.  Caesar is cleared.  L. Vettius and one of the commissioners are imprisoned. 62 B76 II-649, DGRBM 1-542, atl1, wikELJC
no date: B76 3-577
62 Q.(9) Caecilius Metellus Nepos sails to Asia Province to inform Pompey of the events, even though, as a pleb tribune, he has no right to be absent from Rome. 62 DGRBM 1-542, atl1, wik1Tr, wikQ9MN
62 Aulus Licinius ARCHIAS, Greek poet, charged with being an illegal citizen, defended by Cicero, who writes  Pro Archia Poeta . 62 B76 I-489, 4-610, wikCc
61 DGRBM 1-266
62 M.(6) Porcius CATO persuades senate to provide a grain dole, in order to win back support of the people. 62 atl1
62 M. Tullius CICERO writes  Pro Sulla . 62 B76 4-610, wikCc
62 M. Tullius CICERO buys a house on Palatine hill. 62 B76 4-607
62 P. Autronius PAETUS, enemy of Cicero, convicted of electoral corruption in consular election 66, goes into exile in Epirus. 62 OCD 155
62  Lex Caecilia De Vectigalibus  exempts lands and harbors in Italy from taxes. 62 wikLRL
62 Senate makes a province of Bithynia, makes provinces of Pompey's conquests: Cilicia 65, Syria 64, annexes Crete. 62 CAH 9-392
62 M. Calpurnius BIBULUS becomes praetor.  When Pompey and Caesar split, Bibulus defects to Pompey. 62 B76 II-3, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-487, wikBb
c.62 C. VIRGILIUS is praetor. 62 DGRBM 3-1263
c.62 M. Atius BALBUS, is made praetor, and sent to Sardinia until ??. 62 DGRBM 1-455
c.62 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of the orator, becomes praetor. 62 DGRBM 1-746
62 C. Papirius CARBO is praetor. 62 atl1
c.62 Patrician P. CLODIUS PULCHER marries FULVIA, dau of M. Fulvius Bambalio & Sempronia, heiress of the Sempronii Tuditani of Tusculum, until his death 52.  66/5 wikPCP     62 CAH 9-507, DGRBM 1-542, 771, MCAW 249, OCD 254, wikELJC, wikPCP
62  Lex Junia Licinia  by the consuls, order that official text of statutes be deposited in state archives. 62 OCD 704, unrv, wikLRL
62  Lex Maria et Porcia  by pleb tribunes M.(6) Porcius Cato Uticensis and L. Marius, penalizes commanders who falsify numbers killed in war (done in order to get triumphs). 62 DGRBM 2-960, EDRL 556, atl1, unrv
c.62. M.(1) Pupius PISO FRUGI Calpurnianus, legate of Pompey from ?, sent home to run for consul. 62 DGRBM 3-374
62 L. FABRICIUS is curator viarum. 62 DGRBM 2-132
Pons Fabricia engraving 1756:
{{PD-US}}
62 PONS FABRICIA, a stone bridge from northwest of the Servian wall to the Tiber island, built by L Fabricius.  (See 42) 62 DGRBM 2-132, atl1
c.62 Q.(8) METELLUS CELER is consul elect.  He prevents the celebration of the Compitalia, which a pleb tribune was preparing to celebrate in opposition to a senatus consultum.  Towards the end of the year he, M. Cato, and other aristocrats, resist demands of the publicani, who petitioned the senate to allow them to pay a smaller sum for farming of taxes in Asia than they had agreed to give. 62 DGRBM 2-1061
62 Dec BONA DEA, an all female cult of deity Bona Dea, holds annual festival at the Domus Publica (official house of the pontifex maximus).  This year that house belongs to Julius Caesar.  Men are excluded from the cult, and not permitted to speak or even know the goddess's name:  The euphemism "Good Goddess" is used. 62 wikPCP
62 Dec P. CLODIUS PULCHER, young patrician, disguised as a female musician, crashes the festival.  It is rumored that Pompeia, 3rd wife of Caesar, is the object of his affections. 62 CAH 9-507, DGRBM 1-542, 771, MCAW 249, OCD 254, atl1, wikELJC, wikPCP
62 Dec Q. CORNIFICIUS brings the Bona Dea scandal before the senate. 62 DGRBM 1-857
62 Dec POMPEY, the most powerful man in the world, away from Italy from 67, sails from Ephesus to Athens to Brundisium.  He could easily sieze power, but disbands his whole army, except for an escort, and awaits permission to enter Rome, in accordance with tradition. 62 B76 14-793, CAH 9-509, CDCC 708, DGRBM 1-542, 3-484, Dur 3-170, GHH, MCAW 250, OCD 858, SHWC, ahe, atl1, rtp, wik1Tr
62 Dec CRASSUS, fearing Pompey, moves his whole family out of Rome. 62 CAH 9-509
62 Dec MUCIA TERTIA, dau of Q. Mucius Scaevola, wife of Pompey from 62, divorced for alleged adultery. 62 DGRBM 2-1117, atl1, rtp
62 Dec Gn. POMPEY requests marriage for himself with one of M. Cato's nieces and for his son Gnaeus with her sister.  Cato, the senate conservative leader, refuses. 62 CAH 9-509, rtp, wik1Tr
62 Dec POMPEY requests a delay in elections for new consuls, but is opposed by M.(6) Porcius Cato. 62 atl1
62 Dec POMPEY wants the senate to ratify the acts of the settlements he had made with the kings and cities in the east en bloc.  Pompey is opposed by optimates led by L.(4) Licinius Lucullus, who think he should have been allowed to continue the Pontic war and win it.  Lucullus, supported by Cato the Younger and Crassus, wins in the senate. 62 wik1Tr
62 Dec POMPEY gives 200,000,000 sesterces to the aerarium (treasury), 550,000,000 to the annual revenue, 384,000,000 to troops, and keeps enough for himself to be 2nd only to Crassus. 62 Dur 3-170, CAH 9-509
62 Dec Senate grants Pompey a triumph, but won't recognize his deeds done without their consent, inlcuding his deals with eastern rulers, stalls on his request for land grants to veterans. 62 CAH 9-510, bk, wik1Tr
62/1 Q. Pompeius RUFUS becomes proconsul of Africa until 60/59M. Caelius accompanies to learn how to administer a province, and to look after his father's property. 62 rcNA, wikAf
61 DGRBM 3-476, 671, atl1
62/1 Senate, for appearance sake, makes a big deal of the prosecution of P. Clodius Pulcher until May. 62/1 61 DGRBM 1-771
no date: Dur 3-110, CAH 9-507
61 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M.(4) Valerius MESSALLA NIGER and Pompey partisan M.(1) Pupius PISO FRUGI CALPURNIANUS 61 DGRBM 2-1050, 3-374, OCD 674, 836, csm, wikCon
61 early C.(1) ANTONIUS Hybrida, proconsul of Macedonia from 62, having plundered it shamelessly, is recalled by the senate and replaced by C. Octavius. 61 DGRBM 1-214, OCD 77
60 wikGAH
61 M. Tullius CICERO and Clodius argue in senate.  Cicero writes speech against Clodius and Curio. 61 atl1
61 M. Tullius CICERO speaks in senate on behalf of tax collectors in Asia. 61 atl1
61 POMPEY'S TRIUMPH is the biggest yet.  It takes 2 days.  Inscriptions are carried in front naming nations he defeated: Armenia, Pontus, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Cilicia, Media, Colchis, Caucasian Iberia, Caucasian Albania, Syria, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Judea, and Nabataea).  He claims that 900 cities, 1,000 strongholds. 800 pirate ships and 1,000 pirates were captured and 39 cities founded.  Captives include leaders of the pirates, son of Tigranes the Great with his wife and dau, a wife of Tigranes the Great, a sis and 5 kids of Mith-VI, Aristobulus-II, king of Commagene and Albanian and Iberian hostages.  Pompey himself rides a chariot studded with gems, wearing what passed for "the cloak of Alexander the Great". 61 atl1, wikPm
61 Λ CENSORS V an unknown patrician and pleb C.(3) SCRIBONIUS CURIO.  They increase the number of senators. 61 wikCns
61 L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is curule aedile, exhibits 100 Numidian lions (and/or bears), continues his games so long that people leave the circus before it's over to get food.  A first. 61 DGRBM 1-85, atl1, wikLDA
c.61 C.(2) OCTAVIUS becomes praetor.  He is father of Octavian. 61 OCD 746, atl1, wikELA
61 T. POMPONIUS ATTICUS declines an offer to go to Asia with Q. Cicero. 61 atl1
c.61 POMPEY, to get M.(6) porcius CATO to quit blocking him, proposes to Cato that Pompey marry Cato's elder niece, and Pompey's son marry the younger niece.  Cato refuses, and tells Pompey to behave justly, and they can be friends. 61 atl1
c.61 P. SEXTILIUS is quaestor. 61 DGRBM 3-810
c.61 M. Aufidius LURCO is pleb tribune.  . 61 DGRBM 2-841
c.61 Q. Fufius CALDUS is pleb tribune.  He patronizes P. Clodius Pulcher. 61 DGRBM 1-562
c.61 C. VIRGILIUS becomes propraetor of Sicily until ??. 61 DGRBM 3-1263, OCD 254
c.61 Metellus Celer prevents re-introduction of Ludi Compitalicii, which was suppressed in 64. 61 atl1
c.61 POMPEY wants to build a stone amphitheater like the one he saw at Mytilene in 62.  Law forbids building a permanent theater within the walls of Rome, so he decides to build it on Campus Martius.  Further legal complications force him to add a temple.  He ends up selling it to the senate as a temple to Venus Victrix with a theater attached.  Finished 55. 61 iath, wikTP
c.61 POMPEY'S THEATER begun on Campus Martius until 55.  Able to accommodate 40,000. 61 GHH, rtp, wikTP
c.61 L.(5) Julius CAESAR is appointed censor, probably with C. Scribonius Curio Burbulieus. 61 wikL5JC
c.61 M. CURIUS, friend of Cicero, made urban quaestor. 61 DGRBM 1-902
61 Praetor C.(4) Julius CAESAR made gov of Farther Spain.  But before he is allowed to leave Rome his debtors demand that M.(3) Licinius Crassus, guarantee a quarter of his debts totaling 25,000,000 sesterces.  He gets much financial backing from Crassus, and leaves in June. 61 B76 3-577, CAH 9-512, DGRBM 1-542, 876, Dur 3-110, 129, IDB 1-478, MCAW 250, OCD 189, sjsu, ttjc, vrm, wikELJC, wikJC
61 May POMPEIA, dau of Pompeius Rufus, 3rd wife of C.(4) Julius Caesar from 67, divorced on a rumor that she was the object of P. Clodius affections in the Bona Dea scandal of 62. 62 CDCC 479, ttjc, vrm 61 CAH 9-508, DGRBM 3-473, wikJC
61 May P. CLODIUS PULCHER tried for sacrilege in the Bona Dea scandal 62.  He is defended by consul Piso.  L.(12) Cornelius Lentulus Crus is main accuser.  Others include Cato, M. Favonius, C. Fannius, Gn. Cornelius Lentullus Marcellinus.  Cicero produces damning evidence.  Caesar's mom Aurelia and sis testify against Clodius.  Caesar tries to help Clodius by claiming that he knew nothing.  When asked why, if he knew nothing, Caesar had divorced his wife, Caesar says that his wife must be above suspicion, which considering Caesar's known womanizing, is pure chutzpah.  M.(2) Crassus bribes his accuser and judge Juventius Thalna.  Clodius is acquitted by a vote of 31 to 25.  Enmity begins between Clodius and Cicero. 61 B76 VI-146, 4-607, CDCC 199, DGRBM 2-136, 138, 732, 935, 3-1020, GHH, atl1
c.61 P. CLODIUS PULCHER made quaestor under C. Virgilius, and sent to Sicily until 60. 61 OCD 254, wikPCP
c.61 DIVITIACUS (Diviciacus), leader of the pro-Roman party of Aedui, goes to Rome to appeal for aid against the Sequani and AriovistusSenate confirms alliance with the Aedui. 61 CAH 9, Dur 3-174, OCD 357, atl1
c.61 Q. Fufius CALENUS becomes pleb tribune.  He helps get acquittal of P. Clodius. 61 wikQFC
c.61 Jun C.(4) Julius CAESAR finally leaves for Farther Spain until 60.  Spaniard L.(1) Cornelius Balbus accompanies as prefect. 61 DGRBM 1-456, atl1
c.61 Senate authorizes C. POMPTINUS proconsul of Transalpine Gaul to help the Aedui, but to consider Ariovistus friendly. no date: Dur 3-174
c.61 CLODIA, wife of L.(4) Licinius Lucullus, divorced and prosecuted by Lucullus for adultery with her bro P. Clodius. 61 DGRBM 1-762
c.61 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., becomes proconsul of Asia until 58, succeeding propraetor L.(9) Valerius FLACCUS, who returns. 61 OCD 239
c.61 A.(5) GABINIUS, Pompey's legate in Syria from 63, sails back to Italy to join Pompey.  Returns 57.
L.(3) Marcius PHILIPPUS succeeds as governor of Syria until 59.
61 OCD 817, atl1
c.61 A.(5) GABINIUS becomes praetor.  He tries to win public favor by providing great games. 61 DGRBM 2-193, wikAGb
c.61  Lex Aufidia de Λ ambitu V  by tribune Aufidia, proposes to punish a briber, only if he carried thru a bribe, rather than just suggesting it.  Fails. 61 unrv, wikLRL
61 Sep 28 + 30 Pompey has 2 triumphs, as conqueror of 15 kingdoms and 400 cities.  (He claims 1,538 cities & forts including 12,178,000 people.)
Sep 28:  Aristobulus-II and family, and other Jews are led captive thru streets of Rome.  After his triumphs, Pompey spares his prisoners, enslaves some and dismisses others to their respective states, except Aristobulus-II of Judea and Tigranes of Armenia.  Some Jews are enslaved, and some added to the Jewish community already there.
61 CAH 9-395, 511, DGRBM 3-484, Dur 3-110, GHH, IDB 2-534, ISBE 2-625
61/0 Q. Lutatius CATULUS, sometimes called "Capitolinus", dies. 61 atl1, wikQLCt 61/0 B76 II-648, 60 DGRBM 1-656
60 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Pompey's nominees L. AFRANIUS and Q.(8) Caecilius METELLUS CELER 60 B76 VI-835, DGRBM 1-55, 2-1060, OCD 22, 678, atl1, csm, wikCon, wikLA, wikQCMC
60 Jan Consul Q.(8) Caecilius METELLUS CELER turns against Pompey, who had divorced his sister. 60 B76 VI-835
60 Jan L.(2) FLAVIUS is pleb tribune.  Pressed by Pompey, he proposes  Rogatio Flavia Agraria  which distributes lands among Pompey's veterans.  It includes land that had been forfeited but not allotted by Sulla when he distributed land to settle his veterans in 80 and holdings in Arretium and Volaterrae, both in Etruria.  Consul Caecilius Metellus Celer opposes it, and is imprisoned by tribune Flavius.  M. Porcius Cato opposes it.  Optimates in senate led by L.(4) Licinius Lucullus also oppose it.  Cicero redrafts it more conservatively.  Senate kills it just to thwart Pompey.  Failure of this proposal will be remedied in the Leges Juliae 59. 60 CAH 9-511, DGRBM 1-543, 2-173, 1061, atl1, unrv, wik1Tr, wikQCMC
c.60 Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS is praetor. 60 OCD 678, wikQ9MN
c.60 L.(3) Marcius PHILIPPUS is praetor. 60 DGRBM 3-287
c.60 C. MEMMIUS GEMELLUS becomes curule aedile. 60 DGRBM 2-1027
c.60 C.(2) OCTAVIUS is appointed propraetor of Macedonia until 58.  He goes to Thurii, and wipes out a group of runaway slaves, then sails for Macedonia. 60 atl1, wikELA
c.60  Lex Metella  by praetor Q.(9) Metellus Nepos, cancels taxes on imports.  The senate, hating Nepos, tries unsuccessfully to call the law by the name of some other person. 60 DGRBM 2-1062, unrv, wikQ9MN
c.60 P. CLODIUS PULCHER, quaestor in Sicily from 61, returns to Rome.  He is a patrician but wants to be a pleb tribune, so he tries to get patricians admitted to the office of tribune.  This fails. 60 OCD 254, atl1, wikPCP
c.60 P. CLODIUS PULCHER requests transfer from patrician to plebian tribe in order to be a pleb tribune. 60 OCD 254, atl1, wikPCP
c.60 C. TREBONIUS is quaestor.  He tries to prevent adoption of P. Clodius into a pleb family, contrary to the wish of the triumvirs. 60 B76 X-105, DGRBM 3-1171, OCD 1090, wikTrb
c.60 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER is praetor. 60 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-730, wikPCLS
c.60 P. CLODIUS PULCHER brings an unknown accusation against priests and priestesses, including Fabia, sis of Cicero's wife Terentia.  M.(6) Porcius CATO opposes Clodius successfully. 60 atl1
c.60 An AWNING is 1st drawn over a stadium at the Apollinarian games.  Its scenes are ornamented with silver. 60 DGRBM 2-730
c.60 Metellus SCIPIO NASICA is tried probably for bribery, and defended by Cicero. 60 DGRBM 2-138
60 Diodorus Siculus' history ends here.
C. Asinius Pollio's history commences.
60 CDCC 276, GHH
c.60 DIODOTUS dies.  Stoic philosopher, blind from ?, teacher of Cicero, dies in Cicero's house, leaving Cicero 100,000 sesterces. 60 B76 4-609
59 DGRBM 1-1019
c.60 C. Valerius CATULLUS publishes  Love Poems to Lesbia . 60 MCAW 253
c.60 DIODORUS SICULUS visits Egypt. 60 CDCC 276
c.60 RUMOR reaches Rome of a possible Helveti migration into Gaul. 60 DGRG 1-956
c.60 Gn. Cornelius Lentulus CLODIANUS, Q.(7) METELLUS CRETICUS and L.(9) Valerius FLACCUS sent to Gaul to check on a possible uprising caused by Helveti migration into Gaul. 60 DGRBM 2-732, 1064
60 mid C.(4) Julius CAESAR, praetor and gov of Farther Spain from 61, returns to Rome rich and with qualifications for a triumph. 60 B76 3-577, CAH 9-512, DGRBM 1-542, MCAW 252, bk, rcIb, vrm, wik1Tr, wikELJC
c.60 M.(6) Porcius CATO tries to obstruct syndicate tax contractors seeking to collect taxes in Asia province.  The syndicate's winning bid is far greater than the syndicate is able to recoup thru tax collection.  Since the bid is paid in advance, they ask the Senate to renegotiate and thus refund a fraction of the bid. 60 wikCY
c.60 Optimates know Caesar will run for consul.  But laws forbid running for consul outside of Rome and forbid entering Rome with an army.  Caesar asks senate for permission to stand for consul in absentia, but M.(6) Porcius Cato blocks the proposal.  Senate grants Caesar a triumph on the day after elections.  Caesar disbands army, enters Rome, and campaigns for consul against L. Lucceius and M. Calpurnius Bibulus. 60 B76 15-1105, DGRBM 1-542, Dur 3-170, atl1, wikELJC, wikJC
c.60 Senate nominates and supports an optimate and enemy of Caesar, M. Calpurnius Bibulus for consul. 60 CAH 9-513, DGRBM 1-543, SHWC
c.60 Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO is elected pleb tribune, but charged with bribery by M. Favonius, and defended by Cicero. 60 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1062
c.60 ANIMATION:  T. Lucretius Carus demonstrates the illusion of motion by a series of frames. 60 TTT
c.60 NEWSPAPER invented by Julius Caesar, who writes relevant news items and posts them in conspicuous places. 60 TTT
60 Diodorus  Historical Library  ends here.
Asinius Pollio picks it up with his history of Roman civil wars.
60 atl1
c.60 Grammarians M. Antonius Gnipho and M. Pompilius Andronicus teach students at Rome and Cumae. 60 atl1
c.60 Faustus Sulla pampers the plebs with baths, free oil, games, and banquets. 60 CAH 10-792
60 Sep 29 POMPEY has a triumph.  60 ttpm
c.60 Import duties abolished by a law of Metellus Nepos.  60 atl1
c.60 Faustus Sulla presents a lavish gladiator show in memory of his father.  60 atl1
60 Nov? Pompey and Crassus had been at odds since they were consuls together in 70.  If Caesar allies with one he will lose the other, so he tries to reconcile them. 60 wikMCJC
c.60 Dec POMPEY and CAESAR make secret alliance against the senate.  Caesar then invites M.(3) Crassus in.  1st TRIUMVIRATE begins.  Pompey & Crassus help Caesar win consulship despite heavy Optimate opposition led by M.(6) Porcius Cato. 61 B76 14-794
60 CAH 9-513, GHH, MCAW 252, SHWC, ahe, atl1, bk, rtp, ttjc, ttpm, vrm, wikMLC
59 CDCC 242, IDB 1-478, wikTAR
60 Dec? 3 candidates stand for consulship of 59: Caesar, M. Calpurnius Bibulus, who had been aedile with Caesar several years earlier, and populare L. Lucceius.  The election is dirty with bribes.  Caesar solicits Cicero for support, and allies with the wealthy Lucceius, but the establishment backs conservative Bibulus.  Even pious Cato resorts to bribery in his favor. 60 atl1, wikMCJC
60 Dec Senate, expecting Caesar to be consul for 59, votes to assign the consuls of 59 proconsulship in territory called "forests and cattle drifts", a civilian office fit for a quaestor. 60 B76 3-577, CAH 9-513, DGRBM 1-543, SHWC
60 Dec CICERO, rebuffed by the senate, is invited by Caesar to join his mutual assistance club with Pompey and Crassus.  Cicero doesn't trust Caesar, vascillates, then declines. 60 B76 4-607, CAH 9-367, 514, SHWC, ttpm, wikCc
60/59 T. LABIENUS is praetor. 60 or 59 wikTLb
59 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(4) Julius CAESAR and anti-Caesarian M. CALPURNIUS BIBULUS 59 B76 II-3, DGRBM 1-543, MCAW 252, csm, ttjc, wikBb, wikCon
59 Jan Consul C. Julius CAESAR proposes:
1.  Land-grants to poor people with 3 kids and Pompey's vets.
2.  Ratify Pompey's deals in the east.
3.  Cut publicans' taxes by ⅓
Senate rejects all proposals.  Caesar then proposes them directly to the Tribal Assembly.  Consul Bibulus declares omens unfavorable to void the new law.  Tribune Gn. Calvinus supports Bibulus.  Caesar persuades Assembly to impeach Bibulus, who is driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters.  Bibulus' bodyguards have their ceremonial axes broken.  Bibulus has a bucket of shit thrown on him.  In fear of his life, Bibulus retires to his house and does nothing for 8 months, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens.  Assembly passes Caesar's 3 bills.
59 B76 14-794, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-543, DUR 3-171, OCD 197, SHWC, atl1, rtp
59 Jan Senators, including Cato, are forced to swear to abide by terms of Caesar's law. 59 atl1
59 Jan Consul C. Julius CAESAR passes a bill that requires all proceedings in the Senate, called ACTA SENATA, to be recorded and published daily.   See 2BCE. 59 DGRBM 1-543, atl1, ttjc
c.59 CAESAR curbs opposition from L.(4) Licinius Lucullus by threatening him with prosecution. 59 atl1
c.59 Consul C. Julius CAESAR grants a rebate to contractors for tax-collecting in Asia. 59 atl1
c.59 Consulship of 59 has cost Caesar massive debt. 59 wikGW
c.59 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS is pleb tribune.  He supports consul Bibulus against Caesar. 59 DGRBM 1-584
c.59 C. FANNIUS is pleb tribune.  He opposes Lex Agraria of Caesar. 59 DGRBM 2-136
c.59 C. Alfius FLAVUS is pleb tribune.  He supports Caesar. 59 DGRBM 2-174
c.59 Q.(10) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO is listed as a pleb tribune, but he is a patrician. 59 DGRBM 2-1062, wikMS
c.59 P. VATINIUS is pleb tribune.  He sells his services to Caesar. 59 DGRBM 3-1234, atl1, , wikPV
c.59 M. Tullius CICERO advises Pompey to curtail his support for Caesar.  Pompey ignores him. 59 atl1
c.59 M.(5) ANTONIUS (Mark Antony) runs thru 250 talents on fast times.  His friend C.(4) Scribonius Curio agreed to cosign for him.  Curio's father learns of it and boots Antony out of his house. 59 atl1
c.59 Brithagoras of Heraclea Pontica goes to visit Caesar, in effort to restore liberty of Heraclea. 59 atl1
c.59 Consul C. Julius CAESAR steals 3,000 pounds of gold from Capitol at Rome. 59 atl1
c.59 Q.(8) Caecilius Metellus Celer blocks further attempts to transfer Clodius to a pleb tribe. 59 DGRBM 3-1234
59 P. CLODIUS PULCHER runs for pleb tribune and fails due to opposition by Metellus Celer, who asserts that a change to a plebe tribe could only be made after a lex curiata. 60 atl1
59 Mar?  Lex Curiata de adoptione  passed in the curiata, allows a patrician to be adopted into a pleb family.  P. Clodius will use this to be elected tribune. 59 unrv, wikLRL
59 Mar Young patrician P. CLODIUS PULCHER is at his own request transferred to a pleb tribe in order to run for pleb tribune 58.  Caesar presides over the comitia curiata which affects it.  Clodius is adopted by pleb P. Fonteius, who is much younger than him.  Rather than add the cognomen of his adopter, he changes his patrician name Claudius to its plebean version Clodius. 59 B76 II-1004, OCD 254, atl1, wikPCP
59 Triumvirs cajole voters with ammusements, promise to support P. Clodius Pulcher for pleb tribune in fall. 59 Dur 3-171
59 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER, with help of Caesar, is made propraetor of Nearer Spain until 58. 59 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-730, wikPCLS
c.59 Q. Fufius CALENUS, with help of Caesar, is made praetor. 59 DGRBM 1-562, wikQFC
c.59 Praetor Q. Fufius CALENUS, a tool of Caesar, carries a law that each of the 3 classes of judges (senators, equites, tribuni serarii) vote separately so as to determine which way each voted. 59 DGRBM 1-562, atl1, wikQFC
59 Apr  Lex Julia agraria , Caesar's CAMPANIAN LAND LAW, assigns state owned land in Campania to poor citizens with 3 kids, passed by Tribal Assembly.  Those opposed to it include Q. Ancharius and M.(6) Porcius CATO who is briefly imprisoned (details contradictory). 59 CAH 9-451, CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-168, Dur 3-171, EDRL 553, MCAW 253, OCD 215, atl1, ttjc
c.59 20 COMMISSIONERS appointed by Caesar to execute his Lex Julia Agraria dividing public land in Capua and Campania.  They include: M. Atius Balbus, Gn. Tremellius Scrofa, M. T. Varro Reatinus, C.(2) Cosconius who dies this year.  His place is offered by Caesar to Cicero to draw him away from attack by Clodius.  Cicero declines. 59 DGRBM 1-455, 863, 3-758, atl1, wikMTV
c.59 CAMPANIA, state owned Capuan land, rented out from 194, distributed to 20,000 colonists. 59 OCD 204
c.59 M. PETREIUS offers to go to prison with M.(6) Porcius CATO, and allies with him. 59 DGRBM 3-213, wikPtr
c.59 A. MINUCIUS THERMUS is twice defended by Cicero, acquitted both times. 59 DGRBM 3-1097
c.59 L. AFRANIUS is sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 59 DGRBM 1-55
59 Ap/My POMPEY marries 4th wife JULIA, only child of C.(4) Julius Caesar & Cornelia, until her death in 54.  Julia had already been betrothed to Servilius Caepio.  Pompey's dau POMPEIA is now betrothed to Servilius Caepio, but never marries him. 59 B76 3-577, CAH 9-514, CDCC 479, DGRBM 1-543, 2-640, 3-473, MCAW 252, OCD 566, 858, atl1, rtp, ttjc, ttpm, wikCCW
59 Tribune P. VATINIUS sponsors  Lex Vatinia de Colonia Comum Deducenda  granting Caesar Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria with 3 legions for 5 years instead of the traditional 2.  It grants citizenship to Comum in Cisalpine Gaul and sends colonists.  It also confirms Pompey's conquests.  Bibulus tries again to block it by saying that no public business could be conducted while he observed the sky for omens.  Triumvirate uses influence to get them passed. 59 B76 14-794, CAH 9-519, DGRBM 1-543, 3-1234, GHH, OCD 277, 605, 1110, atl1, unrv, wikBb, wikPV
59 C.(1) ANTONIUS HYBRIDA is accused of repetundae (extortion) by L. Caninius Gallus and Q. Fabius Maximus, tried for plundering Macedonia, and helping Catiline, prosecuted by Caesar and Crassus.  M. Caelius Rufus is judge.  Defended by Cicero.  He is convicted and exiled to a place of his choosing.  Hybrida goes to Cephallenia island west of Greece, which he runs as if it were his own until 47. 59 B76 II-432, DGRBM 1-214, 2-226, OCD 77, 188, atl1, wikGAH, wikMCR
c.59 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS, son of M.(6) Junius Brutus and Servilia Caepionis, is adopted by uncle Q.(4) Servilius Caepio. 59 wikMJB
c.59 Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS MARCELLINUS is praetor.  He presides at trial of C.(1) Antonius. 59 DGRBM 2-935
c.59 C.(3) COSCONIUS is pleb tribune. 59 DGRBM 1-863
c.59 Aediles C. Murena and C. Visellius Varro import Spartan paintings to display in Rome. 59 OCD 277
c.59 COMUM in Cisalpine Gaul, under Rome from 196, colonized by Romans 89, receives more colonists installed by Caesar. 59 OCD 277, atl1
59 At instigation of P. Vatinius, Pleb L. VETTIUS runs to the forum with a drawn dagger to kill Pompey, and possibly Caesar.  He is arrested and questioned at the senate house.  He says he had been sent by Consul M. Calpurnius Bibulus, Cicero, and Cato, and that the dagger was given to him by one of the bodyguards of Bibulus.  Vettius invents a bogus conspiracy against Pompey.  He accuses L.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus, C.(3) Scribonius Curio, Cicero, L. Lucullus, C.(4) Calpurnius Piso Frugi, L.(1) Aemilius Lepidus Paulus, and many other distinguished men, of being part of it.  Bibulus says he had warned Pompey of the possibility of an assassination attempt on May 13. 59 B76 III-302, DGRBM 1-85, 3-373, 1250, wikBb, wikLDA
no date: wik1Tr
59 Jul At a stage perdormance at the Ludi Apolloinares, tragic actor Diphilus verbally attacks Pompey without mentioning him by name.  The audience has him repeat it several times. 59 CAH 10-805
59 Consul M. Calpurnius BIBULUS stops attending Senate meetings until end of 59, leaving Caesar in complete control. 59 wikBb
59 Jul Consul M. Calpurnius BIBULUS directs that consular elections for 58 are to be postponed until October 18. 59 wikBb
c.59 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS is mentioned among the judges at the trial of L.(9) Valerius Flaccus.  L.(4) dies 58-56.  M. Aufidius Lurco and L.(2) Oppius are defense witnesses.  Cicero defends. 59 DGRBM 2-836, 841, 3-39
c.59 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS Pulcher becomes augur. 59 DGRBM 1-770
c.59 L.(1) AEMILIUS LEPIDUS PAULUS is quaestor under C.(2) Octavius, propraetor of Macedonia. 59 DGRBM 2-765, wikL1ALP
c.59 M. CAECILIUS RUFUS accuses C. Antonius, Cicero's colleague in consulship, of having been one of Catiline's conspirators.  Notwithstanding Cicero speaks in his behalf, Antonius is condemned. 59 DGRBM 3-671
59 Jul? Q.(8) METELLUS CELER dies.  Designated proconsul of Transalpine Gaul, opposes agrarian law of Caesar, and dies suddenly before going to his province.  Widow Clodia Pulchra is suspected of poison.  Pompey gets Transalpine Gaul transferred to Caesar, now giving him command of 4 legions. 59 B76 3-577, 1009, CAH 9-519, CDCC 211, DGRBM 2-1061, OCD 216, 254, 678, atl1, hwGW, wikQCMC, wikRGG
c.59  Lex Fufia Judiciaria  by praetor Q. Fufius Calenus, "finding that the votes of all were hopelessly confused, at least in party contests, since each of the orders attributed the good measures to itself and referred the preposterous ones to the others, proposed that each order should cast its vote separately.  His [Calenus] purpose was that even if their individual opinions could not be revealed, by reason of their taking this vote secretly, yet it might become clear how the orders, at least, felt." Cass Dio 38.8
59 unrv
59  Leges Juliae  by consul Caesar with support of fellow triumvirs Pompey and Crassus. 59 MCAW 253, unrv
 Agraria Campana  distributes public land in Campania to plebes with 3 or more kids.  Opposed by L. Gellius Publicola, C. Fannius.  Passed illegally thru the comitia tribunata without senatorial approval per Leges Corneliae of Sulla.  Benefits more than 20,000 families. 59 DGRBM 3-601, DGRG 1-512, HRL 233, atl1
 de Actis Gn. Pompei Confirmandis  ratifies eastern provincial and client kingdom arrangements of Pompey, including settlement of his veterans.  Vetoed by all 3 pleb tribunes.  Caesar then employs some Pompey veterans to riot.  Passes. 59 B76 3-577, DGRBM 1-543
 de Publicanis  reduces debt owed by the public to the treasury. 59 unrv
59  Lex Julia de Repetundis  passed by Caesar to prevent extortion in the provinces. 59 B76 3-577, atl1, unrv, wikLRL
59  Lex Julia Repetundarum  covers any act of bribery in which a person exercising a public office is involved, judges and arbitrators included.  The generalization is so broad that any misdemeanor or violation by a public functionary might fall under the law. 59 EDRL 555
c.59  Lex Vatinia de Alternis Conciliis Reiciendis  proposed to allow each party to reject judges alternately. 59 unrv
c.59 T. Ampius BALBUS becomes praetor. 59 DGRBM 1-455
c.59 Praetor Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS MARCELLINUS becomes governor of Syria until 58. 58 DGRBM 2-935
c.59 L.(9) VALERIUS FLACCUS, former proconsl of Asia, accused by D. Laelius of taking 100 lbs. of gold in 62 gathered by Jews of Apamea Phrygia for the Jerusalem temple.  Praetor T. Vettius presides.  Flaccus is defended by Q. Hortensius and Cicero, who in  Pro Flacco  criticises:
1.  Judaism as barbaric superstition
2.  Roman Jews for intimidating the jury and being too influential in public assemblies
3.  A.(5) Gabinius for farming out tax gathering to Jews and Syrians, "races born to be slaves".
59 B76 4-610, DGRBM 2-159, 3-1250, Jud 5-560, 6-11, 967, 14-240, wikCc
c.59 CAPUA, Roman colony from 83, granted full rights by Caesar so he can use it for large scale settlement of colonists. 59 B76 3-579, CDCC 163
59/8 CAH 10-421
c.59 M. Tullius CICERO is offered a position on Caesar's staff in Gaul.  Declines. 59 B76 4-607
c.59 FAESULAE Tuscia, rebuilt and under Rome from 75, established by Julius Caesar for his veterans, renamed FLUENTIA, because it is between 2 rivers. 59 wikFl
c.59 L.(4) LICINIUS LUCULLUS, CICERO, and Consul M. Calpurnius BIBULUS are charged by L. Vettius with an imaginary plot to assassinate Pompey.  L. Vettius is then murdered in prison the night before Bibulus was going to be questioned about his alleged involvement in the plot.  Caesar says Vettius was killed by optimates to avoid exposure.  Lentulus is unsuccessful when the delayed elections finally take place. 59 B76 III-302, CAH 9-375, DGRBM 2-836, 3-373, 1250, wikBb, wikMCB, no date: wik1Tr
c.59 L.(7) Calpurnius PISO Caesonius is accused by P. Clodius of plundering a province, which he had administered after his praetorship.  Acquitted. 59 DGRBM 3-372
c.59 ?. Licinius CRASSUS Dives is praetor. 59 DGRBM 1-881
c.59 C.(4) Julius CAESAR marries 4th wife, CALPURNIA, dau of L.(7) Calpurnius Piso until his death. 59 B76 3-577, DGRBM 1-543, 582, 3-372, OCD 197, MCAW 252, atl1, sjsu, ttjc, vrm
no date: Dur 3-172
c.59 C.(4) Julius CAESAR buys an expensive black pearl for Servilia Caepionis, mom of M.(7) Junius Brutus. 59 atl1
c.59 Pompey prevents C. Porcius CATO from prosecuting A.(5) Gabinius. 59 OCD 213
c.59 T. LUCRETIUS Carus begins  De Rerum Natura .  An Epicurean doctrine of the universe in poetry.  Publishes 56. 60 TToH     59 OCD 197
no date: Dur 3-172
59 fall P. CLODIUS PULCHER is elected pleb tribune for 58. 59 atl1
c.59 Consul CAESAR guarantees maintenance of his laws by getting friends elected to next years offices: A.(5) Gabinius and L.(7) Calpurnius Piso for consuls, P. Clodius Pulcher for tribune. 59 Dur 3-172, atl1
c.59 P-XII Neos DIONYSIUS AULETES former king of Egypt 80-59, expelled from Alexandria, comes to Rome, promises Pompey 6,000 talents for recognition as king.  Then later promises same to Caesar. 59 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-518, 604, GHH, LEWH 97
58 DMoN, GEoP, GHH, ae, ktut, nar, tig, treg, wikP     57 MCAW 252
c.59 Equite Q. Caecilius BASSUS is quaestor. 59 DGRBM 1-472
c.59 Senate, after much bribery, recognizes P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES as king of Egypt. 59 B76 8-386, CAH 9-518, atl1
c.59 M. Terentius VARRO writes  Trikaranos  "Three Headed" on the Triumvirate. 59 B76 X-362
59 Dec P. CLODIUS PULCHER takes office as pleb tribune until Dec 58, prepares to destroy Cicero and bind as much of the community as possible to his populist policies.  On Dec 29 he prevents Bibulus from making a speech at end of his year as consul. 59 CAH 9-377-8, atl1
Nov 16 wikPCP
58 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS and Aulus(5) GABINIUS - suspected of bribery.  Both are pro-Caesar, and support Clodius against Cicero. 58 DGRBM 1-544, 584, 2-193, 3-372, 485, OCD 451, 836, atl1, csm, wikAGb, wikCon, wikLCPC
c.58 Jan 1 Sextus Cloelius, henchman of P. Clodius, holds Ludi Compitalicii, in anticipation of the law restoring the Collegia. 58 CAH 9-378, atl1
c.58 Jan 1 Pleb tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER announces 4 bills to be put to the people:
  1. reform of subsidized grain import, regulating the whole system from grainfields of Sicily, Sardinia, and Africa, thru shippers and contractors to warehouses and distribution centers at Rome.  The 5-modius ration is now to be free to all citizens living in the capital.
  2. The collegia, banned by senatorial decree 64, are to be restored.
  3. Use of the auspices to block legislation, especially by tribunes, is to be controlled (Bibulus' tactics outlawed)
  4. Censors to lose their arbitrary power over senatorial membership, a formal investigation and agreement of both censors being required henceforth before any senator could be expelled.
58 CAH 9-377-8
58 Jan 4 Clodius' 4 bills are passed.  Sextus Cloelius administers the grain law, restores the COLLEGIA (clubs & guilds) tho they and the ludi were officially banned in 64. and organizes the reconstituted COLLEGIA (clubs & guilds).  Clodius uses the temple of Castor as his headquarters. 58 CAH 9-378, CDCC 212, Dur 3-173, atl1
58 Jan? M. Tullius CICERO becomes pleb tribune. 58 DGRBM 1-713
c.58 early CAESAR, consul 59, appointed proconsul of Gaul until 50.
Legates: Q. Pedius until 56, T. Labienus until 51.
Prefect equitum: P. Licinius Crassus.
Prefect fabrum: L.(1) Cornelius Balbus.
58 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-456, 2-696, OCD 295, 574, 793, wikL1Bl
c.58 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., proconsl of Asia from 61, returns to Rome until 57.  T. Ampius BALBUS, consul 59 succeeds until 57. 59 OCD 239
58 DGRBM 1-455, 746, OCD 159, wikLRGA
c.58 Consuls PISO and GABINIUS conspire with P. Clodius to get M. Tullius Cicero out of the way. 58 wikLCPC
c.58 C.(2) OCTAVIUS dies.  Proconsul of Macedonia from 60, returns to Rome to stand for consul, dies of natural causes at Nola in Campania 58.  Widow ATIA Balba Caesonia, niece of C.(4) Julius Caesar, remarries 56.  Dau Octavia Minor. 59 DGRBM 1-405, 3-9, wikELA, wikOcY
58 CDCC 111, OCD 143, 746, atl1, wikAg
c.58 M. CURIUS, friend of Cicero, is pleb tribune. 58 DGRBM 1-902
c.58 Q. Terentius CULLEO is pleb tribune. 58 DGRBM 1-900
c.58 L. Ninnius QUADRATUS is pleb tribune.  He opposes measures of his colleague P. Clodius against Cicero. 58 DGRBM 3-631
c.58 Mar? Pleb tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER beats down opposition to 1st Triumvirate by passing laws thru the Tribal Assembly.  e.g. new provinces for Gabinius and Piso. 58 B76 II-1004, 14-794, 15-1105, OCD 254
c.58 Mar? P. CLODIUS PULCHER is bribed by Brogitarus to pass thru the Assembly a bill making him client king of the Galatian Trocmi and priest of Magna Mater at Pessinus. 58 B76 II-1004, 14-794, 15-1105, OCD 254, atl1
c.58 Mark ANTONY supports tribune P. Clodius Pulcher. 58 atl1
c.58 Mar Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER, to prevent M.(6) Porcius Cato or Cicero from undoing Caesar's work after his tribunate expires, gets Tribal Assembly to depose Ptolemy king of Cyprus, annex Cyprus, send M.(6) Porcius Cato as commissioner to Cyprus until 56 to make a province of it, and banish anyone who had executed Roman citizens without Assembly's consent (as Cicero did in 63). 58 B76 II-645, 1004, 4-607, CAH 9-379, 645, DGRBM 3-581, DGRG 1-731, Dur 3-173, LEWH 108, MCAW 252, OCD 254, atl1, wikPtC
c.58 Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER passes a law to restore some exiles to Byzantium. 58 atl1
58 Mar L.(2) MANLIUS TORQUATUS supports Cicero, and disappears from history. 58 DGRBM 3-1165, wikLMT
Torquatus is killed in 62. bk
c.58 Mar? M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS tries to prevent banishment of Cicero. 58 DGRBM 1-879
58 Mar M. Tullius CICERO, flees Rome to avoid prosection by Clodian law, rebuffed by Pompey, goes to Brundisium where he stays with M. Lenius Flaccus, then sails to Epirus. 58 B76 4-607, CAH 9-381, CDCC 199, 883, DGRBM 1-544, 713, 2-708, Dur 3-110, 173, GHH, MCAW 252, OCD 235, atl1, rtp, wik1Tr
58 Mar The day Cicero leaves Italy, tribune P. Clodius proposes another law, explicitly banishing Cicero, and forbidding him to approach within 640km of Italy and confiscate his property.  The bill is passed. 58 wikPCP
c.58 Mar 19 CAESAR leaves Rome for Cisalpine Gaul. 58 CAH 9-383
58 Tribal Assembly votes to confiscate Cicero's property and level his house on the Palatine.  It and his villas in Tusculum and Formiae are destroyed by Clodius' supporters.  Cicero's property is confiscated, his mall on the Palatine burnt down and its site put up for auction.  Clodius has a temple of Libertas built on the site of Cicero's house so even if Cicero returns, he will not be able to take the site back.  Clodius also tries to sell Cicero's other property, but there are no takers. 58 Dur 3-173, atl1, wikPCP
58 Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER passes a law to give consuls provinces of Macedonia and Cilicia (later changed to Syria). 58 atl1
58 Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER proposes a law, to punish anyone who has taken the life of a Roman citizen without trial. 58 atl1
58 CICERO anticipating use of Clodius' law against himself, approaches the people of Rome as a suppliant. 58 atl1
58 Equites and some senators demonstrate in support of Cicero, but consul Gabinius orders equite L. Lamia to leave Rome. 58 atl1
c.58 Apr CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, now in Cisalpine Gaul with 4 legions (VII, VIII, IX, and X) provided by government with legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units, and another 4 paid for by himself, learns of the Helveti migration, marches with only 1 legion to Geneva in 8 days, remains mostly in Gaul until 49. 59 bk,     58 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-544, DGRG 1-956, Dur 3-175, OCD 295, 574, 793, vrm, wikGW
c.58 spring CAESAR sees that he will need more legions to defeat the Helvitii, returns to Cisalpine Gaul, mobilizes his other 3 legions at Aquileia, levies 2 new legions, marches these 5 legions across Alps. 58 DGRBM 1-544
c.58 The GAROCELI, an Alpine people, with the Centrones and Caturiges attack Caesar in his march from Ocelum, the most western place in Cisalpine Gaul, over the Alps into Vocontii country. 58 DGRG 1-977
c.58 C. MEMMIUS GEMELLUS becomes praetor. 58 DGRBM 2-1027
c.58 L.(12) Cornelius LENTULUS CRUS is praetor. 58 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-732
c.58 L.(2) FLAVIUS, supported by Pompey, is praetor. 58 DGRBM 2-173
58 Jun 1 Pleb tribune L. Ninnius QUADRATUS is 1st to move for recall of Cicero.  Senate debates his recall.  People vote overwhelmingly for recall, but it is vetoed. 58 CAH 9-385-6, DGRBM 3-631, atl1
c.58 Equite L. Aelius LAMIA supports Cicero in prosecution of Catiline, for which he is marked for vengeance by the populares, and banished thru influence of consuls. 58 DGRBM 2-714
58 Anti-Caesareans L.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS and C.(4) MEMMIUS become praetors.  Both try to prosecute Caesar for his activities as consul, and propose investigation into legitimacy of Julian Laws of 59, but senate rejects proposal. 58 B76 11-174, CAH 9-393, DGRBM 1-85, 544, OCD 361, atl1, wikLDA
c.58 C.(4) Calpurnius PISO Frugi is quaestor until death 57.  He tries to get father-in-law recalled from exile. 58 DGRBM 3-373
c.58 People of Rome, supported by consuls Piso and Gabinius resist senatorial decree to remove the statue if ISIS from the capitol. 58 DGRBM 2-631
58 Mark ANTONY, hounded by creditors, goes to Greece. 58 DGRBM 1-214
c.58 Curule aedile M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS builds a lavish but temporary theater with slave labor: 8,000 seats, 360 marble pillars, 3,000 statues between the pillars, 3 tiered stage, 3 colonades, accommodates 30,000 persons.
His slaves burn it down.  He loses 100 million sesterces in the deal.  Despite that, he produces good games long remembered for their extravagance.  They include 150 panthers, 5 crocodiles, 1 hippo.  He has to borrow from usurers to make expenses.
59 DGRG 2-845
58 CAH 10-804, CDCC 552, 877, DGRBM 3-737, Dur 3-133, GHH, atl1, wikMAS
c.58 Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER, in a bid for consulship, tops Cato's cheap grain law of 63 by offering over 30kg of GRAIN per month FREE to all pleb citizens who come for it.  300,000 show up. 58 CAH 9-319, DGRBM 1-772, Dur 3-173, CDCC 353, OCD 254, TTPC, atl1, bk
c.58 Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER passes  de Auspiciis  voids Leges Aelia et Fufia 150 that allowed magistrates to declare assemblies of the people invalid due to bad omens.  This law forbids use of religious veto against legislation. 58 Dur 3-173, OCD 254, atl1
c.58 Equite moneylender Q. CAECILIUS dies.  Neph T. Pomponius Atticus receives a large inheritance and renames himself Q. Caecilius Pomponius. 58 B76 I-636
57 DGRBM 1-526
58 C. CLAUDIUS Pulcher appointed legate by Caesar. 58 DGRBM 1-770
58 L. VATINIUS escapes prosecution by accepting an offer to join Caesar's staff in Gaul. 58 atl1
58 Tribune Antistius tries to prosecute Caesar, but is not allowed to proceed while Caesar is absent from Rome. 58 atl1
c.58 P. SESTIUS tries to win Caesar's support for Cicero's recall. 58 atl1
58 Worship of ISIS, SERAPIS and other eastern gods banned in Rome by consuls. 58 atl1
58 Poet P. VERGILIUS Maro (Virgil) starts studying at a school in Cremona until 55. 58 atl1
58 M.(6) Porcius CATO, anti-triumvir conservative, appointed by Tribal Assembly as commissioner to Cyprus until 56.  M.(7) Brutus and Munatius Rufus accompany. 58 DGRBM 1-512, 3-581, 676, LEWH 108, OCD 183, 215, bk, wikMJB
c.58 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., petitions for his bro's return from exile. 58 Dur 3-173
c.58 Gn. MANLIUS is pleb tribune.  He proposes a law granting the Libertini (freedmen) the right of voting in all the tribes.  It is blocked by praetor L.(3) Doinitius Ahenobarbus. 58 DGRBM 2-921
Clodius proposes it. 58 atl1
C. Manlius proposes it. 58 GHH
58 T. VETTIUS JUDEX sent to become governor of Africa until 57. 58 rcNA, wikAf
58 Aug 11 A slave of tribune P. Clodius ostentatiously drops a dagger in the vestibule of the temple of Castor as Pompey is arriving for a Senate meeting. 58 CAH 9-386
58  Leges Clodiae  by tribune P. Clodius Pulcher passed by Tribal Assembly.
 de Frumentaria  distributes free grain to the poor.
 de Sodalitatibus or de Collegiis  restores the right to belong to collegia or guilds prohibited in 64 by a senate decree.  Result of this law is violence and gang warfare until the end of the republic.
 de Censoribus  restricts power of censors as inspectors of public morals, and to regulate the rolls of the senate.  Will be repealed in 54.
 de Provinciis  allocates provinces of Macedonia to consul Piso, and Syria to consul Gabinius.
 de Rege Ptolemaeo  establishes Cyprus as a province.  Appoints M.(6) Porcius Cato governor (first as ambassador to Ptolemy of Egypt), ostensibly to remove him as a political obstruction.
 de Civibus Romanis Interemptis  exiles whoever kills a Roman citizen without trial, (used against Cicero) and punishes anyone who helps such person.  Supported by Caesar.
 de Exsulibus Byzantinis  banishes Cicero from Rome based on de Civibus Romanis Interemptis.
58 EDRL 551, atl1, unrv, wikCc, wikLC, wikLRL
58 Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER, drunk with success, tries to become sole leader of plebs, attacks Pompey and Caesar, lets TIGRANES, son of king Tigranes-II, escape from custody at house of Flavius. 58 Dur 3-173, OCD 254, atl1, ttpm
58 Aug Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER organises an attempt to assassinate Pompey.  His gangs set up a blockade of his house, forcing Pompey to stay at home until the end of 58 to avoid attacks. 58 wikPCP
58 Aug Tribune P. CLODIUS PULCHER turns against Caesar by declaring his consular legislation during 59 illegal. 58 wikPCP
c.58 Gang under Tribune P. Clodius Pulcher occupies the temple of Castor. 58 DGRBM 2-728
c.58 Consul L.(7) CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS visits Capua, where he holds office of duumvir. 58 atl1
c.58 M.(3) Aurelius COTTA prosecutes C. Papirius Carbo, who is found guilty of extortion as governor of Bithynia.  (Reverse 67) 58 atl1
c.58 Ptolemy-XII Auletes and Cleo VII flee from Egypt to Rome again in search of political and military aid against Berenice's elder sis Cleo-V Tryphaena. 58 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, atl1, wikB4 57 GHH
58 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER governor of Nearer Spain from 59 returns to Rome, runs for consul, supported by Caesar, and is elected. 58 B76 VI-146, atl1
c.58 POMPEY is prevented from leaving his house and helping Cicero by Damio, servant of P. Clodius. 58 DGRBM 1-934, atl1
58
Oct 29
8 tribunes led by L. Ninnius Quadratus pass a bill in the senate for Cicero's recall.  It is vetoed by Clodius and L. Aelius. 58 CAH 9-387, atl1, wikPCP
58 fall CAESAR, proconsul of Gaul 58-50, stations his legions in winter quarters under Labienus, returns to Cisalpine Gaul, levies 2 new legions. 58 DGRBM 1-545, atl1
58 Dec P. CLODIUS PULCHER, pleb tribune from Nov 59, term expires. 58 wikPCP
58
Dec 10
The new bench of tribunes is 8 to 2 in favor of Cicero's recall. 58 CAH 9-387

Italy 57-53
V