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c.55 Praetor Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS is unable to suppress a rebellion led by the Vaccaei. 55 atl1
c.55 CLUNIA Spain taken by the Vaccaei.  Q.(9) Caecilius Metellus Nepos doesn't dare attack them. 55 DGRBM 2-1062
c.55 Praetor Q.(9) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS, in Nearer Spain from 56, ends. 55 rcIb
c.54 POMPEY is proconsul of Spain until 49, but he resides at Rome and governs thru legati.  He sends M. PETREIUS. 55 B76 14-794, CAH 9-605, CDCC 708, DGRBM 1-55, 3-213, 486, Jud 4-758, OCD 295, 858     54 CAH 9, rcIb
c.54 Quaestor Q.(3) CASSIUS Longinus becomes Pompey's quaestor in Farther Spain until ??. 54 B76 II-617, DGRBM 2-802, wikQCL
c.53 L. AFRANIUS becomes Pompey's legate in Nearer Spain until 49, with 3 legions. 53 OCD 22
c.52 Quaestor, Q.(3) CASSIUS LONGINUS is sent by Pompey from Rome to Farther Spain until ??.  He is wounded in line of duty. 54 DGRBM 2-802 52 OCD 212, atl1
c.49 early Pompeyans L. AFRANIUS and M. PETREIUS attack C. FABIUS, general of Caesar, near river Sicoris. 49 DGRG 2-31
c.49 early Pompeyans L. AFRANIUS and M. PETREIUS retreat to Ilerda. 49 DGRG 2-31
c.49 early L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS and C. FABIUS command Caesar's troops near Ilerda. 49 DGRBM 3-382
49 Jan L. VIBULLIUS RUFUS is sent by Pompey from Rome to Spain to help L. Afranius and M. Petreius. 49 DGRBM 3-1256
c.49 BISCAY, district on north coast of Spain, comes under Rome until 395CE. 49 rcIb
c.49 POMPEY proconsul of Spain from 54, but residing in Rome, term ends. 49 rcIb
c.49 Praetor M. Terentius VARRO arrives in Farther Spain until 48, sides with Pompey. 49 B76 X-362, rcIb
c.49 M. Fadius GALLUS is legate under Caesar in Spain. 49 DGRBM 2-228
c.49 Legion V Alaudae, in Gaul from 52, moved to Spain until ?. 49 wikLVA
49 Caesarean legion VI Ferrata, at Cabillonum from 52, moved to Spain until 45. 49 wik6Fr
49 Ap/ May CAESAR, with legates Q.(3) Cassius and P. Sulpicius Rufus, marches from Massilia to Spain, where Fabius is pressed by Pompeyans under legates, L. Afranius and M. Petreius near Ilerda, fights them until August. 49 DGRBM 3-487, 550, 946, GHH, atl1, ttjc, ttpm, unrvCS, wikCCW, wikTRH
49 CAESAR's army is trapped for a few days, when a flood breaks bridges over rivers Sicoris and Cinga. 49 atl1
49 Spanish tribes: Oscenses Calagurritani, Tarraconenses, Jacetani, Ausetani and Illurgavonenses defect to Caesar. 49 unrvCS
49 Jul CAESAR surrounds Pompeyans under L. Afranius and M. Petreius at Ilerda. 49 unrvCS
49 Aug 2 Caesarian forces: 6 legions, 3,000 cavalry (Gallic campaign veterans), and Caesar's 900-horse personal bodyguard, suffer 70 men killed in action, while Pompeian forces lose 200 men killed and 600 wounded.  Afranius and Petreius surrender.  Caesar gains control of Spain.  Pompeyans hold Baetica.  L. Afranius is pardoned by Caesar, and flees to Pompeyans. 49 B76 V-300, 17-404, CAH 9-431, Dur 3-184, DGRBM 3-487, GHH, LEWH 109, OCD 22, 189, atl1, bk, ttjc, ttpm, wikCCW, wikPtr, wikTRH
c.49 Pompeyan L. VIBULLIUS RUFUS is captured by Caesar and again pardoned. 49 DGRBM 3-1256
c.49 DECIDIUS SAXA serves under Caesar against legates of Pompey, remains in Spain till the conclusion of the war against sons of Pompey 45. 49 DGRBM 3-730
49 Pompeyan praetor M. Terentius VARRO commanding 2 legions, tries to be loyal to Pompey, but the locals and his own men prefer Caesar. 49 unrvCS
49 Aug Pompeyan praetor M. Terentius VARRO commanding 2 legions, in Farther Spain, defeated, surrenders to Caesar. 49 DGRBM 1-551, OCD 1107, atl1, unrvCS
c.49 GADES citizens are given Roman citizenship by Caesar. 49 DGRG 1-924
49 Aug CAESAR in Spain from March, leaves Q.(3) Cassius Longinus in charge of Farther Spain, returns by land thru Gaul for Italy. 49 CAH 9, DGRBM 2-802, Dur 3-184, MCAW 256, OCD 189, ttpm, wikTRH
c.48 Praetor M. Terentius VARRO, Pompeyan, in Farther Spain from 49, ends. 48 rcIb
48 Praetor M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS sent from Rome to be governor of Nearer Spain until 47. 49 rcIb     48 B76 VI-158, CAH 9-440, DGRBM 2-766, OCD 517
c.48 Q. CASSIUS, governor of Farther Spain, survives assassination attempt. 48 atl1
c.48 Native Spanish troops and garrison of Corduba Baetica openly rebel against Q. Cassius, governor of Farther Spain. 48 atl1
c.48 After assuming command of Spanish rebels, M. Claudius Marcellus Aeserninus confronts Q. Cassius and Bogud at Ulia. 48 atl1
c.48 Caesarean praetor or tribune? Q.(3) CASSIUS Longinus arrives in Farther Spain as governor until 47.  He plunders it, and is hated by everyone but those he buys off. 48 rcIb
no date: DGRBM 2-802, OCD 212
48 Caesarean Q.(3) CASSIUS governor of Farther Spain 49-47, is ordered by Caesar to go to Africa to attack Juba-IHe assemples his army at Corduba Baetica, but is surprised by rebellion of provincial soldiers, and attacked.  Conspirators include Italian Munatius Flaccus and Q. Sextius.  Thinking Cassius dead, the mutineers elect L. Laterensis his successor.  Cassius suppresses the mutiny, and executes L. Laterensis. 48 B76 II-617, DGRBM 2-156, 802, 3-811, OCD 212, wikQCL
c.48 2 legions, which had formerly served under Pompeyan legate Varro, which are marching to Calpe to be shipped for Africa, openly declare against Q.(3) Cassius, and elect T. Torius their commander.  L. Racilius is among them.  Inhabitants of Corduba Baetica also rebel, and quaestor M.(12) Marcellus Aeserninus, who had been sent by Q.(3) Cassius to quiet the town, becomes their leader.  Cassius appeals to M. Lepidus who refuses to help, and Bogund of Mauritania. 48 B76 II-617, DGRBM 2-156, 802, 935, 3-640, OCD 212
no date: wikLpd
c.48 Caesarean Q.(3) CASSIUS governor of Farther Spain 49-47, besieged by mutinerers in Ulia, is rescued by arrival of Bogund, and then M.(10) Lepidus, who orders Marcellus and Cassius to stop hostilities.  Marcellus immediately obeys, and joins Lepidus, but Cassius hesitates to place himself under Lepidus, and negotiates for free departure, which is granted.  Cassius goes to winter quarters. 48 DGRBM 2-802, OCD 171, 212
no date: wikLpd
48/7 CELSA founded by Lepidus. 48/7 CAH 10-457
47 early Caesarean propraetor C. TREBONIUS sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 46.  Caesarean Q.(3) CASSIUS Longinus is recalled, sails, and is shipwrecked at the mouth of the Ebro and drowned. 47 B76 II-617, X-105, DGRBM 2-802, 3-1171, OCD 212, 1090, atl1, rcIb
c.47 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS governor of Nearer Spain from 48, returns to Rome, out of Spain until 44. 47 CAH 9-440, DGRBM 2-766
no date: wikLpd
c.46 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, in Balearic Islands from 47/6, lands in Spain until ? to rally his father's remaining supporters.  He is soon joined by his bro Sextus and other republicans, who had fled from Africa after their defeat at Thapsus.  Gn.(3) soon commands 13 legions. 46 DGRBM 3-489, atl1, wikGnPm, wikTRH
c.46 Caesarean propraetor C. TREBONIUS, in Farther Spain from 47, suffers a mutiny by Pompeyan troops under Q. Aponius, driven out of the province. 46 DGRBM 1-247, wikTrb no date: B76 X-105, DGRBM 3-1171
c.46 After Thapsus T. LABIENUS sails from Africa to join Gn. Pompeius in Spain. 48 wikTLb
c.46 SEXTUS POMPEIUS joins bro Gn.(3) in Spain. 46 OCD 859, wikTRH
c.46 CAESAR sends out further forces from Rome, commanded by Q. Pedius and Q. Fabius Maximus to suppress unrest in Spain. 46 atl1
c.46 Caesar's forces in Spain are under Q. PEDIUS and Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS. 46 OCD 793
c.46 Legate C. DIDIUS sent by Caesar from Africa to Spain to fight Pompey's sons Gn.(3) and Sextus Pompeius. 46 DGRBM 1-1005, 3-489
c.46 Caesarean C. DIDIUS defeats Pompeyan P. Attius Varus in sea battle near Carteia on south coast of Spain. 46 atl1
c.46 Nov CAESAR leaves Italy for Spain in pursuit of Pompey's sons Gn.(3) and Sextus Pompeius.  C. Asinius Pollio accompanies. 46 CAH 9-437, CDCC 111, DGRBM 1-553, 3-489, LEWH 109, wikCCW, wikTAR, wikTRH     45 B76 2-369, DGRBM 1-424, 3-437, MCAW 256
46 Dec? CAESAR joins his army near Corduba in Baetica. 46 atl1
46 Dec P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA in Italy from summer, goes to Spain. 46 DGRBM 3-1182
45 Feb 19 ATEGUA taken by Caesar. 45 atl1
c.45 OCTAVIAN, neph of Caesar, recovers from illness, sails from Italy to Spain, but is shipwrecked.  After coming ashore with a handful of companions, he crosses hostile territory to Caesar's camp. 46 wikAg, 45 atl1
45 Mar 5-7 Skirmishes between armies of Caesar and Pompey near Soricaria (location unknown) go in favor of Caesar.  Some Pompeyans defect. 45 atl1, wikBM
45 Mar 17 CAESAR with Pedius and Fabius defeats Pompey's 2 sons at MUNDA in Baetica.
Civil War from 49 ends.  News reaches Rome Apr 20.
45 B76 3-579, 15-1106, 17-404, CAH 9, CDCC 429, DGRBM 1-553, 3-489, Dur 3-110, LEWH 109-10, MCAW 256, OCD 793, 858, atl1, bk, ttjc, wikCCW, wikGnPm, wikJC, wikSPm, wikTRH
Mar 17
Pompeyan T. LABIENUS killed in the rout after Munda.  His head is taken to Caesar. 45 CAH 9-437, DGRBM 2-697, OCD 674, wikCCW, wikTLb
Mar 17
BOGUD, king of west Mauretania 49-38, ally of Caesar 49-44, helps Caesar at Munda. 45 OCD 171
45 Mar MUNDA besieged and taken by Caesar. 45 atl1
45 Mar Pompeyan T. QUINTIUS SCAPULA dies.  Flees north from Munda to Corduba Baetica, suicides. 45 DGRBM 3-736
45 Mar SEXTUS POMPEIUS at Corduba Baetica, learns of Munda, flees and hides in the country of the Lacetani between the Ebro and the Pyrenees, lives as a bandit, gathers followers. 45 DGRBM 3-489
45 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, seriously wounded at Munda, flees to Carteia on the coast.  He gathers 20 ships and sails off, forgetting to take water, so they turn back.  He is surprised by C. Didius, who had sailed from Gades.  Gn.'s ships are burnt, and he flees into the interior. 45 DGRBM 1-1005, 3-489, atl1
c.45 Pompeyan A. TREBELLIUS defects to Caesar. 45 DGRBM 3-1170
c.45 P. CURTIUS makes plan with some Spaniards that if Gn. Pompeius comes to a certain town, he will be siezed and delivered to Caesar. 45 DGRBM 1-906
c.45 P. CURTIUS beheaded by order of Gn. Pompeius in presence of army. 45 DGRBM 1-906
c.45 Pompeyan A. BAEBIUS defects to Caesar. 45 DGRBM 1-453
c.45 L. Junius VIBIUS PACIACUS is sent by Caesar with 6 cohorts and some cavalry to strengthen Ulia, which is besieged by Gn. Pompeius. 45 DGRBM 3-80, atl1
c.45 CORDUBA, Roman colony 152-510, base of Pompeyans, sacked by Caesar, 20,000 slaughtered. 45 B76 5-171, OCD 289, atl1, wikCrd
c.45 Sep CAESAR leaves C. Asinius Pollio in charge of Spain until 44.  L.(2) Cornelius Balbus is his quaestor.  Caesar and Octavian return via Gaul to Rome.  Decidius Saxa and C. Trebonius accompany. 46 GHH, wikTrb     45 B76 3-579, DGRBM 1-457, 553, 3-730, LEWH 110, OCD 852, sjsu, wikJC     44 CAH 9-457 43 DGRG 1-924, wikL2Bl
c.45 MUNDA is destroyed. 45 CAH 10-457
45 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS dies.  1st son of Pompey, is caught near Lauro, and executed by Caesennius Lento.  His head is carried to Caesar, who displays it in the town of Hispalis.  Bro Sextus is still at large with 6 legions. 45 B76 17-404, CAH 9-437, DGRBM 1-1005, 3-489, GHH, atl1, wikCCW
c.45 CAESAR writes pamphlet  Anti-Cato  in response to Cicero's encomium of Cato. 45 atl1
c.45 Colony at EMPOREAE on the east coast established by Caesar. 45 atl1
c.45 After Munda, Caesarean legion VI Ferrata, in Spain from 49, is disbanded and forms a colony at Arelate. 45 wik6Fr
c.45 After Munda, Caesarean legion XII is named Victrix. 45 wik12F
c.45 C. DIDIUS is attacked and killed by Lusitanian soldiers of Gn. Pompeius. 45 DGRBM 1-1005, atl1
c.45 Praetor C. Albinus CARINAS arrives in Farther Spain until ?.  He is sent by Caesar against Sextus Pompeius. 45 atl1, rcIb
45 SEXTUS POMPEIUS regathers army of fugitive Pompeyans, goes to Baetica, successful against Caesarean governor C. Carinas. 45 DGRBM 3-489, OCD 858, atl1, wikCCW
44 Mar 15 C.(4) Julius CAESAR ASSASSINATED
44 Mar M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is sent by Antony from Rome to administer Spain and Narbonensis until 43.  He goes thru Gaul to Spain to negotiate with Sextus Pompeius, still at large with 6 legions.  Lepidus succeeds, and is thanked by the senate.  He then administers Spain and Narbonensis Gaul until 43. 44 CAH 10-4, DGRBM 1-457, OCD 852, wikLpd, wikRGG
44 Apr DELIBERATE AMBIGUITY:  M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS is urged by the senate to assist consuls Hirtius and Pansa in Cisalpine Gaul.  Lepidus sends bro-in-law M.(3) Junius Silanus, but with no instructions as to whom to help. 44 DGRBM 3-820
c.44 C. Asinius POLLIO defeated by Sextus Pompeius. 44 atl1
c.44 C. Asinius POLLIO, Caesar's commander in Spain from 45, relieved by M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS until 43.  Pollio becomes Antony partisan until 30. 44 OCD 852
c.44 M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS agrees to a truce with Sex.Pompey, which is ratified by senate. 44 atl1
c.44 SEXTUS POMPEIUS, the last Pompeyan, leaves Spain, but holds up with army and fleet at Massilia to await further develpoments. 44 OCD 858
c.43 Q. MINUCIUS THERMUS is sent by Lepidus as ambassador to Sextus Pompeius. 43 DGRBM 3-1097
c.43 M. Juventius LATERENSIS and L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS try to persuade Lepidus to side with senate.  Lepidus prevaricates, recommending negotiation with Antony. 43 DGRBM 2-725
43 After Mutina, M.(3) Junius SILANUS returns from Cisalpine Gaul back thru Gaul to Spain. 43 DGRBM 3-820
43 late May M.(10) Aemilius LEPIDUS with 7 legions in Spain from Mar 44, learns of Mutina, leaves C. Asinius Pollio in charge of Spain, while he leaves for Narbonensis to join Antony.  L.(2) Cornelius Balbus remains in Spain 45-43. 43 CAH 10-16, 17, OCD 838, 597
c.43 L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS, neph of L.(1), quaestor in Spain from 45, absconds from Gades with money intended to pay troops, and flees to Bogud king of west Mauretania. 43 DGRBM 1-457, wikGAP, wikL2Bl
c.43 C. Asinius POLLIO, Antony partisan, is then so badly defeated by Sextus Pompeius that he has to escape in disguise from the battlefield. He takes his 2 legions to Gaul. 43 wikGAP
c.41 C. CARRINUS is made governor of Spain by Octavian.  He continues war with Bocchus-II. 41 DGRBM 1-615, atl1
c.40 L. ANTONIUS, younger bro of Antony sent from Rome by Octavian to Spain. 40
OCD 76
39 early Gn. Domitius CALVINUS sent from Rome by Octavian to be proconsul of both provinces of Spain until 36.  He fights the Ceretani this year. 39 CAH 10-46, 449, DGRBM 1-585, wikGnDC no date: OCD 197
c.39 Sextus PEDUCARUS becomes propraetor in Spain, then drops out of history. 39 DGRBM 3-165
c.38 BOGUD, king of west Mauretania 49-38, ally of Antony, at suggestion of L. Antonius, attacks Octavian's men in Spain, but forced to return to Mauretania by internal rebellion. 38 DGRBM 1-494, 498     no date: OCD 171
c.36 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS, Octavian partisan, governor of Spain from 39, returns to Rome. 36 OCD 197, wikGnDC
c.34 L. Marcius PHILIPPUS, former suffete 38, becomes governor of Spain until 33. 34 OCD 617
c.30 Newly formed legion X Gemina, is transferred from Achaea to Petavonium in Hispania Tarraconensis, where Octavian is preparing a campaign against the Cantabri.  X Gemina remains in Spain until 63 CE. 30 wikXGm
c.29 T. Statilius TAURUS sent from Rome to Spain. 29 OCD 1011, wikRCH
c.29 Cantabrian War begins until 19:  Rome deploys some 80,000 troops against the Cantabri, Astures, and Gallici for the purpose of totally subjugating Spain.  It takes 8 legions with auxiliary troops. 29 B76 17-404, HRE 87, wikCnW, wikRCH, wikTAR, wikTRH
27 CDCC 116
c.29 T. STATILIUS TAURUS defeats the Cantabri, Vaccaei, and Astures in Spain. 29 DGRBM 3-985, HRE 87
c.28 C. Calvisius SABINUS, governor of Spain from ?, returns to Rome. 28 OCD 198
c.28 Consul of 29, Sextus APPULEIUS becomes proconsul of Spain until ?. 28 wikRCH
28/7 CAH 10-449
no date: DGRBM 1-248
c.27 Roman conquest of SPAIN, begun 206, completed under Augustus, but not annexed until 19. 27 wikRCH
c.27 SPAIN trisected by M. Vipsanius Agrippa, dividing Farther Spain into BAETICA (basically Andalusia) and LUSITANIA (including Gallaecia and Asturias) and attaching Cantabria and the Basque Country to Nearer Spain.  It is all assigned to Augustus. 27 CAH 10-164, wikHsp, wikLst, wikTRH
27 late AUGUSTUS is forced to go from Gaul to Spain because of uprising in Cantabria on the north coast.  In Spain until 24 (his only visit), arrives at Tarraco, but too late for fighting before winter.  C.(1) Antistius Vetus accompanies. 27 CAH 10-134, 163, 451, DGRBM 1-429, GHH, wikHsp     26 CDCC 429, MCAW 264, HRRP 4.1-59, wikRCH wikTRH
25 DGRBM 3-1251
26 AUGUSTUS takes command of Nearer Spain until 25, begins conquest of Cantabria until 19. 26 CAH 10-163, 343, OCD 201, wikWAg, wikCnW, wikRCH
26 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, implies that he plans an expedition against Britain.  Same as 27. 26 CAH 10-189
c.26 AUGUSTUS gets sick in Tarraco.  It may have been continuous thru 25 and 24. 26 CAH 10-78
c.26 AUGUSTUS establishes his base in Segisama, capital of the Turmodigi, northwest of Burgos. 26 wikCnW, wikTRH
26 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, based in Segisama, directs 3-prong attack defeating foes at Cantabri city of Bergida, starving them out at Mt. Vindius and capturing the city of Aracilium (Racilium).  Names of sites and locations have been disputed.  Nor is it clear whether the 26 campaign is confined to Cantabria or includes Asturia.  Augustus does not return to the battlefield after this campaign. 26 CAH 10-165
Bergida may be Vellica. 25 wik
c.26 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, personally leads campaign against the Cantabri in the mountains between Burgos and Santander on the north coast. 26 CAH 10-451
Empire at 50BCE
Cantabria 26 BCE       map: GNU FDL
26 Legion II Augusta is sent from Italy to north Hispania Tarraconensis until 9 CE, to fight the Cantabri. 26 wik2Ag
c.26 C. Antistius VETUS operates against the Cantabri and Astures until 24. 26 GHH, OCD 75, 25 DGRBM 3-1251
c.26 Northern SPAIN, until now a triumph-hunting ground, annexed for its precious metals. 26 CAH 10-81
c.26 SPAIN reorganized by Augustus into 3 imperial provinces: TARACONENSIS, LUSITANIA, and Λ BAETICA (imperial until 22). 27 OCD 159, wikTRH
25 B76 VI-397, CAH 10
c.26 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, having no son as heir, arranges marriage of eldest dau Julia, age 14, to cousin M. Claudius Marcellus. 26 CAH 10-135, OCD 646
c.26 Linen is exported from Spain to Rome. 26 GHH
25 The Astures attack, nearly overwhelming Romans, thwarted only by a last-minute betrayal of their plan and a march to rescue by P. Carisius, legate of Lusitania. 25 CAH 10-165
CONFUSION ALERT!  Some sources say T. Carisius.  They appear to be the same man with confusion about his first name.
25 The war in 25 is fought only against the Astures. 25 wikTRH
25 ANTISTIUS subdues the Astures and Cantabri until 22.  AUGUSTUS campaigns in Asturia and Callaecia, west of Cantabria. 25 CAH 10-451, HRRP 4.1-59
c.25 AUGUSTUS gives Brigantium, camp of Augustan Asturica, to the Brigaeci as a reward for their help. 25 wikTRH
c.25 AUGUSTUS in Spain, believes exaggerated reports of great wealth of Arabia Felix, sends order to prefect of Egypt Aelius Gallus to invade. 25 OCD 457
c.25 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, indicates his nephew M.(13) Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty) as his chosen successor by marrying him to his only dau Julia the Elder, age 14, until 23. 25 B76 VI-601, CAH 10, GHH, CDCC 478, 552, MCAW 264, OCD 566, 646, wikTAR
c.25 Northern Spain subdued by Augustus. 25 GHH
c.25 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, in nominal command of the campaign against the Astures and Callaeci, gets sick.  The campaign is brought to a successful conclusion, with the last rebels crushed, by the governors of Nearer and Farther Spain, respectively C. Antistius Vetus and P. Carisius. 25 wikWAg
c.25 AUGUSTUS, in Spain 27-24, retires to Tarraco, presumably because of illness. 25 wikRCH, wikTRH
c.25 AUGUSTUS at Tarraco, is called to deal with African affairs. 25 HRE 89
Empire at 50BCE
Cantabria 25 BCE       map: GNU FDL
c.25 General P. CARISIUS attacks the Asture armies, pursuing them to Mons Medullius.  Roman legions besiege this mountain, but the Astures suicide rather than surrender. 25 wikTRH
25 AUGUSTA EMERITA (later Merida), capital of Lusitania province, founded by Augustus to resettle emeriti (retired) soldiers discharged from 2 veteran legions of Cantabrian Wars: Legion V Alaudae and X Gemina.  Tiberius and M.(13) Claudius Marcellus preside at the celebratory games. 25 B76 14-865, DGRBM 2-934, wikAE, wikRCH
25 ASTURIA subjugated until 22 by C. Antistius Vetus and P. Carisius, who take its main town Lancia. 25 CAH 10-165, DGRBM 1-613, wikRCH
25 M. AGRIPPA goes from Rome to Spain to help Augustus against the Cantabri. 25 DGRBM 1-79
c.24 Cantabrian War from 29 ends until 22.  The Cantabri in Tarraconensis, are subdued by Augustus. 25 DGRG 1-502, HRE 87   24 wikTAR
c.24 TARRACONENSIS becomes an Imperial Province comprising north and East Spain.  L. Aelius Lamia becomes governor until ?. 24 rcIb
24 early AUGUSTUS in Spain from 27, thinks Spain is secure, returns to Italy until . 25 OCD 201
24 CAH 10-242, GHH
c.22 C.(2) FURNIUS becomes prefect of Nearer Spain until ?. 22 CAH 10-165 21 DGRBM 2-191
22 The ASTURES of Asturia, subdued from 25, rebel against cruelty of P. Carisius.  They are brutally suppressed by legate of Tarraconensis, L. Aelius Lamia. 22 CAH 10-166, DGRBM 1-613, wikAst
c.22 The Cantabri rebel against their new governor, C. Furnius. 22 CAH 10-165, GHH
c.22 LUSITANIA, in province of Farther Spain from 72, no longer so.  Comes under governor P. Carisius until 19. 22 rcIb
c.22 TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero Caesar is military tribune in Cantabrian war. no date:
DGRBM 3-1118
22 GALLIA NARBONENSIS, imperial province from 27, changed to senatorial province. 22 CAH 10-473, OCD 150
22 BAETICA, imperial province from 26 in south Spain, becomes senatorial province. 22 OCD 150
c.20 BRAGA, under the Celtic Bracarri from ?, refounded as Bracara Augusta. 20 wikBrg 16 wikTBr
c.20 Circus of MeridaCIRCUS at Augusta Emerita, 400m long by 100m wide, built outside the city walls, but not dedicated until 30 years later.  Elongated U-shape for 2-horse and 4-horse chariot racing. photo: VonRalph

20 wikAE, wikRCM
19 The Cantabri rebel against C. Furnius. 19 CAH 10-166
19 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA goes from Gaul to Spain until 18 to deal with Cantabri rebellion. 19 B76 1-367, CAH 10-145, 166, CDCC 429, OCD 31, wikMVA
19 Cantabrian Wars with Rome:  Last major combat operations end.  The Cantabri and Astures are pacified by Agrippa.  Cantabri are flushed out of their strongholds and compelled to settle in the plains, but minor rebellions continue until 16.  2 legions (X Gemina and IV Macedonica) are stationed there for 70 more years. 19 B76 17-404, CAH 10-166, DGRBM 1-429, DGRG 1-502, GHH, HRRP 4.1-59, OCD 201, wikCnW, wikRCH, wikTAR
19 SPAIN, under Rome from 27, conquered by M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, annexed.  Peaceful until 74 CE. 19 B76 1-367, 2-370, 17-404, DGRG 1-880, CAH 10-145, 451, OCD 31, wikHsp, wikRCH
c.19 Nearer SpainHISPANIA CITERIOR "NEARER SPAIN", annexed 201, province from 197, abolished. 19 wikHC
19 TIN mines in Spain taken over by Romans. 19 MCAW 269
19/8 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, in Spain 19, returns to Rome. 19 MCAW 268 18 B76 1-367
17 AUGUSTUS reorganizes Hispanic provinces, transferring Galician, Asturian and Cantabrian territories from the province of Lusitania to the province of Tarraconensis. 17 wikTRH
16 War with Astrures from ?, ends. 16 CDCC 119
16 ROAD network begun by Augustus until 2. 16 CAH 10-454
15 AUGUSTUS comes from Rome, tours Spain peacefully until 14, organizes colonial foundations. 15 CAH 10-166
15 Theater of MeridaTHEATER at Augusta Emerita, begun 16, according to the rules of the treatises of Vitruvius, finished, dedicated by consul Agrippa.  Located adjacent to the city walls.  Leading edge of the stage proscenium is stone; rectangular platform pulpitum is originally covered in wood.  It has holes in the floor to place scenic backdrop posts and other infrastructure.  Some of the seating is built into a hill.  Amphitheater 8 BC. photo: Benjamín Núñez González

15 wikAE, wikRTM
15 BRIDGE at Ad Fines near Barkeno (Barcelona) built by Augustus. 16-13 CAH 10-454
14 ASTURICA (Asturica Augusta) in province of Leon founded. 14 wikAst, wikRCH
14 ZARAGOZA (Caesar Augusta) founded. 25-11 wikZr     14 wikRCH
14 AUGUSTUS, touring Spain from 15, returns to Rome. 14 CAH 10-166
13 LUGO, chief town of the Capori in Galicia, conquered by Paullus Fabius Maximus and called Lucus Augusti. 13 wikLg, wikRCH
13 AUGUSTUS campaigns in the Pyrenees. 13 CAH 10-489
8 VIA AUGUSTA begun by Augustus over previously existing Via Herculea, which ran from the Pyrenees to Cartagena.  Goes from Narbo in the Pyrenees along the east coast to Tarraco and Valentia, and from here thru the south of the peninsula, passing Corduba, to Gades.  Finished in 2BCE. 8 wikVA
8 Amphitheater of MeridaAMPHITHEATER added to theater (15)at Augusta Emerita dedicated for gladiator shows and staged beast-hunts.  Has an elliptical arena, surrounded by tiered seating for 15,000, divided according to Augustan ideology; lowest seats for highest status spectators.  Sand-covered arena in center has a fossa bestiaria, covered with wood and sand, used to house animals before they are released into the arena. photo: VonRalph

8 wikAAE, wikAE
c.3 Paullus FABIUS MAXIMUS becomes legate to Nearer Spain until 2. 3 OCD 427
Via Augusta
c.2 VIA AUGUSTA, begun 8, finished. 2 wikVA

Spain 0-100