Levant
c.100  Damascus Document  written, a composite text edited together from different sections of a larger source.  Collection of rules and instructions reflecting the practices of a sectarian community.  Has 2 parts:  Admonition and Laws.  Admonition: moral instruction, exhortation, and warning addressed to members of the sect, together with polemic against its opponents - the "wicked of Judah," against whom God will direct "great anger with flames of fire by the hand of all the angels of destruction against persons turning aside from the path".  The Laws looks at this new covenant community expressed to them thru the Teacher of Righteousness.  It details different social arrangements of the time.  Expresses a hope for restoration of Davidic monarchy. 110-00 VDJD 84 100 IDB 2-801, wikTR
no date: wikDD
c.100 PTOLEMAIS V, under Ptolemy-IX from 102, comes under Judea until 65. 100 rcHL
c.100 GLASS BLOWING invented in the Levant.   (XX 300 Syria,   Italy windows) 300 Syria avw 100 TTT
c.100 GADARA, southeast of Sea of Galilee, member of Decapolis from 110, besieged by Alex Jannai 10 months, falls, comes under Judea until 63. Ant 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2
103 GHH
100 atl1, rcJdn
c.100 SEPPHORIS, under Hasmoneans from 104, made administrative center of Galilee.  Remains under Hasmoneans until 63. 100 Jud 14-1177
c.100 AMATHUS, under Theodorus tyrant of Philadelphia from ?, taken by Alex Jan. Ant 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2
c.100 Theodorus tyrant of Philadelphia, attacks Alex Jan, takes his baggage, and kills 10,000 Jews. Ant 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2
c.100 Simeon ben Shetach, bro of queen Salome Alexandra(1) becomes Nasi (head of Sanhedrin) until ?. late 100s-early 1st cen. rcHL
c.100 BETH ZUR, under Jews from 144, abandoned and not reoccupied. 100 IDB 1-405
c.100 RAPHIA, taken by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, under Judea until ?. Ant 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2
100 atl1
c.100 Alexander Jannai besieges Gaza. Ant 13:13:3     100 atl2
c.100 ANTHEDON, north of Gaza, taken by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, under Judea until ?. Ant 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2     100 atl1
c.100 GAZA , after 1 year siege, taken by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, under Judea until ?. Ant 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2
c.100 COINS struck by Alex Jannai say "King Jonathan" in Hebrew and "King Alexander" in Greek. 100 E2LM 154
c.100 STRATO'S TOWER, under tyrant Zoilus of Dor from ?, taken by Alex Jannai, under Judea until 63. soon after 103 OCD 191
c.100 THEODOTUS of Samaria writes a work conventionally called  On Shechem .  Calls Shechem "the holy town".  Connects Shechem with Sikimios son of Greek god Hermes. 100 B76 10-313
c.100 Jewish dramatist EZEKIEL writes tragedy  The Exodus .  Shows influence of Euripides. 100 B76 10-313
c.100 PURGATORY foreshadowed.  Judas Maccabee "made propitiation for them that had died that they might be released from their sin." 2 Mac 13-39-45
c.100  Additions to Esther  written in Egypt.
c.100  Wisdom of Solomon  written in Egypt.
c.100 Λ Book of ENOCH  ch 6-36 written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  Ch 6-11: (from the Book of Noah) fallen angels (watchers) result from sex between sons of God and daus of men.  Ch 12-16: Watchers are doomed.  Enoch is then conducted by angels of light on journeys thru Earth to Sheol, to place where watchers are judged, to tree of life, to Jerusalem, to Garden of Righteousness.
14:18-22 is clearly related to Daniel 7:9-10.  It is likely that 1 Enoch borrows from Daniel.
300-270 lv1E pre-170
AΨΨ 170 120-00
B76 2-937
100 IDB 2-104 no date:
IDB 1-762
c.100  Book of PSALMS  classified among scriptures, closed to further insertions. 100 IDB 3-943
c.100  Testament of Job  written by a strict Jew, possibly a Hasid.  Job delivers swan song to children of 2nd wife. 100 ENBD 1060
c.100  2nd Book of MACCABEES  written in Greek, probably in Alexandria, for a diasporan Jewish audience.  An abridgment of a 5-volume work by Jason of Cyrene.  Covers from high priest Onias-III (c.180) to defeat of general Nicanor in 161, but begins with letters written as late as 124.  Overtly describes miraculous divine interventions directing the course of events. 100 CHJ 2-495, lvCrn
no date: nwe
c.100 RESURRECTION:  "The King of the world shall raise us up who have died for his laws, and revive us to life eternal."
"So he [Razis] died, calling on Him who is lord of life and spirit to restore them to him again."
2Mac 7:10
2Mac 14:46
c.100 IDUMEA, under Judea 109-?, Antipas becomes governor until 78. 100 hifi, rcHL
c.100 PETRA, capital of Nabataean Arabs, peaks. 100 PW 17
c.96 Son of Antiochus-VIII Grypus, DEMETRIUS-III, now on Cyprus, disputes throne of Syria with Antiochus-IX, sails to Phoenicia, siezes Damascus. Ant 13:13:4
96 B76 III-457 95 LEWH 95
c.96 DAMASCUS, under Seleucids 202-85, taken by bros Demetrius-III Eucaerus and Philip-I Philadelphus until 88.  P-IX Soter Lathyros installs and supports them. 97/6 lvA9C, lvAXlvD3, lvP1P
96 B76 III-457
95 LEWH 95
c.96 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, takes almost all Coele-Syria. 96 CAH 9-399 93 BAX 186
c.96 STRATO'S TOWER, under tyrant Zoilus of Adora from ?, taken by Alex Jannai.  Under Judea until 63.. Ant 13:12:2
soon after 103 OCD 191
96 IDB 1-479, ISBE 1-567, Jud 5-6
c.96 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, attacks GAZA.  Aretas-II, king of Nabateans tries to help Gaza. 100 atl1     96 ISBE 3-467, Jud 12-740, OCD 104
c.96 GAZA, independent from 150, under tyrant Lysimachos from ?, taken and burnt by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, comes under Judea until 62.  In ruins until 57. 98 atl1, 96 AΨΨ 86, CAH 9-399, CHJ 2-499, DGRBM 1-117, IDB 2-357, 531, ISBE 2-417, Jud 7-340, rcHL, wikAJ     93 BAX 186
c.95 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, at Feast of Tabernacles, pours libation water at his feet instead of on the altar as required by law.  Pelted with fruit by spectators.  Jannai calls in Pisidian and Cilician mercenaries, kills 6,000 worshippers at the temple. Ant 13:13:5 95 AΨA 643, GHH, atl1
94 DGRBM 1-117
c.95 PHARISEES rebel against Alex Jannai until 85, oppressed by rulers and Sadducees until 79. 96 AΨΨ 6     95 AΨA 643, AΨΨ 71, GHH
94 IDB 2-532     93 bk
c.95 ARETAS-II dies.  King of Nabateans at Petra from 110.  OBODAS-I succeeds until 87. 96 Jud 12-741, OCD 104
95 IDB 3-492, ISBE 3-467, MRDK 359     96-2 rcJdn
c.94 AZIZ, priest-king of Emesa from ?, dies.  Son SAMPSICERAMUS-I does not succeed until 69. 94 wikRFE
c.93 AMATHUS Perea taken and destroyed by Alex Jannai. Ant 13:13:5, Wars 1:4:3
c.93 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, invades Arabia, subjugates Moabites and Arabs of Gilead. Ant 13:13:5     94 GHH
93 DGRBM 1-117
c.90 DAMASCUS, under Demetrius-III 96-88, Many Greeks move in.  Greek influence dwindles toward 85. 90 B76 5-447
c.90 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, invades Gaulanitis (Golan), ambushed in mountains of Gadara by Obodas-I and is wiped out.  Jannai barely escapes and returns with remnant of army. Ant 13:13:5, Wars 1:4:4     94 ISBE 1-918, 2-624, OCD 104, atl1
93 wikHD     93 or 90 Jud 12-741     92 DGRBM 1-117     90 CAH 9-400, IDB 1-183, Jud 16-715
c.90 AURANITIS (later Hauran) east of Gilead, under Alex Jannai from ?, taken by Nabateans. 94 ISBE 2-633
c.90 Alex Jannai returns to Jerusalem.  The people turn against him for the next 6 years. Ant 13:13:5, Wars 1:4:4
94 ISBE 1-918       93 wikHD     90 Jud 16-715
c.90 Pharisees and others of Jerusalem take advantage of Alex Jannai's weakened condition to again rebel.  2 years of fighting follow. 92 DGRBM 1-117 91 CAH 9-400
c.90 MACHAERUS fortress built east of the Dead Sea by Alex Jannai.  It is high and in line of sight of other Hasmonean fortresses. 90 wikMcr   76 atl1
90 ±10  Book of ENOCH  ch 91:1-11, 18-19, 92, 94:6-105:2  contains doctrine of wisdom, future rewards & punishments. 100-80 IDB 2-104
89±14 QUMRAN level 1A is occupied during time of Alex Jannai 103-76, as evidenced by coins found there. 89 ISBE 1-886
c.89/8 Pharisees and Jewish fundamentalists invite Demetrius-III Eucaerus of Damascus to try to overthrow Alex Jannai. Ant 13:13:5, Wars 1:4:4
89 GHH     88 CAH 9-400, IDB 2-532, ISBE 2-624
c.89/8 Demetrius-III Eucaerus of Damascus with 40,000 inf and 3,000 cav, defeats Alex Jannai with 20,000 partisans and 6,200 mercenaries near Shechem.  All his Greek mercenaries are killed.  Jannai flees to mountains.  But when D-III starts winning, the Jews remember that D-III is related to A-IV Epiphanes, and 6,000 Jews fighting under D-III defect back to Jannai.  Syrians withdraw. Ant 13:14:1-2, Wars 1:4:4-5
89 CHJ 2-339, GHH, Jud 16-716, atl1     88 BHS 2-261, CAH 9-400, DGRBM 1-117, IDB 1-758
c.88 Ptolemy-X ALEXANDER-I, king of Egypt 110-09, 107-88, goes to Levant until 86, gathers mercenaries from Lycia, Syria and Palestine.  Returns. 88 B76 VIII-282
c.88 DAMASCUS, under Demetrius-III Eucaerus from 96, siezed by Antiochus-XII Dionysus (son of A-8) until 85. Ant 13:15:1
88/7 lvP1P
no date: LEWH 95
c.88 OBODAS-I, king of Nabateans at Petra from 95, ends.  RABIL-I succeeds until 86. 88 ISBE 3-467
87 IDB 3-492, MRDK 359, OCD 104
Harithath (Aretas)-III succeeds to 62. 88-6 rcJdn
c.87 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, defeats Jewish rebels and breaks their power at Bethone (location unknown).  Persecution continues until 79. Ant 13:14:2
87 CAH 9-400 86 GHH
c.87 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, invades Coele-Syria, deports some Jews to Armenia. 87 Jud 4-37
c.87 RABIL-I ends.  King of Nabateans at Petra from 88.  ARETAS-III succeeds until 62. 87 IDB 1-183, 3-492, MRDK 359, OCD 104     86 ISBE 3-467, rcJdn     85 Jud 3-407
c.87±7  Book of ENOCH  ch 37-71 & 108   37-71 are 3 parables saying Enoch rose to heaven like Elijah.  108 is an appendix. 100-80 IDB 2-104
94-79 or 70-64 AΨΨ 171
c.87±7  Book of SUSANNA  written in Hebrew by a supporter of Simon ben Shetach, leader of Pharisees.  2 additions to Daniel are at the beginning. 100 CBCNT 58 95-80 AΨA 644
c.86 800 Pharisees and Jew fundamentalists crucified, before their wives and children, by command of Alex Jannai. Ant 13:14:2     87 CAH 9-400, wikHD     86 GHH
c.86 ANTIOCHUS-XII Dionysus (Minor), son of A-8, is proclaimed king at Damascus. 86 GHH, atl1
c.85 Milesius, governor of Damascus, repels an attack by Philippus (Philip-I Philadelphus?. Ant 13:15:1 85 atl1
c.85 DAMASCUS, independent member of Decapolis from 110, under Antiochus-XII (son of A-8) from 88, menaced by Itureans, invites Aretas-III of Nabataea to protect it, comes under him until 83/2 as capital of his kingdom.  Coins are made by Aretas confirming his control. Ant 13:15:1     85 B76 5-447, CAH 9-400, IDB 1-218, 758, 3-492, ISBE 1-855, Jud 12-742, OCD 311, rcS
84 LEWH 95, atl1
c.85 ABILENE, and its capital Abila, northwest of Damascus, under Seleucids from 198, comes under Iturea until 64. 85 rcS
c.85 GILEAD (formerly Bashan), under Seleucids from 198, comes under Judea until 63.. 85 rcS
c.85 PTOLEMY MENNEUS becomes king of Iturea until 40.  He also owns Abilene.  His kingdom is called Chalcis. Ant 13:15:2     85 ENBD 4, IDB 3-967, ISBE 2-940, Jud 13-1349
c.85 BETH SHAN (Scythopolis), part of Decapolis from 107, comes under Judea until 63. 85 rcCan
c.85 STRABO says Jews are in all known cities, and it is hard to find a place in the known world without a Jewish community. Ant 14:12:2 85 IDB 3-925
c.85 GAULANITIS (Golan), under Nabateans from ?, taken by Alex Jannai. Ant 13:15:2     85 Jud 4-292     84 GHH
c.85 ARETAS-III, king of Nabateans 87-62, invades Judea, defeats Alex Jannai at Adida, gets various concessions and withdraws. Ant 13:15:2     85 ISBE 2-624, 3-467     no date: CAH 9-400, OCD 104
c.85 PHARISEE revolt from 95 suppressed; 60,000 rebels having died in the war.  Persecution continues until 79. 87 bk 85 GHH
c.84 ANTIOCHUS-XII marches thru Judea, despite opposition of Alex Jannai. 84 atl1
c.84 Son of A-8, ANTIOCHUS-XII Dionysus dies.   Seleucid, held up in Damascus from 88, killed fighting Aretas-III king of Nabateans.  His army flees to Cana, where most die of famine. Ant 13:15:1, Wars 1:4:7 85 BHS 2-264
84 LEWH 95, atl1, hifiSl 83/2 lvA12, lvP1P
c.84 GAMALA taken by Alex Jannai. Ant 13:15:3, Wars 1:4:8     84 GHH
c.84 Foreign cities now under Judea:
Strato's Tower, Apollonia, Joppa, Jamnia, Ashdod, Gaza, Anthedon, Raphia, Rhinocolura/Rhinocorura (now El Arish SW of Raphia), Adora, Marissa, Mount Carmel, Mount Tabor, Beth Shan, Seleucia, Gadara, Heshbon, Medaba, and Pella.
Ant 13:15:4
Plus places of unknown location: Lemba, Oronas, Gelithon, Zara, valley of the Cilices.
c.84 ARETAS-III, king of Nabateans 87-62, and Alex Jannai make peace. 84 atl1, ISBE 2-624, 3-467     no date: CAH 9-400, OCD 104
But border warfare continues 3 years. 84 GHH
c.83/2 City of PELLA east of Jordan sacked and destroyed by troops of Alex Jannai, because they would not change their religious rites. Ant 13:15:4
83/2 ISBE 3-738
c.83/2 DAMASCUS, under Nabateans from 85, is seized by Ptolemy Menneus of Chalcis until 65. 83/2 lvA12, lvP1P
c.82 GERASA, member of Decapolis 110-63, siezed by Alex Jannai. 82 IDB 2-383
c.82 BERYTUS (formerly Beyryt), under Seleucids from 198, made a free city by Tigranes-II.  Remains so until 15. 82 OCD 166
c.81 Alex Jannai gets sick, returns to Jerusalem, gives himself up to luxury. Ant 13:15     82 GHH
81 DGRBM 1-117     80 atl1
c.80 BEROEA (formerly Halap), under Seleucids from 301, comes under Armenia until 66. 80 rcS
80 Tell Anafa, an important Greek culture center, is destroyed. 80 CHJ 2-16
80 Poet ANTIPATER of Sidon dies on his birthday. 80 atl1
fl. 80 3rd ZUGOTH: Judah Ben Tabbai, Simon ben Shetach - Nasi. fl. 80 Mishna 1-506, BNTH 73
c.79 Persecution of PHARISEES from 95 ends until 69.  Alex Jannai is reconciled with nasi Simon ben Shetach. 79 AΨΨ 171
no date: Jud 14-1563
c.79 Ragaba east of Jordan besieged by Alex Jannai. 79 GHH
c.79 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, drinks too much, gets sick until death 76, but continues to fight against neighboring states. 79 ISBE 2-624, atl1
c.79 ANTIPATER, father of Herod, now a young boy, is seized by Idumaean bandits. 79 atl1
c.78 IDUMEA, under Judea 109-?ANTIPAS ends.  Governor from 100.  Grandfather of Herod, ANTIPATER succeeds until 43, appointed by Alex Jannai. 78 hifi, rcHL 76 atl1
c.76 3rd son of Hyrcanus-I, ALEXANDER JANNAI dies. High priest and king of Judea from 103, age 49, killed in battle at Ragaba east of Jordan.  Widow Salome conceals his death until Ragaba falls.  Will leaves everything to widow SALOME ALEXANDRA(1) succeeds until 69.  She is sis of pharisee Simon ben Shetach, and therefore quietly submits to Pharisees, and favors them. Ant 13:15:5, Wars 1:4:8
78 DGRBM 2-543, 880, GHH, IDB 2-532, 586
76 B76 17-950, BNTH 6, 60, CAH 9-291, 400, CBCNT 70, CHJ 2-270, 342, IDB 1-221, 2-801, ISBE 1-89, 2-624, Jud 14-691, 16-714, atl1, bk, rcHL, rvlv, wikAJ, wikH2, wikHD, wikHP, wikSAl
1st woman ruler of Jews since Athaliah.
c.76 Late king Alex Jannai's advisers are executed. 78 GHH
c.76 Hasmonean house splits until 69 because of rivalry between pharisees supported by Hyrcanus-II and Sadducees supported by Aristobulus-II. 76 B76 17-950
c.76 1st son of Alex Jannai & Salome Alex(1), HYRCANUS-II appointed high priest by his mom until 67. Ant 13:16:2, 14:1:2     78 GHH 76 B76 V-581, CBCNT 70, atl1, rcHL, wikHP
no date: CAH 9-401
c.76 Rigorous persecution by Pharisees against former adherents of Hyrcanus-I. 76 GHH
by 76 ESSENES make a complete break with Hasmoneans. by 76 IDB 2-145
c.76 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL established by Nasi Simon ben Shetach.  Compulsory attendance. 100 Jud 6-401 76 IDB 2-36
64 Qualben 27
c.72 Aristobulus-II, younger son of Alex Jannai & Salome Alex(1), gets command of the army. 72 GHH
c.72 Aristobulus-II is sent to take Damascus from Ptolemy Menneus of Chalcis.  He fails, and goes home. Ant 13:16:3 72 GHH
c.72 HEROD born to Antipater, an Idumean, and Cypros, a Nabatean. 73 B76 8-819, Jud 8-375     72 atl1
c.70 PTOLEMAIS, under Judea 100-65, besieged by Tigranes-II, who is soon recalled home by news of Lucullus invasion of Armenia.  Ptolemais is then back under Judea until 65. Ant 13:16:4, Wars 1:5:3 70 atl1, rcHL
c.70 PHARISEES gain great influence under Salome Alexandra(1) until her reign ends 69, despite opposition of her son Aristob-II. 70 atl1
c.69 SAMPSICERAMUS-I becomes sheikh of Emesa until 43. 69 frH
c.69 SALOME ALEXANDRA(1) ends.  Queen of Judea 76-69, gets fatal illness until 67.  After naming Hyrc-2 successor, she is deposed.  Older son HYRCANUS-II is declared king and rules until 67. 69 DGRBM 2-880, GHH, IDB 2-533, ISBE 1-290     67 wikH2
c.69 HYRCANUS-II, king of Judea 69-67, with consent of mom Salome Alex(1), imprisons wife and kids of bro Aristobulus in citadel of Jerusalem.  War between Hyrc-II & Ari until 63. 69 Jud 3-441, bk
c.69 PHARISEES, powerful from 70, oppressed by Aristob-II and Sadducees until 64. 69 AΨΨ 171
68 Λ GEBAL (formerly Byblos), under tyrant Cinyrus from ?, independent until 64. 68 hifiSl
c.68 HAMATH, under Seleucids from 198, autonomous until 64. 68 rcS
c.68 BERYTUS (formerly Beyryt) Lebanon, free city 82-15, comes under Rome until 395CE.. 68 rcLeb
c.68 PHOENICIA, under Seleucids from 198, comes under Rome until 395.. 68 rcLeb
c.68 SIDON, independent republic from 112, comes under Rome until 64. 68 rcLeb
64 ISBE 4-502
c.67 SALOME ALEXANDRA(1)'s autocratic style makes her unpopular with her subjects. 67 atl1
c.67 Aristobulus, younger son of Alex Jannai & Salome Alex(1), joins Sadducee supporters, hires mercenaries from Lebanon and Trachonitis, takes 22 strongholds from Hyrcanus-II. 67 Jud 3-440-1
c.67 Younger son of Salome Alexandra(1), ARISTOBULUS, rebels against mom, flees to Agaba, claims throne.  Jerusalemite elders sieze his wife & kids, keep them in the citadel. Ant 13:16:5, Wars 1:5:4     67 CAH 9-402, Jud 3-441, GHH, atl1, wikHD
c.67 ARISTOBULUS in less than a month, takes 22 strong places, raises an army from Libanus and Trachonitis. Ant 13:16:5
c.67 SALOME ALEXANDRA(1) dies of illness, age 73.  Former queen of Judea 76-69. Ant 13:16:6, Wars 1:5:4     69 DGRBM 2-543, GHH, IDB 2-586, ISBE 2-688     67 B76 I-515, V-581, BNTH 7, CAH 9-291, 402, CHJ 2-346, 3-94, IDB 1-221, ISBE 1-89, 2-624, 688, Jud 3-441, 8-1145, 14-691, atl1, bk, wikH2, wikSAl
c.67 ARISTOBULUS confronts bro HYRCANUS-II near Jericho.  Army of Hyrc-II defects to Aristobulus.  Hyrc-II flees to the citadel, takes wife & kids of Ari as hostages.  Aristobulus captures the temple. Ant 14:1:2, Wars 1:6:1 69 TToH     67 CAH 9-402, Jud 3-441, GHH, atl1, wikH2, wikHD
c.67 HYRCANUS-II resigns.  High priest from 76, king of Judea from 69, forced to resign both offices. Ant 14:1:2     69 DGRBM 2-880, TToH
67 CBCNT 70, Jud 3-441, GHH, rcHL, wikHD     66 rvlv, wikHP     66 wikH2
c.67 Younger son of Alex Jannai & Salome Alex(1), ARISTOBULUS-II succeeds as king of Judea and high priest until 63. Ant 14:1:2     68 DGRBM 2-880
67 B76 I-515, CAH 9-402, CBCNT 70, ISBE 2-624, Jud 3-441, GHH, wikHD     66 rcHL, rvlv, wikAri2, wikHP
c.67 ASKALON, independent from 104, comes under Rome until ?.. 67 rcHL
c.67 ASHDOD (now called Azotus), under Judea from 165, comes under Rome until ?. 67 rcHL
c.67 GATH, part of the coastal Pentapolis from 167 comes under Rome until 395. 67 rcHL
c.67/6 ANTIPATER, Idumean chancellor of Hyrcanus-II, persuades H-II to flee to Aretas-III king of Nabateans at Petra, and persuades Aretas to receive H-II.  H-II flees to Petra. Ant 14:1:4, Wars 1:6:2     66 atl1
65 DGRBM 2-543
c.66 JOPPA, under Judea from ?, removed by Pompey, under Rome until 395CE, placed under Syria until ?. 67 rcHL     66 IDB 2-971, Jud 9-1250
c.66 Arabs and Jews are hostile until 44. Ant 20:1:1, Wars 2:18:1 66 IDB 4-2
c.66 Antipater incites Hyrcanus-II to bid for the crown. 66 GHH
c.66 HYRCANUS-II, at Petra with Aretas-III king of Nabateans, on advice of Antipater, promises to return 12 towns in Moab to Aretas-III for help against bro Aristobulus-II. Ant 14:1:4
66 CAH 4-402, Jud 3-441
65 DGRBM 1-202
no date: Jud 3-407
c.65 Pompey's lieutenants METELLUS and LOLLIUS are sent from Syria to take Damascus. 65 wikPm
c.65 DAMASCUS, under Chalcis from 83/2, taken by Pompey's men Q.(9) Metellus Nepos and Lollius until 65, under Rome until 62. Wars 1:6:2     66 GHH, ISBE 3-467     65 IDB 1-758, wikPm, wikQ9MN 64 atl1, rcS
c.65 ARETAS-III, king of Nabateans 87-62, with 50,000 Arabs and Hyrcanus-II, invades Judea. Ant 14:2:1, Wars 1:6:2
66 OCD 104     65 DGRBM 1-277, 301     64 atl1
c.65 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea 67-63, deserted by troops at 1st encounter with Arabs, flees back to Jerusalem, and is besieged by Aretas-III. Ant 14:2:1, Wars 1:6:2
66 OCD 104, CDCC 603, wikPm
65 B76 17-950, CAH 9-382, DGRBM 1-277, GHH, IDB 2-533, ISBE 2-689, Jud 8-1145     64 atl1
c.65 ONIAS the Circle Maker dies.  Partisan of Aristobulus-II at Jerusalem, he is asked to pray for A-II against Hyrcanus-II.  He says, "They are both your people.  Listen not to the prayers of one against the other"  He is stoned to death. Ant 14:2:1, 8, Mishna 1:506 65 Burrows DSS 180
64 atl1
c.65 PTOLEMY MENNEUS, tetrarch of Chalcis (40km southwest of Beroea) 85-40, summoned by Pompey to Syria to answer for his misdeeds.  He buys impunity for 1,000 talents. 64 DGRBM 3-569
c.65 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS governor of Syria 65-42, goes to Damascus. Ant 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:2
c.65 DAMASCUS, under Romans 65-62, under Q.(9) Metellus Nepos and Lollius 65, taken by Pompey's man M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS.  Metellus and Lollius are evicted. Ant 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:2
65 Jud 3-441
64 Jud 5-1237
c.65 Λ PTOLEMAIS, under Judea from 100, comes under Rome until 395CE. 67 rcHL
65 IDB 1-25
c.65 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS, Pompey's man at Damascus, hears of siege at Jerusalem, goes to Judea, negotiates with envoys of Hyrc-II and Aristob-II.  Bribed by Aristob-II with 300 talents, he orders Aretas-III to abandon siege. Ant 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:2
65 B76 17-950, CAH 9-382, 402, IDB 2-586, Jud 3-441, 12-742     64 B76 VIII-949, DGRBM 3-737
c.65 ARETAS-III, king of Nabateans 87-62, with 50,000 Arabs, besieging Jerusalem 65, withdraws from siege on order of Scaurus. Ant 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:3
65 B76 17-950, wikPm 64 wikMAS
c.65 Pompey's man M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS withdraws from Judea to Damascus. Ant 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:3
c.65 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea 65-63, attacks Aretas-III just for the hell of it, kills 6,000 at Papyron (location unknown). b 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:3
65 Jud 3-441
64 GHH
c.65 Phalion, bro of Antipater, killed in battle at Papyron. Ant 14:2:3, Wars 1:6:3
c.65 ARETAS-III, king of Nabateans 87-62, with Hyrcanus-II and Antipater, retires to Rabbah (now Philadelphia) in Ammon. Wars 1:6:3
c.64 HAMATH, autonomous from 68, comes under Rome until 395. 64 rcS
c.64 PHARISEES, oppressed by Aristob-II and Sadducees from 69, no longer oppressed. 64 AΨΨ 171
c.64 Earthquake damages Jerusalem temple. 64 ISBE 2-5
c.64 DOR taken by Pompey, granted autonomy as a Roman protectorate until 4. 64 B76 III-626, rcHL
64±1  Habakkuk Commentary  written. 64±1 VDJD 84
64 ARADUS island and town off Phoenicia taken by Pompey, comes under Rome. 64 DGRBM 3-885, OCD 91, wikMA
c.64 ABILENE northwest of Damascus, under Iturea from 85, taken by Pompey.  It is ruled by Ptolemy son of Menneus and his son until 36. 64 IDB 1-9
c.64 PTOLEMY MENNEUS, tetrarch of Chalcis 85-40, summoned by Pompey to Syria to answer for his misdeeds.  He buys impunity for 1,000 talents. Ant 14:3:2
64 DGRBM 3-569, ISBE 2-940
64 GEBAL (formerly Byblos), independent from 68, conquered by Pompey, under Rome until 395CE, , but allowed to remain a free city. 64 ahe, atl1
c.64 PHOENICIA annexed to Syria province until ?. 64 B76 VII-957
c.64 Scaurus offers support to Aristobulus-II, who defeats Hyrcanus-II. 64 atl1
c.64 TYRE, independent republic from 126, submits to Pompey, comes under Rome until 395, annexed to Syria province until ?, but remains a free city. 64 ISBE 4-934, atl1, hifiT, rcLeb     63 B76 X-223, Jud 15-1489
c.64 SIDON, under Rome from 68, granted independence by Pompey, autonomous until 20. 64 Jud 14-1507
63 POMPEY, commander of east, moves from Antioch to Damascus, occupies Damascus. Ant 14:3:1, Wars 1:6:4     64 B76 5-447, 17-950, ISBE 1-290     63 CAH 9-382, DGRBM 3-484, Jud 3-441, atl1, wikPm
63 DAMASCUS, under Romans 65-62, taken by Pompey. Wars 1:6:4     64 B76 5-447, 17-950, ISBE 1-290     63 CAH 9-382, Jud 3-441, atl1
63 POMPEY, commander of east, hires legate Q.(9) Metellus Nepos to find a military commission whereby Pompey might dominate Rome.  Metellus returns to Rome and propagandizes for Pompey. 63 CAH 9-509, DGRBM 2-1061, OCD 678
63 GAZARA (Gezer), under Judea from 167, taken by Pompey, comes under Rome until 40. 63 rcCan
63 TRIPOLIS, under tyrant Dionysius from ?, taken by Pompey, comes under Rome until 395CE.  Dionysius is beheaded. Ant 14:3:2
68 rcLeb     63 atl1
63 ITUREA comes under Roman control. 63 atl1
c.63 BETH SHAN (Scythopolis), under Judea from 85, taken by Pompey and made a free city under Rome until 40. 64 B76 I-1033 63 rcCan
63 HYRCANUS-II and ARISTOBULUS-II go in person to either Antioch[64] or Damascus[63], appeal to PompeyA 3rd party favoring reverting from monarchy to theocracy and another party from the pharisees also attend.  They bring only the justice of their causes and no bribes.  Hyrcanus rightly accuses Aristobulus of bribing Scaurus.  Pompey knows Hyrcanus will be in Rome's best interest, but postpones official decisionAristobulus, suspecting that Pompey favors Hyrcanus, hastens back to Jerusalem, and prepares it for siege. Ant 14:3:2, Wars 1:6:4
64 GHH, Jud 9-1393
63 CAH 9-382, 402, DGRBM 1-301, 3-737, IDB 2-533, 586, atl1
63 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea 67-63, tired of waiting for Pompey to decide, siezes fortress of Alexandrion.  Pompey regards this as a threat. Ant 14:3:4, Wars 1:6:5
63 IDB 2-533
63 POMPEY, commander of east, moves from Damascus south, conquers Phoenicia. 63 CAH 9-382, 340, ttpm
63 POMPEY takes Greek cities Hippos, Beth Shan (Greek Scythopolis), Pella from Jews.  They become free cities under Syria. Ant 14:3:4
63 ENBD 304, ISBE 1-907
c.63 Fortress of Lysias in Lebanon, under Jewish commander Silas, destroyed by Pompey. Ant 14:3:2
63 Jud 14-1532
63 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea 67-63, flees to fortress at Alexandrion. Ant 14:3:4
c.63 STRATO'S TOWER, under Judea from 96, liberated by Pompey. 63 IDB 1-479, ISBE 1-567
c.63 SAMARIA, under Judea from ?, taken by Pompey.  Its territory comes under Syria until 40. 63 IDB 4-186, 189
c.63 GERASA, member of Decapolis from 110, taken by Pompey, under Rome until 395CE. 63 IDB 2-383, rcJdn
c.63 GILEAD (formerly Bashan), under Judea from 85, comes under Rome until 40.. 63 rcS
c.63 RABBAH (now Philadelphia) in Ammon becomes a city of Decapolis held by Arabs until ?. Wars 1:6:3 63 IDB 4-2
63 POMPEY, commander of east, in Perea, sends envoy across the Jordan to Aristobulus-II at Alexandrion, orders A-II come to him.  Pompey orders A-II to accept a Roman garrison in Jerusalem and pay indemnity. Ant 14:3:4, Wars 1:6:5
63 CAH 9-382, Jud 3-441
63 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea 67-63, goes from Alexandrion to Pompey in Perea, apologizes, tries to vindicate himself, and get Pompey to retract demands.  Fails.  A-II knows the Jews will not accept a Roman garrison in Jerusalem, but agrees anyway.  Pompey also orders him to write letters to all fortified places in his domain and tell them to surrender to Romans.   A-II goes to Jericho and complies. Ant 14:3:4, Wars 1:6:5
63 CAH 9-383,
IDB 2-533, Jud 3-441
63 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea 67-63, goes from Jericho to Jerusalem, and prepares to withstand siege. Wars 1:6:5
c.63 Aulus(5) GABINIUS sent by Pompey with a detachment, from Perea to Jerusalem, which refuses to open. 63 CAH 9-272, 383
c.63 POMPEY, commander of east, moves his whole army across Jordan to Jericho. Ant 14:4:1, Wars 1:6:6 63 CAH 9-383, Jud 3-441, atl1
c.63 Jericho is defended by 2 towers, Threx and Taurus, which are captured and destroyed by Pompey. 63 CHJ 2-10, IDB 2-838
c.63 POMPEY, commander of east, learns of death of Mith-VI and knows he must wrap it up quickly in Jericho and return north.  He moves his whole army to Jerusalem.  Aristobulus-II goes to Pompey's camp, promises to surrender himself, Jerusalem, all forts, and pay money. Wars 1:6:6
63 CAH 9-383, CHJ 2, DGRBM 3-484, Jud 3-441, MCAW 250, atl1
c.63 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea, surrenders to Pompey, agrees to pay money and do as ordered.  Pompey sends Gabinius to collect the money.  A-II renigs.  Ant 14:4:1
c.63 JERUSALEM:  Party of Aristobulus-II wants to fight Pompey.  Party of Hyrcanus-II wants to surrender.  Party of H-II gains dominance.  Party of A-II retreats to the temple and prepares to withstand siege. Wars 1:7:2
63 B76 10-139, CAH 9-383, Jud 3-441, MCAW 250
c.63 WALL of Jerusalem damaged by Pompey until 47, but not destroyed. 63 guess
c.63 fall JERUSALEM falls to Pompey.  Party of Hyrcanus-II opens gates to Pompey, who besieges party of Aristobulus-II in the temple 3 months.  They scrupulously perform religious duties while being killed around the altar.  12,000 Jews killed. Ant 14:4:3, Wars 1:7:2-4
63 CAH 9-274, 383, CDCC 472, CHJ 3, DGRBM 1-114, GHH, IDB 2-534, 586, ISBE 2-689, Jud 3-441, MCAW 250, atl1, wikHD, wikHG, wikTAR
c.63 HYRCANUS-II appointed ethnarch by Pompey. 63 DGRBM 3-484, ISBE 1-290, 2-625
c.63 Temple taken by storm, 12,000 Jews killed.  Pompey enters the holy of holies.    Dio Cassius says he robbed the treasury;  Josephus says he didn't plunder.  Next day he orders cleansing and resumption of sacrifices. Ant 14:4:4, Wars 1:7:5-6 63 CHJ 3-95, GHH, IDB 4-550, ISBE 2-625, 689, Jud 9-1393, 13-846, MCAW 249, atl1
c.63 P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES king of Egypt 80-58, sends 8,000 cav to help Pompey at Jerusalem. 63 CAH 9-390
c.63 ARISTOBULUS-II deposed.  King and high priest of Judea from 67, imprisoned, sent as prisoner to Rome along with his son Matt Antigonus, their whole family and several thousand Jews to be sold as slaves until 56.  Enroute his son JONATHAN ALEXANDER escapes and returns to Judea. Ant 14:4:5, Wars 1:7:7
63 CBCNT 70, DGRBM 3-484, GHH, IDB 3-925, ISBE 2-624, Jud 2-584 3-65, atl1, rcHL, rvlv, wikA2M, wikAri2, wikHD, wikHP
61 CHJ 3
c.63 JUDEA, under Hasmoneans from 142, comes under Rome until 40. 63 IDB 1-500, bk
63 HEBRON, under Judea from 167, taken by Pompey, comes under Rome until 40. 63 rcCan
c.63 All PALESTINE conquered by Pompey, with no authority from senate.  Local worship is allowed to continue uninterrupted.  Judea is made tributary to Rome.  All cities outside the boundaries of Judea are given to other principalities.  Hasmonean kingdom is broken upSamaria detachedGreek cities are liberated from Jews.  They include Hippos, Beth Shan (Greek Scythopolis), Pella, Samaria, Marissa, Ashdod, Jamnia, Arethusa, Gaza, Joppa, Dor, Strato's Tower  Entire coast is dominated by gentiles and annexed to Syria.  10 towns east of Jordan River are detached and called DECAPOLIS.  Galilee, Perea and Idumea continue political connections with Judea. Wars 1:7:6-7 64 atl1
63
B76 17-948, CAH 9-394, 403, CDCC 475, GHH, IDB 4-216

Levant 63-31
V