Persia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Asia Go to India Go to Arabia
c.97 ARTAXERXES ends.  Arsacid king of Media from 111.  ARTABANUS succeeds until 88. 97 wikPsk 91 wikP,
c.97 MITH-II, king of Parthia, contacts Armenia. 97 caisAD, eiArs
c.96 MITH-II, king of Parthia, sends envoy Orobazos to Sulla. 96 wikM2P
c.95 MITHRIDATES-II of Parthia attacks Artavasdes-I, king of Armenia. 95 atl1
c.95 Grandson of Phriapatius, GOTARZES-I becomes ruler of part of Parthia, and contender king of Parthia until 90. 95 icsPE, KoP, wikPE
91 wikGt1, wikP     90 hifiE
93/2 SINATRUCES, neph of Mith-II, governor of Susiana at Susa, rebels, declares himself king Arsaces-XII until 70/69, holds the area until 88/7. 93/2 lvArs, wikM2P, wikSnP
c.92 Mith-II, king of Parthia 124-88, sends embassy to Euphrates to solicit Sulla for alliance with Rome.  Succeeds. 92 DGRBM 3-935, hifiE
c.92 Euphrates Meeting to determine policies and boundaries of Asia ProvinceSulla, praetor of Cilicia takes a higher seat than Orobaze, ambassador of Mith-II of Parthia.  Mith-II wants alliance with Rome, but refuses to help against Mith-VI of Pontus. 96 eiArs
92 B76 9-843, CAH 9-603, GHH, LEWH 96
c.92 First Rome / Parthia treaty; ambassadors from Pacorus received by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia. 92 GHH, hifiP
c.90 GOTARZES-I ends.  Ruler of part of Parthia, and contender king of Parthia from 95.  ORODES-I succeeds until 80. 90 icsPE, KoP, wikPE
87 lvArs, wikGt1, wikP 85 wikO1P
80 hifiE, hifiP
c.90 East Persia comes under Parthians. 90 hifiE, wikGnd
c.90 Capital of Parthia moved to CTESIPHON until ?. 90 PW 17
c.88 ARTABANUS ends.  Arsacid king of Media from 97.  MITHRIDATES succeeds until 67. 88 wikPsk 77 wikP
c.88 Son of Artabanus-II, MITHRIDATES-II (Arsaces-XI) dies.  8th Arsacid king of Parthia from 124.  Anarchy follows until 77.  Son GOTARZES-I of Babyloniaia is dominant until 87.  Parthian power is diminished by dynastic feuds. 91 lvArs, lvT2, wikGt1, wikLPK, wikM2P, wikP     90 wikPE     88 B76 I-543, VI-945, KHA 67, LEWH 96, RAI2, RAI3, KoP, wikM2P, wikPE     88/7 OCD 123, caisAD, eiArs     87 B76 IX-1006, CAH 9, hifiE, hifiP     86 BHS 2-261
c.88 MEDIA ATROPATENE conquered by Tigranes-II of Armenia, and under him until 66. 88 wikTAH
c.88 MITHRIDATES becomes king of Atropatene until 66. 67 wikAtr
c.88 The "70 valleys" that Tigranes-II gave to Mith-II in 95 are now taken back by him. 91 lvT2
88/7 SINATRUCES, neph of Mith-II, king of Susiana at Susa from 93/2, forced out by Gotarzes-I, flees to Central Asian steppe until 77/6. 88/7 wikGt1, wikM2P, wikSnP
Parthia 87-85 Map
 Ali Zifan
c.87 ECBATANA Media sacked by Tigranes-II, king of Armenia. 87 wheAD
c.87 Arsaces-X Mnasciras? becomes king of Parthia until . 87 GHH
c.87 War of succession; Sinatruces contends for Parthian crown. 87 GHH
c.85 DARIUS ends.  Ruler of Elymais from 133/2.  KAMNASKIRES-III succeeds until 82/1 with his Queen ANZAZE. 85 wikEl, wikPsk
c.84 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, defeats Parthians and conquers part of Mesopotamia. 84 atl1
c.82 ELYMAIS, section of south Parthia on Tigris and Gulf, Kamnaskires-II, becomes independent of Parthia (which is in anarchy 88-77). 82 CAH 9-587
c.82/1 KAMNASKIRES-III and Queen ANZAZE end.  Rulers of Elymais from 85.  KAMNASKIRES-IV succeeds until 76/5. 82/1 wikEl, wikPsk
c.81 Son of Mith-II, GOTARZES-I (Arsaces-XIII) ends.  Parthian king of Babylonia from 90, honcho of Parthia from 88.  Son of Mith-II, ORODES-I succeeds until 80.  But Parthia is in near anarchy 88-76. 90 wikPE     87 wikGt1, wikLPK 85 wikO1P     by 81 B76 IV-644 81/0 OCD 123     80 ISBE 1-390, RAI3, hifiP, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE
Arsaces XIV, MITHRIDATES-III succeeds until 80/79 87 lvArs
Apr 11
LUNAR ECLIPSE reported in Babylon mentions Orodes-I as king of kings of the Arsacid dynasty. 80 wikO1P
c.80 SAKAS (Scythians), on Persian borders from ?, diverted by Parthians into Gandhara. 80 hifiE, hifiP
80/79 Arsaces XIV, MITHRIDATES-III king of Parthia from 87, ends. 80/79 lvArs
c.77 War between Arsaces (?), of Parthia, and Tigranes, of Armenia.  Near anarchy in Parthia. 77 GHH
c.77 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56 concludes a dishonorable peace with Arsaces, and cedes much territory to Parthia. 77 GHH
c.77 SINATRUCES, neph of Mith-II, in Central Asian steppe from 88/7, returns from Sacaraucae across the Oxus with aid of Scythian mercenaries to Parthia. 77/6 wikM2P
c.77 Son of Mith-II, ORODES-I (Arsaces-XV) ends.  Parthian king of Babylonia from 81 and contender king of Parthia from 90, deposed by Sinatruces with help of ScythiansSINATRUCES-I (Arsaces-XII) succeeds, age 80, until 70. 80 icsPE, KoP, wikO1P, wikPE
78 hifiE, hifiP, wikPE     77 CAH 9-587, hifiP, KoP, wikLPK, wikSnP     77/6 wikM2P
76 RAI3     76/5 B76 VIII-841, OCD 123     75 lvArs, wikLPK
c.77 ARSACES-XVI becomes rival king to Sinatruces and successors until 66. 77 wikLPK 75 lvArs
c.77 SAKAS (Scythians) invade Persia. 77 wikSnP
c.76/5 KAMNASKIRES-IV ends.  Ruler of Elymais from 82/1.  KAMNASKIRES-V succeeds 73/2 to 46. 76/5 wikEl, wikPsk
c.73 SINATRUCES-I (Arsaces-XII), king of Parthia 77-70, refuses appeal of Mith-VI of Pontus for help. 73 CAH 9-603
c.70 SINATRUCES-I (Arsaces-XII) dies.  King of Babylonia & Parthia from 77, dies.  Son PHRAATES-III (Arsaces-XVII) succeeds until 57 (minus Babylonia until 56). 71 wikPE     70 B76 I-543, VII-971, 9-843, CAH 9-587, DGRBM 1-355, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, KoP, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE, wikPr3, wikSnP     70/69 B76 VIII-841, OCD 123, lvArs   68 GHH
c.69 2nd? Rome / Parthia treaty; Euphrates is the agreed boundary between them. 69 icsPE, lvPE, wikPE
c.69 ZARBIENOS dies.  King of Gordyene from ?, secretly plans revolt against Tigranes-II.  He negotiates with Appius Claudius for Roman help, but the plan is revealed and he is killed by Tigranes. 69 wikCrd, wikPsk
c.69/8 LUCULLUS and TIGRANES-II open negotiations with Parthian counter-king, Arsaces-XVI, presently defending against his rival Phraates-III. 69/8 wikLcl
c.68 MITHRIDATES-VI writes to Phraates-III of Parthia, asking for help against Romans, but Phraates remains neutral. 68 Arsaces atl1
c.68 Pacorus renews his alliance with Rome. 69 GHH
c.67 MITHRIDATES (Arsaces-IV) ends.  King of Media from 88, king of Atropatene from 67DARIUS succeeds 65. 67 wikLPK, wikP, wikPsk     66 wikAtr
c.66 MEDIA ATROPATENE, under Armenia from 88, becomes Parthian vassal state until 32. 66 guess
c.66 ARSACES-XVI rival king of Parthia from 77, ends. 66 wikLPK     62/1 lvArs
c.66 PHRAATES-III (Arsaces-XVII), king of Parthia 66-57, acquires Babylonia. 66 B76 VII-971, CAH 9
c.66 TIGRANES, son of Tigranes-II of Armenia, tries to kill his father and take throne.  Fails and flees to Phraates-III of Parthia, who has recently made treaty with Pompey.  Phraates protects him. 66 DGRBM 3-1128, GHH
c.66 PHRAATES-III, Arsacid king of Parthia 66-57, cooperates with Pompey, invades Armenia, while Pompey invades from west. 66 B76 VII-971, CAH 9 66/5 wikRPW
c.65 DARIUS-I ends.  Arsacid king of Media and Atropatene 65.  MITHRIDATES succeeds in Media until 55.  Son of Mith-I, ARIOBARZANES-I succeeds in Atropatene until 56. 65 wikArb1, wikAtr, wikD1MA, wikPsk
c.65 PHRAATES-III, Arsacid king of Parthia 66-57, tries to recover Gordyene from Tigranes-II of Armenia. 65 CAH 9-380
c.65 PHRAATES-III, Arsacid king of Parthia 66-57, proposes the Euphrates as the boundary between Roman Syria and Parthia.  Pompey refuses to agree. 65 MCAW 248
c.65 Now that Pompey is gone, GORDYENE, under TIGRANES the younger from 66, is taken by Phraates-III king of Parthia until later 65. 65 CAH 9-363, 380 DGRBM 3-1128
c.65 POMPEY, returns from north, finds Gordyene taken by Parthians, sends Afranius to occupy Gordyene until 64, enters into direct relations with other Parthian vassals, Media and Elymais. 66 B76 9-843
65 CAH 9-380, DGRBM 3-1128, atl1
c.65 Roman / Parthian Wars begin until 217CE. 66 wikRPW
c.64 PHRAATES-III, Arsacid king of Parthia 66-57, 2nd attack on Tigranes-II of Armenia. 64 CAH 9-380
c.64 PHRAATES-III, king of Parthia 66-57 agrees to a truce with Tigranes-II of Armenia. 64 atl1
c.63 Tigranes the younger of Armenia marries a dau of Phraates-III. 63 GHH
c.57 Son of Sinatruces, PHRAATES-III (Arsaces-XVII) dies.  Parthian king of Babylonia and Parthia from 70, murdered by sons.  Son ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX) succeeds until 57.  Son MITHRIDATES-III or IV succeeds as king of Media until 57. 60 GHH     58 hifiE, hifiP, wikPE
58/7 B76 I-543, VII-971, 9-843, OCD 123, lvArs     57 B76 VII-592, 971, CAH 9-271, 604, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, icsPE, KoP, wikLPK, wikM3P, wikO2P, wikP, wikPE, wikPr3     56 CDCC 649
c.57 MITHRIDATES-III, bro of Orodes-II, overdoes the cruelty, expelled from Media by Orodes, flees to Syria, asks proconsul A.(5) Gabinius for assylum and help against Orodes-II. 59 GHH
57 B76 9-843, wikM3P
c.57 ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX) out until 56.  Co-king of Parthia 57, deposed and expelled by bro MITHRIDATES-III, who rules alone until 56.  Civil war until 54. 57 CAH 9-604, MCAW 252, hifiP
c.57 Rome - Parthia conflict breaks out. 57 B76 9-843
c.57 Babylon besieged by Orodes-II. 57 GHH
c.56 ORODES-II back in.  Former co-king of Parthia 57, restored to throne until 37 by general Surenas.  Bro MITHRIDATES-III flees to to A.(5) Gabinius proconsul of Syria. 57 bk     56 CAH 9-604     55 hifiE
56 Babylon surrenders to Orodes-II. 56 GHH
c.56 ARIOBARZANES-I dies.  King of Atropatene from 65.  ARTAVASDES-I succeeds until 31. 56 wikArb1, wikArt1, wikAtr
c.56 Babylon surrenders tp Parthians. 56 GHH
c.55 MITHRIDATES-III, former co-king of Parthia, goes to Syria persuades A.(5) Gabinius to promise to restore him to throne. 55 DGRBM 1-356
c.55 MITHRIDATES-III, former co-king of Parthia, returns from Syria to Parthia, regathers partisans, besieged in Seleucia on Tigris by Surena general of Orodes-II. 55 CAH 9-604, wikO2P
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS, proconsul of Syria 57-54, is persuaded by Arsacid Mith-III to restore him to throne of Parthia, crosses Euphrates into Mesopotamia, but gets better offer from Ptolemy-XII Auletes. 55 CAH 9-604, DGRBM 1-356
c.54 MITHRIDATES-III or IV dies..  Arsacid king of Media from 65, former co-king of Parthia, surrenders to Surena general of Orodes-II king of Parthia near Seleucia.  Executed.  Seleucia is taken by Surena.  ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX) sole rule until 38/7. 56 GHH    55 atl1, wikPsk     54 CAH 9, icsPE, KoP, lvArs, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE
54/3 Sons of Phraates III, MITHRIDATES defeats his bro Orodes. 54/3 caisAD, eiArs
53 ORODES-II, Arsacid king of Parthia 57-37, leads the main Parthian army against Armenia by the Araxes route.  His chief general, Surena has forces in Osroene. 53 CAH 9-402
53 M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS, proconsul of Syria 54-3, crosses Euphrates at Zeugma, invades Parthian Mesopotamia, violating treaties of 69 & 66. 54 GHH, atl1 53 B76 9-843, CAH 9-402, MCAW 254, icsPE, lvA, lvPE, wikPE, wikRPW
53 ORODES-II, Arsacid king of Parthia 57-37, attacks Crassus' ally ARTAVASDES, king of Armenia, takes capital Artaxata.  Artavasdes gets no Roman help. 53 CAH 9-609
c.53 M. Licinius CRASSUS proconsul of Syria 54-3, invades Parthia, gets all the way to Seleucia on Tigris before replying to Orodes-II. 54 GHH, atl1     53 B76 9-843, MCAW 254, icsPE, lvA, lvPE, wikPE, wikRPW
53 ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX), king of Parthia 57-37, leaves main fighting to general Surena.  Orodes attacks Crassus' ally ARTAVASDES, king of Armenia, takes capital Artaxata.  Artavasdes gets no Roman help, and allies with Parthians until 36, giving a sis or dau in marriage to Orodes' son Pacorus. 53 CAH 9-609, DGRBM 1-370
53 Crassus is misled by his guide, Ariamnes, an Arab chief. 53 GHH
53 May 6 Battle of CARRHAE (Haran):  M. Licinius CRASSUS with 44,000 troops is defeated by Parthian general SURENA with 10,000 horse archers & 1,000 knights.  1st use of a plentiful reserve of arrows.  The younger Crassus and his officers, seeing no hope of escape, suicide.  20,000 troops survive to retreat to Syria. 54 Jud 5-1059     53 B76 IV-899, VII-592, 9-843, 17-950, CAH 9-606-11, CDCC 242, GHH, ISBE 3-671, Jud 4-37, 5-1059, LEWH 96, MCAW 254, anan, bk, eiArs, hifiE, hifiP, lvA, wikPE, wikPr, wikRPW, wikTAR
53 May CRASSUS retreats from Carrhae.  Parthians, under Surena pursue  During the night of May 8 his quaestor C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus deserts to Sinnaca. 53 CAH 9-611, GHH, Jud 4-37, OCD 212
53 CRASSUS again deceived by a guide. 53 GHH
53 Crassus with 500 cavalry escapes to Syria. 53 GHH
Parthia 53 Map
Ali Zifan
53 May PARTHIANS destroy 7 Roman legions, capture insignia, halt eastward expansion of Rome. 53 B76 9-843, PW 17
53 10,000 Romans taken captive, settled in Margiana oasis in the Kara Kum desert. 53 icsPE
c.53 ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX), king of Parthia 57-37, sends Surena to invade Syria; he is repulsed by C. Cassius.  Orodes becomes jealous of the fame and popularity of Surena; executes him. 52 GHH
53/2 SURENA, commander in chief of Orodes-II, is murdered by Orodes-II because he might aspire to the throne. 53 CAH 9-612 53/2 wikO2P 52 GHH, atl1
c.52 Parthians make raids into Syria. 52 wikRPW
c.51 PACORUS son of Orodes-II and general Osaces are sent to invade Syria until 50, cross Euphrates at Zeugma, get as far as AntiochOSACES is ambushed and killed in battle by C. Cassius. 52 B76 9-843     51 B76 VII-667, 17-950, CAH 9-417, 612, GHH, wikPcr1, wikPE, wikRPW
c.50 ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX), king of Parthia 57-37, learns that one of his satraps plans to make Pacorus king.  He recalls Pacorus from Syria. 50 B76 VII-667, 9-843
c.50 ORODES ends.  (II of Parthia), Arsacid king of Media from 55.  PACORUS succeeds until 38. 50 wikPsk
Parthian armies consist of 2 types of cavalry:  heavy-armed and armored cataphracts and light brigades of mounted archers.  To the Romans, who rely on heavy infantry, the Parthians are hard to defeat.  But Parthians could never occupy conquered countries because they are unskilled in siege warfare. icsPE, lvPE
c.46 KAMNASKIRES-V ends.  Ruler of Elymais from 76/5.  KAMNASKIRES-VI succeeds until 28. 46 wikEl, wikPsk
c.45 PACORUS son of Orodes leads a Parthian force to Syria to help a general of Pompey. 45 B76 VII-667
Parthia 44 Map
Ali Zifan
c.42 early Q. LABIENUS, partisan of Cassius in Syria, sent to negotiate with ORODES-II king of Parthia. 44 DGRBM 2-698
43/2 OCD 575     42 CAH 10-49, Jud 5-234, atl1
c.42 Q. LABIENUS, partisan of Cassius, now in Parthia, learns of Philippi, defects to ORODES-II king of Parthia. 42 DGRBM 2-698, wikPcr1
c.41 PACORUS, son of Orodes-II, becomes co-king of Parthia until 38. 41 icsPE, lvArs
c.41 late Q. LABIENUS persuades PACORUS that conquest of Syria and Levant is possible. 41 CAH 10-47
c.40 Feb PACORUS prince of Parthia 41-38, aided by Q. LABIENUS, cross Euphrates, invade Syria. 41 lvPE     41/0 eiArs     40 B76 17-950, CAH 9-405, 10-41, 47, DGRBM 2-698, GHH, Jud 8-376     39 wikPE, wikRPW
c.40 HYRCANUS-II, high priest 62-40, offers Parthian prince Pacorus 1,000 talents & 500 women of his opponents to make him king of Judea.  Pacorus agrees. Wars 1:13:1 40 CAH 10-48
c.40 PACORUS prince of Parthia 41-38, takes Hyrcanus-II from Syria, to Parthia where king Orodes-II gives Hyrcanus-II a house in Babylonia and treats him well until 36Hyrcanus is respected by Babylonian Jews. 40 CAH 10-48
c.39 PARTHIANS, chased by P. Ventidius BASSUS from Syria across Euphrates to Parthia. 39 CAH 10-50, DGRBM 1-216, DGRG 2-1078
Parthia 41-38 Map
Ali Zifan
c.38 PACORUS prince of Parthia 41-38, with a large newly recruited army, invades Syria again. 38 wikRPW
c.38 Son of Orodes-II, PACORUS dies.  Co-king of Parthia from 41, routed and killed by Bassus at GindarusDefeated Parthians flee to Samosata Armenia, hold up with Antiochus-I of Commagene. Ant 14:15:7     40 B76 X-390,
CAH 10-50, 53, CHJ 3-105, Jud 4-37, OCD 123, 1113, caisAD, wikLPK     39 eiArs
38 hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, KoP, lvArs, wikLPK, wikP, wikPcr1, wikPE, wikPsk
c.38 PACORUS dies.  Arsacid king of Media from 50, ends.  Successor unknown in Media until 30. 38 wikPsk
c.38 Now that Pacorus is dead, ORODES-II, co-king of Parthia 41-38/7, makes son Phraates his heir. 38 wikO2P 37 Ac31 22
38/7 Son of Phraates-III, ORODES-II (Arsaces XIX or XX) dies.  Parthian king of Babylonia and Parthia from 57, is apparently insane.  Son PHRAATES-IV (Arsaces XV) takes throne, murders dad, and succeeds until 2BC.  He also murders his 30 bros, and his own son. 39 hifiE, hifiP     38 CDCC 649, MCAW 260, OCD 828, icsPE, KoP, lvArs, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE     38/7 OCD 123     37 B76 VII-592, 972, 9-844, CAH 10-71, GHH, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, bk, wikO2P, wikPr4
Abdicates. 38/7 CAH 10-28
c.37 Cruelty of PHRAATES-IV provokes many Parthian nobles to flee to Antony. 37 DGRBM 1-356
37/6 HEROD sends envoys to Parthian king (Orodes-II or Phraates-IV) to get Hyrcanus-II back from Babylon.  The Parthian king is happy to let the old man go, because he was becoming dangerously popular among Jews in Babylonia. 37 lvHG
36 CAH 10-741, DGRG 1-358
36 ANTONY with legion VI Ferrata and other, unidentified units (100,000 men) moves from Armenia to invade Parthian Mesopotamia. 36 B76 VII-972, Dur 3-110, 206, lvPE, wikPr4
36 Aug ANTONY is deceived by Artavasdes-II of Armenia to invade Atropatene, where he besieges Parthians in Praaspi (Phraaspa, Praaspa) its fortified capital, but fails to capture city. 37 GHH
36 Ac31, DGRBM 1-357, wikPr4
c.36 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene 56-31, is ally of Phraates-IV of Parthia until 35. 36 wikArt1
c.36 ECBATANA Media, under Parthia from ?, taken by Antony. 35 Ac31 23
36 Oct ANTONY at Ecbatana Media, exhausted and short of supplies with cold weather approaching, begins retreat to Armenia, which lasts 27 days and costs many men. 36 Ac31, CAH 10-74, DGRBM 1-357
Parthia 36 Map
Ali Zifan
36/5 Parthians have internal strife with Medes.  This prevents them from retaking Syria. 36/5 CAH 10-78
c.35 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene 56-31, ally of Phraates-IV of Parthia from 36, defects to Antony until ?. 35 Ac31 23, 29, wikArt1
c.35 ANTONY besieges Praaspi (Phraaspa, Praaspa), capital of Atropatene, but is himself surrounded by Parthians. 35 Ac31 23
c.35 ANTONY abandons siege of Praaspi. 36 Ac31
34 1st son of Artavasdes-I, ARTAXES (Artaxias)-II escapes from Armenia, and flees to Phraates-IV of Parthia. Ant 15:4:3 34 wikTg3
c.34 ANTONY again attacks Phraates-IV of Parthia unsuccessfully. 34 B76 9-844, wikPr4
33 Antony's Parthian War ends in failure.  Parthians overrun Media and Armenia 33 GHH, wikTAR
c.33 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene 56-31 (Parthian vassal state from 66), ally of Antony from 35, meets Antony on Araxes river.  They agree to support each other against enemies, and interchange parts of their troops.  The domain of Art-I is enlarged with parts of Armenia. 33 wikArt1
c.32 TIRIDATES-II, pretender to throne of Parthia, aided by Romans and Media and probably the nobility that Phraates-IV had persecuted, revolts against Phraates, starts civil war until 25. 39 CAH 10-79       32 B76 X-2, caisAD, wikPr, wikPr4, wikTr2     29 icsPE
c.32 MEDIA ATROPATENE, Parthian vassal state from 66, conquered by Parthians. 32 atl1
c.32 TIRIDATES-II, pretender to throne of Parthia, aided by Romans forces Phraates-IV to leave Mesopotamia. 32 B76 X-2, wikPr 31 atl1     toward 30 B76 9-844
c.32 Parthian civil war begins until 25. 32/1 eiArs
c.32 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia from 37, flees from Parthia to Scythians until 30. 32 B76 X-2
toward 30 B76 9-844
c.31 ARTAVASDES-I, king of Atropatene from 56, defeated and captured by Phraates-IV of Parthia.  ASINNALUS succeeds 30-24. 31 wikAtr, 30 wikArt1
c.30 PHRAATES-IV, former king of Parthia 37-32, returns with help of Scythians defeats rebel Tiridates, recovers Parthia until 2.  TIRIDATES-II takes son of Phraates hostage, flees to Syria. 31 B76 X-2
30 B76 VII-972, CAH 10-79, hifiE, KoP, wikArt1, wikVn1
c.30 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, invades and takes Media. 30 CAH 10-79
c.30 Parthian unrest because of cruelties of Phraates-IV. 30 GHH
c.30 TIRIDATES becomes Arsacid king of Media until 25. 30 KoP, wikPsk
c.30 TIRIDATES-II, king of Media, pretender to throne of Parthia, takes son of Phrates-IV hostage, flees to Syria, lives under Roman protection. 31 B76 X-2
30 B76 VII-972, CAH 10-79
c.30 OCTAVIAN in Syria, negotiates Rome / Parthia treaty with Phraates-IV.  Armenia and Osroene are Roman clients. 30 B76 VII-972, atl1
c.29 TIRIDATES-II becomes Arsacid contender king of Parthia until 27. 30 hifiP, wikP     29 icsPE, lvArs, wikPE     28 GHH
c.28 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, temporarily deposed; Tiridates-II made king until 27. 28 GHH 27 wikPE
c.28 KAMNASKIRES-VI ends.  Ruler of Elymais from 46.  KAMNASKIRES-VII succeeds until 1CE. 28 wikEl, wikPsk
c.27 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, obtains aid of some Scythian tribes to recover his throne. 27 GHH
c.26 spring TIRIDATES, pretender to Arsacid throne, under Roman protection in Syria from 30, again invades Parthian Mesopotamia as far as Babylonia. 27 lvArs     26 B76 X-2, OCD 1078
25 OCD 1078
c.25 May TIRIDATES-II, pretender to Arsacid throne, repelled by Phraates-IV. 25 OCD 1078
c.25 TIRIDATES-II ends.  Arsacid king of Media from 30, contender king of Parthia from 29, deposed, goes to Rome taking with him a son of Phraates-VI.  MITHRIDATES-V succeeds in Media until 9. 27 icsPE, wikPE
26 KoP     25 hifiE, hifiP, wikLPK, wikPsk, wikP
c.25 Parthian civil war from 32 ends. 25 caisAD, , eiArs
c.24 ASINNALUS ends.  King of Atropatene from 31.  ARIOBARZANES-II succeeds until 4CE. 28-20 wikArb2, wikAtr
c.24/3 Coins of Phraates-IV of Parthia 37-2 end. 24/3 caisAD, eiArs
c.23 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, sends envoy to Rome, demands surrender of rival Tiridates-II and restoration of his son, also named Phraates. 23 DGRBM 3-1152
20 May 12 PHRAATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, fearing invasion from Augustus in Syria and Tiberius in Armenia, makes treaty, agrees to a Roman protectorate in Armenia, returns to Tiberius the Roman standards captured from Crassus 53, Antony 36, and all Roman POWs who want to return.  Tiberius sends him a trustworthy female slave, named Musa.  Roman celebration of this on May 12 will be continued into the 4th century. 20 B76 2-370, 9-844, CAH 10-90, 263, DGRBM 1-429, GHH, MCAW 268, OCD 828, bk, eiArs, icsPE, lvPE, wikPE
c.20 AtropateneMEDIA ATROPATENE, free of Dominance by Artaxes of Armenia, asks Augustus to give them a king.  Augustus enthrones son of late Artavasdes, ARIOBARZANES-II king until 4CE. 20 CAH 10-284
c.20 GONDOPHARES-I becomes king of Sistan (Sakastan) until ??CE. 20 wikPsk
c.19 Parthians defeated by Tiberius. 19 GHH
c.18 Queen MUSA governs the king of Parthia so as to gratify Rome. 18 GHH
c.12 MITHRIDATES-V king of Media 25-9, becomes king of something else, and a rival to Phraates IV of Parthia until 9. 12 caisAD, eiArs, wikLPK, wikPsk
c. 10/9 On advice of queen Musa, PHRATES-IV, Arsacid king of Parthia 37-2, calls M. Titius, governor of Syria to conference, voluntarily delivers his 4 sons and their families to live in Rome, not to signify subordination, but to defuse opposition at home and stabilize his hold on the throne.  Sons are: Vonones, Seraspadanes, Rhodaspes, Phraates. 18 GHH
10 CAH 10-160, 10/9 B76 9-844, CAH 10-264, MCAW 272, wikVn1
no date: wikMP
c.9 MITHRIDATES-V, Arsacid king of Media from 25, rival to Phraates IV of Parthia from 12, ends. 9 caisAD, eiArs, wikPsk
c.9 Parthian nobility enthrones counter-king VONONES until c.5?. 9 wikPr, wikPsk
c.5 VONONES, Arsacid counter-king of Parthia from 9, has money problems, deposed.  Non-Arsacid ARTABANUS-II succeeds until ?. 5 guess
no date: wikPr
c.2 Son of Orodes-II, PHRAATES-IV (Arsaces XXII) dies.  14th Arsacid king of Parthia from 37, poisoned by wife Musa (an Italian slave donated by Augustus) and their bastard son Phraateces, who marries his mom and succeeds as PHRAATES-V until 4 CE. 3 MCAW 272, hifiE, hifiP
2 B76 VII-972, 9-844, CAH 10-160, 275, OCD 123, 828, icsPE, KoP, lvArs, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE, wikPr4, wikPr5
Parthia 1CE Parthia & sub-  kingdoms in 1CE

map Thomas Lessman

Persia 0-100