Levant
c.63 All PALESTINE conquered by Pompey, with no authority from senate.  Local worship is allowed to continue uninterrupted.  Judea is made tributary to Rome.  All cities outside the boundaries of Judea are given to other principalities.  Hasmonean kingdom is broken up.  Samaria detachedGreek cities are liberated from Jews.  They include Hippos, Beth Shan (Greek Scythopolis), Pella, Samaria, Marissa, Ashdod, Jamnia, Arethusa, Gaza, Joppa, Dor, Strato's Tower  Entire coast is dominated by gentiles and annexed to Syria.  10 towns east of Jordan River are detached and called DECAPOLIS.  Galilee, Perea and Idumea continue political connections with Judea. Wars 1:7:6-7 64 atl1
63
B76 17-948, CAH 9-394, 403, CDCC 475, GHH, IDB 4-216, wikHD
c.63 JUDEA taxed 10,000 talents by Pompey. Ant 14:4:5     63 IDB 4-521
c.63 GADARA, destroyed by Jews from ?, rebuilt by order of Pompey to gratify his freedmen Demetrius of Gadara.  comes under Roman governor of Syria until 30 Ant 14:4:4, Wars 1:7:9
63 rcJdn
c.63 JAMNIA (formerly Jabneh), occupied by Pompey and helenized.  A.(5) Gabinius appointed to supervise construction work. Ant 14:4:4, Wars 1:7:9       63 IDB 2-780, Jud 9-1176
c.63 MARISSA (formerly Maresha), under Judea from 128, restored to Idumeans by Pompey. 63 IDB 3-264
c.63 JONATHAN ALEXANDER, son of Aristob-II, escapes from Pompey's guard and returns to Judea, musters an army, leads rebellion until 49. 63 CHJ 3-98, DGRBM 1-114, Jud 2-584
61 CHJ 3     57 GHH
c.63 Pompey leaves M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS with 2 legions at Damascus as his legate of Syria controling everything from Euphrates to EgyptPompey withdraws north. Ant 14:4:5, Wars 1:7:7
63 DGRBM 3-484, 737
Gabinius; not Scaurus 63 CAH 9-390
c.63 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS Pompey's legate of Syria, leaves Aulus(5) GABINIUS in charge of Judea, and on Pompey's orders invades Arabia. Wars 1:8:1
63 CAH 9-390
62 CAH 9-383, OCD 104, atl1, wikMAS
c.63 STRATO'S TOWER, newly liberated by Pompey, rebuilt by Aulus(5) GABINIUS by orfer of Pompey, put under Syria until 37. Ant 14:4:4 63 Jud 5-6
c.63 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS Pompey's legate of Syria, invades Arabia, is stopped by Aretas-III at Petra, besieges Petra, devastates area around Pella, afflicted with famine. Ant 14:5:1, Wars 1:8:1
63 CAH 9-390
62 CAH 9-383, OCD 104, atl1
c.63 On command of Hyrcanus-II, ANTIPATER takes provisions to Scaurus, who sends him to negotiate with Aretas-III.  Antipater persuades Aretas to buy off Scaurus with 300 talents. Ant 14:5:1, Wars 1:8:1
63 CAH 9-390
62 CAH 9-383, ISBE 1-147, OCD 74
c.63 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS bought off By Aretas for 300 talents, abandons siege. Ant 14:5:1, Wars 1:8:1
63 CAH 9-390
62 CAH 9-383, OCD 104, wikMAS
c.63 ARETAS-III, king of Nabateans 87-62, conquered by Scaurus, becomes vassal to Rome until 62. 63 B76 VII-157, CAH 9
c.63 Aulus(5) GABINIUS in charge of Judea 63-61, organizes troops to oppose Jonathan Alexander.  He sends adjutant Mark Antony ahead. 63 Jud 2-584
c.63 Bro of Aristobulus-II, HYRCANUS-II restored as high priest by order of Pompey until 40, and ruler of Judea, but without title of king.  Antipater, his main adviser, is the actual ruler. Ant 14:4:4
63 CBCNT 70, GHH, atl1, rcHL, rvlv, wikH2, wikHP
62 CAH 9-394, wikAJ
c.63 Mark ANTONY, adjutant of Gabinius, enlists Jewish forces under Peitholaus, Malichus, and Antipater to fight Jonathan Alexander, who is defeated, and retreats toward Jerusalem.  3,000 Jews killed and 3,000 taken alive. Ant 14:5:2, Wars 1:8:3 63 Jud 2-584
CONFUSION ALERT!  MALICHUS is a Jewish rulerMALIKU-II is king of Nabatea.  Both are called Malichus by Josephus.
c.62 JONATHAN ALEXANDER recruits 10,000 armed infantry, and 1,500 cav, occupies strongholds of Alexandrion, Hyrcania, and Machaerus. Ant 14:5:2, Wars 1:8:2 63 Jud 2-584, 8-1144,
c.62 Aulus(5) GABINIUS in charge of Judea 63-61, defeats Jonathan Alexander near Jerusalem, chases J.A. and his remnant to Alexandrion.  Ant 14:5:3, Wars 1:8:3
c.62 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS, Pompeys governor of Syria from 65, returns to Italy. 62 wikRGS
62 DAMASCUS, under Romans from 65, made a vassal kingdom by Pompey until 37.  Aretas-III is made king by treaty with Pompey, whose men, there from 63, are given by Pompey to vassal Aretas-III. 62 CAH 9-394, DGRG 2-1078
c.62 GAZA, under Judea from 96, in ruins 96-57, liberated by Pompey, under Rome until 395CE. Ant 14:4:4     67 rcHL
62 ISBE 2-417
62 Syria and Phoenicia united into 1 province. 62 GHH
c.62 ARETAS-III ends.  King of Nabateans from 87, vassal to Rome from 63OBODATH (Obodas)-II succeeds until 47. 62 IDB 1-183, 3-492, Jud 12-742, OCD 104, rcJdn     60 Jud 3-407
c.61 GAZA, under Rome from 62, reconstruction completed by Gabinius. 61 wikPm
c.59 Manahem the Essene greets young Herod as king of Jews. Ant 15-373 59 atl1
c.57 Civil War:  Jonathan Alexander, with 10,000 inf and 1,500 cav, tries to recover Judea, fortifies Alexandrion. Ant 14:5:2, Wars 1:8:2 57 DGRBM 1-114, GHH, IDB 2-534, 586
57 Aulus(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-4, on arrival reinstates Hyrcanus-II as high-priest at Jerusalem, suppresses revolt by Jon Alex, introduces important changes in the government of Judea, and rebuilds several towns.  Cavalry commander Mark Antony is with him. Ant 14:5:4 57 DGRBM 1-214, wikAG
c.57 JONATHAN ALEXANDER, rebelling 63-49, besieged in Alexandrion by Aulus(5) Gabinius, Antony, Antipater, and Hyrcanus-I, from ?, surrenders on promise of amnesty.  His rebellion pauses until 55.  He also surrenders Hyrcania and Machaerus.  Alexandrion is destroyed until 56. Ant 14:5:4, Wars 1:8:3,5 62 Jud 2-584
57 DGRBM 1-214, GHH, atl1
c.57 Anthedon, Apollonia, Samaria, Beth Shan (Scythopolis), Jamnia, Raphia, Marissa, Dor, Gamala, Ashdod, and other places rebuilt by Gabinius from now until 54. Ant 14:5:3, Wars 1:8:4 59 IDB 1-50
57 GHH, Jud 4-758
c.57 RAPHIA, reconstruction completed by Gabinius. 57 wikPm
c.57 MARESHAH (Marisa), under Idumea 63-47, refortified by order of Gabinius. 57 IDB 3-264
c.57 JUDEA, under Rome 63-40 divided into 5 synedria (political districts) until 47 by Gabinius.  Capitals:  Jerusalem, Gazara, Amathus, Jericho, Sepphoris.  Government changed from monarchy to oligarchy; 5 supreme independent "sanhedrins" established. Ant 14:5:4
57 CAH 9-403, CHJ 3, GHH, Jud 14-836, atl1, wikHD
c.57 ASHDOD (now called Azotus), under Rome 67-?, rebuilt by Gabinius. 57 GHH
57-55 IDB 1-249
c.57 RAPHIA rebuilt by Gabinius. 57 Jud 13-1509
c.57 GAZA, destroyed from 96, under Rome 62-395, rebuilt nearer the sea by Gabinius.  For a while there are 2 Gazas. 57 BAX 186, IDB 2-357, ISBE 2-417, Jud 7-340
56 ARISTOBULUS-II and son Matt Antigonus, imprisoned in Rome from 63, released, return to Judea.  Aristobulus summons his family to him, musters a following (including Pitholaus), rebels against Hyrcanus-II and Antipater. Ant 14:6:1, Wars 1:8:6
57 CHJ 3-98, DGRBM 1-301, IDB 2-586, Jud 3-65, wikA2M, wikAri2     56 B76 I-515, IDB 1-221, 2-534, ISBE 1-290, 2-625, Jud 2-588, 3-441, atl1
56 ALEXANDRION, destroyed 61, is taken by Aristobulus-II, who begins rebuilding its walls. Ant 14:6:1, Wars 1:8:6
56 Mark Antony, Sisenna, and Servilius sent by Gabinius from Syria to subdue Aristobulus-II. Ant 14:6:1, Wars 1:8:6
56 DGRBM 1-214
56 ARISTOBULUS-II and youngest son Matt Antigonus learn of approaching Romans, quit building Alexandrion, flee to Machaerus. Ant 14:6:1, Wars 1:8:6
56 ARISTOBULUS-II and youngest son Matt Antigonus defeated by Romans at Macherus, captured, sent with the rest of the family to Gabinius, who sends them back to Rome. Ant 14:6:1, Wars 1:8:6
56 B76 I-515, CAH 9-273, ISBE 2-625, atl1
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-54, proceeds thru Levant to invade Egypt in behalf of P-XII Auletes.  Antipater helps.  Cavalry commander Mark Antony is sent ahead to secure Pelusium. Ant 14:6:2, Wars 1:8:7
55 CAH 9-604, DGRBM 1-214, OCD 74, wikAG
no date DGRBM 2-194
c.55 While Aulus(5) Gabinius is in Egypt, JONATHAN ALEXANDER son of Aristob-II rebels again until 49, begins to drive Romans from Judea. Ant 14:6:2, Wars 1:8:7
56 CHJ 3-98, DGRBM 1-114, GHH     55 CAH 9-273, IDB 2-534, 586, ISBE 2-625, Jud 2-584
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-54, returns from Egypt to Judea.  Employs Antipater to persuade Jonathan Alexander's army to defect to Hyrcanus-II, but 30,000 men remain loyal to J.A. Ant 14:6:2, Wars 1:8:7
55 Jud 2-584
no date DGRBM 2-194
55 SEPPHORIS, administrative center of Galilee from 100, renewed as such by Gabinius. 55 IDB 2-346, Jud 14-1177
55 Jonathan Alexander defeated by Gabinius helped by Hyrcanus-II and Antipater near Mount Tabor.  10,000 killed, 20,000 dispersed. Ant 14:6:3, Wars 1:8:7
55 CAH 9-273, GHH, Jud 2-584, atl1
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS proconsul of Syria 57-54, goes to Jerusalem, settles government according to advice of Antipater, then proceeds to Nabataea. Ant 14:6:4, Wars 1:8:7
55 Jud 12-742
c.55 Nabateans indecisively defeated by Gabinius. 55 CAH 9-273,
ISBE 3-467, Jud 12-742
c.54 GABINIUS returns from Judea to Syria. 54 implied
54 M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS plunders Jerusalem temple of 2,000 talents in money plus 8,000 talents in objects. Ant 14:7:1, Wars 1:8:8     54 B76 IX-881, CAH 9-404, CHJ 3-99, DGRG 2-26, GHH, Jud 5-1059, MCAW 254, TTPC     53 bk, atl1
53 The party of Aristobulus-II (A-II is in Rome 56-49) excite a revolt in Judea, which is soon suppressed. 53 GHH
52 Jonathan Alexander collects forces and again rebels.  Pitholaus commands army. 53 DGRBM 1-114, 52 GHH
c.51 C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus proconsul of Syria 53-1 goes to Judea, captures Tarichaeae in Galilee, crushes army of Pitholaus, enslaves 30,000 Jews. Ant 14:7:3, Wars 1:8:9
52 OCD 212, atl1     51 IDB 2-534, Jud 5-234
c.51 PITHOLAUS, leader of anti-Romans in Judea, executed by Cassius on advice of Antipater. Ant 14:7:3, Wars 1:8:9
c.51 C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus, proconsul of Syria 53-1 forces Jonathan Alexander to submit to the pro-Roman government of Hyrcanus-II and Antipater.  He then withdraws to the Euphrates Ant 14:7:3, Wars 1:8:9 52 DGRBM 1-114
c.51 C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus proconsul of Syria from 53, returns to Rome.  M. Calpurnius BIBULUS succeeds until 49. 51 CAH 9, Jud 5-234, OCD 166
c.50 The ZUGOTH, consisting of Shemiah - nasi, and Avtalyon - av bet din, flourish. Ant 15:1:1
50 Mishna 1-505, 40 BNTH 73
Shemiah:  "Love labor; hate lordship; seek out intimacy with ruling powers." Avoth 1:10
Avtalyon:  "You sages, be cautious of your words, lest you incur the penalty of exile." Avoth 1:11
c.50  Psalms of Solomon  18 psalms written in Hebrew, if not by 1 person then by 1 generation believing Israel is the most righteous nation, but still divided into righteous and sinners.  #17 contains a plea for the Messiah to come and a long desciption of what he will do.  Only Greek translations survive. 100-50 HCC, 100-0 AΨΨ 625, BNTH 11
60 IDB 3-777
40 CBCNT 58
49 Aristobulus-II, in Italy from 56, released by Caesar, leads 2 Roman legions into Judea. Ant 14:7:4, Wars 1:9:1
49 DGRBM 1-114, 301, GHH, IDB 2-534, ISBE 1-290, wikAri2
49 JONATHAN ALEXANDER raises an army, expecting arrival of his father Aristobulus-II; but is defeated. 49 GHH
49 Son of Alex Jannai & Salome Alex(1), ARISOBULUS-II dies.  Contender for throne from 67, poisoned by partisans of Pompey on his way to Syria or in Syria. Ant 14:7:4, Wars 1:9:1
49 B76 I-515, CHJ 3, GHH, IDB 2-534, Jud 3-65, 441
c.49 Son of Aristob-II, JONATHAN ALEXANDER dies.  Rebelling from 63, taken by Metellus Scipio, proconsul of Syria, and beheaded at Antioch on orders of Pompey. Ant 14:7:4, Wars 1:9:2 49 GHH, IDB 2-534, Jud 2-584, atl1
c.49 Surviving family of Aristobulus-II, MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS & 3 sisters including Alexandra flee to Chalcis in Lebanon at invitation of Ptolemy Menneus king of Chalcis 85-40. Ant 14:7:4, Wars 1:9:1
49 IDB 3-967, Jud 2-588, 3-65
c.49 ALEXANDRA, dau of Aristobulus-II, marries PHILIPPION son of Ptolemy Menneus king of Chalcis 85-40. Ant 14:7:4, Wars 1:9:2 no date: Jud 2-588, 3-65
c.49 PHILIPPION son of Ptolemy Menneus king of Chalcis, is murdered by father, who marries his widow ALEXANDRA, dau of Aristobulus-II. Ant 14:7:4, Wars 1:9:2 no date: Jud 2-588, 3-65
c.48 SAMPSISERAMUS-I dies.  Priest-king of Emesa from 94.  Son IMBLICHUS-I succeeds until 31. 48 wikRFE
48 Pompeyan Q. Caecilius BASSUS escapes from Thessaly to Tyre, then to Syria. 48 DGRBM 1-472, OCD 162, atl1
48 Julius CAESAR lands at Ptolemais. 48/7 Jud 2-222
48 ANTIPATER, power behind high priest Hyrcanus-II, hears of Pompey's death, throws allegiance to Caesar, solicits military assistance from all neighbors. Wars 1:9:3
48 CHJ 3, OCD 74
48 Julius Caesar recognizes Hyrcanus-II and his descendants as rightfully holding the office of High Priest. 48 CHJ 3-99
48 Caesar receives efficient assistance from Jewish troops raised by Antipater. 48 GHH
47 Caesar abolishes the aristocratic government established by Gabinius 67. 47 GHH
47 Antipater brings some Jewish soldiers to join forces that Mithridates of Pergamum is leading to relieve Caesar. Ant 14:8:1, Wars 1:9:3     47 atl1
c.47 OBODATH (Obodas)-II ends.  King of Nabateans from 62.  MALIKU-II succeeds until 28. 59 rcJdn, wikLNK
50 MRDK 359     47 IDB 3-492, Jud 12-742, OCD 642
c.47 MALIKU (Malchus)-II, king of Nabateans 47-28, sends cavalry to help Caesar in Alexandria. 47 OCD 642, Jud 12-742
47 IDUMEA, independent from 63, re-annexed to Judea until ?. 47 IDB 3-264
47 ANTIPATER, power behind high priest Hyrcanus-II, musters 3,000 Jews Idumeans, & Arabs, takes them to Egypt to give token aid to Caesar. Ant 14:8:3, Wars 1:9:3
48 ISBE 2-689 47 CAH 9-404
47 Jun 23 Julius CAESAR, having established Cleo-VII as a client ruler, leaves 3 legions under command of Rufio, as legate in Egypt, to support her rule, and takes army into Levant.  Antipater accompanies. 47 CAH 9, GHH, Jud 3-77, sjsu
47 Jun ANTIPATER is appointed epitropos "regent", i.e. procurator of Judea, granted Roman citizenship, and freedom from taxes by Caesar. Ant 14:8:3, Wars 1:9:5
48 DGRBM 1-202
47 DGRBM 2-423, ISBE 2-689, lvHG     no date: OCD 74
47 Jun Julius CAESAR takes army from Levant to Syria.  Antipater accompanies until later 47. Ant 14:8:3     47 Dur 3-188, Jud 3-77, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, wikCCW
47 Jun MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, youngest son of late Aristobulus-II, goes to Syria, appeals to Caesar his right to rule Judea, badmouths Antipater. Ant 14:8:4, Wars 1:10:1 47 Jud 3-65, wikA2M
47 Hyrcanus-II sends envoys to Rome, to confirm a treaty of friendship. Ant 14:10:1 47 atl1
47 Jun MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, having totally failed with Caesar, returns to Chalcis. Wars 1:10:1-3
47 Jud 3-65, OCD 71
47 Jun Gabinius' 5 political districts of JUDEA from 57 are abolished by Caesar (now in Syria), who appoints Hyrcanus-II ethnarch (again), and Antipater procurator.  Caesar also renews extradition rights of the high priest established in 142, and grants privileges and concessions to Jews.  Roman troops are withdrawn. Ant 14:8:5, Wars 1:10:3
55 ISBE 1-147
47 B76 I-425, CAH 9-404, CHJ 2-345, 3, IDB 2-534, 4-216, Jud 6-945, MCAW 256, atl1, wikHD
47 HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, confirmed as such by Caesar, and appointed Ethnarch until 40. Ant 14:8:3, Wars 1:9:5 47 wikH2
47 JOPPA, annexed to Syria from 64, is returned by Caesar to Judea until ?. Ant 14:10:6     47 IDB 2-971, Jud 9-1250
47 SEXTUS CAESAR becomes proconsul of Syria until 46 resides at Damascus.
47 ANTIPATER, now procurator of Judea, returns from Syria to Judea with permission to rebuild the walls.  He makes 1st son Phasael governor of Jerusalem;  2nd son Herod, age 25, prefect of Galilee until 46. Ant 14:9:1-2, Wars 1:10:4 48 MCAW 256     47 B76 8-819, CHJ 3, DGRBM 2-423, ISBE 2-626, 689, Jud 3-77, 8-375, atl1
Age 15 given by Josephus is probably wrong. IDB 2-587, jeH1
47 WALLS of Jerusalem, destroyed by Pompey 63, rebuilt by Gabinius and Antipater. Ant 14:5:2, Wars 1:10:4
47 HEZEKIAH, a nationalist leader (called a robber by Josephus) active at Sepphoris in Galilee is defeated and killed by Herod governor of Galilee, who rids the area of "robbers".  Hezekiah has a son, Judas, who assumes leadership in Galilee. Ant 14:9:2, Wars 1:10:5
47 BNTH 97, CAH 9-404, CHJ 3-129, GHH
46 Jud 8-455
47/6 Some Jews report to Hyrcanus-II that Antipater is deceitful, and Herod is getting too powerful, and violated Jewish law, and should be tried before sanhedrin. Ant 14:9:3 47/6 ISBE 2-626
47/6 HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, Ethnarch 47-40, jealous of Herod, summons him to be tried for murder by the sanhedrin. Ant 14:9:4, Wars 1:10:7 47 atl1
47/6 HEROD, governor of Galilee 47-46, on advice of father Antipater, organizes affairs in Galilee, places garrisons thruout, goes to Jerusalem with enough troops to prevent insults from enemies, but not enough to arouse suspicion of a coup, goes to stand trial before sanhedrin dressed in purple as a king and with a bodyguard. Ant 14:9:4, Wars 1:10:7
47/6 CAH 9-404, ISBE 2-626
46 DGRBM 2-424
47/6 SEXTUS CAESAR proconsul of Syria 47-6 at Damascus, sends private message to Hyrcanus-II, says he will be very displeased if Herod is convicted of murder. Ant 14:9:4, Wars 1:10:7
47/6 HEROD acquitted of murder, goes to Damascus, either to thank Sextus Caesar or to flee from the sanhedrin. Ant 14:9:5, Wars 1:10:7
47/6 CAH 9-404, ISBE 2-626
46 DGRBM 2-424, wikHD
46 HEROD, governor of Galilee from 47, appointed governor of Coele-Syria until later 46, and assigned more troops, by Sextus Caesar proconsul of Syria.  Capital at Samaria. Ant 14:9:5, Wars 1:10:8
46 DGRBM 2-424, GHH, IDB 2-587, atl1
46 SEXTUS CAESAR dies.  Proconsul of Syria from 47, at Damascus, murdered by his own troops who were corrupted by former Pompeyan Q. Caecilius BASSUS, who illegally calls himself praetor and takes over Sextus' 2 legions and holds up in Apamea until 44. Wars 1:10:10
46 CAH 10-18, DGRBM 1-472, 555, Jud 5-6, OCD 162, 191, atl1, wikRGS
46 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 46, marches on Jerusalem to take vengeance on Hyrcanus-II and the Sanhedrin for his murder trial, talked out of it by dad Antipater and bro Phasael. Ant 14:9:5, Wars 1:10:9
46 CAH 9-405, DGRBM 1-202, 2-424, ISBE 1-147
46 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 46, now that Sextus Caesar is dead, reverts to being governor of Galilee until 43. 46 guess
45 Antipater helps Caesar against Q. Caecilius Bassus in Syria. Wars 1:10:10 45 GHH
45 HEROD marries 1st wife DORIS, from an unknown family in Jerusalem, until 37. Ant 14:12:1 47 lvHG
45 Jud 6-174
44 Feb Julius CAESAR permits HYRCANUS-II to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, and grants reduction of tribute payment. Ant 14:8:5
44 CAH 10-316
44 Antipater repairs walls of Jerusalem. Ant 14:9:1
Hyrcanus repairs walls of Jerusalem. 44 GHH
44 Tribute on the Sabbatical year remitted. 44 GHH
44 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS, illegal honcho of Syria 44-3, levies a war tax of 700 talents - 15,000kg of silver. Ant 14:11:2 44 GHH, lvHG
44 ANTIPATER, 1st procurator of Judea 47-43, divides up the tribute-raising job among Herod, Phasael, & others including Malichus. Wars 1:11:2 44 Jud 3-77
c.44 Arabs and Jews, openly hostile from 66, moderately hostile until 31. Ant 20:1:1, Wars 2:18:1 44 IDB 4-2
44 Aulus ALIENUS, legate of Dolabella, with 4 legions, enroute from Egypt to Asia to join Dolabella, is surprised by Cassius with 8 legions in Palestine, forced to join C.(5) Cassius. 46 OCD 212
44 CAH 10-18 43 DGRBM 1-132, 2-801
c.43 SAMPSICERAMUS-I ends.  Sheikh of Emesa from 69.  IMBLICHUS succeeds until 31. 43 frH
43 HEROD, governor of Galilee 46-43, is 1st to deliver his quota of 100 talents to Cassius. Ant 14:11:2, Wars 1:11:2 43 Jud 5-234
43 THAMNA becomes tributary to C. Cassius. 43 IDB 4-649
43 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS illegal honcho of Syria 44-3, goes to Judea, reproves all but Herod for inefficiency, enslaves people of Gophna, Emmaus, Lydda, Thamna. Ant 14:11:2 Wars 1:11:2
43 Jud 11-619
43 HEROD and CASSIUS conspire against Malichus.  Cassius threatens Malichus with death for failure to deliver quota. Ant 14:11:2, Wars 1:11:2
43 DGRBM 2-907, GHH, Jud 11-619
43 ANTIPATER raises another 100 talents for Cassius which gets Malichus off the hook. Ant 14:11:2, Wars 1:11:2 43 OCD 74
43 HEROD, governor of Galilee from 46, again made governor of Coele-Syria until 41 by Cassius, who puts him in charge of money collection for whole province, and promises kingship. Wars 1:11:4
43 CAH 10-317, Jud 5-234
43 MALICHUS bribes Antipater's cup bearer to poison him. Ant 14:11:4, Wars 1:11:4 43 GHH, ISBE 1-147
43 ANTIPATER dies.  Father of Phasael & Herod, governor of Idumea from 78, 1st procurator of Judea from 47, murdered by poison.  Malichus is suspected, but nothing is proven.  Son JOSEPH (bro. of Herod Great) succeeds as governor of Idumea until 38. Ant 14:11:4, Wars 1:11:4
43 B76 I-425, BNTH 13, CAH 9-404, CHJ 3, GHH, IDB 2-534, 587, ISBE 1-147, JE 6-357, Jud 3-77, 8-376, OCD 74, atl1, rcHL, wikHD     42 B76 17-950
43 HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, Ethnarch 47-40, fails to prosecute Malichus for murder. 43 CAH 10-318
43 PHASAEL, governor of Judea, persuades bro Herod not to kill Malichus openly, lest a nationalist rebellion follow. Ant 14:11:3, Wars 1:11:5
43 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, writes to Cassius, tells him Malichus murdered Antipater, Hyrcanus-II won't prosecute, Herod can't kill Malichus without inciting nationalist insurrection. Ant 14:11:6, Wars 1:11:6
43 C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS illegal honcho of Syria 44-2, writes to Roman captains under Herod, tells them to help Herod if Herod wants to kill Malichus. Ant 14:11:6, Wars 1:11:6
43 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, goes to Samaria to quell disturbances, quells them. Ant 14:11:4, Wars 1:11:6
43 IDB 2-588, ISBE 2-689
43 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, goes from Samaria toward Jerusalem for Penetcost with an armed band of mixed Jews & gentiles to defend against Matt Antigonus. Ant 14:11:5, Wars 1:11:6 43 IDB 2-588
43 May? HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, Ethnarch 47-40, at request of Maliku-II king of Nabatea, forbids Herod to introduce gentiles to Jerusalem while Jews are purifying themselves for pentecost. 43 CAH 10-318
43 May? HEROD spurns Hyrcanus' order, enters Jerusalem with troops by night, refrains from killing Malichus, but rather pretends to believe him. Ant 14:11:5, Wars 1:11:6
43 May? HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, invites Hyrcanus-II and Malichus to dinner, secretly tells Roman guards to kill Malichus. Ant 14:11:6, Wars 1:11:8
43 May? MALICHUS, an anti-Roman officer, stabbed to death by Roman guards at Herod's feast. Ant 14:11:6, Wars 1:11:8 43 CAH 10-739, GHH, JE 6-357, atl1
43 May? HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, Ethnarch 47-40, asks who ordered Malichus killed.  A Roman captain says the order came from Cassius.  Hyrcanus deflates, and commends Cassius for ridding him of a traitor. Ant 14:11:6, Wars 1:11:8
43 Jun? FELIX, bro of Malichus, assumes leadership of the anti-Roman party, takes several forts including Masada until 42. Ant 14:11:7, Wars 1:12:1 42 IDB 3-293
43 Jul P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA dies.  Blockaded by Cassius at Laodicea, suicides.  Cassius takes his army and Laodicea. Ant 14:11:6     44/3 CAH 10-18     43 DGRBM 1-1059, OCD 212, 358
43 Jul C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS, illegal honcho of Syria 44-2, intends to march against Egypt, goes to Judea. Ant 14:11?:2, Wars 1:11:2 43 Jud 11-619
43 Jul MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, youngest son of Aristobulus-II, backed by Ptolemy Menneus of Chalcis and Marion of Tyre, marches from Chalcis, invades Galilee.  He is repulsed by Herod, but Marion of Tyre remains entrenched in Galilee. Ant 14:12:1
43 CAH 10-318, Jud 3-66, 8-376, lvHG
42 DGRBM 2-424, IDB 2-588
43 HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, Ethnarch 47-40, is forced to side with Herod, gives Herod a crown, promises marriage to Hyrcanus-I's granddau Mariamne-I. Ant 14:12:1, Wars 1:12:3     43 CAH 10-318, Jud
41 DGRBM 2-949
43 HEROD, married to 1st wife Doris 45-37, betrothed to MARIAMNE-I, dau of Jonathan Alex and Salome Alex(2). Ant 14:12:1, Wars 1:12:3     43 Jud 8-376     42 GHH
43 FELIX, bro of Malichus, leader of the anti-Roman party, is locked in the citadel by Phasael until 42. Ant 14:11:7
43 late C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS wants to invade Egypt, but is summoned by M.(7) Brutus back to Smyrna, returns from Judea to Syria. 43 rcS, wikC7
42 FELIX, leader of the anti-Roman party, assaults Phasael. Ant 14:11:7, Wars 1:12:1
42 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, at Damascus visiting Fabius, learns of Felix' assault on Phasael, starts home to help Phasael, gets sick, can't proceed. Ant 14:11:7, Wars 1:12:1
c.42 PTOLEMY MENNEUS, tetrarch of Chalcis 85-40, joins Marion, prince of Tyre, to restore Matt Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, to throne of Judea. 42 DGRBM 3-569,
42 FELIX, bro of Malichus, locked in the citadel from 43, released. Ant 14:11:7
42 HEROD recovers from illness, captures all Galilean forts taken by Felix. Ant 14:11:7, Wars 1:12:1
42 MARION tyrant of Tyre, entrenched in Galilee from 43, driven out by HEROD, who is generous to Tyrians to ingratiate them. Ant 14:12:1, Wars 1:12:2
42 HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, drives Matt Antigonus out of Judea, and is thanked by Hyrcanus-II and celebrated in Jerusalem, which was usually hostile to him. Ant 14:12:1 42 IDB 2-588, ISBE 2-689, atl1
42 MASADA, under Felix from ?, recovered by Herod. Ant 14:11:7, Wars 1:12:2
42 Pharisees rebel against sons of Antipater (Idumeans). 42 GHH
42 Felix and Hyrcanus defeated by Phasael. 42 GHH
42 Jewish leaders accuse Herod and Phasael of usurping power while leaving Hyrcanus-II with titular honors.  Herod's defense nullifies charges. Ant 14:12:2 42 ISBE 2-626, 689
42 Hyrcanus-II high priest 62-40, Herod, and Phasael reconciled. 42 GHH
42 Oct PHILIPPI   Oct 3   Oct 23
42 Embassy from Hyrcanus-II goes to Ephesus and asks Antony to return the Jewish prisoners taken by Cassius.  Antony does so and tells Tyre, Sidon, Antioch, and the Arabs to do likewise. Ant 14:12:2 42/1 CAH 10-33
41 CHJ 3-104
c.42 Nv/Dc HEROD, governor of Coele-Syria 43-41, hurries to Ephesus to defend self, bribes Antony with much money, impresses him with skillful diplomacy, totally wins him over. Bithynia.
Not Ephesus.
Wars 1:12:4
41 Revolt in favor of Matt Antigonus is promptly suppressed by Herod. 41 GHH
41 MARION tyrant of Tyre from 42, deposed by Antony, flees to Orodes-III of Parthia, whom he supports. 41 hifiT
41 fall Jewish leaders including Hyrcanus-II go to Syria, make new charges against Herod and Phasael, to Antony. Ant 14:13:1
41 ISBE 2-689
41 fall HYRCANUS-II goes to Syria for the trial of Herod and Phasael before Antony. Ant 14:13:1, Wars 1:12:5 41 ISBE 2-689
41 fall PHASAEL and HEROD made tetrarchs by Antony to support Hyrcanus-II. Ant 14:13:1, Wars 1:12:5 42 B76 V-581     41 CAH 9-405, CHJ 3, DGRBM 2-424, GHH, atl1, wikHG
41 fall ANTONY comes from Syria to Tyre. 41 wikRGS
no date: OCD 314
41 fall JERUSALEM:  Tumult arises over Antony's treatment of Jewish delegation in Syria.  A Jewish mob of 1,000 sets out to meet Antony at Tyre.  Herod and Hyrcanus-II intercept them and try unsuccessfully to turn them back. Wars 1:12:6-7
41 fall Governor of Tyre sent by Antony to stop the Jewish mob of 1,000.  He fails.  Antony sends troops who kill many.  The rest disperse, but cause disturbances in Galilee and JudeaAntony executes the 15 hostages he had taken in Syria. Ant 14:13:2, Wars 1:12:7
41 fall ANTONY goes from Tyre to Alexandria, spends winter. 41 CAH 10-12, 40
40 Fb/Mr ANTONY in Alexandria, learns of Parthian invasion of Syria, hurries to Tyre, learns of defection of Saxa's troops, sails to Asia to collect fleet. 41 CAH 10-12, 41 40 B76 6-483
40 PTOLEMY MENNEUS ends.  Ruler of Chalcis from 85, ruler of Abilene from 85, driven out by Herod.  Son LYSANIAS-I succeeds until 37. Ant 14:13:3     40 CAH 10-318, DGRBM 3-569, DGRG 1-4, IDB 2-773, 3-967, ISBE 2-940, Jud 3-66, 11-627, 13-1349
40 LYSANIAS-I, ruler of Chalcis 40-37, goes to Syria, tells Parthian prince Pacorus that Matt Antigonus promises 1,000 talents & 500 women of his opponents to make Matt Antigonus king of JudeaPacorus agrees. Ant 14:13:3, Wars 1:13:1 40 CAH 10-48
c.40 PACORUS prince of Parthia marches south on coast of Syria, sends general Barzaphernes thru the midlands.  Pacorus is received at Sidon, but stopped at Tyre, which resists him.  Pacorus remains at Tyre, sends cup-bearer of same name ahead to Matt Antigonus. Ant 14:13:3, Wars 1:13:1 40 ISBE 3-671
c.40 GILEAD (formerly Bashan), under Rome from 63, occupied by Parthians until 37. 40 rcS
40 MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, secretly allied with Pacorus, goes ahead of Parthians, invades Judea with Hasmonean partisans.  Jerusalem throws open gates.  M.A. gets control of the temple and waits for Parthians. 40 CAH 9-405, GHH, IDB 2-534, Jud 3-66, 11-627
c.40 Pacorus the cup-bearer and Barzaphernes invade Judea, ravage Mt. Carmel area.  Barzaphernes remains in Galilee. Ant 14:13:3, Wars 1:13:2
40 DGRBM 2-424, atl1
40 Herod with bro Phasael and Hyrcanus-II retreat to the royal palace.  Herod guards the palace; Phasael guards the wall.  Not knowing Matt Antigonus is allied with Parthians, they are persuaded by M.A. to let Parthians act as mediators.  They allow Pacorus the cup-bearer and 500 Parthians into Jerusalem. Ant 14:13:3, Wars 1:13:3
40 Jud 3-66
40 Parthians plunder Jerusalem and Judea. 40 DGRG 2-26, Jud 12-742
40 Herod / Matt Antigonus War begins until 37. 40 wikHG
40 HEROD, tetrarch, begins shipping his wealth back to Idumea, advises friends to do same. Wars 1:13:9
40 Against Herod's advice, PHASAEL and HYRCANUS-II are persuaded by Matt Antigonus and Pacorus the cup-bearer to take some troops and meet Barzaphernes in Galilee, and plead their case.  Enroute Phasael and Hyrcanus learn of a plot by M.A.  When they get to Galilee, they promise Barzaphernes more money than M.A. had promised.  It doesn't work.  Phasael & Hyrcanus are imprisoned by BarzaphernesPacorus the cup-bearer returns to lure Herod out of Jerusalem. Ant 14:13:4, Wars 1:13:3-5
40 GHH, IDB 2-588, Jud 3-66, 8-1146, lvHG, wikH2
40 MARESHAH (Marisa), under Judea from 47, destroyed by Parthians.  Inhabitants go to Beth Gubrin (2km NW of Marissa). 40 IDB 3-264, ISBE 3-245, Jud 4-731, 11-955
40 GAZARA (Gezer), under Romans from 63, comes under Parthians until 37. 40 rcCan
40 HEBRON, under Romans from 63, comes under Parthians until 37. 40 rcCan
40 HEROD, doesn't believe Parthians, takes betrothed Mariamne-I and her mom Salome Alex(2) and escapes Jerusalem by night with servants.  They have more fights with Jews than with Parthians, and finally arrive at Masada. Ant 14:13:7, Wars 1:13:7
40 CAH 10-48, DGRBM 2-425, GHH, IDB 3-294, Jud 3-66, 11-1078
40 PHASAEL and HYRCANUS-II are delivered by Parthians to Matt Antigonus. Wars 1:13:9 40 GHH
40 HYRCANUS-II deposed, high priest from 62.  Has his ears cut off by Parthians on request of Matt Antigonus.  This makes him inelligible to be high priest. Wars 1:13:9
40 B76 V-581, CBCNT 70, GHH, ISBE 2-625, MCAW 260, atl1, rvlv, wikHP
40 Youngest son of Aristobulus-II, supported by Parthians MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, declared king and high priest of Judea until 37. 40 BNTH 60, CBCNT 70, CHJ 3, DGRBM 1-189, GHH, ISBE 2-626, Jud 3-66, rcHL, rvlv, wikA2M, wikHP
40 1st son of Antipater & Cypros, PHASAEL dies.  He attempts suicide by dashing his head against stone.  A surgeon sent by Matt Antigonus puts poison in the wound and kills him. Ant 14:13:10, Wars 1:13:10
40 CAH 9-405, CHJ 3, GHH, IDB 2-588, JE 6-357, Jud 13-367, atl1, lvHG
40 HEROD meets bro Joseph at Theresa in Idumea, and makes arrangements to extricate most of his partisans from Judea to Idumea.  He leaves betrothed Mariamne-I and her mom Salome Alex(2) at Masada under Joseph with 800 of his best troops and provisions to withstand siege.  Herod goes to Petra to get help from Nabateans. Ant 14:13:9, Wars 1:13:8
40 CAH 10-48, IDB 3-294, Jud 3-66, 10-217, 12-742
40 Parthians control all of the Levant except Tyre. 40/39 wikPE
40 PACORUS prince of Parthia delivers Jerusalem to Matt Antigonus, takes Hyrcanus-II from Judea to Syria. Wars 1:13:11 40 CAH 10-48, GHH, lvPE
40 MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, king of Judea and high priest 40-37, tries to besiege Herodians at Masada, unsuccessful. Wars 1:14:1 40 Jud 3-66
c.40 BETH SHAN (Scythopolis), free city under Rome from 63, occupied by Parthians until 37. 40 rcCan, hifiP
40 MALIKU-II, king of Nabateans at Petra 47-28, orders Herod out, because he doesn't want to pay back money he owes Antipater.  He then repents and sends messengers to Herod after it's too late. Wars 1:14:1
40 DGRBM 2-107, ISBE 3-467, OCD 642
40 HEROD, spurned by Maliku-II, intends to go to Rome via Egypt, learns of Phasael's death enroute to Rhinocolura/Rhinocorura, goes to Pelusium. Wars 1:14:2
40 CHJ 3, DGRBM 2-425, IDB 2-588, Jud 5-604, lvHG
40 late HEROD in Rome is made king of Judea by senate.  Samaria is included in his kingdom.  He is crowned in Rome.  In gratitude he sacrifices to Jupiter Capitolinus. Wars 1:19:3     40 B76 10-139, CAH 10-320, 740, CHJ 3-105, FHBC 230, GHH, IDB 2-588, Jud 5-604, MCAW 260, wikHD
c.40 JUDEA, under Rome from 63, becomes client kingdom under Herod until 4. Ant 14:14:5
40 DGRBM 2-425
c.39 SYRIA, under Parthians from 40, back under Romans until 261CE, except for Aradus (Arvad on south coast)P. VENTIDIUS BASSUS is governor of Syria until 38. 39 DGRBM 3-1238, atl1, wikRGS
39 hifiS
39 HEROD, nominal king of Judea 40-4, after 1 week in Italy, sails to Ptolemais, makes it his headquarters, gathers followers (Jews & gentiles) from Galilee, messages Ventidius Bassus in SyriaBassus comes to Phoenicia. Ant 14:14:5, Wars 1:15:3
40 DGRBM 2-425
40/39 ISBE 2-626, 690
39 CHJ 3-105, IDB 2-534, Jud 2-222
39 HEROD, nominal king of Judea 40-37, with half hearted help from Bassus and Pompaedius Silo, marches thru Galilee, against Matt Antigonus' partisans. Ant 14:15:1, Wars 1:15:3
39 IDB 2-588, Jud 2-222
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS extorts large sums from Mat Antigonus of Judea, Antiochus-I of Commagene, and Malchus the Nabatean chief, because they had aided Pacorus. 39 DGRBM 3-1238
39 JOPPA taken by Herod with help from Silo until 39/8?. Ant 14:15:1, Wars 1:15:4
39 IDB 2-588, Jud 2-222
39 HEROD, nominal king of Judea 40-37, marches across Judea to relieve Masada. Ant 14:15:1, Wars 1:15:4 39 IDB 2-588, Jud 2-222
39 HEROD, nominal king of Judea 40-37, relieves Masada, sends bro Joseph to take his betrothed Mariamne-I and her mom Salome Alex(2) to Idumea. Ant 14:15:1, Wars 1:16:1 IDB 2-588, Jud 8-376
39 HEROD, nominal king of Judea 40-37, tries to surprise attack Jerusalem, fails, retreats. Ant 14:15:2 39 Jud 3-66
c.39 P. Ventidius BASSUS leaves Pompaedius SILO with a detachment at Jerusalem and withdraws with majority of his troops north to winter quarters. Wars 1:15:2
39 CAH 10-50
39 Pompaedius SILO stores supplies at Jericho.  Matt Antigonus sends men to intercept supply trains to Jericho.  These men surround Jericho.  Herod takes 5,000 Roman and 5,000 Jew soldiers to Jericho.  They find it deserted.  All Jericho Jews had moved to the hills.  The 5,000 Roman troops plunder Jericho.  Herod leaves a garrison there, and returns. Ant 14:15:3, Wars 1:15:6
39 JOSEPH sent by Herod with 2,000 inf and 400 cav to Idumea. Ant 14:15:4, Wars 1:16:1
39 HEROD, nominal king of Judea 40-37, subdues Matt Antigonus' partisans in Galilee, easily takes Sepphoris. Ant 14:15:4, Wars 1:16:1 39 Jud 3-66
39 HEROD goes to Arbela Galilee, attacks robbers in caves, but can't get them all. Ant 14:15:4, Wars 1:16:2
39 GHH, ISBE 1-234
39 ALEXANDRION, desolate from ?, rebuilt by Pheroras on orders of Herod. Ant 14:15:4, Wars 1:16:3
39 Herod appeals to Antony for help against his rival Matt Antigonus. 39 GHH
39 Herod sends Silo back to Bassus while he continues purging cave bandits in Galilee. Ant 14:15:5, Wars 1:16:4
38 P. Ventidius BASSUS comes from Syria to Judea, supposedly to help Herod, camps by Jerusalem. Ant 14:14:6, Wars 1:15:2
38 B76 X-390, Jud 3-66, 4-37
38 MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS, king of Judea and high priest 40-37, bribes Ventidius Bassus. 38 CAH 10-50
39 P. Ventidius BASSUS leaves Pompaedius SILO with a detachment at Jerusalem and withdraws north with majority of his troops to winter quarters in Syria. Wars 1:15:2
39 CAH 10-23, atl1
38 HEROD finishes purging cave bandits in Arbela Galilee, leaves Ptolemy in charge of a detachment to consolidate Galilee, goes with 3,000 inf and 600 cav to Samaria. Ant 14:15:5-6, Wars 1:16:5
38 Pompaedius SILO, receives orders from P. Ventidius Bassus to withdraw troops from Judea to Syria.  He is willingly dismissed by Herod. Ant 14:15:3, Wars 1:16:4     38 CAH 10-23
38 GALILEE:  Now under Herod's man Ptolemy, unexpected Hasmonean insurrections break outPtolemy is killed.  Rebels ravage the country and hide in bogs.  Herod returns and establishes order. Ant 14:15:6, Wars 1:16:5 38 Jud 3-66
38 MACHERAS with 2 legions and 1,000 cav sent by Bassus from Syria to Judea to help Herod.  Matt Antigonus tries to bribe him, but offers less than Herod had offered.  Macheras pretends to accept offer by Matt Antigonus, and takes troops to Jerusalem. Ant 14:15:7, Wars 1:16:6 38 CAH 10-28, 53-4
CONFUSION ALERT!  MacherAs is a general under Bassus.  MachAerUs is a fortress east of the Dead Sea.
38 MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS discovers treachery of Macheras repulses him from walls of Jerusalem. Wars 1:16:6
38 CAH 10-53
38 MACHERAS with 2 legions and 1,000 cav, angered by failure, withdraws from Jerusalem, killing all Jews in his path regardless of which side they're on, meets Herod at Emmaus. Ant 14:15:7, Wars 1:16:6
38 HEROD at Emmaus restrains indignation at Macheras, but goes north with 2 legions to complain to Antony about Macheras, leaving bro Joseph in charge of Judea with orders to hold until he returns.  Herod goes to Daphne near Antioch. Ant 14:15:8-9, Wars 1:16:7 38 Jud 3-66, 10-217
38 mid JOSEPH, bro of Herod, in charge of Judea with Machaeras, disobeys Herod, marches toward Jericho with 5 new and untested Roman cohorts intending to sieze grain from Hasmonean partisans. Ant 14:15:10, Wars 1:17:1 38 Jud 3-66
38 mid JOSEPH dies.  Bro of Herod, governor of Idumea from 43, defeated at Jericho and killed in battle by Pappus, an agent of Matt Antigonus, who destroys the 5 Roman cohorts. Ant 14:15:10, Wars 1:17:1 38 Jud 3-66, 10-217, atl1
38 mid Another Hasmonean insurrection in Galilee after death of Joseph  Matt Antigonus partisans drown some Herod partisans in a lake. Ant 14:15:10, Wars 1:17:2
38 Macheras fortifies Gitta in Samaria. Ant 14:15:10, Wars 1:17:2
38 HEROD with 2 legions hurrys back from Daphne to Mount Libanus, gathers 800 men, proceeds to Ptolemais, then to Galilee, subdues it. Ant 14:15:11, Wars 1:16:3 38 atl1
38 SEPPHORIS, administrative center of Galilee from 100, submits to Herod. Wars 1:16:2
38 Jud 14-1177
38 JOPPA, under Hasmonean partisans from 39/8, taken by Herod with 2 legions until ?. Wars 1:17:4     39 CHJ 3
38 CAH 10-54, IDB 2-588, Jud 3-66     37 IDB 2-971
38 HEROD with 2 legions donated by Sosius defeats Matt Antigonus and Hasmonean partisans at Jericho. Ant 14:15:10, Wars 1:17:4
38 CAH 10-54, Jud 3-66
37 CHJ 3-106, atl1
38 MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS dispaches part of army under Pappus against Machaeras in Samaria. Ant 14:15:12, Wars 1:17:5 38 Jud 3-67
38 MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS defeated at Sheshana north of Jerusalem, retreats to Jerusalem. 38 CHJ 3, Jud 3-67
c.38 C. SOSIUS, Antonine governor of Syria 38-7, takes 11 legions to Judea. 37 CAH 10-54, Jud 3-67, 8-376
38 C. SOSIUS, Antonine general with 11 legions comes from Syria to Judea. 38 DGRG 2-1078, GHH 37 CAH 10-54, Jud 3-67, 8-376
38 HEROD can't besiege Jerusalem because winter is coming.  He defeats and routs Pappus, pursues Hasmonean partisans, slaughters all he can find, beheads Pappus (who had killed Joseph), sends the head to Pheroras. Ant 14:15:3, Wars 1:17:6, 8
38 Jud 3-67
38 late ARADUS (Arvad) island and town off Phoenicia taken by Antonine C. SOSIUS governor of Syria until 37. 38 DGRBM 3-885, OCD 91, wikMA
37 Feb? C. SOSIUS, Antonine general with 11 legions, besieges Matt Antigonus in Jerusalem 5 months.  This is a Sabbatical year. Ant 14:16:2, Wars 1:17:2 37 CAH 10-54, DGRBM 3-885, Jud 3-67, 8-376, atl1, wikMA
37 Feb HEROD and his 2 legions joins Sosius besieging Matt Antigonus in Jerusalem, camps opposite temple. Ant 14:16:2, Wars 1:17:6 37 CAH 10-28, 320, CHJ 3-106, IDB 2-859, ISBE 2-690, JE 6-357, lvHG
Sosius joins Herod at the siege. CAH 10-28
37 Feb HEROD leaves army besieging Jerusalem, goes to Samaria to legitimize his rule by marrying a Hasmonean, though still married to 1st wife Doris.  MARIAMNE-I, dau of Jonathan Alex & Salome Alex(2), betrothed to Herod from 43, marries him until 29. Ant 14:15:14, Wars 1:17:8
38 DGRBM 1-203, 2-949, GHH     37 B76 VI-617, CAH 10-741, CHJ 3-114, ISBE 2-626, 690, JE 6-357, Jud 11-989, atl1, lvHG
Sources have Herod marrying different numbers of wives, and in different order, so there's no point in trying to number them.
37 Jul Pharisee POLLIO and Sameas his disciple in Jerusalem advise opening the gates to Herod. Ant 15:1:1
37 IDB 2-589
37 Jul JERUSALEM, besieged 5 months by Sosius and Herod, stormed and taken, inhabitants massacred including women & kids.  Matt Antigonus' & troops hold up in temple mount. Ant 14:16:2, Wars 1:18:2 37 B76 17-950, CAH 10-28, 740, 747, CHJ 3, GHH, ISBE 2-626, 690, JE 6-357, Jud 3-67, 8-376, 15-168, atl1
37 Jul SOSSIUS takes temple by storm.  Matt Antigonus surrenders, and is captured. Ant 14:16:2, Wars 1:18:2 37 B76 17-950, CHJ 3, GHH, IDB, Jud 3-67, 6-58
37 Jul HEROD enters Jerusalem, avenges the support which the Sadducees had given to the Hasmoneans, by organizing a massacre and pillaging their property. Ant 14:16:2, Wars 1:18:2 37 CHJ 2-23
37 Jul HEROD assigns Idumean Costobar to block exits to prevent escape of enemies, prevents Sossius from plundering the temple, persuades him not to allow plunder of Jerusalem by promising to pay all his troops.  He then does so. Ant 14:16:3, Wars 1:17:8 37 CAH 10-740, Jud 5-990
37 Herod / Matt Antigonus War from 40 ends. 37 wikHG
c.37 GILEAD (formerly Bashan), occupied by Parthians from 40, comes under Judea until 4BCE.. 37 rcS
c.37 BETH SHAN (Scythopolis), occupied by Parthians from 40, back under Judea as a client of Rome until 4. 37 rcCan
37 GAZARA (Gezer), under Parthians from 40, comes under Rome until 66CE. 37 rcCan
37 HEBRON, under Parthians from 40, comes under Rome until 395CE. 37 rcCan
37 MASADA:  Herod begins building it into a fortress until 31. 37 Jud 11-1078
37 HEROD with 2,000 inf, and 400 cav subdues Idumea. Wars 1:16:1
37 Idumean COSTOBAR appointed governor of Idumea and Gaza by Herod. 37 wikCs 34 atl1
37 SOSSIUS, Antonine general with 11 legions takes Matt Antigonus from Jerusalem to Antony at Antioch. Ant 14:16:4, Wars 1:17:3 37 IDB 8-376
37 Herod fears that if Matt Antigonus is taken by Antony to Rome, M.A. may convince them to make him king.  Herod sends Antony much money to kill M.A. Ant 14:16:4
37 Youngest son of Aristobulus-II, MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS dies.  High priest and king of Judea from 40, beheaded [Josephus] or crucified [Dio Cassius] at Antioch by order of Antony on advice of Herod.  Grandson Aristobulus-III is pushed out by Herod, who appoints Babylonian HANANEL (Hanamel) high priest until 36. Ant 14:16:4, 15:1:2, Wars 1:17:3     37 CAH 10-740, CBCNT 70, CHJ 3, DGRBM 1-189, GHH, IDB 2-534, ISBE 2-626, JE 6-357, Jud 3-67, 442, 7-1251, atl1, rcHL, rvlv, wikA2M, wikAri2, wikHG, wikHP
37 HEROD assumes title of basileus "king", of Judea under Rome until 4BCE. 37 CHJ 3, GHH, IDB 2-588, atl1, bk, lvHG, wikHD, wikHG
Josephus says this is during the consulship of Agrippa and Gallus (37BC), but also says it was exactly 27 years after Jerusalem fell to Pompey, which would indicate 36BC.
37 HEROD to establish his rule more solidly, sends envoys to Parthian king (Orodes-II or Phraates-IV) to get Hyrcanus-II back from Babylon. 37 lvHG 36 wikH2
37 DORIS, 1st wife of Herod from 45, and their son Antipater, sent away by Herod until 13. 37 ISBE 2-692, Jud 3-77
c.37 fall ANTONY's wedding gifts to CLEO-VII at Antioch include Phoenicia, part of Nabataea, parts of Herod's kingdom:  Joppa, palm groves at Jerusalem, balsam groves, and some commercial monopolies. Wars 1:17:5     40 anan
37 CAH 10-55, 67, MCAW 260     36 CAH 10-63, CHJ 3-113, atl1     33 SHWC
no date: Jud 9-1250, OCD 642
37 fall DAMASCUS, vassal kingdom from 62, given by Antony to Cleo-VII until 30. no date: OCD 311
37 fall STRATO'S TOWER, under Syria from 63, given by Antony to Cleo-VII until 30. no date: Jud 5-6
37 Hasmonean family, and Sanhedrin (except Pollio the Pharisee and Sameas his disciple) destroyed by Herod. Ant 15:1:1 37 GHH
37 late HEROD murders 45 Sadducean opponents in Sanhedrin. Ant 15:1:2
37 Jud 8-376
37 late HEROD exhausts his treasury from gifts to Antony and others. Wars 1:18:4
36 Son of Ptolemy Menneus, LYSANIAS-I dies.  King of Chalcis and ruler of Abilene from 40, executed by Antony at instigation of Cleo-VII, ostensibly for favoring the Parthians in 40.  Son ZENODORUS does not succeed.
CHALCIS kingdom including Iturea and Abilene (64), under Lysanias-I from 40, given by Antony to Cleo-VII, Abilene until 30.  Includes everything down to Herod's kingdom.
Ant 15:4:1
37 CAH 10-67
36 ENBD 4, IDB 1-9, 2-773, 3-189, ISBE 2-940, 3-192, Jud 11-627
34 BNTH?
33 DGRG 1-4
36 Antony's friend Q. DELLIUS visits Judea, and meets Alexandra(2), mom-in-law of Herod, persuades her to have drawings made of her children and takes them to Antony, figuring Antony would want to bugger Aristobulus. Ant 15:2:6 35 atl1
36 CLEOPATRA-VII, queen of Egypt, pregnant with Antony's son, in Syria from 37, returns via Damascus to Judea. Ant 15:4:2, Wars 1:18:3 36 CAH 10-70     34 atl1
36 HYRCANUS-II, prisoner of Parthians in Babylonia from 40, recently released, foolisly returns to Jerusalem, and is received by Herod with feigned respect.  The support of the old monarch gives respectability to Herod's rule. 37 atl1
36 B76 V-581, CAH 10-741, GHH, wikH2
31? CAH 10-115
36 HEROD tries to appease Cleo-VII with gifts and honors, leases back the land she obtained from Judea for 200 talents annually. Ant 15:4:2, Wars 1:18:5
36 SALOME ALEXANDRA(2), dau of Hyrcanus-II, widow of Jonathan Alex d49, appeals to Cleo-VII to persuade Antony to make her son by Jonathan Alex, ARISTOBULUS-III, high priest instead of Hananel. Ant 15:2:7 36 ISBE 2-627, Jud 3-442
36 HEROD escorts Cleo-VII as far as Pelusium. Ant 15:4:2, Wars 1:18:5
36 High priest from 37, HANANEL deposed by Herod, because of pressure from Mariamne-1 and the people, and appoints son of Jonathan Alex & Alexandra-II, ARISTOBULUS-III, age 17, high priest until 36/5. Ant 15:3:1     36 CBCNT 70, DGRBM 2-949, GHH, Jud 3-442, atl1, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP
36/5 ISBE 2-690
35 CAH 10-741, JE 6-357
36 Hasmonean Jonathan ARISTOBULUS-III, high priest 36-36/5, appears before the people 1st time dressed in ceremonial garb at Feast of Tabernacles.  People cheer enthusiastically.  At the close of the feast Herod goes with the priest to Jericho, where Alexandra had invited them to an entertainment. Ant 15:3:3, Wars 1:22:2 36 GHH, Jud 3-442
35 ISBE 2-690
c.35 ABILENE, and capital Abila, northwest of Damascus, under Iturea 85-36, under Cleo-VII 36-30, becomes independent tetrarchy until 37CE. 35 rcS
35 Son of Jonathan Alex & Salome Alex(2), JONATHAN ARISTOBULUS-III dies.  High priest from 36, drowned by soldiers of Herod in a swimming pool at Jericho.  Babylonian HANANEL resumes until 34. Ant 15:3:3, Wars 1:22:2
36 CBCNT 70, CHJ 3-114, GHH, wikHD     35 CHJ 3, DGRBM 1-301, 2-949, IDB 1-221, 2-534, ISBE 2-690, Jud, 1-441, 3-442, atl1, rvlv, wikHG, wikHP
HANANEL resumes until 30. 34 CHJ 3, Jud 7-1251
35 Salome ALEXANDRA(2) writes to Cleo-VII, that Herod had killed her son Aristob-III. Ant 15:3:5, Wars 1:22:4     35 atl1
35 Cleo-VII writes to Alexandra(2) advising her to come to Egypt. Ant 15:3:2
35 Salome ALEXANDRA(2) tries to escape from Jerusalem in a coffin, and sail to Egypt.  Herod learns of it, and thwarts her plan. Ant 15:3:2
35 CITADEL of Jerusalem (aka Fortress Antonia) built. 35 CHJ 3
c.35 QUMRAN level 1B from 103 is abandoned until 4BC, as evidenced by the latest coins found there dating to the 3rd year of Herod.  Other coins can be dated: 132/1, 131/30, 130/29, 11 Seleucid coins, 143 coins from 103-76, 1 from 76-67, 4 from 40-37. 37 BNTH 104     36 IDB 2-145     35 ISBE 1-886 34 ENBD 249
31 Jud 13-1430
34 early Herod is summoned by Antony to Laodicea on coast of Syria to answer charge of killing Aristobulus. Ant 15:3:5
34 JE 6-358, atl1
34 HEROD entrusts 2nd wife Mariamne-I to uncle Joseph, husband of Salome(1), with secret orders to kill her if he doesn't return from a visit to Antony in Laodicea.  Herod takes plenty of bribe money with him. Ant 15:3:5, Wars 1:22:4
34 DGRBM 2-949, jeH1 33 GHH
34 HEROD, returning from a visit to Antony, learns from his mom and sis Salome(1) that Joseph told Mariamne-I about his secret order to kill her if he didn't return.  Salome(1) also charges Joseph & Mariamne with adultery  Herod orders both killed, then repents. Ant 15:3:9, Wars 1:22:5 34 Jud 11-990, jeH1
34 JOSEPH, uncle of Herod, 2nd husband of Herods sis Salome(1), executed for adultery without trial. Ant 15:3:9, Wars 1:22:6 34 CAH 10-747, Jud 2-595, atl1     33 GHH
34 Idumean COSTOBAR, governor of Idumea, 37-, marries SALOME(1), sis of Herod, widow of Joseph 54 until 26. 34 atl1, wikCs 30 GHH
34 JERICHO given to Cleo-VII by Antony. 34 CHJ 3
34 CLEPOATRA-VII visits Judea to check out the new real estate given her by Antony. 34 JE 6-358
34 Salome Alexandra(2) conspires with Cleo-VII to influence Antony against Herod. 34 GHH
33 Murderous designs, of Salome(1), Herod's sister, against Mariamne-I, Herod's queen. 33 GHH
33 Herod sides with Antony against Octavian, but is not called to help Antony because Cleo-VII got Antony to order Herod to fight the Arabs, hoping to wear them both down. Ant 15:5:1 33 GHH
32 early HEROD visits Antony and Cleo-VII in Ephesus. 32 CAH 10-95
32 HEROD, on orders from Antony, makes war on Maliku, king of Nabatea until 31 to get money he owes Cleo-VII. 32 CAH 10-740, CHJ 3, DGRBM 2-907, OCD 642, atl1, jeH1, wikHG
32 Herod is defeated by Maliku, king of Nabatea, helped by a general from Cleo-VII. 32 GHH, atl1, jeH1
32 Maliku, king of Nabatea sends troops to help Antony. 32 Jud 12-742
31 Sep Earthquake around Jericho kills 30,000 city dwellers and many cattle.  Also gives Arabs courage for another attack. Ant 15:2:2, Wars 1:19:3
31 BNTH 104, CHJ 2-23, 3, GHH, ISBE 2-4, 690, MCAW 262, atl1, lvHG, wikHG
30 CAH 10-723
31 BERYTUS, under Cleo-VII from ?, rebels. 31 CAH 10-100, 114-5
31 MASADA FORTRESS, begun 37 by Herod, finished. 31 Jud 11-1078
31 IMBLICHUS(1), priest-king of Emesa 48-31, sides with Antony. 31 DGRBM 2-548
c.31 IMBLICHUS-I dies.  Priest-king of Emesa from 48.  Son IMBLICHUS-II does not succeed until 20.  ALEXANDER succeeds until 29. 31 frH, wikImb
31 MALIKU-II, king of Nabateans at Petra 47-28, is subdued by Herod near Rabbah (Philadelphia).  Arab hostility from 44 ends. Ant 15:5:2-5, Wars 1:19:5-6
31 CAH 10-95, GHH, ISBE 3-468, Jud 8-379, OCD 642, atl1, lvHG, wikHG     30 IDB 4-2
31 Herod falsely accuses Hyrcanus-II (age 80) of plotting with the King of Arabia. Ant 15:6:3
31 GHH     30 wikH2

Levant 30-0
V