Asia Go to Balkans Go to Europe Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Urartu Go to Mesopotamia Go to Persia Go to India Go to East Asia
c.1000 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, spreading from 1425, are spoken over most of Europe and much of south Asia. 1000 B76 9-431
c.1000 ANDRONOVO culture ends.  In western Siberia and west Asiatic steppe from 2000.  Andronovo settlements usually on small river banks and low flood plains.  Types:  (1) small timberbuilt houses;  (2) large: 20 to 100 houses. Roomy semi-dugout dwellings 100-130 sq.m with deep storage pits and corridor-shaped exits.  Settlement plans:  (1) houses in a line along a river; (2) houses along a street;  (3) houses in two rows either in semi-circular or rectangular plan. 1400 wikIAMT 1000 csen, wikAnd
c.1000 VAKHSH culture on Vakhsh river in Tajikistan begins until 800.  Nomadic pastoralists.  Make cyllindrical & hourglass vessels. 1000 wikAnd
c.1000 BESHKENT culture of southwest Kyrgyzstan begins until 800. 1000 wikAnd
c.1000 STEPPES:  Nomadic economy based on horses, cattle, sheep.  Horse riding begins. 1000 GHCC, PW 15
c.1000 Metal BELLS appear in west Asia.   Erlitou 2000 1000 wikBl
c.1000 Λ HORSE RIDING learned by Iranians of Transoxia. 1000 mxfld
c.1000 REINDEER domesticated in Siberia. 1000 TTT, ttco     500-491 TTS
c.800 EASTERN SLAVS (ancestors of Russians, Ukranians, and White Russians) conquered by SCYTHIANS (Indo-Europeans with a little Mongol from the Altai mountain region).  Scythians use iron weapons. 800 mxfld
c.700 CIMMERIANS of east Ukraine and south Russia from 1500, displaced by Scythians from northeast, who take over Black Sea area.  CIMMERIANS migrate to Anatolia until 610. 740 B76 9-596     705 GRG 329 700 B76 2-615, rcN     690 HAG 650 GHH, lvCm
c.700 Area presently called MOLDAVIA, northwest of Black Sea, comes under Scythians until 280. 280 rcEB
c.700 Western STEPPES, under Scythians from 710, acquires permanent settlements, some of them fortified. 700
PW 15
c.700 KIPCHAK tribal confederation occupying various places from Aral Sea to Hungary, under Cimmerians from 1800, comes under Scythians until ?. 700 rcN
c.700 SOLDAIA, city on south coast of Crimea, comes under the Tauri tribe until 480. 700 rcCrm
c.700 MARKANDA, founded by Sogdians, under Sogdians until 530. 700 wikSm
c.700 SIBERIA:  KARASUK Culture from 1300 ends.  Extends from the Aral Sea to the upper Yenisei in the east and south to the Altai Mountains and the Tian Shan.  People change from settled communities to seasonal nomads.  Small curved knives similar to those at An-Yang in China have been found. 700 B76 V-708, 4-301, wikKrs
c.680 West Ukraine (later Ruthenia), south flank of Carpathian Mountains, occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, taken over by proto-Dacians until 300. 680 rcU
c.650 YUEZHI (Yue Chi) become active until 25.  A confederation of closely related semi-nomadic clans beside the Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) River, east of the Aral Sea in south and southeast Kazakhstan, and extending east into Xinjiang and Gansu 650 rcCAW
c.650 OLBIA (Borysthenes) on Black Sea at mouth of Bug River founded by Aegina, Megara, Greeks of MiletosUnder Miletian tyrants until 500. 654 GHH     650 Dur 2-66, rcU     647 CAH 3.3-161     647/6 CAH 6-483
645 B76 16-438
c.647 BEREZAN island in Black Sea west of Olbia colonized by Greeks of Miletos. 647 CAH 3.3-160
c.630 PARTATUA & son MADYES, joint chiefs of Scythians, establish themselves as rulers of territory north of Caucassus Mts. 630 B76 16-439
c.610 PANTICAPAEUM founded on east coast of Crimean Peninsula by Greeks of Miletos. 625-00 GRG 326
600 CAH 3.3
c.588 ZOROASTER, age 40, converts VISHTASPA, probably king of Chorasmia south of Aral Sea in central Asia.  His court follows suit. 588 B76 19-1169, Sdl 5-18
c.580 ANACHARSIS, Scythian prince, returning from travels in Ionian Greek cities, tries to introduce cult of MAGNA MATER (Cybele), which he picked up in Cyzicus.  Executed for it. no date: OCD 57
c.550 AZERBAIJAN east end of Caucasus Mountains, comes under Persia or Scythians until 331. 550 rcCau
c.550 ARACHOSIA comes under Medo-Persia until 330. 550 rcCAS
c.550 BAKTRA (capital of the Kingdom of Bactria) comes under Medo-Persia until 330. 550 rcCAS
c.545 PHANAGORIA east of Crimea, founded by Greeks of Teos. 545 CAH 3.3-162, GRG 327
c.535 GANDAHAR (city and district in southwest Afghanistan), under the Arachoti tribal confederacy from ?, comes under Persia until 329. 535 rcCAS
530 rcCAS
c.530 AFGHANISTAN (highlands west and northwest of Indus River) comes under Persia until 330. 530 rcCAS
c.530 SOGDIANA comes under Persia until 330. 530 rcCAW
c.530 MARKANDA, under Sogdians from 700, comes under Persia until 330. 530 rcCAW
Persian Empire
Provinces of Medo-Persian Empire at its peak c.520. History of Persia
c.520 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486 campaigns east of Caspian Sea against SKUNKHA chief of Scythians until 519. 520 CAH 4, lvSk
c.520 BACTRIA comes under Persia until 329. 520 rcCAS
c.519 SKUNKHA chief of Scythians from ?, executed by DARIUS-I who replaces him with another Scyth. 519 CAH 4, lvSk
c.513 Darius-I invades Scythia. 513 or 508 DGRBM 1-941
c.513 IDANTHYRSUS, chief of royal Scyths, retreats from DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486.  Idanthyrus employs scorched earth tactics all the way to Volga RiverDarius sends him a note calling him a coward for running.  Idanthyrsus says he' s not running - just migrating like Scythians have done for centuries, but if Darius wants a fight, all he has to do is mess with the tombs of their fathers.  Darius runs out of time and withdraws. 513
B76 8-309, 16-439
508
DGRBM 2-561
c.513 DARIUS-I, having failed to conquer Scythians, crosses Danube back into Thrace. 512 OCD 520, 968
c.500 BRONZE AGE in Asia ends.  Began 3500.
IRON AGE begins until 600CE.
500 wikHA

Asia 500-300
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