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c.100 2nd SICILIAN SLAVE WAR from 103, ends.  Manius(2) AQUILIUS wins. 101 CAH 9-25     100 CAH 9, DGRG 2-983, 1231, OCD 496 99 GHH, HRR, LEWH 105
c.100 Proconsul Manius(2) AQUILIUS in Sicily from 101, returns to Rome. 100 DGRBM 1-253
c.100 Colony in Corsica established by L. Apuleius SATURNINUS. 100 DGRBM 1-253
96 Praetor L. Domitius AHENOBARBUS sent from Rome to Sicily, takes harsh measures to restore order. 97 atl1
96 DGRBM 1-85
96 Praetor L. ASYLLIUS comes to Sicily, finds it in turmoil, restores order by prudent management. 96 atl1
95 C.(7) CLAUDIUS Pulcher creates new laws for town of Halaesa in north Sicily to regulate their elections. 95 atl1
c.93 Gn. SEXTUS POMPEIUS STRABO sent from Rome to be governor of Sicily. 93 DGRBM 3-477
91 Praetor C. NORBANUS is sent from Rome to Sicily until ?. 91 OCD 737
91 Colonies in Sicily are established by M.(2) Livius Drusus. 91 atl1
89 Volcanic fires appear for several days on islands of Lipara and Hiera north of Sicily. 89 atl1
87 C. NORBANUS, praetor in Sicily 91-, defeats rebel attack on Rhegium. 87 OCD 737
87 C. MARIUS is almost captured on coast of Sicily. 87 atl1
85 Praetor C. CLAUDIUS PULCHER sent from Rome to Sicily until ?. 85 DGRBM 1-770
82 Populare M. PERPERNA VENTO, with some troops, flees from Italy to Sicily. 82 DGRBM 3-202
82 POMPEY sent by Sulla from Italy to Sicily because Carbo is there. 82 DGRBM 3-478, wikSP
82 Populare M.(4) Junius BRUTUS sent by Carbo to recon Lilybaeum.  Brutus is surrounded by Pompey's fleet and captured. 82 CAH 9-196
82 Populare M. PERPERNA VENTO, organizes resistance in Sicily, but leaves when he hears that Pompey has been sent against him. 82 atl1
82 Populare consul Gn.(2) Papirius CARBO sails from Africa to Sicily, finds that ally M. Perperna has left. 82 CAH 9-196, DGRBM 1-612
82 CARBO sails from Sicily to Cossyra Island, where he is captured by envoys of Pompey.  His men are executed, and he is sent to Lilybaeum Sicily. 82 CAH 9-196, DGRBM 1-612, 3-478
82 Populare consul, Gn.(2) Papirius CARBO dies, executed by Pompey in Lilybaeum Sicily.  His head is sent to Sulla. 82 B76 II-548, CAH 9-196, DGRBM 1-612, 3-478, atl1
no date: OCD 204, 857
82 Marian Q. Antonius BALBUS becomes praetor in Sicily, and is defeated and killed by L.(1) Marcius Philippus legate of Sulla. 82 DGRBM 1-455, DGRG 2-910
Sardinia.   Not Sicily. CAH 9-191, DGRG 2-910
82 SARDINIA won over to Sulla by L.(1) Marcius Philippus. 82 atl1
82 Praetor 88, M.(4) Junius BRUTUS dies.  Surrounded at Lilybaeum by Pompey's fleet, suicides. 82 CAH 9-196, atl1
82 POMPEY suppresses opponents of Sulla in Sicily, reorganizes Sicily. 82 CAH 9-196, ttpm
82/1 POMPEY says, "Why do you keep praising the laws before me when I am wearing a sword.". no date: wikSP
c.81 Q. SERTORIUS sails from Mauretania to the Balearic island of Ibiza, tries to settle, but is forced to leave. 81 atl1
81 Sullan POMPEY establishes order in Sicily.  He is persuaded by Sicilian orator Sthenis not to punish Himera for things that were Sthenis fault. 81 atl1
81 POMPEY receives a letter from Sulla ordering him to sail from Sicily to Africa to get Gn.(5) Domitius Ahenobarbus.  He leaves Memmius in charge of Sicily, and sails to Africa. 81 CAH 9-196, DGRBM 2-449, 3-478
81 Praetor M.(9) Aemilius LEPIDUS sent from Rome to Sicily.  His oppression is second only to that of Verres 73. 81 DGRBM 2-764
79 Praetor M.(9) Aemilius LEPIDUS, governor of Sicily from 81, succeeded by C.(1) Claudius MARCELLUS, who is well liked. 79 DGRBM 2-933
78 Rome makes war with Mediterranean pirates. 78 GHH
77 Propraetor L. VALERIUS TRIARIUS is sent from Rome to Sardinia. 77 DGRBM 3-1172
77 Populare M.(9) Aemilius LEPIDUS flees from Etruria to Sardinia, defeated by Triarius, dies.  M. PERPERNA VENTO with the remains of his army sails to Spain. 78 DGRG 1-696, rtp     77 CAH 9-209, DGRBM 2-765, 3-202, 1172, LEWH 107, OCD 597, atl1
no date: B76 14-795
77 L. Cornelius SISENNA becomes governor of Sicily until ?. 77 DGRBM 3-841
76 Sicilian grain is plentiful and cheap. 76 atl1
76 Local census is conducted in Sicily. 76 atl1
76 Sextus PEDUCARUS is propraetor in Sicily until 75. 76 DGRBM 3-165
c.75 Quaestor, M. Tullius CICERO sent from Rome to west Sicily until 74 to serve under Sextus Peducaeus, praetor of Lilybaeum. 76 DGRBM 1-710     75 B76 4-607, Dur 3-110, 141, OCD 234, atl1, bk
75 Sextus PEDUCARUS a just and popular propraetor of Sicily from 76, ends. 75 DGRBM 3-165, atl1
75 Sicilian grain is sent by M. Tullius CICERO to Rome. 75 atl1
75 M. Tullius CICERO uncovers and restores Archimedes' tomb at Syracuse. 75 atl1
74 M.(4) Antonius fleet commander in Mediterranean with orders to clear out pirates, uses his command to plunder the provinces, especially Sicily, then sails to Crete. 74 CAH 9-355, DGRBM 1-214, OCD 76, lvA
74 Quaestor, M. Tullius CICERO in west Sicily from 75, returns to Italy, lands at Puteoli. 74 DGRBM 1-710
c.74 Fleet commander M.(4) ANTONIUS attacks pirates and their allies in Liguria and Spain. 74 atl1
73 C. VERRES goes from Rome to Sicily as procurator until 71 and makes clear his intention to exploit province.  M. Postumius is his quaestor. 73 B76 4-607, X-404, CDCC 925, DGRBM 3-510, 1243, Dur 3-141, atl1, wikSP
73 C. VERRES governor of Sicily, uses false witnesses to stop Dion of Halaesa from receiving 400,000 sesterces inheritance. 73 atl1
73 C. VERRES governor of Sicily, robs 2 Syrian princes on their way back from Rome. 73 atl1
73 C. VERRES governor of Sicily, tries to take property of Diodorus of Melita, who escapes from Sicily. 73 atl1
73 Pirates attack coast of Sicily, and defeat Cleomenes of Syracuse, who has been put in command of some ships by Verres. 73 atl1
72±1 C. VERRES, procurator of Sicily, sells appointments and decisions, adjusts tax assessments according to bribes, strips Syracuse of Statues, assigns revenues of a whole city to his mistress, keeps some spoils assigned to publicans. 72±1 Dur 3-141
72 C. VERRES in Sicily:
1.  Sends Apollonius of Panormus to prison on a fictitious charge.
72 atl1
2.  Extorts contributions of grain from inhabitants of Herbita and Tissa. 72 atl1
3.  Extorts money from Sosippus and Philocrates, bros from Agyrium. 72 atl1
4.  Illegally punishes Roman citizens, accusing some of having escaped from Sertorius' army.. 72 atl1
71 C. VERRES, procurator of Sicily from 73, is succeeded by praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS, but Verres doesn't return to Rome yet. 72 atl1     71 B76 X-404, CDCC 925, Dur 3-141, wikSP
c.71 L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS sends grain supplies from Sicily to Rome. 72 atl1
71 C. VERRES subverts activities of local censors in Sicily. 71 atl1
71 C. VERRES alters terms of Lex Hieronica, traditional law governing taxation of produce in Sicily. 71 atl1
71 C. VERRES increases grain tax impositions on Agyrium, Herbita, Acesta (Segesta?), other towns, and Lipara in islands north of Sicily. 71 atl1
71 C. VERRES extortion diminishes grain production in Sicily. 71 atl1
71 C. VERRES, procurator of Sicily, seizes possessions of many innocent Sicilians, including Epicrates, Heius, Heraclius, Philocrates, Sopater and Sosippus. 71 atl1
71 Apronius despoils territory of Aetna, Leontini, and other cities. 71 atl1
71 Sicilians ask for Verres to be replaced immediately by L. Metellus. 71 atl1
71 C. VERRES, loaded with Sicilian loot, returns to Rome. 71 B76 X-404, CDCC 925, Dur 3-141, atl1
c.70 Praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS, procurator of Sicily obstructs Agonis of Lilybaeum, when she claims to have been wronged by an officer of M. Antonius. 72 atl1
c.70 Praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS, procurator of Sicily, overturns many of Verres' decisions. 70 atl1
c.70 Sicilians ask help prosecuting Verres from a relatively unknown lawyer, M. Tullius CICERO. 70 lvS
c.70 M. Tullius CICERO goes to Sicily to collect evidence against Verres. 70 atl1, bsic
c.70 Praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS, procurator of Sicily, attacks Pyrganion and other pirates, and forces them to retreat from coast of Sicily. 70 atl1, wikSP
c.70 Praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS defeats pirates, who had conquered the Roman fleet and taken the harbor of Syracuse, and compels them to leave the island. 70 DGRBM 2-1064
c.69 Pirates increase attacks thruout Mediterranean. 69 atl1
c.67 M. Pomponius is Pompey's legate in the gulf south of Gaul and Liguria. 67 DGRBM 3-494
c.67 Pirate war: Pompey in 40 days subdues the Sicilian and Isaurian pirates. 67 GHH
c.67 Pompey's man PLOTIUS VARUS is assigned to the sea around Sicily. 67 wikSP
c.62 Praetor M. Atius BALBUS is sent from Rome to Sardinia until ??. 62 DGRBM 1-455, DGRG 2-910
c.61 C. VIRGILIUS sent from Rome to be propraetor of Sicily until ??. 61 DGRBM 3-1263, OCD 254, wikSP
c.61 P. CLODIUS PULCHER made quaestor under C. Virgilius, and sent from Rome to Sicily until 60. 61 OCD 254, wikPCP
c.60 P. CLODIUS PULCHER, quaestor in Sicily from 61, returns to Rome. 60 OCD 254, atl1, wikPCP
59 C.(1) ANTONIUS HYBRIDA goes from Italy to Cephallenia island, which he runs as if it were his own until 47.
c.58 C. VIRGILIUS propraetor of Sicily, refused to allow Cicero refuge in his province. 58 DGRBM 3-1263, OCD 254
58 Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., appointed Pompey's legate in Sardinia until 56. 58 OCD 239
Roman world 56
Roman world during Luca conference 56       map: Cristiano64
56 After Luca, POMPEY sails from Italy to Sardinia talks to his legate Q. Cicero, tels him to remind his bro M. Cicero of his debt to Pompey. 56 CAH 9-394
56 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER sent from Rome to be governor of Sardinia until 55.  Q. Tullius CICERO, bro of M., Pompey's legate in Sardinia from 58, returns to Rome. 56 B76 II-977, OCD 247
c.55 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, governor of Sardinia from 56, returns to Rome to run for consul.  Praetor M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS succeeds until 54. 55 B76 II-977, VIII-949, OCD 247, 958, DGRBM 3-737 53 DGRG 2-910
55 Alleged plot against man named Bostar by M. Scaurus, as propraetor in Sardinia. 55 atl1
54 M.(2) Aemilius SCAURUS, praetor in Sardinia from 55, returns to Rome.
Empire at 50BCE
West Mediterranean c.50BCE       map: Cristiano64
50 Praetor T. FURFANIUS POSTUMUS comes from Rome to Sicily until 49. 50 DGRBM 3-512
49 Sep Q. or L. NASIDIUS sent by Pompey with 16 ships, to relieve Massilia, now besieged by Caesar's troops, under D. Brutus. 49 DGRBM 2-1142, wikCCW
49 Republican M.(6) Porcius CATO, sent from Italy to command in Sicily until later 49. 49 B76 II-645, DGRBM 1-649, OCD 215
c.49 L. Minucius BASILUS commands part of Caesar's fleet. 49 DGRBM 1-470
49 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is sent from Italy by Caesar to relieve M.(6) Porcius Cato of command in Sicily. 49 wikGAP, wikSP
c.49 Praetor C.(4) Scribonius CURIO, with Q. Valerius and 2 legions, sent by Caesar from Rome to take charge of Sicily and Sardinia, to recover control of grain supply.  M.(6) CATO surrenders Sicily to him and sails to Africa. 49 B76 III-302, CAH 9, Dur 3-183, OCD 502, atl1
49 Pompeyan praetor T. FURFANIUS POSTUMUS, in Sicily from 50, ends.  Pompeyan praetor C. FANNIUS succeeds until ?. 49 DGRBM 2-136, 3-510, 512
49 Praetor C.(4) Scribonius CURIO and C.(1) Asinius POLLIO are sent by Caesar with 2 legions from Sicily to Africa to stop Pompeyan Juba-I of Numidia. 49 B76 III-302, V-621, DGRBM 2-635, wikGAP, wikGSC
49 L. Scribonius LIBO and M. OCTAVIUS are put in charge of part of Pompey's fleet with instructions to prevent Caesar's forces from crossing. 49 wikLSL
49 C. Antonius is forced to surrender to Pompeyan M. Octavius off Dalmatian coast. 49 atl1
49 Pompeyan M. Calpurnius BIBULUS is made fleet commander in Ionian Sea south of Adriatic. 49 B76 II-3, DGRBM 1-488, 2-1063
49 Sep Corcyra Nigra Caesarian fleet in the Adriatic is defeated near Corcyra Nigra (Curicta island) off Illyricum. 49 wikCCW
48 Jan 4 CAESAR sails 20,000 men from Brundisium to Palaeste in the gulf of Valona in EpirusPompeyan M. Calpurnius BIBULUS fails to prevent him. 48 B76 II-3, DGRBM 1-488, Dur 3-184, MCAW 256, vrm
48 Jan Q. Fufius CALENUS sails Caesar's empty ships back from Epirus.  Most of them are captured by Pompeyan M. Calpurnius Bibulus.  Calenus escapes to coast of Italy. 48 DGRBM 1-562, atl1
48 early L. Scribonius Libo is given command of Pompey's fleet, comprising some 50 galleys. 48 wikMA
48 early L. Scribonius LIBO commanding Pompey's 50 galleys, blockades Antony at Brundisium.  Antony, tricks Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked.  Most of Libo's fleet escapes, but several of his troops are trapped and captured. 48 wikMA
48 Son of Pompey, Gn.(3) POMPEIUS sails to Alexandria with 50 ships from Alexandria, sails to join Pompeyan squadron in the Adriatic. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 Pompeyan fleet commander M. Calpurnius BIBULUS finally hears of Caesar's crossing.  He orders his rowers to return to their ships, and sails north, hoping to capture the ships carrying Caesar's reinforcements from Brundisium.  Again too slow, he gets there for their return journey to Italy, capturing and burning 30 of Caesar's transports. 48 wikBb
48 Pompeyan fleet commander M. Calpurnius BIBULUS blockades all harbors along the Italian coast, hoping to prevent further crossings from Italy, and leaving Caesar stranded in Epirus.  Unfortunately, Bibulus cannot resupply his own ships without abandoning the blockade, so he tries to bluff Caesar's legates at Oricum into getting Caesar to agree to a temporary truce so that he could resupply.  Caesar sees it was a bluff and pulls out of negotiations. 48 wikBb
48 Republican C.(5) CASSIUS LONGINUS sails his ships from Greece to Sicily. 48 wikGCL
48 Republican C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus fleet commander near Sicily, burns 35 ships commanded by Caesarian, M. Pomponius at Messana, and subsequently 5 ships belonging to the squadron of Sulpicius and Libo.  After that he makes many attackss on the coasts of Sicily and Italy. 48 DGRBM 2-800, 3-494, DGRG 2-337, atl1, wikGCL
48 Pompeyan M. Calpurnius BIBULUS dies of illness near Corcyra. 48 B76 II-3, DGRBM 1-488
48 Pompeyan Sextus PEDUCARUS appointed governor of Sardinia. 48 DGRBM 3-165
c.48 Aulus ALLIENUS, friend of Cicero, becomes governor of Sicily until 47, sends troops to Caesar in Africa. 48 DGRBM 1-132
48 Pompeyan C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus fleet commander near Sicily, hears of Pharsalus, abandons the war, sails to the Hellespont hoping to get Pharnaces to join him against Caesar. 48 DGRBM 2-800, OCD 212
48 Ag/Sp Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, deserted by the 50 Egyptian ships which he commanded, goes to Corcyra, where many Roman nobles, who had survived Pharsalus, had taken refuge. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 Caesarean P. VATINIUS defeats Gn. OCTAVIUS in a sea battle near Tauris island (south of Pharos island). 48 atl1
c.47 Aulus ALLIENUS, governor of Sicily from 48, ends. 47 DGRBM 1-132
47 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, on Corcyra from Aug/Sep, sails for Spain  Only now learns from his bro Sextus of the death of their father. Gn.(3) goes first to Africa. 47 DGRBM 3-489
47 Oct CAESAR sails from Italy to join his army at Lilybaeum, then sails to Africa to deal with sons of Pompey until 46. 47 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-215, 424, 552, 2-635, DGRG 1-70, GHH, atl1, sjsu, vrm, wikCCW
P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella accompanies. DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
47 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, sails from Africa, attacks the town of Ascurum in Mauretania unsuccessfully. 47 DGRBM 3-489
46 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS sails from Mauretania to Balearic Islands until later 46, takes some islands off the Spanish coast, and then lands in Spain. 46 DGRBM 3-488, OCD 171, atl1, wikGnPm
c.46 M' Acilius GLABRIO, becomes proconsul of Sicily. 46 DGRBM 2-873
c.46 Money lender C. RABIRIUS Postumus is sent by Caesar from Africa to Sicily for provisions. 46 DGRBM 3-512
c.46 Caesar sails from Africa to Sardinia, punishes the Sulcitani for the support they had given to Nasidius, admiral of Pompey.  Then sails to Italy before going to Spain. 46 DGRG 2-910, atl1
P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella accompanies. DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
45 T. FURFANIUS POSTUMUS sent from Rome as proconsul to Sicily. 45 DGRBM 3-512
44 Sicily is given Latin rights by Caesar until 36. 44 CAH 10-434
44 mid M. Tullius CICERO goes from Sicily to Velia to Vibo by sea, and then to Rhegium. 44 DGRBM 1-717, DGRG 1-1071, 2-171
44 DIODORUS SICULUS, Greek historian of Sicily, flourishes in many locations.  Writes  Bibliotheca historica  in 40 books.  1-5 and 11-20 survive completely.  He was ignorant of many important cities, and made many errors. 99-1 wikDS
60-30 lvDS 44 GHH
43 SEXTUS POMPEIUS uses his fleet to dominate western Mediterranean. 43 atl1
43 Sicilian grain supply to Italy cut off by Sextus. 43 CAH 10-443
People proscribed by triumvirs in Nov/Dec 43 who flee to Sextus Pompeius in Sicily:

Lucius TITIUS and son Marcus   Marcus raises a private fleet, ravages coast of Italy until ?.

43 OCD 1079
LENTULUS CRUSCELLIO   Wife Sulpicia follows him. 43 DGRBM 2-733, 3-944,
ANTIUS RESTIO preserved by the fidelity of a slave. 43 DGRBM 3-646, atl1
VETULINUS raises an army in south Italy, resists troops sent against him, tries to cross over to Messana, killed. 43 DGRBM 3-1251
M. OPPIUS and his father.  The father is feeble, but his son carries him and reaches Sicily. 43 DGRBM 3-39
ARRUNTIUS executed.  Son Lucius escapes, but dies at sea.  Another ARRUNTIUS escapes to in Sicily until amnesty of 39. 43 DGRBM 1-353, OCD 123
C. FANNIUS flees in Dec. 43 DGRBM 2-136
43 Dec SEXTUS POMPEIUS uses fleet at Massilia to rescue proscribed fugitives from Italy to Sicily. 44 OCD 858, wikSR
42 POMPEIUS BITHYNICUS co-governor of Sicily, is executed by Sextus Pompeius under pretence of a conspiracy.  Sextus gets control of Sicily until 36. 43/2 CAH 10-23
42 CAH 10-5, DGRBM 3-490, atl1, bk
42 Q. SALVIDIENUS RUFUS is sent with a fleet by Octavian to guard the coast against Sextus Pompeius.  He does so successfully. 42 CAH 10-6, DGRBM 3-490, 701
42 Sextus Pompeius defeats fleet of Octavian's admiral Salvidienus Rufus near promontory of Scyllaeum in the straits of Sicily.    This battle is fought in sight of Octavian, who can't control the straits. 42 Ac31 7, DGRBM 3-490, 701, atl1
42 L. STATIUS MURCUS with 60 ships is sent by Brutus and Cassius into the Ionian Sea south of the Adriatic. 42 DGRBM 1-513, wikC7
42 Oct 3 L. STATIUS MURCUS destroys a fleet carrying further reinforcements to Antony and Octavian. 42 atl1
42 Oct PHILIPPI   Oct 3   Oct 23
42 Oct 3 Octavian partisan Gn. Domitius CALVINUS tries to sail out of Brundisium and is defeated by republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS with 50-70 ships on the day of the first battle of Philippi. 44 wikGnDA
42 Oct Diehard republicans, L. STATIUS MURCUS and Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS leave Philippi, Murcus + 80 ships to Sextus Pompeius in Sicily; Ahenobarbus with 2 legions in 50 ships to roam the Adriatic. 42 CAH 10-25, DGRBM 1-85, 2-1121, atl1 41 atl1
42 After Philippi, republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS continues the war independently with 2 legions in 50-70 ships in the Adriatic, and plunders the coasts of the Ionian sea. 44 DGRBM 1-85, wikGnDA
42 At instigation of Menas (Menodorus), freedman of Pompey, Sextus Pompeius gets L. STATIUS MURCUS murdered, and spreads a report that Murcus had been murdered by his own slaves. 42 DGRBM 2-1121
42 Oct M.(2) Tullius CICERO, son of the orator, with M. Brutus from ? sails from Macedonia to Sicily, joins Sextus Pompieus until 39. 42 OCD 239, DGRBM 1-747
41 While Octavian & Agrippa are busy with the Perusian War, Sextus Pompeius ravages the coast of Italy unopposed. 41 DGRBM 3-490
41 JULIA, dau of L. Julius Caesar & Fulvia, wid of Antonius Creticus and Lentulus Sura, flees from Rome to Sextus Pompeius in Sicily.  Julia is sent with a distinguished escort and trireme convoy to M. Antony in Greece. 41 DGRBM 2-640
c.40 Mr/Ap ANTONY fearlessly sails from Corcyra with only 5 ships to meet all 70 ships of republican Gn.(6) Domitius Ahenobarbus.  Antony and Ahenobarbus are reconciled and sail to Brundisium. 41 CAH 10-42, DGRBM 1-86, MCAW 260     40 B76 I-151, atl1, wikGnDA
40 L. Scribonius LIBO is sent by Sextus Pompeius to Greece to negotiate alliance with Antony. 40 wikLSL
40 Octavian's man Q. Salvieienus RUFUS is defeated by Sextus off Rhegium. 40 wikSP
40 Sextus Pompeius, now allied with Antony against Octavian, sends admiral freedman MENAS (Menodorus) with a large squadron of ships and 4 legions, to take Sardinia, which Menas does and gains 2 legions that were stationed there.  Sardinia is soon after recaptured by Helenus, a freedman of Octavian. 40 DGRBM 2-1034, wikMns, wikSPm
40 SARDINIA, under Octavian's governor M. Lurius from 43, taken by Sextus Pompeius' governor MENAS (Menodorus) until 38. 40 CAH 10-443, atl1, wikMns, wikSPm
no date: OCD 149
40 M. LURIUS, Octavian's prefect of Sardinia, is expelled by Menas, lieutenant of Sextus Pompeius. 40 DGRBM 2-841, wikMns
40 Sextus Pompeius, now allied with Antony against Octavian, sends troops into south Italy, but soon withdraws them when triumvirs reconcile at Brundisium.. 40 DGRBM 3-490
40 CORSICA taken by an agent of Sextus Pompeius. 40 CAH 10-443
40 Antonine M. TITIUS, commanding his own private fleet, is captured off the coast of Narbonensis by Menas, lieutenant of Sextus Pompeius.  He is spared by Pompeius, for the sake of his father, who is now living with Pompeius. 40 CAH 10-38, DGRBM 3-1159
40 Ti.(4) Claudius NERO & wife Livia & infant son Tiberius sail from Neapolis to Sicily, join Sextus Pompeius.  They soon disagree with him, rejoin Antony, move to Achaea until 39. 40 DGRBM 1-426, 2-1162, OCD 730
40 Now that Antony and Octavian are reconciled, Sextus Pompeius sends MENAS with a fleet to oppose both.  He ravages the Etrurian coast, and again takes Sardinia. 40 DGRBM 2-1035
40 HELENUS, freedman of Octavian, captured by MENAS, lieuetnant of Sextus Pompeius.  Menas frees Helenus without ransom to get favor of Octavian in case Sextus loses. 40 DGRBM 2-372, 1035
39 M. Junius SILANUS, having fallen from favor with the triumvirs, sails to Sicily, joins Sextus Pompeius until later 39. 39 OCD 988
39 MUCIA TERTIA, divorcee of Pompey 62, at earnest request of the Roman people, goes to Sicily to mediate between her son Sextus Pompeius and Octavian. 39 DGRBM 2-1117
39 spring Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica are given to Sextus Pompeius. 39 B76 VIII-107, 8-1072, CAH 10-46, CDCC 111, DGRBM 1-215, GHH, MCAW 260, OCD 694, 1079
39 M.(2) Tullius CICERO, son of the orator, with Sextus Pompeius from 42, takes advantage of amnesty, returns from Sicily to Rome. 39 OCD 239
39 City of CENTURIPAE, having been loyal to Octavian, is destroyed by Sextus Pompeius. 39 wikSP
39 MENAS (Menodorus) tries to persuade Sextus Pompeius not to make peace with Octavian and Antony.  At an entertainment given to them by Sextus on board his ship at Misenum, Menas advises him to cut the cables of the vessel, run it out to sea, and kill both his rivals.  Pompeius rejects the proposal. 39 DGRBM 2-1035, wikMns
c.38 MENAS, governor of Sardinia and Corsica, under Sextus Pompeius from 41, defects to Octavian with 3 legions.  He defects back in 36. 39 Ac31, CAH 10-56
39/8 CAH 10-24     38 CAH 10-443, DGRBM 2-1035, 3-490, atl1, wikMns
38 C. Calvisius SABINUS appointed admiral in west Medit. until 36 by Octavian, with Menas under him. 38 CAH 10-57, DGRBM 3-689, OCD 198
38 Octavian and Sextus Pompeius again at war.  Octavian employs overcautious naval tactics, loses half his fleet to a south wind off the cape.  The fleet is barely saved by L. Cornificius.  Sextus Pompeius gains several advantages. 38 Ac31, CAH 10-57, DGRBM 1-858, GHH, wikSR
38 MENECRATES, freedman of Sextus Pompeius, is sent with a large squadron against Octavian's admiral C. Calvisius Sabinus and Menas the renegade..  Fleets engage off CumaeMenecrates wins, but attacks and grapples with Menas' ship, and though wounded, continues to encourage his men until he sees that the enemy would take his ship.  He then jumps overboard and drowns. 38 CAH 10-24, DGRBM 2-1036, 3-490, 689, atl1
c.38 Octavian is defeated by Sextus in the straits near Messana. 38 CAH 10-24, atl1
37 wikSP, wikSPm
c.38 Sextus Pompeius celebrates victories with a sacrifice to Neptune at the Pelorum promontory on northeast coast of Sicily. 38 atl1
c.38 L. Cornificius defeats ships of Demochares, admiral of Sextus Pompeius. 38 DGRBM 1-858
38  Foedus de Tarentum  Treaty of Tarentum establishes peace between triumvirs and Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 38 unrv
c.38 Mt. ETNA partially erupts. 38 DGRG 1-62
by 36 Sextus Pompeius has about 350 ships. by 36 CAH 10-34  
36 Just before resumption of hostilities between Sextus Pompeius and Octavian, MENAS, under Octavian from 39, defects back to Sextus until later 36, but is not restored to his former position. 36 DGRBM 2-1035, atl1, wikMns
36 C. Calvisius SABINUS, admiral from 38, relieved by Octavian, who gives his fleet to M. Agrippa. 37 CAH 10-59, DGRBM 3-689
36 Antonine Tisienus GALLUS with reinforcements joins Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 36 DGRBM 2-229
36 C. CARRINUS with 3 legions is sent from Rome by Octavian against Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 36 DGRBM 1-615
36 Jul 1 3 FLEETS under Octavian, Agrippa, and Lepidus set out against Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 36 Ac31, CAH 10-34, 60, atl1, wikAg, wikSR
under Octavian, Statilius Taurus, and Lepidus DGRBM 3-490
36 Jul 2 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS, triumvir of Africa 40-36, sails 12 legions (half the usual strength) and 5,000 cavalry safely, lands at Lilybaeum on west coast of Sicily, blockades Sextus' lieutenant L. Plinius Rufus in Lilybaeum, overruns west Sicily.  He now acts independently of Octavian. 36 Ac31 13, CAH 10-34-5, 60, DGRBM 1-426, 2-768, wikSR
36 Jul 3 Octavian's FLEET, wrecked by a storm.  Statilius Taurus' fleet retreats to Tarentum by night.  Octavian is caught while passing Cape Palinurus and forced into the bay of the Elea promontory.  Exhausted, Octavian asks companions to kill him!  6 of his heavy ships, 26 light ones, and some liburnian galleys are destroyed, many of the rest damaged. 36 Ac31 13, CAH 10-60-1, DGRBM 1-426, 3-490, DGRG 2-535, atl1, wikMVA
36 Jul 3 LEPIDUS loses some transports bound for Sicily to the storm. 36 Ac31 13
36 Sextus Pompeius dispatches Tisienus Gallus to reinforce Plinius in Sicily. 36 Ac31 13
36 While Octavian repairs at Vibo, MENAS, recent defector to Sextus, defects back to Octavian. 36 Ac31 13
36 M.(6) Valerius MESSALLA Corvinus serves Octavian in Sicily. 36 DGRBM 2-1051
36 A convoy of Lepidus' reinforcements from Africa is intercepted by Demochares, admiral of Sextus Pompeius.  Convoy loses 2 of the 4 legions embarked. 36 Ac31 13
36 Sicilian War:  Octavian's men include Messala Corvinus, T. Statilius Taurus, L. Cornificius. 36 OCD 292, 674, 1011
36 Aug Strongyle and Hiera islands in the Lipari islands occupied by Agrippa. 36 Ac31 14, DGRG 1-52
36 Aug SEXTUS thinks Agrippa seeks battle with Demochares, who has 40 ships at Mylae Sicily.  Sextus dispatches Apollophanes with 45 ships from Messana and follows in person with 70 more. 36
Ac31 14
36 Aug M. AGRIPPA with half his fleet sails out of Hiera before dawn to attack Demochares.  Agrippa sees the fleet of Apollophanes and 70 more ships of Sextus.  He messages Octavian that Sextus is at Mylae with most of his naval forces.  Agrippa with his heavy ships occupies the center, and summons the rest of his fleet from Hiera.' M. AGRIPPA defeats 1st of Sextus' fleets off MylaeAgrippa loses 5 ships; Sextus loses 30, and withdraws. 36 Ac 31 14, B76 1-367, CAH 10-35, 50, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, 426, 3-491, atl1, wikSPm, wikSR
36 Aug OCTAVIAN learns that Sextus had left Messana for Mylae.  He sails from Scyllaeum to Leucopetra both on west coast of Brutium.  He is about to cross the straits to Tauromenium (Naxos) by night, but learns of the victory at Mylae, and thinks Sextus had been neutralized by Agrippa.  Octavian leaves Messala Corvinus at Leucopetra until the fleet could return to convoy them, crosses straits with 3 legions next morning. 36 Ac31 14
36 Aug OCTAVIAN ferries 3 legions from Italy across straits to Sicily. 36 CAH 10-61
36 Aug Sextus sees Octavian, withdraws from fighting Agrippa at Mylae, sails to Messana, Sextus attacks Octavian with fleet and cavalry, and does much damage to Octavian's fleet and army.. 36 Ac31 14, CAH 10-61, wikSP
36 Octavian's general L. CORNIFICIUS with 3 legions is cut off at Tauromenium (Naxos) but extricates his men. 36 CAH 10-35, OCD 292, atl1
36 LARONIUS, officer of Octavian, sent with 3 legions by Agrippa to relieve L. Cornificius at Tauromenium (Naxos). 36 DGRBM 2-722
36 Octavian lands at Naxos and occupies Tauromenium, now has 21 legions in Sicily, against 10 legions of Sextus. 36 CAH 10-35, DGRBM 1-426, wikSP
c.36 MENAS, governor of Sardinia under Octavian from 38, defects back to Sextus Pompeius, who has him closely watched. 36 DGRBM 2-1035, wikMn
36 Aug M. AGRIPPA lands in north Sicily, takes port Tyndaris.  L. CORNIFICIUS joins Agrippa at Tyndaris. 36 Ac 31 14, CAH 10-61
36 Sep 3 SEXTUS POMPEIUS at Mylae, assumes Agrippa is moving his fleet against him, shifts his headquarters to Pelorus, abandoning Mylae, which Octavian occupies. 38 Ac31 15
36 Sep 3 Tisienus Gallus withdraws from Lilybaeum to reinforce Sextus. 38 Ac31 15
36 Sep 3 OCTAVIAN tries to intercept Tisienus Gallus, but loses his way around Mt Myconium.  Octavian finally links up with Lepidus who had left the siege of Lilybaeum to subordinates and marched most of his army east.  Both camp near Messana. 38 Ac31 15
36 Sep 3 300 ships of SEXTUS POMPEIUS decisively defeated by M. AGRIPPA's 300 ships at NaulochusAgrippa loses 3 ships, while 28 ships of Sextus are sunk, 17 flee, and 135 captured.  Sextus' ally C. Fannius deserts to Antony. 38 B76 VIII-107
36 Ac31 16, B76 1-367, CAH 10-35, 62, 549, CDCC 28, DGRBM 1-79, 2-136, 3-473, 491, DGRG 2-398, GHH, LEWH 111, MCAW 260, ahe, atl1, bk, bsic, wikAg, wikSP, wikSPm, wikSR
36 HARPAX, a grapnel shot by a catapult, used by Agrippa at Naulochus. 36 AC31 16, MCAW 261
36 DEMOCHARES, ally of Sextus Pompeius, is killed in battle at Naulochus.  His man Apollophanes is captured.  Sextus barely escapes with 17 ships to Messana, 36 Ac31 16
36 Sextus POMPEIUS with dau Pompeia sails to Lesbos. 36 atl1
36 Tisienus GALLUS ally of Sextus Pompeius, defects with his army to Octavian. 36 DGRBM 2-229
36 Sextus' man L. PLINIUS RUFUS with 8 legions moves east from Lilybaeum to Messana, wanting to surrender, but not knowing to whom. 36 CAH 10-35
36 Sextus' legions besieged at Messana surrender to LEPIDUS, who joins them to his own and tries to buy their loyalty by letting them participate in sacking Messana.  Now with 22 legions under him, Lepidus tries to reassert his rights, seizes passes and orders garrisons in the towns he had occupied not to admit Octavian.. 36 Ac31 16, CAH 10-35
36 OCTAVIAN rebukes LEPIDUS for plundering Messana.  Lepidus, backed by 22 legions, tells Octavian that Sicily should be his.  After negotiation, he suggests that Octavian could have Sicily and Africa, if he agrees to give Lepidus back his old territories in Spain and Gaul, which should legally have been his according to Lex Titia.  Octavian accuses Lepidus of trying to usurp power. 36 CAH 10-62, wikLpd
36 LEPIDUS TROOPS, tired of civil war and despising Lepidus' sluggishness, desert to Octavian. 36 Ac31 16, CAH 10-36, 63, atl1
36 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS triumvir of Africa from 40, stripped of all power by Octavian, sent off to house arrest in Circeii ItalyHe is allowed to keep his title of pontifex maximus until death 12. 36 Ac31 16, B76 VI-158, 15-1106, CAH 10-63, GHH, MCAW 260, atl1, lvS
36 L. Plinius Rufus surrenders Sextus' remaining garrisons, ending the war.  Octavian now has 45 legions - to pay, and no enemy to let them plunder. 36 Ac31 16
36 Octavian dismisses 25,000 cavalry and 40,000 auxiliaries who are not citizens.  He extorts 1,200 talents from the Sicilian communities to pay 20,000 veteran legionaries, and discharges them.  He restores 30,000 slaves to their masters, and crucifies 6,000 whose masters could not be found. 36 Ac31 16, atl1
36 Octavian offers concessions to stop a mutiny among his soldiers. 36 atl1
36 SICILY, having Latin rights from 44, loses them until 21. 36 CAH 10-437
36 T. Statilius TAURUS is sent by Octavian to take charge of Africa until 34. 36 OCD 1011
36 Equite C. Cilinius MAECENAS is in Sicily with Octavian, during his expedition against Sextus Pompeius.  Maecenas is twice sent back to Rome as urban prefect to quell disturbances. Annals 6:11
36 DGRBM 2-891, OCD 636
36 Nov OCTAVIAN returns from Sicily to Rome. 36 Ac31 16, atl1
36/5 L. Scribonius LIBO reluctantly abandons Sextus Pompeius. 36/5 wikSPm
35 Octavian's fleet subdues pirates on Adriatic coast islands, especially Curzola and Meleda islands. 35 HRE 95
35 C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS Vetulio, with Sextus Pompeius from 43, deserts to Octavian. 35 DGRBM 3-725
35 Q. MINUCIUS THERMUS, with Sextus Pompeius from ?, deserts to Antony. 35 DGRBM 3-1097
35 MENAS (Menodorus) dies.  Now back under Octavian, he accompanies Octavian to the north-east coast of the Adriatic, is accused by Gn.(6) Domitius Ahenobarbus of causing disaffection in fleet, and is killed in the Pannonian campaign at the siege of Siscia. 35 DGRBM 2-1035, wikMns
35 CATANA conquered by rebel slaves.  Another revolt in the area, led by gladiator Seleurus is probably suppressed after the death of its leader. 35 wikSP
c.35 Colony at TAUROMENIUM founded by Octavian for his supporters expelling its previous inhabitants. 36 wikSP     35 atl1 21 wikSP
32 Mt. ETNA erupts.  A stream of lava damages city of Aetna and adjoining country and around Catana. 32 DGRG 1-62, wikSP
32 Sep ANTONY'S FLEET: 500 ships (the largest ever seen) moves toward the Ionian Sea between south Italy and Greece, the west boundary of his territory. 32 CAH 10-100
31 spring OCTAVIAN sails from Brundisium. for Corcyra, but is forced to withdraw by a storm. 31 atl1
31 spring OCTAVIAN and many senators sail in 400 ships under M. AGRIPPA into the Adriatic, land in Epirus. 31 B76 1-367, CAH 10-56, 99, DGRBM 1-427
31 LEUCAS Island taken by Agrippa. 31 Ac31, atl1
31 Sep 2 ACTIUM
27 Sardinia and Corsica are reckoned peaceful enough to be made a province of the Roman people, administered as a single unit under a proconsular governor. 27 CAH 10-443
26 Silks exported from Sicily (as well as India) to Rome, cottons from Malta. 26 GHH
c.22 fall AUGUSTUS begins inspection tour of east provinces, starting with Sicily.  He is away from Rome until 19. 22 B76 1-367, CAH 10-144, MCAW 264     22/1 wikSP 21 DGRBM 1-429
c.21 early AUGUSTUS sails from Sicily to Greece. 21 DGRBM 1-429
c.21 SYRACUSE receives a Roman colony, which is confined to the island and the part of the city immediately adjoining it. 21 CAH 10-437, DGRG 2-1062
c.21 CATANA and HIMERA are made Roman colonies by Augustus.  Himera is renamed THERMAE 21 wikSP
c.21 LATIN RIGHTS for Sicily, removed 36, restored. 21 CAH 10-437-8
c.20 PANORMUS is made a Roman colony by Augustus. 20 DGRG 2-544