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c.99 Revolt in Spain 99 GHH
c.99 Romans subdue the Lusitani again. 99 atl1     98 CAH 9
c.99 Lusitania becomes a Roman province. 99 GHH
c.98 War with the Celtiberi. 98 GHH
c.98 Consul T. DIDIUS is sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 93.  Q. SERTORIUS is his military tribune. 98 rcIb, wikRCH     97 B76 IX-74, DGRBM 3-789, wikTD     96 atl1
c.98/7 TERMESSUS (Tarmesum), a large city always insubordinate to Romans, taken by T. Didius, moved from its easily defended location in the hills to the plain.  City walls are forbidden. 98/7 wikRCH 96 atl1
c.98/7 COLENDA, under the Arevaci in Tarraconensis, besieged 9 months and taken by T. Didius.  Inhabitants enslaved, including women and kids. 98/7 wikRCH 96 atl1
c.98/7 Praetor T. DIDIUS promises the Averaci to resettle them in Colenda land, tells them to assemble for registration, lures a whole tribe (about 20,000 of them) into his camp, massacres every man, woman, & kid. 98 Dur 3-136, wikTD
c.97 Praetor T. DIDIUS successful in Spain. 97 GHH
c.96 Praetor P.(4) Licinius CRASSUS becomes proconsul in Farther Spain until 93. 96 DGRBM 1-874, rcIb     95 atl1
c.95 Praetor P.(4) Licinius CRASSUS discovers route to Cassiterides islands (location disputed). 95 atl1
c.93 CELTIBERI rebel because of cruelty of T. Didius. 93 wikGVF
c.93 Consul C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS goes from Rome to Spain to deal with Celtiberi rebellion - not as a provincial governor, remains until 83. 93 rcIb, wikGVF
c.93 Praetor P.(4) Licinius CRASSUS, in Farther Spain from 96, returns to Rome. 93 DGRBM 1-874, OCD 295, atl1, wikRCH     92 rcIb
c.93 Praetor T. DIDIUS and his tribune Q. Sertorius, in Nearer Spain from 98, return to Rome.  C. Coelius CALDUS succeeds until ?. 93 DGRBM 1-561, 1005, atl1, rcIb, wikRCH, wikTD
Julian Bridgephoto: Ajay Suresh
c.90 CORDOBA BRIDGE built over the Baetia River early 1st cen wikRBC
87 late Sulla partisan, M.(3) Licinius Crassus, flees from Italy to Spain where he has relatives, until 84. 87 CAH 9-180, DGRBM 1-874, OCD 295, atl1 87/6 wikMLC
c.85 M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS hides in a cave in Spain, near estate of Vibius Paciacus until 84. 85 atl1
c.84 M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS hiding in a cave in Spain from 85, hears about death of Cinna, comes out of hiding and captures Malaca. 84 atl1
c.84 M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS, in Spain from 87,goes to Africa. 84 wikMLC
c.83 The CELTIBERI rebel again.  C.(3) Valerius Flaccus is sent against them and kills 20,000. 82 wikRCH
c.83 C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS, general trouble shooter in Spain from 93, returns to Rome because of a property dispute. 83 DGRBM 2-159, rcIb, wikGVF
c.83 Praetor Q. SERTORIUS flees Italy thru Gaul, to Nearer Spain until 81.  He forms an army of Roman settlers and Spaniards, providing munitions of war and building ships. 83 DGRBM 3-790, GHH, LEWH 107, MCAW 242, OCD 980 atl1, rcIb, wikTRH    83/2 B76 IX-74
83 M. FONTEIUS becomes legate in Farther Spain until ?. 83 DGRBM 2-180
c.83 LUSITANIA, in province of Farther Spain from 197, under Roman control 150, comes under Q. Sertorius until 72. 84 rcIb
82 M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS, in Spain from 85, returns to Rome, joins Sulla. no date: OCD 295
c.82 ISLANDS of the BLESSEDQ. Sertorius at Gades encounters sailors recently returned from these 2 Atlantic islands described as 10,000 stadia off Africa.  He considers moving there. 82 DGRG 1-906
81 atl1
81 T. Annius LUSCUS is sent from Rome by Sulla with proconsular authority against Sertorius in Spain.  He is followed by his quaestors L. Fabius and Q. Tarquitius.  They find the passages of the Pyrenees occupied by Julius Salinator, legate of Sertorius, and cannot continue until Salinator is treacherously murdered. 81 DGRBM 2-842
no date: DGRBM 3-790
c.81 Q. SERTORIUS, in Nearer Spain from 83, driven out by C Annius Luscus, sails to Mauretania, tries to settle, but is forced to leave, goes to Pityussa island off coast of Spain. 81 GHH, atl1, rcIb
80 MCAW 244
80 M. FONTEIUS is sent on a mission to Farther Spain. 80 atl1
80 Praetor L.(2) Domitius AHENOBARBUS sent from Rome as proconsul to Nearer Spain. 80 DGRBM 1-86, 3-790
c.80 Praetor L. FUFIDIUS, arrives as proconsul to Farther Spain until 80. 80 DGRBM 3-790
c.80 SEGOVIA, Iberian settlement from 700, taken by Romans. 80 rcIb
80 The Lusitanni invite Q. Sertorius back to Spain to support a rebellion. 80 CAH 9-206, Dur 3-136, MCAW 244, OCD 980, atl1
c.80 Sertorian War with Rome begins until 72.  Q. Sertorius, in Africa from ?, lands in Spain until 72 to support a Lusitani rebellion. 80 B76 IX-74, CAH 9-206, Dur 3-136, OCD 980, LEWH 107, atl1, wikRCH, wikTAR
c.80 Praetor L. FUFIDIUS badly defeated by Sertorius at the Guadalquiver (Baetis). 80 CAH 9-215, DGRBM 3-790, atl1, wikRCH
c.80 Q. SERTORIUS defeats Cotta in a naval battle near Mellaria, then returns to Spain. 80 atl1, wikRCH
80/79 L. FUFIDIUS summons L.(2) Domitius Ahenobarbus governor of Nearer Spain, to come to his aid. 79 atl1
c.80/79 Praetor L. FUFIDIUS, in Farther Spain from 80, ends. 80 rcIb 79 atl1
80/ 79 Praetor Q.(6) Cęcilius METELLUS PIUS is sent from Rome to Spain to fight Marian Sertorius.  Metellus camps at Metellinum on the Guadiana and makes several incursions against the Celtiberi and Vaccaei who had allied with Sertorius.  Metellus stays until 71. 80 B76 VI-836     80/79 OCD 678, wikRCH
79 CDCC 809, DGRBM 2-1060, 3-790, GHH, LdHR 356, atl1, rcIb
c.79 Praetor Q. CALIDIUS sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until ?. 79 DGRBM 1-563
c.79 Q. SERTORIUS, rebel leader in Spain 80-72, defeats and kills L. Thorius BALBUS, lieutenant of Q.(6) Cęcilius Metellus Pius near Consabura. 79 CAH 9-217, atl1
c.79 Q. SERTORIUS controls most of Farther Spain and parts of Nearer Spain. 79 wikTRH
c.79 Praetor L.(2) Domitius AHENOBARBUS proconsul of Nearer Spain, is summoned by Q.(6) Metellus Pius to help him in Farther Spain. 79 DGRBM 1-86
c.79 Q. SERTORIUS begins negotiations with Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 79 CAH 9-217
c.79 Praetor M. Domitius CALVINUS dies.  Governor of Nearer Spain from 80, defeated and killed in battle against HIRTULEIUS, quaestor of Sertorius at Anas River. 79 DGRBM 2-498, 3-790, atl1, rcIb, wikMDC
79/8 Praetor L.(2) Domitius AHENOBARBUS dies.  Proconsul of Nearer Spain, defeated and killed by Hirtuleius, quaestor of Sertorius near Anas River. no date: DGRBM 1-86, 3-790
c.78 War with the Lusitani, who are commanded by Sertorius. 78 GHH
c.78 Q.(6) Cęcilius Metellus besieges Lacobriga in Lusitania, summons help from governor of Transalpine Gaul, L. Manlius. 78 CAH 9-217
CONFUSION ALERT!  LaCobriga and LaNGobriga are both in Lusitania.
c.78 Aquinus, a general of Q.(6) Cęcilius Metellus attacks Langobriga, but is ambushed and defeated by Sertorius. 79 wikTRH
78 atl1     76 wikLc
c.78 L. MANILIUS proconsul of Narbonensis, goes to Spain, with 3 legions and 1500 cav, to assist Q.(6) Cęcilius Metellus against Sertorius, but he is defeated by Sertorian general Hirtuleius near Ilerda, loses his camp and baggage, and escapes almost alone to Ilerda. 78 DGRBM 2-917, atl1, wikRGG
c.78 Treaty with GADES renewed by senate. 78 atl1
c.77 Praetor Gn. Pompeius Magnus Proconsul of Spain from earlier 77, comes from Transalpine Gaul to Nearer Spain until 71.  L. Afranius is a legate. 77 CDCC 708, 809, DGRBM 1-55, bk, rcIb
c.77 SERTORIUS and HIRTULEIUS change positions.  Hirtuleius defends Lusitania and keep Q.(6) Metellus Pius contained.  Sertorius invades Nearer Spain, advancing from Consabura to Bilbilis by way of Caraca, Segobriga, and Seguntia. 77 CAH 9-217
c.77 Q. SERTORIUS sets up a rival senate of his supporters in Spain. 77 atl1
c.77 Q. SERTORIUS wins support of Spanish leaders by generosity, and sets up a school for their children at Osca. 77 atl1
c.77 TORANIUS, legate of Q.(6) Metellus Pius, defeated and killed by Sertorius. 77 DGRBM 3-1105
c.77 M. PERPERNA VENTO with Marian nobles and 53 cohorts of Lepidus' army sails from Sardinia to Spain, resolved to carry on the war independently against Q.(6) Metellus.  But his troops hear that Pompey is crossing the Alps, and compel Perperna to join Sertorius. 77 CAH 9-217, CDCC 809, DGRBM 3-202, 790, MCAW 244, atl1, wikTRH
c.77 L.(3) Cornelius CINNA leaves Italy, joins Sertorius in Spain.  In exile until 70. no date: OCD 241, wikCnsc
c.77 CONTREBIA in Celtiberia taken by Sertorius. 77 atl1
c.77 Q. SERTORIUS uses guerrilla tactics to wear down Metellus. 77 atl1
c.77 Q. SERTORIUS defeats generals Gn. Pompeius Magnus and Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius at Battle of Saguntum. 77 wikTRH
c.77 Q. SERTORIUS retires to winter camp at Castra Aelia 60km northeast of Bilbilis. 77 atl1
76 early Gn. POMPEY, proconsul of Spain, comes from Italy thru Gaul with 30,000 inf and 1,000 cav to help Q.(6) Metellus Pius against Sertorius.  In Spain until 71. 77 B76 IX-74, CAH 9-217, GHH, OCD 857
76 DGRBM 3-479, DGRG 1-955, wikPm
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS attacks the Berones. 76 atl1
c.76 Q.(6) Cęcilius METELLUS PIUS receives pay and provisions from Gaul. 76 atl1
c.76 SAGUNTUM and other cities welcome Pompey. 76 atl1
c.76 PERPERNA sent by Sertorius to oppose Pompey in coastal region between Saguntum and Tarraco. 76 CAH 9-217
c.76 Quaestor HIRTULEIUS sent by Sertorius to to tie down Q.(6) Metellus Pius in Lusitania, and prevent him from joining Pompey. 76 CAH 9-217
c.76 Quaestor of Sertorius, HIRTULEIUS dies.  Routed and killed by Q.(6) Metellus near Italica in Baetica. 78 DGRBM 2-498, 76 atl1
c.76 POMPEY wins over the Ilergetes and Lacetani, then moves south to control the east coast as a base for expanding inland. 76 CAH 9-217
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS forces the Characitani to surrender by filling their caves with dust. 76 atl1
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS defeats Pompey near the Pyrenees. 76 wikTRH
c.76 Perperna's soldiers insist on joining Sertorius' army. 76 atl1
c.76 Gn. POMPEY joins Q.(6) Metellus Pius (against his will). 77/6 OCD 578
76 MCAW 244, OCD 980
c.76 M. TERENTIUS VARRO serves under Pompey in Spain. 76 B76 X-362
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS ambushes and destroys a legion from Pompey' under D. Laelius. 76 atl1
c.76 Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats Sertorian Hirtuleius at Italica.  Metellus then goes north to Catalonia. 76 CAH 9-218
c.76 In Baetica, Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats Sertorian Hirtuleius, who flees. 76 wikTRH
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS tries to seize Lauro in order to block Pompey's route to Valentia. 76 CAH 9-218
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS, aided by M. Peperna, surprises and defeats Pompey and Q.(6) Metellus at Lauro.  Pompey & Metellus lose a legion (10,000 men) including legate D. Laelius. 76 CAH 9-218, DGRBM 3-10, 479, 791, atl1
c.76 LAURO sacked and destroyed by Sertorius. 76 CAH 9-218, DGRBM 3-10, 479, 791
c.76 After Lauro, POMPEY withdraws north beyond the Ebro.  This leaves Sertorius and Perperna free to move to Lusitania to try to repair things there, while Sertorian C. Herennius is left to guard Valentia. 76 CAH 9-218
c.76 Q. SERTORIUS makes agreement with Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 76 CAH 9-358, DGRBM 3-10, GHH
76/5 Gn. POMPEY, defeated by Sertorius, winters in Nearer Spain among hostile Spanish tribes. 76/5 DGRBM 3-479, atl1
76/5 Gn. POMPEY invades Celtiberia. 76/5 CAH 9-218
c.75 Gn. POMPEY again set out to subdue the east coast, while Metellus Pius opposes Hirtuleius, who remains in Lusitania. 75 CAH 9-218
c.75 Q. SERTORIUS recruits more troops. 75 atl1
75 spring M. PERPERNA VENTO sent by Sertorius with a big army to the mouth of the Ebro, to watch PompeyHe fails to stop Pompey from crossing the Ebro 75 DGRBM 3-791
no date: CAH 9-218
c.75 Gn. POMPEY crosses the Ebro, and again marches south against C. Herennius and Perperna, legates of Sertorius, and badly defeats them near Valentia. 75 DGRBM 3-479
c.75 CONSABURA refuses to surrender to Sertorian Hirtuleius. 75 atl1
c.75 Gn. POMPEY hopes to crush Sertorius before Q.(6) Metellus arrives.  Sertorius, had advanced from the west.  The battle at the Sucro (Xucar) is not decisive.  The right wing, where Pompey commands is routed by Sertorius, and Pompey is nearly killed in the pursuit.  His left wing under legate L. Afranius, drives the right wing of Sertorius's army off the field, and takes his camp, but then begins looting.  They are then defeated by returning Sertorians.  Night puts an end to the battle.  Next day Sertorius withdraws. 75 CAH 9-218, DGRBM 3-479, atl1, wikLA, wikPm, wikTRH
c.75 Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS joins Pompey.  They continue together for a time, but frequently forced to separate to obtain food.  On one of these occasions they are attacked simultaneously, Pompey by Sertorius near Seguntia, and Metellus by Perperna.  Metellus defeats Perperna with a loss of 5,000 men, but Pompey is routed by Sertorius, and loses 6,000.  Pompey's most capable commander, MEMMIUS is killed. 75 DGRBM 3-479, wikPm
c.75 M. VARIUS (Marius) is sent by Sertorius to Mithridates-VI of Pontus to help him fight Romans 75 DGRBM 3-1221
c.75 Sertorius' lieutenant L. HIRTULEIUS is defeated and killed, along with his bro, by Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS at Segovia. 75 B76 VI-836, CAH 9-218, atl1, wikRCH
c.75 Q. SERTORIUS stabs messenger bringing news of Hirtuleius' death. 75 atl1
c.75 CARTAGENA besieged by Sertorius. 75 atl1
c.75 Praetor M. FONTEIUS governor of Narbonnensis Gaul 76-3, sends provisions, military stores, and recruits to Metellus Pius and Gn. Pompey in Spain. 75 DGRBM 2-180
c.75 POMPEY defeats Perperna and Herennius by river Turia, near ValentiaC. HERENNIUS is killed.  Valentia is taken. 75 CAH 9-218, atl1
c.75 SERTORIUS defeats POMPEY near SeguntiaPompey's bro-in-law C. MEMMIUS is killed. 75 CAH 9-218
c.75 SERTORIUS is then defeated by METELLUS at Seguntia. 75 atl1
c.75 After Seguntia SERTORIUS withdraws to Clunia, where he is blockaded. 75 CAH 9-218
c.75 At Clunia, SERTORIUS stands a siege, until Pompeyans withdraw for winter, and then Sertorius withdraws from Clunia. 75 atl1
c.75 Further skirmishes between Pompey and Sertorius in Celtiberia. 75 atl1
c.75 Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS offers a reward for murder of Sertorius. 75 atl1
c.75 POMPEIOPOLIS (Pamplona) army settlement founded in Navarre by Pompey. 75 B76 VII-707 74 wikTRH
c.75 Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS celebrates his victory over Sertorius and withdraws for winter to Gaul. 75 CAH 9-218, atl1
c.75 POMPEY retires north of the Ebro to Vaccaei country for winter.  He writes again to the senate for more troops and grain, threatening to quit Spain if he did not receive them.  Senate waits until 74 before complying.  Pompey's battles of 74-72 are not recorded. 75 CAH 9-218, 219, DGRBM 3-479, 791, atl1
c.75 Negotiations between Sertorius and Mith-VI of Pontus, lead to agreement on a joint attack on Romans.  Mith-VI agrees to send 40 ships and 3,000 talents in exchange for military advisers. 75 atl1, wikMM 75/4 CAH 9-219
c.74 2 legions and money are sent by senate to Pompey. 74 DGRBM 3-791
73 wikPm
c.74 M. PERPERNA VENTO goes to Galicia, where he captures town of Cale. 74 atl1
c.74 Caecilius Metellus and Pompey change tactics, quit trying to bring the enemy to battle in favor of reducing his strongholds, concentrate operations against the Celtiberi and Vaccaei. 74 CAH 9-219, wikRCH
c.74 Q. SERTORIUS surprises Pompey at Pallantia and forces him to raise siege and retreat. 74 CAH 9-219, atl1
c.74 CAUCA taken by Pompey. 74 CAH 9-219
c.74 Q. SERTORIUS defeats combined forces of Metellus and Pompey at Calagurris. 74 CAH 9-219, atl1
c.74 Fleet commander M.(4) ANTONIUS attacks pirates and their allies in Liguria and Spain. 74 atl1
c.74 Q. SERTORIUS tries to Romanize his Spaniards, encourages Spanish officers to wear togas, starts a school for teaching Latin and Greek. 74 MCAW 244
c.74 Bilbilis and Segobriga taken by Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS. 74 CAH 9-219
c.74 Deserters L. Fannius and L. Magius with Mith-VI of Pontus from 84, are sent to Spain to make treaty with Sertorius. 74 DGRBM 2-136
c.74 Q. SERTORIUS in Spain trades with Mith-VI of Pontus:  Roman officers including M. Varius are sent back with Fannius and Magius in exchange for money and ships. 74 DGRBM 2-136, MCAW 244
74 late Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS retires to winter quarters in Farther Spain, where he offends some by his luxurious lifestyle. 75 atl1
74/3 POMPEY winters in Gaul, where supplies are provided to him by governor M. Fonteius. 73 atl1
c.73 POMPEY operates alone in Celtiberia. 73 CAH 9-219
c.73 Q. SERTORIUS loses all the region of Celtiberia. 73 wikTRH
c.73 Q. SERTORIUS takes harsh measures to stop his allies from deserting. 73 atl1
c.73 Romans win over many Spanish towns. 73 atl1
c.73 Pompey and Q. Cecilius Metellus Pius conquer the Turmodigi and include their lands in Nearer Spain. 73 wikTRH
c.73 The Belli and their Titii allies merge with the pro-Roman Uraci, Cratistii and Olcades tribes to form the Late Celtiberian people of romanized south Celtiberia. 73 wikTRH
73 end Almost all towns of Celtiberia, the Ebro valley and the east coast had gone over to Pompey.  Only Ilerda, Osca, Calagurris, Tarraco and port of Dianium (at Lauro) remain loyal to Sertorius. 73 CAH 9-219
73/2 POMPEY besieges Palantia.  Sertorius arrives and breaks the siege.  Pompey burns the city walls and retreats to Metellus.  Sertorius rebuilds the wall and then attacks Pompeyans who are encamped around the castle of Calagurris.  Pompeyans lose 3000 men. 73/2 wikPm
c.72 City of GADES gives supplies to Pompey. 72 atl1
c.72 Q. SERTORIUS dies..  Rebel in Spain from 80, invited to a banquet and treacherously murdered by his ally, M. Perperna, who takes over his army. 73 wikTRH     73/2 OCD 980     72 B76 IX-74, CAH 9, CDCC 809, DGRBM 3-203, 480, 791, Dur 3-137, LEWH 107, MCAW 244, atl1, bk
c.72 M. PERPERNA Vento, now leader of the Romans rebelling in Spain, is defeated, captured, and executed by Pompey.  Perperna's army surrenders.  Sertorian War from 80 ends.  Pompey destroys private papers of Sertorius to stop them being used as blackmail, and treats survivors of Perperna's army humanely. 72 B76 15-1104, DGRBM 3-203, 480, OCD 802, atl1, wikTAR, wikTRH
c.72 Q. FABIUS of Saguntum is given Roman citizenship by Metellus. 72 atl1
c.72 CLUNIA Spain destroyed by Pompey. 72 wikCl
c.72 L.(1) Cornelius BALBUS of Gades is given Roman citizenship by Pompey. 72 atl1
c.72 Farther Spain pacified by Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius except north of the Tagus. 72 wikTRH
c.72 TROGUS, grandfather of historian Pompey Trogus, is given Roman citizenship by Pompey. 72 atl1
c.72 Spain conquered by Pompey, settled by Q.(6) Metellus Pius. 72 CAH 9, GHH
c.72 C. CORNELIUS becomes quaestor under Pompey. 72 atl1
c.72 Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS imposes taxes on Spanish towns. 72 atl1
c.72 Pompeyan L.(1) Cornelius BALBUS in Spain from ?, returns to Rome. 72 DGRBM 1-456, 3-480
c.72 LUSITANIA, under Q. Sertorius from 84, joined to province of Farther Spain until 22, comes under Rome until 395CE. 72 rcIb
c.71 Praetor Q.(6) Cęcilius METELLUS PIUS, in Farther Spain from 79, returns with army (before Pompey) to Rome. 71 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1060, OCD 678, rcIb
c.71 POMPEY captures rebel cities of Uxama and Calagurris. 71 atl1
c.71 Sertorius' Romanizing efforts enable some Spaniards to get Roman citizenship.  L.(1) Cornelius Balbus is among them. 71 MCAW 244
c.71 Praetor Gn. POMPEY, in Nearer Spain from 77, returns with army over Pyrenees thru Gaul to Rome until 54.  Spaniard L.(1) Cornelius Balbus accompanies. 71 B76 14-793, CAH 9, DGRBM 3-480, MCAW 245, OCD 857, atl1, rcIb, wikPm
c.70 Praetor Gn. Calpurnius Piso arrives in Nearer Spain until ?. 70 rcIb
c.69. M.(1) Pupius PISO FRUGI Calpurnianus, proconsul of Spain from ?, returns to Rome. 69 DGRBM 3-374, atl1
c.68 Quaestor C.(4) Julius CAESAR sent from Rome to Spain until 67, serves as quaestor under Antistius Vetus, propraetor of Farther Spain.  Caesar intrigues with the Transpadani (Italians north of the Po). 68 DGRBM 3-1251, Dur 3-110, MCAW 248, OCD 189
c.67 Quaestor C.(4) Julius CAESAR in Spain from 68, returns to Rome until 61. 67 wikELJC, wikJC
c.65 Praetor M. Papius Piso arrives in Nearer Spain until death ?. 65 atl1, rcIb
c.64 P. SITTIUS, wealthy equite with interests in Spain and Mauretania, in debt and suspected of Cataline sympathies, comes from Rome to Spain until 63. 64 DGRBM 3-844, OCD 994, atl1
c.64 Gn.(2) Calpurnius PISO, Cataline conspirator, quaestor propraetor in Spain from 65?, killed by partisans of Pompey. 64 DGRBM 3-375, OCD 836
c.63 P. SITTIUS, in Spain from 64, goes to Mauretania. 63 DGRBM 3-844
c.62 Praetor C.(2) COSCONIUS is made proconsul of Farther Spain.  P. Vatinius is his legate, and continues robbery and extortion. 62 DGRBM 1-863, 3-1234, atl1
c.62 VALENTIA taken by Manlius Lentinus. 62 DGRBM 1-863, 3-1234, atl1
61 Jun Praetor C.(4) Julius CAESAR sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 60.  L.(1) Cornelius Balbus accompanies as prefect.  C.(1) Antistius Vetus (son of above 68) is his quaestor.  Caesar needs money to pay off debts. 61 DGRBM 1-542, Dur 3-110, 129, CAH 9-512, DGRBM 1-456, MCAW 250, OCD 189, bk, rcIb sjsu, wikELJC, wikJC, wikTRH
61/0 Praetor C.(4) Julius Caesar conducts small successful campaigns against the Lusitani in northwest of Farther Spain, extracts enough loot to pay off his debts, also improves the commercial position of Gades. 61 DGRBM 1-542, MCAW 250, wikLst 61/0 sjsu, wikELJC
c.60 Praetor C. Julius Caesar governs Further Spain, and defeats the Lusitani and Gallici. 60 atl1
60 mid Praetor C. Julius Caesar, gov. of Farther Spain from 61, returns to Rome. 60 CAH 9-512, DGRBM 1-542, MCAW 252, bk, rcIb, sjsu, wikELJC
c.59 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER sent from Rome to be governor of Nearer Spain until 58. 59 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-730, atl1, wikPCLS
c.58 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER governor of Nearer Spain from 59 returns to Rome. 58 B76 VI-146
c.56 Praetor Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS sent from Rome to be governor of Nearer Spain until 55. 56 DGRBM 2-1062, rcIb, wikQ9MN
c.56 A joint uprising of the Turmodigi, Vaccaei and other people is defeated by Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS Nepos. 56 wikTRH
c.56 Praetor Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS becomes governor of Nearer Spain until 55. 56 DGRBM 2-1062, rcIb
c.56 Praetor Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS governor of Nearer Spain, makes a sudden and apparently unjustified attack on the Vaccaei, whom he defeats. 56 DGRBM 2-1062, rcIb

Spain 55-0
V