c.600 APOLLONIA, Illyria, founded by Corinthians & Corcyrans under Periander (200 settlers). 600 B76 I-448, CAH 3.3-160, OCD 83, 588
c.600 CORCYRA, under Corinthians 734-585, but hostile to overlord from 664, subdued by PERIANDER tyrant of Corinth 625-585 until his death. 600 B76 III-149
c.600 PERINTHOS in Thrace west of Byzantium, founded by Greeks of Samos Island. 602 CAH 3.3-162, GRG 106, 151
601 OCD 949     600 B76 VII-877, OCD 801     599 Dur 2-66, GRG
Macedonia Thrace
c.600 CHALCIDICE, inhabited by Chalcidians from 720, colonized by Greeks of Eretria at DIKAIA and NEAPOLIS.  Corinthians found POTIDAEA on its west promontory called Pallene. 600 OCD 225
c.600 PERIANDER, tyrant of Corinth from 625-585, builds a road across the isthmus to drag ships across.  A canal would have been too expensive. 600 TTT
c.600 CRITIAS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 599. 600 rcSB3
c.600 SILVER MINES of Laurion near Athens begun by Athenians until 100CE.  Extracts mostly galena (lead sulfide) producing 60 oz. silver per ton. 600
SHT 2-1
c.600 SALAMIS Island in Saronic Gulf south of Athens, occupied by Megarans until 596. 600
OCD 945
c.600 MYRON tyrant of Sicyon in Peloponnese from 648, ends.  CLEISTHENES succeeds until 570. 600 B76 8-336, CAH 3.3, Dur 2-66, OCD 249, OHG, RAH 150
c.600 Son of Anaxilas, LEOTYCHIDAS dies.  11th Eurypontid king of Sparta from 625 (with Eurycratidas from 615).  Son HIPPOCRATIDES succeeds to 575. 600 OCD 1007
Archidamos dies, Agasicles succeeds. MRDK, wikKS
c.600 SKIAS, a theater for musical performance, built at Sparta by architect Theodoros of Samos. 600 CDGRA 627
Temple of Hera plan
Temple of Hera plan     pub dom
Temple of Hera ruins
Temple of Hera ruins       Matej Batha
c.600 Temple of HERA, still extant at Olympia from 1000, built on top of an earlier Hera temple.  Measures 50.01m x 18.76m at the platform.  It is longer and narrower than the common architecture of the previous era, though the elongated proportions are a common feature of early Doric architecture.  It has a colonnaded perimeter of 6 x 16 doric columns which are originally wood because those are the materials available at the time.  Survives until 4th cen. CE. 600
CAH 3.3, OHG
590 wikToH
c.600 GREECE, culturally behind Greek cities of Ionia, now catches up in ATHENS, CORINTH, and SPARTA.

Λ COINS V used.  (See Cyprus 530, China 520, Darius-I 510)
680 LEWH 62
625 TTPC, bk
600 PW 16, TAWH 17
c.600 Greek cuirass Greek CUIRASS, with flared bottom, and designs suggesting the later muscle cuirass. photo GNU FDL

620-580 wikMC
c.600 POTTER'S WHEEL, in Greece from 1950, enlarged so that it acts as a flywheel. 600 TTT
c.600 Greek KILNS improved.  Includes multiple firings at various temperatures and with various masks. 600 TTT
c.600 BUTADES of Sicyon (sometimes wrongly called Dibutades) flourishes.  1st Greek modeller in clay:  LEGEND:  His daughter, Kora (aka Callirhoe), in love with a boy at Corinth where they live, drew on a wall the outline of his shadow.  On this outline her father models a face of the boy in clay, and bakes it along with clay tiles which it was his trade to make.  This incident led Butades to ornament the ends of roof-tiles with human faces, a practice which is attested by existing examples.  The original model is preserved until Lucius Mummius sacks Corinth. 600 B76 II-403, wikBt
c.600 GREECE:  Period of Oriental influence from 725 ends. 600 B76 19-286
c.600 GREEK POTTERY, until now dominated by Egyptian and Oriental style, breaks free with more realistic style.  Painted black figures on red ground continue 700-530.  It is traded in Etruria, east Mediterranean, and Black Sea. early 6th cen.: GRG 27
550 Dur 2-219
620-590:  Early Corinthian pottery 625-600 wikBFP     620-590 colcl
625-00 amphora with real & mythic animals
Eurytios Krater
c.600 Eurytios Krater
3 aryballoi
pub dom
3 Corinthian aryballoi
c.600  HOMERIC HYMN to DEMETER  written by an anonymous author, who appears to be acting within both epic and local - Eleusinian - traditions.  It is usually 2nd of the 33 Homeric hymns.  Persephone, dau of Zeus & Demeter, us kidnapped by Hades, and taken to the Underworld.  Demeter searches the Earth for her, having many adventures.  She teaches the secrets of agriculture to Triptolemus.  She ends in Eleusis, and commands that a temple be built to her, and that they teach the world her secret to immortality.  Demeter goes home to Zeus and demands that Persephone be found at once.  Zeus sends Hermes to retrieve Persephone.  Hermes finds Persephone as Hades' queen, and though conflicted about leaving Hades, she returns with Hermes.  But because she had eaten in the underworld - pomegranite seeds - she must return to the underworld every autumn and return topside in spring.  During Persephone's absence, Demeter looses all interest in her duties as Goddess of Agriculture.  The original story is earlier, because Persephone is mentioned as a dreaded underworld force in the Iliad & Odyssey. 650 wikEM
650-550 acad, mθcrt
c.600 HARPIES (birds with women 's faces) appear on Attic vases. 600 OCD 489, wikHarp
c.600 ARION of Lesbos, lyric poet and inventor of the Cyclian chorus, works in Corinth.  Writes the 1st serious tragedies.      625 GHH
600 B76 10-1091
c.600 At Sicyon it is customary to celebrate the sufferings of Dionysus with dithyrambs. 600 DGRA 1141
c.600 TRAGEDY develops from the dithyramb - the choral cult song of Dionysus. no date:
B76 10-1091
c.600 Corinthian helmet Corinthian helmet:  The Corinthians, despite their usual flair, have plain helmets. photo: OTRS

700-500 wikCH
c.599 CRITIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 600, ends.  Successors unknown until 597. 599 rcSB3, wikEA
anarchy until 597 MCAW 82
c.596 CYPSELUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 597, ends.  TELECLES succeeds until 595. 596 wikEA
c.596 Epimenides the Cretan comes to Athens. 596 DGRBM, GHH
c.596 SALAMIS Island, disputed by Athens and Megara from ?, awarded to Athens (thru efforts of Solon) by voluntary arbitration presided by Sparta, but not taken by Athens until 570. 600 OHG
596 MCAW 78
c.595 PHOCIS (region between Lokris & Boeotia):  Pilgrims to Delphi complain to delphic Oracle about tolls levied on them at the harbor town of CRISA on north bank of Corinthian Gulf.  Oracle exhorts AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE of Anthela to take action against Crisa. 595
B76 8-346
c.595 TELECLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 596, ends.  PHILOMBROTOS succeeds until 594. 595 GHH
c.595 SOLON, wealthy noble and merchant of Athens, urges Athens to protect the shrine of Apollo at Delphi. 595
c.595 1st SACRED WAR begins until 583.  AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE declares war on Phocian town of Crisa (Cirrha).  Results in siege of Crisa ending in 591/0. 595 B76 8-346, CAH 3.3, CDCC 775, DGRG 1-707, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG, ISBE 2-562, OHG, MCAW 79, wikFSW
c.595 ALCMAEONID clan, dominant clan in Athens from 631, expelled, goes to Phocis until 594. 595 GHH
c.595 CLEISTHENES, tyrant of Sicyon in Peloponnese 600-570, helps Amphictyons against Crisa (Cirrha). 595 DGRBM 1-783
c.594 PHILOMBROTUS, eponymous archon of Athens from 595, ends.  ATHENS, under 9 ARCHONS from 683SOLON is appointed sole archon until 593, and given almost unlimited powers to mediate between factions.  He establishes a timocracy ("government by the honorable", a euphemism for government by the rich), ignores the tradition of promising to maintain existing property rights, and declares that he will heal the evils of the state. 594 B76 4-706, 8-341, BCoC 304, CAH 4-37, CDCC 832, CDGRA 65, 445, DGRBM 1-1072, 3-859, HAG, MCAW 78, OHG 28, RAH, SHWC 55, TTPC, bk, wikEA     594/3 OCD 999
594-91 GRG 47
c.594 BOULE (Council) created by Solon with 100 reps from each of the 4 Athenian tribes until 507. 594 wikBl
c.594  LAWS of SOLON   Abolishes harsh laws of Draco 621 except for homicide laws.  Abolishes surfdom and enslavement of Athenians by Athenians.  Voids all debts for which land or liberty is security.  Forbids future loans based on same.  Amnesty for fled debtors.  Divides citizens into 4 census classes.  Archons must be property owners.  Forbids exporting Athenian agricultural produce.  Encourages immigration of foreign craftsmen. 594 B76 10-638, CAH 4-38, DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GHH, MCAW 81, OHG, TTPC
594/3 CAH 3.3,
OCD 479, 999,
GRG 47-51, lvG
c.594 HOWEVER, before Solon made these spiffy laws, he let it leak out.  So the rich borrowed money from the uninformed, and bought large estates, knowing that their debt would be cancelled. 594/3 DGRBM 1-566
c.594 ADULTERY in SOLON's LAWS:  Offended husband may deal as he likes with his wife.  Adulterer may buy himself off.  Husband must repudiate wife. 594/3 OCD 11
c.594 SOLON's LAW forbiding exportation of Athenian agricultural produce causes non-Athenians to grow their own olive orchards, which soak up moisture, but don't hold soil together.  Therefore soil errodes. 594 TTPC
c.594 ALCMAEONID clan, exiled to Phocis from 595, allowed to return to Athens until 594. 594 wikAlc
c.593 SOLON, sole archon of Athens from 594, begins travels until 571:  Herodotus says he gave philosophical advice to Croesus of Lydia.
DROPIDES becomes eponymous archon until 592.
593 GHH, MCAW 78, wikEA
c.592 EUCRATIDES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 591. 591 wikEA
c.592 Scythian philosopher ANACHARSIS comes to Athens.  Impresses Athenians as a forthright, outspoken "barbarian". Reputedly a proto-Cynic.  None of his works survive. 592 DGRBM, GHH
c.591 PYTHIAN GAMES instituted at Delphi. 591 GHH
c.591 EUCRATIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 592, ends:  SIMON succeeds until 590. 591 GHH, wikEA
c.591 CLEISTHENES, tyrant of Sicyon in Peloponnese 600-570, builds fleet which blockades Crisa. no date: B76 8-346, MCAW 79
c.590 SIMON, eponymous archon of Athens from 591, ends:  Anarchy until 589. 590 CAH 4-60, wikEA
c.590 CRISA (Cirrha) besieged by the Amphictyons under Eurolychos from ?, falls, and is obliterated. 591 DGRBM, GRG 127
591/0 B76 8-346, GHH
590 OCD 943
c.590 AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE, primarily a religious alliance from 1100, now becomes primarily political. 590 Dur 2-66
c.590 MUSIC contests instituted by Amphictyons at Pythian games.  Flute player Sacadas of Argos is 1st winner.  PYTHOCRITOS of Sicyon wins the next 6 festivals in a row. 590 DGRBM 3-629, 691
c.590 ATHENS:  No archon appointed. 590 wikEA     590/89 GRG 54
c.590 Son of Anaxandros, EURYCRATIDAS dies.  12th Agiad king of Sparta from 615 (with Hippocratides from 600).  Son LEON succeeds to 560. 593 GHH
590 MRDK, OCD 1007, rcPl, wikKS
c.590 ATHENS-LESBOS WAR over Sigeum in the Troad from 600, ends.  Arbitrated by Periander of Corinth in favor of Athens. 600 CAH 4-32, LEWH 65
590 HAG 76
c.588 DAMOPHON, son of Pantaleon, becomes king of Pisa in Elis. 588 GHH
c.588 48th OLYMPIAD:  The Eleans, suspecting the fidelity of Damophon, son of Pantaleon, invade Pisa territory, but are persuaded by Damophon to return without further hostility. 588
DGRG 1-818
c.588 PHORMION eponymous archon of Athens from 589, ends.  PHILIPPOS succeeds until 587. 588 wikEA
c.587 PHILIPPOS eponymous archon of Athens from 588, ends:  Successor unknown until 586. 587 wikEA
c.586 ODESSOS Thrace founded as a trading post by Greeks of Miletos.  It quickly mixes with local Thracian tribes (Getae, Krobyzoi, Terizi). 600-575 wikOd
592 GHH
pre 550 wikOd
c.586 CRISA (Cirrha) completely conquered by Amphictyons. 586 DGRBM
c.586 ATHENS:  No archon appointed until 585, when the archon is unknown until 582. 586 GRG 54, wikEA
585 CAH 4-60
c.585 1st SACRED WAR from 595, ends.  Crisa is destroyed by Amphictyonic League of Delphi.  DELPHIC ORACLE grows in importance from management of League. 590 CAH 3.3, CDCC 775 586 B76 8-346, DGRA 81, GHH, ISBE 2-562, OHG
585 DGRG 1-707, 761, wikFSW     583 GRG
c.585 PERIANDER, tyrant of Corinth from 625, dies.  Neph PSAMMETICHUS succeeds to 583. 586 B76 VII-874     585 CAH 3.3-769, CDCC 914, DGRBM 3-191,
ISBE 1-772, OCD 290, 800, OHG, rcPl
583 DGRG 1-676     550 RAH 150
c.585 CORCYRA, under Corinth from 734, under Periander of Corinth from 600, goes independent until 470?. 600 B76 III-149 585 CAH IV-128
c.583 PSAMMETICHOS, tyrant of Corinth from 585, murdered during a riot.  Corinthian tyranny ends.  Moderates rule until 550. 584 HAG 78     583 CAH 3.3, OHG
deposed 583 CDCC 914
582 ISBE 2-562, rcPl     581 wikAC
no date: DGRG 1-676
c.582 DAMASIOS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 580.  Attempts to establish tyranny until 579. 586 GHH     582 CAH 4-60, MCAW 82, wikEA  
c.582 PYTHIAN GAMES (horse races and foot races) to honor Apollo at his temple at Delphi, held every 8 years from antiquity, are now increased by the Amphictyonic League to every 4 years, in 3rd year of each Olympiad.  Cleisthenes of Sicyon wins chariot race.  582 is the 1st Pythiad.   (See also Olympic, Isthmian, Nemean games.) 586 DGRG 1-761, GHH
582 B76 VIII-327, 2-275, 8-346, Dur 2-216, MCAW 83, OCD 904, OHG, wikPG
no date: OCD 323
c.581 Cypselid dictatorship of Corinth from 658 ends.  Corinth in unknown status until 550. 581 DGRBM GHH, GRG
c.581 ISTHMIAN GAMES begin at Corinth in honor of Poseidon.  Held every other year.   (See also Olympic, Pythian, Nemean games.) 582 Dur 2-216     581 GRG,
OCD 556, OHG     581/0 CAH 3.3
580 B76 8-347
c.580 AESOP writes his fables about animals.
Aesop is legendarily a slave from Thrace, Phrygia, or Samos, but is more probably a name invented to author anonymous fables.
6-500 B76 I-115
580 Dur 2-66     fl.560 Dur 2-710
dies 564 OCD 19
c.580 Temple of ARTEMIS at Corcyra. 580 CAH 3.3, GRG 326, OHG
c.580 Greek ARCHITECTURE, until now wood and limestone, MARBLE introduced, for decoration at first. 580
Dur 2-224
c.580 Cretan sculptors Diopenos and Scyllis accept commissions at Sicyon and Argos.  Their immitators begin a school of sculpture in the Peloponnese. 580
Dur 2-221
c.580 1st major temple of ATHENA at Athens. 580 OHG
c.580 DAMASIOS eponymous archon of Athens from 582, expelled during his 2nd term.  Committee of 10 men serves jointly as archons until 578, when the archon is unknown until 577. 582 wikEA
CAH 4-60
c.580 SPARTA comes into conflict with some Arcadian cities.  Leads to war with city of TEGEA in 560. 580
B76 8-340
c.580 EARLY ARCHAIC PERIOD from 750 ends.
MIDDLE ARCHAIC begins until 535.
580 wikArG
600-570:  Early Attic pottery 600-5?? wikBFP
Piraeus Painter
Marcus Cyron
630-00 amphora by the Piraeus Painter
Name vase
pub dom
620-10 Name vase by the Nessos Painter shows Heracles stabbing Nessos.
Marcus Cyron
c.600 olpe by the Cerameicus Painter
Tripod exaleiptron
585-70 Tripod exaleiptron by the KX Painter, shoulder: master of animals; legs: sirens & animals
Gorgon Painter
Marcus Cyron
600-580 Name vase of the Gorgon Painter shows Perseus followed by Gorgons after murder of their sister Medusa
Marcus Cyron
590-70 black-figure amphora by Sophilos
590-575:  Middle Corinthian pottery 600-575 wikBFP 590-575 colcl
pub dom
580 Herakles with Pholos and other centaurs on a skyphos by the Pholoe Painter
Drawing of left
600-575 Amphoriskos with animals and siren
c.580 Sculptors DIPOENOS & SCYLLIS of Crete, pupils of Daedalos, flourish at Sicyon.  They work in wood, ebony and ivory, and apparently also, in marble, and make statues for Cleonae and Argos. 580 wikD&S
c.580 SOPHILOS Attic potter & black-figure vase painter flourishes.  Oldest Attic vase painter to be known by his true name.  His works were exported all over the Mediterranean and as far as the Black Sea. 590-70 wikSΦ
c.578 COMEDY, in Megara from ?, introduced to Icaria by Susarion. 578
DGRA 342
c.577 ARCHESTRATIDAS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 576. 577 GHH, wikEA
c.576 AEROPOS-I ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 602.  Son ALCETAS-I succeeds until 547. 576 GHH, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM     570 MRDK
c.576 ARCHESTRATIDAS eponymous archon of Athens from 577, ends.  Successors unknown until 570. 576 wikEA
c.576 MILTIADES the Younger in Chersonnese peninsula of Thrace. 576 GRG
c.575 Corinthian POTTERY begins decline in quality. 575 B76 8-337
c.575 SOLON former archon of Athens 594-3:  "Laws, like cobwebs, entangle the weak, but are broken by the strong." 575
MNDQ 655
c.575 Son of Leotychidas, HIPPOCRATIDES dies.  12th Eurypontid king of Sparta from 600 (with Leon from 590).  Son AGASICLES succeeds to 550. 575 OCD 1007
Agasicles dies, Ariston succeeds: MRDK
Archidamos dies, Agasicles succeeds: wikKS
c.573 NEMEAN GAMES of mythic origin in honor of Nemean Zeus, sponsored by Cleonae Argolis until 460, become a pan-Hellenic festival held in the 1st and 3rd years of every Olympiad at sanctuary of Nemean Zeus.  (See also Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian games.) 576 B76 8-347, Dur 2-66
573 B76 VII-249, CAH 3.3, GRG, OCD 726, OHG, wikNG 566 GHH
c.572 52nd OLYMPIAD:  Pyrrhus, who had succeeded his bro Damophon as king of Pisa, invades Elis, assisted by the Dyspontii in the Pisatis, and by the Macistii and Scilluntii in Triphylia.  OLYMPIC GAMES, under Pisa from 668, come under Elis until ?. 580 B76 8-347, OCD 835
572 DGRG 1-818, GRG, MCAW 85
c.571 SOLON former archon of Athens 594-3, traveling from 593, returns.  Promotes effort to win Salamis Island. 580 CAH 4-61 571 MCAW 84
c.570 CLEISTHENES tyrant of Sicyon in Peloponnese from 600 ends. 570 B76 8-336, OCD 249, OHG
560 RAH 150
c.570 SALAMIS Island technically under Athens from 596, taken by Athens.  This secures the bay and promotes trade with Corinth.  Salamis is not securely under Athens until 535. 600-560 B76 8-345
570 MCAW 86
565 LEWH 66, TTPC
c.570 Francoise VaseFRANCOISE VASE made in Athens and signed by potter Ergotimos and painter Kleitias, 1st known volute krater made of clay, exported to Etruria.  Contains narrative showing gods, goddesses and creatures interacting with people, proportional bodies.  Figure groups: sailors; soldiers; Achilles; Patroclus; Peleus; Theseus;   Deities: Artemis; Dionysus; Hephaestus; Hermes; Thetis;   Animals: boars; birds; horses; lions;   mythical animals: centaurs; gorgons; minotaur; sphinxes;   pygmies;   weapons;   chariots;   ships photo: Sailko

B76 19-290, fofweb
c.569 ARISTOMENES eponymous archon of Athens from 570, ends.  Successors unknown until 566. 569 wikEA
c.568 ArgolisMycenae (12km north of Argos) overthrown by Argives. 568 GHH
c.568 A school of statuary opened at Athens by Dipaenos and Scyllos. 568 GHH
c.566 PANATHENEA festival established by Pisistratos in Athens on the supposed birthday of Athena.  Held annually, and on greater scale every 4th year.  Entries are mostly from Attica, but outsiders welcomed. 566 DGRBM, Dur 2-212, GHH, OHG 566/5 CAH 3.3
no date: OCD 774
c.566 Poems of HOMER are collected and arranged by Pisistratos.  Solon, former archon of Athens 594-3, commands that they be publicly recited. 566 GHH
c.565 Athenians under Pisistratos rout Megarans.  This victory opens up a trade blockage that had causes food shortage in Athens. 565 wikPs
c.565 SICYON, in northeast Peloponese, comes under Achaean League mostly until 369. 565 rcPl
c.565 HIPPOCLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 566, ends.  Successors unknown until 561. 565 wikEA
c.565 PISISTRATOS, land owner, soldier, politician of hill country near Athens, in war against Megara, captures its harbor. 565
B76 13-1110 OCD 836
570-60:  Middle Attic pottery no date: wikBFP
Polos Painter
600-575 Lekane by the Polos Painter with Sirens
Siana cup
575-50 Double-decker Siana cup, in Heidelberg Painter style showing boxers
Castellani Painter
575-550 Amphora by the Castellani Painter, Theseus killing the Minotaur
Siana cup
Bibi Saint-Pol
575-50 Siana cup by the Heidelberg Painter, Bellerophon fighting the Chimera. Found in Rhodes
Siana cup C
Bibi Saint-Pol
560 Siana cup by the C Painter. Abduction of Thetis. Peleus forces access to the burning altar where Nereids dance.
Wine jug
Marcus Cyron
560 Wine jug by painter Lydos. Heracles & Ares fight over corpse of Cycnus.
c.564 Sculptor ENDOEOS (Endaeos, Endoios) flourishes in Athens, makes an image of Athena dedicated by Callias. 564 wikEnd 562 GHH
c.563 AEGINA island establishes a footing for its merchants at Naucratis Egypt. 563 DGRG 1-33
c.563 PISISTRATOS stages an attempt on his own life, thereby persuading Athenians to grant him a bodyguard. no date: wikPs
c.562 COMEDY 1st performed in Athens by Susarion and Dolon. 562 GHH
c.561 PISISTRATOS siezes Acropolis at Athens, but soon ousted until 560. 561 B76 I-208, 13-1110, CAH 3-769, 4-63, CDCC 102, Dur 2-66, LEWH 66, OCD 836, TTPC, bk, wikEA, wikPs
560 B76 8-342, DGRBM 2-857, GHH
c.561 COMEAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 561, overthrown by PISISTRATOS, who becomes tyrant until deposed and driven out by archons Megacles and Lycurgos.   Athenian DEMORACY from ? is suspended until 508. 561 CAH 3.3-769, IV-63, Dur 2-66, HAG, GRG 56, LEWH 66, OCD 836, TTPC, rcSB3
c.560 MEGACLES, an archon of Athens, invites PISISTRATOS back to Athens, on condition that Pisistratos marry Megacles' dau, then secures return of Pisistratos.  Dresses as Athena and brings Pisistratos in in a chariot. 560 CAH 4-63, LEWH 66
556 wikPs
c.560 PISISTRATOS siezes Acropolis again, becomes tyrant of Athens until 558, granted a bodyguard. 561/0 CDCC 914, OCD 376
560 B76 4-707, 8-342-3, CAH 3.3, 4-63, DGRBM 3-171, MCAW 88, OCD 140, 664, OHG, RAH     559 bk
c.560 pederasty PEDERASTY becomes fashionable in Athens with Pisistratos, evidenced by its depiction on vases from now until about 470. photo: Jastro

560 wikAP
550 aig
c.560 HEGESTRATOS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 559. 560 GHH, wikEA
c.560 SOLON former archon of Athens 594-3, dies. 560 B76 16-1045, GHH
c.560 TEGEA defeated and conquered by SPARTA, but begins a war for freedom until 550. 560 OHG, wikTg
c.560 Sicyonian treasury at Delphi. 560 OHG
c.560 Kouros of Tenea Kouros of Tenea (formerly Apollo of Tenea), a grave statue from a cemetery at Tenea south of Corinth.  Many Kouros statues are made in the 500s, typically life-size, but early ones are up to 3m tall.  Female counterpart of kouros is kore. photo Zde

560 wikKoT
c.560 Son of Eurycratidas, LEON dies.  13th Agiad king of Sparta from 590 (with Agasicles from 575).  Son ANAXANDRIDAS succeeds to 520. 560 DGRBM 1-163, MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.560 Corinthian krater Corinthian krater painting.  The left figure shows the armband and grip on the inside of the traditional Greek hoplite shield called the hoplon, aspis, or Argive shield.  If anyone can explain the armored upper body in juxtaposition to bare asses, please notify me. photo: pub dom

560 wikAMA
575-550:  Late Corinthian pottery 575-50 colcl, wikBFP
575-50 Depiction of a pottery kiln on a pinax, found in Penteskouphia
pub dom
560 Tydeus and Ismene on an amphora by the Tydeus Painter
pub dom
575-50 Horsemen on an olpe by an associate of the Hippolyte Painter
565-50:  Tyrrhenian amphorae, a specific shape of Attic black-figure neck amphorae produced in immitation of Corinthian style for an Etruscan market.  They are ovoid in shape and bear striking decorations.  The handle usually has a lotus-palmette cross or vegetal tendrils.  It always terminates in a red-painted ridge.  The vase body is painted with several friezes.  Painters: Castellani Painter, Goltyr Painter, Kyllenios Painter, Prometheus Painter, Fallow Deer Painter. 565-50 wikTrA     550-30 wikBFP
Tyrrhenian amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
c.560 Tyrrhenian amphora by the Fallow Deer Painter, showing hoplites
neck amphora
565-50 neck amphora, Goltyr Painter, Amazonomachy, roosters, panthers, ram
neck amphora
570-60 Athenian terracotta neck amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
c.560 Tyrrhenian komos with komasts and hetaera in erotic positions
Tyrrhenian amphora
Marcus Cyron
c.550 amphora, Prometheus Painter. Herakles fights Andromache, Telamon fights Ainipe. Iphis fights Panariste.

Bibi Saint-Pol
c.560 neck-amphora, with Caledonian boar hunt. From South Etruria.
c.559 HEGESTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 560, ends.  HEGESIAS succeeds until 558. 559 wikEA
c.558 HEGESIAS eponymous archon of Athens from 559, ends.  Successor unknown until 556. 558 wikEA
c.558 PISISTRATOS, tyrant of Athens 560-56, marries dau of Megacles but refuses to bed her because he already has sons for heirs.  With Megacles' help, he regains control of Athens. 559 TTPC
CAH 4-63
557 May 19 Λ SOLAR ECLIPSE at siege of Larisa recorded by Xenophon.  "...A cloud, however, overspread the sun and hid it from sight until the inhabitants abandoned their city; and thus it was taken." Anabasis
557 nasa
c.556 CHILON, philosopher, becomes ephor of Sparta until 555.  1st to yoke the ephors alongside the kings. 556 CAH 3.3, GHH, GRG,
OCD 229, OHG     550 bk
c.556 HEGESIAS resumes as eponymous archon of Athens until 555. 556 wikEA
c.556 Tyranny of SICYON from ?, ends. 556 OHG     556/5 CAH 3.3     555 bk
c.556 Wealthy classes of the coast and the plain unite against Pisistratos. 556 Dur 2-120
c.556 PISISTRATOS, tyrant of Athens 560-56, loses support of Megacles.  Expelled from Athens. 556 B76 8-342, CAH 4-64, Dur 2-120, LEWH 66, OCD 836, OHG, bk, wikEA 554 DGRBM 2-857, GHH
c.555 PISISTRATOS makes peace with the wealthy coastal faction and tries 2nd coup on Athens.  He enters in a chariot driven by a tall woman dressed as Athena, while heralds announce that the goddess is restoring him.  The populace actually buys it, but the coastal faction turns on him.  He Leaves Attica until 546.  Withdraws to a border area between Thrace and Macedonia, founds Rhaecelos on Thermaic Gulf. 556 B76 13-1110, OCD 836, wikEA
555 GRG 56, HAG 75, wikEA
550 Dur 2-120
c.555 CHERSONESE peninsula, loosely under Thracians, secured for Athenian MILTIADES the Elder until 524 by negotiation of Pisistratos and Thracians.  Comes under Miltiades family until 493. 555 GRG 327,
OCD 687-8
550 rcT, wikMil
551 or 56 CAH 3.3-160
c.555 Stesichoros Greek lyric poet dies. 555 wikSt     556-53 B76 IX-563,     553 DGRBM, GHH
c.555 LACONIAN VASE PAINTING (not the best in Greece) reaches best quality. 560-55 B76 8-340
c.555 HEGESIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 556, ends.  EUTHYDEMOS succeeds until 554. 556 GHH 555 wikEA
c.555 Orthagorid dictatorship of Megara in Peloponese from 655 ends. 555 GRG
c.554 EUTHYDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 555, ends.  Successors unknown until 548. 554 wikEA
c.550 SCYTHIANS, in Europe from 750, appear in Balkans, keep coming until 500. 550 B76 2-615
c.550 GREEK ALPHABET spreads to Thrace. 600-500 vrb
c.550 POTIDAEA, Chalcidice, a Corinthian colony from 609, first Λ COINS V struck. 550 OCD 870
c.550 SUNDIAL introduced to Greece by Anaximander.   (See Egypt 800China 595) 600-501 TToH
550 GHH     520-11 TTS
c.550 Corinthian POTTERY declining in quality from 575, yields to competition from ATTIC pottery.  Athenian pottery now dominates overseas trade.  The finest Attic black-figure vases are made from 550 to 520.  Exekias is the greatest painter, showing figures with expression and mood as well as action. 550
B76 8-337, 14-899
c.550 CORINTH, in unknown status from 581, becomes oligarchic republic until 392. 550 rcPl
560-40 Group E (E Group) a group of Attic black-figure vases, (or painters).  Most are painted by the same painter.  It is stylistically homogenous, and the ground from which the art of painter Exekias (540-30) will grow.  E stands for Exekias.  Main vase shape is the type-A belly amphora.  The same are repeated: Herakles with the Nemean Lion or with Geryon, Theseus with the Minotaur.  E group style becomes increasingly dominant during 2nd half of 6th cen. 560-40 wikGE
55025 wikBFP
Marie-Lan Nguyen
c.540 amphora with Herakles fighting Geryon
Bibi Saint-Pol
550-25 belly amphora, Athena is born from the head of Zeus
Matthias Kabel
550 neck amphora, foot race with weapons, victory tripods are below the handles.
c.550 HoplitodromosASPIS (hoplon) SHIELD is used in Greece.  A deep-dished round shield made primarily of wood, at least 0.91m diameter, weighed @7.3kg, @25-38mm thick.  Some have a thin sheet of bronze on the outer face, often just around the rim.  Earlier ones have a single strap grasped by the left hand and a broad belt passed round the left shoulder, so as to throw the weight on the body and thus relieve the arm.  Later shields are generally smaller, and managed by 2 handles, the left hand being thrust thru the first so as to grip the second.  5th-4th century aspises are decorated by emblems usually chosen by the state.  Sicyon used the sigma (Σ).  The Spartan lambda (Λ), for Lacedaemon is most known.  From late 5th cent., Athenian hoplites commonly used the little owl.  Shields of Theban hoplites sometimes used a sphinx, or the club of Heracles.  The revolutionary part of the shield is the Argive grip.  It placed the handle at the edge of the shield, and was supported by a leather forearm strap at the center. photo GNU FDL

550 wikAsp
c.550 SPARTA-TEGEA WAR from 560 ends in stalemate.  Sparta quits expansionist policy, and allies with Tegea until 471. 560 LEWH 63
550 B76 8-340,
OCD 1040, rcPl
c.550 PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE unoficially begins as "the Lacedaemonians and their allies", a loose confederation under SPARTA.  Operates until 421.  Ends 365. 550 anhi
c.550 CYTHERA Island, under Argos from ?, taken by Sparta until 424.  Receives a Spartan garrison and governor. 550 OCD 308
c.550 Son of Hippocratides, AGASICLES dies.  13th Eurypontid king of Sparta from 575 (with Anaxandridas from 560).  Son ARISTON succeeds to 515. 550 OCD 1007, MRDK, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.550 ORPHEOS:  1st known mention in a 2-word fragment of lyric poet Ibycos:  onomaklyton Orphen "Orpheus famous-of-name". 6th cen wikOrΦ
c.550 Legend of ORPHEOS generates mystery cults supposed to transmit revelations that Orpheos himself brought back from Hades. 6th cen wikPD
590-540 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.550 Goat and SatyrSATYRS (part man, part horse) appear on black-figure pottery as male followers of Dionysus.  They have horse ears and tail, and often hold a musical instrument or wine container.  Sporting a sometimes equine-size boner, they often make unwanted advances on females.  Early representations sometimes include horse hind legs, but human legs are most common.  The satyr chief is Silenus, a minor deity associated (like Hermes and Priapus) with fertility. Vase c.520: Marie-Lan Nguyen

6th cen. wikSt
c.550 Sculptor ENDOEOS (Endoios) flourishes in Athens.  Makes an ivory Athena Alea, for the temple of Athena in Tegea. mid 6th wikEnd
c.550 Temple of Apollo, Corinth 2nd Temple of Apollo at Corinth built on site of previous temple 650.  6 x 15 limestone Doric columns 3.506m high.  Base 53.82m X 21.48m.  Contains a bronze statue of Apollo.  7 of 42 columns remain. Creative Commons

560 amac
550 msgn
540 CAH 3.3, CDCC 69, jom, prs
c.550 TOASTING: A host customarily drinks to the health of a guest to insure that the wine is not poisoned. 600-500 EOET 91
c.550 hermaeHERM (pl. hermae) appear in Greece.  A herm is a quadrangular stone pillar, often tapering narrower at the base, usually placed outdoors, serving as a cult object, boundary marker, signpost, milestone, or memorial.  A herm is topped with a person's head, usually male, often Hermes, sometimes part of a torso, but no or stunted arms.  When male, the otherwise flat front often has genitalia, often erect.  Few penises have survived.  (see 415)  Herodotus says the Athenians, who got the herm from the Pelasgians, spread use of it to the rest of Greece. left & center RichardMcCoy

right pub dom

6th cen. about
c.548 ERXICLEIDES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 547. 549 GHH     548 wikEA
c.548 Temple of APOLLO at Delphi destroyed by fire, many of its votive offerings perish or are damaged.  Amphictyons decide to rebuild on a grander scale.  They decree that ¼ of the expense should be borne by the Delphians, and the rest from other parts of the Hellenic world.  300 talents are required.  The Alcmaeonidae contract for the work.  They employ architect Spintharos of Corinth, and use Parian marble for the front of the temple in place of the coarse stone prescribed in the contract.  Completed 512. 584 SHT 1-262
548 B76 4-707, BHoE 591, CAH 4-80, DGRA 81, DGRBM 3-896, DGRG 1-762, Dur 2-226, GHH, HAG 77, MCAW 91, OCD 322, OHG     547 GHH
c.547 ALCETAS ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 576.  Son AMYNTAS-I succeeds until 498. 547 rcSB2, wikAlct, wikArg
540 GHH, MRDK, wikAmnt, wikLKM
c.547 ERXICLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 548, ends.  THESPIOS succeeds until 546. 547 wikEA
c.547 CROESUS king of Lydia 560-46 visits Delphic oracle.  Asks if its a good idea to attack Cyrus of Medo-Persia.  Response: "If you attack, you will destroy a mighty kingdom." no date: lvA
c.547 Spartans get permanent possession of Cynuria, an area on east coast of Peloponnese, by combat of 300 champions against Argos, in which Spartan Othryades earns immortal fame. 547 DGRG 1-203, 726
c.546 THESPIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 547, ends.  PHORMION succeeds until 545, after which the successor is unknown until 536. 546 wikEA
c.546 Hundreds of Ionic artists migrate to Attica, introduce Ionic style to Athens. 546 Dur 2-226
c.546 PISISTRATOS, former tyrant of Athens 560-56, banished again from Athens, goes to Eretreia on Euboea. 547 GHH
546 B76 13-1110
c.546 PISISTRATOS, supported by Eretreia, Thrace, Thebes, Argos, and Lygdamis of Naxos, sails from Eretria, lands unopposed at Marathon, marches toward Athens, defeats Athenians at Pallene, becomes tyrant again until death 527.  Athens is under tyrranies until 510. 548 DGRBM 2-857, GHH     547 wikEA
546 B76 8-342-3, 348, CAH 4-65, CDCC 486, Dur 2-120, GRG 56, HAG 75, OCD 479, 836, 645, OHG, SHWC 56, bk, lvG, rcSB3     545 OCD 140     540 BCoC 305, MCAW 92
c.546 ALCMAEONIDS, richest clan in Athens (including Cleisthenes age 20), banished by Pisistratos, goes to Phocis until 527. 596/5 DGRBM 1-106, 546 B76 4-707, wikHip
c.546 Plain of THYREA, under Argos from 669, taken by Sparta until ?.  They agree to settle it by a battle of 300 champions from each side.  Only 2 Argives and 1 wounded Spartan survive the battle.  The 2 Argives decide to let him live, and leave the field.  The Spartan then puts up a trophy and claims victory.  Both sides claim victory, so they fight it out.  Sparta wins.  ARGOS, dominant Peloponese from 790, loses dominance to Sparta until ?. 735 GHH     547 bk 546 CAH 3.3-769, IV-72, GRG 79, 100, ISBE 2-562, LEWH 63, OHG
544 B76 8-340, 347
c.545 ABDERA, Thrace, founded 654, Destroyed by Thracians from ?, rebuilt by Greeks of Teos Lydia, including poet/musician ANACREON, who flee there to escape Persians. 545 CAH 3.3-160, GRG 327, OCD 57, rcSB2 540 GHH
c.544 59th OLYMPIAD:  1st statue for an Olympic victory erected at Olympia by Praxidamas for winning the cestus competition. 544
DGRBM 3-518
c.543 ATHENS, under Pisistratos, takes over religious festival of Delos Island, develops Pan-Athenian festival. 543 wik540s
no date: GRG 57
c.541 ABDERA Thrace unable to resist general Harpagus of Media, who had been left by Cyrus, after his capture of Sardis. 541
DGRG 1-2
c.540 Pisistratos builds temple to DIONYSUS at foot of Acropolis, begins temple of ZEUS Olympus, restores temple of ATHENA POLIS on Acropolis, all to weaken hereditary priesthoods held by nobles. 540 MCAW 93
530 Dur 2-226
no date: LEWH 66
c.540 Λ  ILIAD & ODYSSEY  put into writing by Pisistratos. 540 MCAW 93
c.540 Athenian sculptors begin using MARBLE from islands of Naxos and Paros in Cyclades. 600 TTT
540 MCAW 93
c.540 North border of LACONIA is fixed. 540 OCD 575
c.540 AEGINA island, under Epidauros from ?, separates.  Confiscates mutual cult statues of Auxesia and Damia. 540 DGRBM 1-448
c.540 THEBAN HOPLITES defeat Thessalian cavalry near Thespia. 540 GRG, HAG 64
c.540 THEOGNIS, poet of Megara flourishes.  He writes elegiacs suitable for drinking parties.  Some vent hatred of lower class rulers who ousted the aristocracy of Megara.  Some are love poems to boy Cyrnus.  Some are aphorisms on wisdom and morality. 550 bk
542 GHH
540 B76 10-1091, OHG
c.535 PHRYNAEOS eponymous archon of Athens from 536, ends.  Successors unknown until 533. 535 wikEA
c.535 SALAMIS Island, insecurely under Athens from 570, comes totally under Athens until 350. 540-30 GRG
LATE ARCHAIC begins until 480.
Black-figure pottery, which originated in Corinth c.650, becomes common.
535 wikArG
neck amphora
Jastrow   neck amphora by Leipzig Amphora Group
Bibi Saint-Pol     hydria   Peleus wrestles Atalanta at funeral games of king Pelias for the prize of a boar head.
eye cup
Jastrow   eye cup
(cup with eyes painted on it)
CHALCIDIAN POTTERY 560-510:  Black figure.  Named for mythological inscriptions in the Chalcidian alphabet, but has no recognisable Euboean characteristics, and is thus unlikely to originate from there.  Vases are found mainly in Italian sites, but also in Spain, Izmir, Massalia, and Skyros island.  Succeeded by Pseudo-Chalcidian.
560-10 wikBFP, wikChP
E.S.V. Leigh  olpe Heracles entering Mount Olympus
neck amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
neck amphora
Dionysus & 2 Maenads,
1 holds a hare.
E. S. V. Leigh lekythos
wedding procession
The AMASIS Painter flourishes.  Amasis is a Greek version of an Egyptian name.  132 attributed vases, 90 notable.  Mostly black figure.     
560-25 wikBFP
555-25 B76 I-291, 550-10 wikAP

{{PD-US}}   Amphora
Achilles & Ajax playing board game
neck amphora
Marie-Lan Nguyen
neck amphora
Dionysos with his son Oinopion
neck amphora
Marie-Lan Nguyen
neck amphora
Achilles left & Penthesileia right
Rotatebot   kylix
Dionysus on a ship surrounded by dolphins
Attic Vase painter EXEKIAS flourishes in Athens.  Mostly black figure, which reaches its apex with him.  He signed 12 of his surviving vessels as potter, 2 as both painter and potter.  He possibly invented the kylix krater; at least the oldest existing piece is from his workshop.  For his most famous vessel, the Dionysus cup, he was 1st to use a coral-red interior coating instead of the customary red.
545-30 wikAP
545-20 wikBFP
c.534 Λ DRAMA:  Cult of DIONYSUS, at Eleutherae from ?, transferred to Athens by Pisistratos.  1st DIONYSIA festival at Athens created, lays foundation for Greek drama.  1st TRAGEDY "goat song" performed.  THESPIS wins drama contest.  Just a protagonist and chorus until 471.  Dionysia reorganized 501. 535 DGRA 1143, DGRBM 3-172, 359, GHH, OCD 350
534 B76 IX-951, CAH 4-67, Dur 2-200, OHG, bk, wikDs, wikθsp     532, wikTAG     508 wikTAG     478 CDGRA 639
c.533 THERICLES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 532. 533 GHH, wikEA
c.532 THERICLES eponymous archon of Athens from 533, ends.  Successors unknown until 528. 532 wikEA
c.530 Λ AQUEDUCT built by engineer Eupalinus in Megara. 530 TTT
c.530 ONOMACRITOS, compiler and collector of oracles, hired by Pisistratos to compile the oracles of Musaeos. no date: wikOn
c.530 TEMPLE of APOLLO at Calydon, Aetolia repaired. 530 SHT 2-403
c.530 Λ COINS V:  1st 2 sided coins appear in Greece. 530 OCD 259

Bibi Saint-Pol  amphora from Vulci with Heracles and Athena in black figure
Sailko   amphora with Heracles and the Nemean Lion in black figure
Bibi Saint-Pol other side of same amphora with Heracles and Athena in red figure
Sailko   other side of same amphora with Dionysos and a woman in red figure
GREEK POTTERY:  black figures on red ground from 700, is gradually reversed until by 500 black figures are used only for trophies at the Panathenaic festival.
RED FIGURE POTTERY begins.  The Andokides Painter flourishes.  His work is unsigned.  He is named after Andokides, the potter for whom he works.  During a transitional period, he paints amphoras with black figures on one side and red figures on the other, sometimes with the same scene.  Thereafter, he paints only red figure style.
535 OHG
530 B76 14-899 CAH 4-97, GRG 27, RAH 171, wikRFP
530-15 wikAP
c.528 ZAMOLXIS becomes 1st king of Thrace until ?. 528 GHH
c.527 PISISTRATOS dies.  Tyrant of Athens 560-56, from 546, dies of old age.  1st son HIPPIAS succeeds until 510.  Allows some power to bro Hipparchos until 514. 528 B76 8-343, BCoC 305, GHH, OHG, RAI3, wikEA     528/7 B76 V-55, CAH 3.3, ISBE 2-563, wikEA, wikHp     527 B76 4-707, 13-1110, CAH 3.3-769, IV-71, CDCC 102, DGRBM 3-171, 858, Dur 2-123, GRG 56, HAG, LEWH 66, MCAW 99, OCD 479, 517, 836, RAH, SHWC 56, bk, lvG, rcSB3, wikHip, wikPs     526 CDCC 486
c.527 After Pisistratos dies, HIPPIAS, eponymous archon of Athens 526-5, tries to win back the nobles who had been opposed to tyranny. 527
B76 4-707
c.527 ALCMAEONID family, banished from Athens from 546, recalled until 514. 527 B76 I-208
c.527 PHILONEUS eponymous archon of Athens from 528, ends.  ONETORIDES succeeds until 526. 527 wikEA
c.526 ONETORIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 527, ends.  HIPPIAS (tyrant 527-10) succeeds until 525. 526 wikEA
c.525 Figured Attic pottery exports to Rome surge until 510, followed by an equally sharp decline. 525
CAH 7.2-131
c.525 Chalcidian helmet Chalcidian bronze helmet, so-called because it was first, and is most commonly, depicted on pottery once thought to be from Chalcis Euboea.  But it is not known if the helmet originated in Chalcis, or if the pottery in question was Chalcidian. photo: GNU FDL

550-500 wikCH
frieze of Siphnian treasury
North frieze of Siphnian treasury, showing mythic Gigantomachy         photo Fingalo
c.525 Siphnian treasury at Delphi built to host offerings of the polis of Siphnos island in Cyclades.  One of a number of treasuries lining the Sacred Way, thru the Sanctuary of Apollo.  Purpose: to win favor of the gods and increase the prestige of the donor polis.  It is one of the earlier surviving buildings of this type.  Until recently it was confused with the neighboring Cnidian Treasury. 525 OHG, wikST
c.525 HIPPIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 526, ends.  Alcmaeond CLEISTHENES succeeds until 524. 525 B76 4-707, CAH 3.3, OCD 248, 836, wikEA
c.525 In response to Samian exiles, Spartans and Corinthians send a fleet to overthrow POLYCRATES of Samos. 525 B76 8-348, GHH, bk
523 CAH 4
c.525 Poet/musician ANACREON, in Thrace from 545, moves to Athens. 525 DGRBM
c.525 Lyric poet Simonides of Ceos, age c.30, moves from Ceos to Athens. 525 DGRBM
c.525 530-20 is the pinnacle of black-figure vase painting. wikBFP
c.524 MILTIADES the Elder, ruler of Chersonese peninsula from 555, dies childless.  The son of his half-bro Cimon the Elder, STESAGORAS succeeds until 516. 524 wikMiltE 520 rcT
c.524 CLEISTHENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 525, ends.  MILTIADES succeeds until 523. 524 B76 4-707, GHH, OCD 836, wikEA
c.524 CHOERILOS Athenian tragic dramatist, wins his 1st victory.  He is said to have written 150 pieces and won 13 prises. 524 DGRA 1144, wikCh     523 DGRBM 1-696, 3-359, GHH
c.523 MILTIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 524, ends.  CALLIADES succeeds until 522. 523 wikEA
c.522 CALLIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 523, ends.  PISISTRATOS succeeds until 521. 522 wikEA
c.522 SESTOS in Chersonese founded by Thracians. Chersonese 522 GHH
c.522 CARDIA in Chersonese founded by Thracians. 522 GHH
c.522 AEGOSPOTAMI in Chersonese founded by Thracians. 522 GHH
522/1 Altar 12 Gods ALTAR of the 12 GODS set up in Sanctuary of the 12 gods in the Athenian Agora by archon Pisistratos.  It is a place of supplication and refuge, marking the central point from which distances from Athens are measured.  Gods are probably Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Hermes, and Dionysus, but Hestia may be one of them.  It stands until 267CE. left: Shakko
right: Jastro
Backgrounds deleted

522/1 wikA12G
c.521 PISISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 522, ends.  Successors unknown until 518. 521 wikEA
c.520 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE formed by Thebes with states of Boeotia until 479. 550 B76 II-114, brit, dlgd 520 rcSB3     519 OCD3 591, juc
c.520 TANAGRA Boeotia, joins Boeotian League until 386. 520 rcSB3
c.520 CLEOSTRATOS of Tenedos, astronomer, flourishes.

Λ ASTRONOMY V:  1st pointed out 2 stars in Auriga called Haedi.

CALENDAR V:  Possibly introduces zodiac and solar calendar from Babylonia to Greece.  Endorsed 8 year cycle (popularly attributed to Eudoxos 370).
(See Roman 713, Mayan 613, Chinese 444, Zoroastrian 441, Mayan 400)
520 GRG, wikCleo
c.520 owlOWL adopted by Athens as trademark symbol.  Owls appear on Athenian Λ COINS until ?. photo GNU FDL

527-10 B76 8-345 520 GRG
540-500 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.520 65th OLYMPIAD adds a Hoplite race. 520 wikAOG
c.520 Sculptor AGELADAS of Argos flourishes.  Teacher of Phidias, Myron, and Polykleitos.  He makes statues of athletes at Olympia (also in 516 & 507). 520 OCD 26
disputed date: wikAgl
c.520 Physician DEMOCEDES of Croton practices medicine at Athens, also at Aegina and Samos islands.  At Aegina he is paid 1 talent per year from the public treasury. 532 DGRA 747 520 Dur 2-342
c.520 OLYMPIEUM, temple of Zeus Olympius begun on the site of a smaller temple until 510 at Athens by order of Pisistratus. 530 CDGRA 451 520 Dur 2-66
no date: OCD 751
c.520 Son of Leon, ANAXANDRIDAS dies.  14th Agiad king of Sparta from 560 (with Ariston from 550).  Son CLEOMENES-I succeeds to 490. 525 CDCC 486     520 B76 8-348, CDCC 488, DGRBM 1-163, GHH, MRDK, OCD 1007, OHG, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS     519 OCD 250
c.520 ONOMACRITOS, compiler and collector of oracles, having been hired to compile the oracles of Musaeos, inserts forgeries of his own that are detected by Lasos of Hermione.  Onomacritus is banished by Hipparchos. no date: wikOn
neck amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
neck amphora showing olive-gathering
neck amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
neck amphora
Herakles, Eurystheus & the Erymanthian Boar.
Jastrow   amphora
Ajax carrying dead Achilles, protected by Hermes (left) & Athena (right).
The ANTIMANES Painter flourishes.  Attic black figure.  Of the 150 works ascribed to him, the majority are hydriai and standard amphorae.  Most works attributed to him are found in Etruria.     
530-10 wikAntP
530-00 wikBFP
c.519 PLATAEA Boeotia, pressed by Thebes to join Boeotian League, appeals to Cleomenes-I of Sparta.
knows that Thebes will ally with Thessaly & Athens if attacked, so he tells Plataeans to ask Athens for help.
519 CAH 4-78, 159, DGRBM 1-792, DGRG 1-415, OCD 250, 839, LEWH 67, rcSB3
c.519 PLATAEA Boeotia, independent from 630, seeks and gets alliance with Hippias of Athens for help against Thebans.  Plataea is under the protection of Athens until 479.  Corinth sides with Plataea. 519 B76 8-349, CAH 4-78, 160, DGRA 204, GHH, LEWH 66, OCD 290, 839, bk, rcSB3
519 or 09 B76 8-345
c.519 Athenians and Boeotians war over Plataea. 519 GRG, OCD 290
c.517 HEBRON, eponymous archon of Athens from 518, ends.  Successors unknown until 511. 517 wikEA
c.517 Menandrius, former boss of Samos, escapes to Sparta, tries to bribe Cleomenes-II to help him recover Samos.  Menandrius is banished from Peloponnese and disappears. no date: DGRBM 2-890
c.516 STESAGORAS, son of Cimon, general? of Chersonese peninsula of Thrace from 524, murdered.  Pesistratids of Athens send another son of Cimon, MILTIADES the Younger to defend the Chersonese.  MILTIADES the Younger, siezes Chersonese, imprisons rivals, and rules until 492. 520 GRG 327
516 B76 8-348, 12-203, GRG 61, 264, rcT, wikMiltY 515 GHH
c.515 Son of Agasicles, ARISTON dies.  14th Eurypontid king of Sparta from 550 (with Cleomenes-I from 520).  Son DEMARATOS succeeds to 491. 515 OCD 1007, MRDK, lvG, rcPl, wikKS     510 OCD 324
c.515 CLEOMENES-I king of Sparta 519-490 refuses to help Samos against Persian rulers. 515 CDCC 488, OCD 250
c.514 HARMODIOS and ARISTOGITON, sons of Pisistratos, plot to overthrow Hippias and his bro Hipparchos. 515 Dur 2-66     514 B76 8-343,
CAH 4-79, Dur 2-123, LEWH 66, MCAW 100, OCD 112, 516, lvG
c.514 HIPPARCHOS, bro of Hippias (tyrant of Athens 527-10), assassinated by HARMODIOS and ARISTOGITON.  Harmodios is killed by guards of Hippias.  Aristogiton is arrested, tortured, and later executed.  Hippias fears widespread discontent, kills many Athenians. 514 B76 V-55, 4-707, 8-343, CAH 4-79, DGRBM 2-349, Dur 2-123, GHH, LEWH 66, MCAW 100, OCD 112, 516, OHG, bk, lvG, rcSB3, wikEA, wikHip, wikHpr
c.514 ALCMAEONID family, back in Athens from 527, perecuted by Hippias, leaves Athens again.  Out of Power until 510. 514 B76 I-208, 8-343
post-514 OCD 248
c.514 ALCMAEONIDS, having rebuilt the temple of Delphi 546, bribe the priestess to command the Spartans to help them overthrow tyrant Hippias. no date: wikHip,
c.514 Argives fine Sicyon and Aegina 500 talents each, because they had furnished Spartan king Cleomenes with ships to be employed against Argeian territory. 514
DGRG 1-203
c.514 ANACREON, poet of Athens, goes to Thessaly until ?. 514 OCD 57
c.513 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, crosses Bosphorus from Anatolia into Thrace on bridge of boats to cut off supplies to Greece, e.g.  Balkan timber, Scythian grain.
Builds altar to Zeus Diabaterios, and pays homage to Apollo, whom he considers a Greek approximation of Ahura Mazda.
516 CAH 4-96
514 OCD 480, OHG 35
513 DBANE 77-8, SOTS 245, lvG     512 Dur 2-234 MCAW 100, RAH 190, SHWC 63, TTT
Macedonia Thrace
c.513 THRACE comes under Persia until ?. 515 GHH     513 CDCC 885 513/2 GRG 33
c.513 MEGABYZOS sent west, to subdue Paeonians in valley of the Upper Strymon.  Eion is made capital of European possessions of the Achaemenid Empire. 513 lvG
c.513 MILTIADES the Younger, Athenian governor of Chersonese peninsula 516-493, becomes vassal of DARIUS-I. 513 B76 12-203 rcT, wikMiltY
c.513 DARIUS-I goes north to Danube River, builds a bridge, leaves Histiaeos tyrant of Miletos in charge of it, crosses into Scythian land.  Gives orders that if he does not return in 60 days, destroy the bridge.  The 60 days elapse.  Athenian Miltiades advises destroying the bridge.  Histiaeos refuses, figuring that Persian help against local democrats was more important than freedom from Persians. 516 CAH 4-96, 103
514 or 12 CHEIA 101
513 B76 V-63, DGRBM 2-498, GRG 327, IDB 1-769     512 Dur 2-234, HAG, OCD 520, RAH 691, bk
c.513 CLEISTHENES, based in Boeotia, leads Alcmaeonids in unsuccessful invasion of Attica. 513 B76 I-208
c.513 Laconians (originally Lacedaemonians) are dominant in the Aegean. 513 GHH
c.513 DARIUS-I, having failed to conquer Scythians, crosses Danube back into Thrace. 512 OCD 968
c.512 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, is back in Thrace, subdues Thrace and Macedonia. 512 Dur 2-234, HAG, MCAW 100
c.512 MYRCINOS on the Strymon in Thrace founded by Greeks of Miletos working for Persia. 513/2 lvG
c.512 Doric Temple of APOLLO at Delphi, begun 548, completed.  Lasts until 373. 512 Dur 2-226
480 DGRBM 3-896
c.512 ALCMAEONID family of Athens, exiled from 514, allied with other nobles, try to fight their way back into Athens. 512 B76 4-707
c.512 AMYNTAS-I king of Macedon 540-495, becomes vassal of Medo-Persia until ?. 512 GRG 327, HAG     510 GHH
c.512 BYZANTIUM, Greek colony from 668, taken by Darius-I, under Medo-Persians until 497. 512 B76 9-1069, CDCC 230, anan, rcT
c.512 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, in Europe from 513, crosses back into Anatolia, stays at Sardis. no date: SOTS 245
c.511 ALCMAEONID family of Athens, exiled from 514, asks help from Cleomenes-I, king of Sparta 520-490, against sons of Pisistratos. 511
MCAW 100
c.511 CLEOMENES-I, Agiad king of Sparta 520-490, duty bound to quench tyranny in Athens, sends small force under Anchimolius against HIPPIAS which lands at Phalerum Bay.  Hippias was ready, and annihilates it with Thessalian cavalry. 511 CAH 4-81
c.511 HIPPIAS Pisistratid tyrant of Athens 514-10, marries his daughter, Archedike, to Aiantides, son of Hippoklos, tyrant of Lampsakos, to facilitate his access to Persian court. no date: wikHip    
c.511 PHRYNICHOS, pupil of Thespis, tragic dramatist of Athens, wins his 1st victory.  He probably introduced the female mask.  1st known poet to use a historical subject. 511 CDGRA 638, DGRA 1144, DGRBM 3-359, Dur 2-66, GH 510 B76 VII-973
511-08 wikTAG
c.510 MESEMBRIA Thrace on Black Sea coast Founded by Greeks of Megara, Byzantium, Chalcedon. 510 CAH 3.3-161
c.510 DELPHIC ORACLE tells Cleomenes-I of Sparta to liberate Athens from Hippias. 510
c.510 CLEOMENES-I king of Sparta 520-490, with Alcmaeonids and approval of Megara and Corinth, marches against Athens, defeats Thessalian cavalry, besieges Hippias in Acropolis.  Hippias tries to smuggle his children out.  They are caught by Spartans, who use them to get Hippias to surrender. 510 B76 II-989, V-55, 8-340, 343, CAH 4-81-2, DGRBM 2-625, OHG 35
c.510 HIPPIAS, tyrant of Athens from 527, surrenders to Spartans.  Athenian tyranny from 546 ends.  Hippias and the Pisistratids are expelled from Athens by Cleomenes-I and Demaratos.  Hippias leaves with partisans to Sigeum in the Troad.  ALCMAEONIDS, out of power from 514, restored by Cleomenes-I, and are now under Cleisthenes. 511-10 wikEA     510 B76 II-989, V-55, 8-343, 348, CAH 3.3, CDCC 102, 488, DGRBM 1-106, 792, 3-173, GHH, HAG 78, ISBE 2-563, LEWH 66, MCAW 102, OCD 250, 479, 517, OHG, RAH 160, SHWC 56, bk, lvG, rcSB3, wikHip
c.510 The 4 tribes of Athens are remodeled and raised to 10 by Cleisthenes.  50 from each tribe increase the council to 500 bouleutai (counsellors) who are first chosen by lot.  10 tribes until 306. 510 DGRA 210
c.510 Cleomenes-I befriends Isagoras, who is suspected of lending out his wife to Cleomenes in exchange for favors. 510 DGRBM 2-625
c.510 OLYMPIEUM, temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens begun 520 by Pisistratus, construction suspended until 174. 510 clsx
c.510 ATHENS is forced to join PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE. 510 B76 8-349, MCAW 102
c.510 MEGARA joins PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE until 460. pre-500 OCD 665
c.510 HIPPIAS begins to fortify the citadel at the Piraeus. 510 OCD 703
c.510 Telesilla, poetess of Argos, flourishes. 510 OCD 703
c.510 HARPACTIDES eponymous archon of Athens from 511, ends.  SCAMANDRIOS succeeds until 509. 510 wikEA
c.510 TORTURE abolished by law in Athens. 510/9 OCD 376
c.510 CLEISTHENES-I passes a law condemning exiled Pisistratids. 510/9 OCD 376
c.510 1st Athenian CLERUCHY (military colony) established in the land of the hippobatae near Chalcis Euboea. 510
c.510 The LEAGROS GROUP:  Attic black figure.  Includes the Acheloos Painter, Chiusi Painter, & Daybreak Painter.  Main painted vessels are amphoras and hydria, the latter often with palmettes in the predella. 520-00 wikBFP
Matthias Kabel
Athlete with weights; & an aulos player
Amphora 3871
Amphora 3871
Herakles & the cercopi.
Pelike 49.11.1
Marie-Lan Nguyen   Pelike 49.11.1
King Midas's men discover Silenos.
Bibi Saint-Pol
Chiusi Painter
kylix with a gorgon
Bibi Saint-Pol
Chiusi Painter     kylix with satyrs & maenads gathering grapes
Bibi Saint-Pol   unknown painter
cup,   detail of interior showing a frieze of 5 boats   Found at Cerveteri
The Acheloos Painter:  comic episodes like modern cartoons.  Herakles & banquets are favored topics.  Characters are often satirized.
The Chiusi Painter is conventional and characterised by a boring delicateness.
525-00 Acheloos wikAclP

525-00 Chiusi wikChP

520 boat
c.510 Erotic kylix Homo-erotic scene painted on rim of an Attic red-figure kylix. photo Marie-Lan Nguyen

510 wikHED
c.510 Boeotian Shield BOEOTIAN SHIELD begins to replace the larger 8th cen. dipylon shield.  It is leather over a wood frame, and has slightly smaller cutouts.  Called Boeotian only because it frequently appears on Boeotian coins.  550-480 wikCB
c.510 Corinthian helmet Corinthian bronze helmet made in Apulia:  The Corinthians, despite their usual flair, have plain helmets. photo:
pub dom

510 wikCH
c.510 Harmodios and AristogeitonSculptor ANTENOR of Athens flourishes.  Sculpts the joint statues of tyrannicides Harmodios and Aristogeiton, funded by the Athenians.  Only Roman copies survive. photo MiguelHermoso

540-00 wikAnt
c.510 The PIONEER GROUP are red figure vase painters working in the Kerameikos (potters' quarter) of Athens.  Includes painters Phintias, Euthymides, Euphronios, Smikros, Hypsias, and the Dikaios Painter.  Not red figure innovators, but late adopters.  Their work makes frequent reference to one another, often in a playful competitive spirit. early 5th wikPG
Jastrow   amphora by Phintias showing rape of Leto by Tityos
paunch amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
paunch amphora by Euthymides showing Hector putting on his armor
neck amphora
Bibi Saint-Pol
neck amphora by Euphronios showing a Scythian archer
Rolf Muller   krater by Euphronios showing Athenian youths arming themselves
Jastrow   stamnos by Smikros showing Maenads & Dionysos holding a kantharos
c.509 SCAMANDRIOS eponymous archon of Athens from 510, ends.  LYSAGORAS succeeds until 508. 509 wikEA
c.509 DIONYSIA at Athens gives the first prize for a dithyramb.  509 OCD 230
c.509 STATUES of Harmodios & Aristogiton made by Antenor are put in the Athenian agora near the temple of Ares.  They remain until 480. 509 DGRA 1063, DGRBM 2-350, GHH
c.508 LYSAGORAS eponymous archon of Athens from 509, ends.  ISAGORAS, an Alcmaeonid, succeeds until 507. 508 B76 4-707, 8-343 CAH 4-139, GHH,
OCD 249, wikEA
c.508 CLEISTHENES-I passes a law extending citizenship to all free men of Athens. 508 B76 18-269
c.508 Aegina Island is dominant in the Aegean. 508 GHH
c.508 ISAGORAS, eponymous archon of Athens, politically threatened by Alcmaeonid CLEISTHENES-I, asks help from Cleomenes-I, king of Sparta.  Cleomenes-I complies, invades Attica, demands dissolution of the city council, expulsion of Cleisthenes and 700 families descended from those who massacred the Cylonids in 632.  Isagoras wins the political contest, but only after Cleisthenes had instituted democratic reforms which gave him dangerous popularity.  Cleisthenes is expelled, but Athenians rally to support the city council, drive out Isagoras and Cleomenes of Sparta, restore Cleisthenes.
DEMOCRACY, suspended from 561, is reestablished until 487.
B76 8-343, CAH 4-139, CDCC 102, 488, Dur 2-66, HAG, OCD 249-50, OHG, RAH 160, RW, bk, wikEA
c.508 Alcmaeonid CLEISTHENES-I passes a law condemning partisans of Isagoras. 508/7 OCD 376
c.508 OSTRACISM becomes a law introduced by Cleisthenes-I, but the first implementation of it is not until 487. 510 GHH
508 DGRA 122 508/7 OCD 762
c.507 MEGABYZOS, as envoy of Darius, demands earth and water (submission) from Macedonia. 507 DGRBM 1-118
c.507 Persian envoys murdered in court of Amyntas-I king of Macedon 540-495, by instigation of his son Alexander. 507 DGRBM 1-515
c.507 Athenian DEMOCRACY:  4 ancient tribes abolished by Cleisthenes and replaced with 10 new tribes.  All citizens have a vote in the popular Assembly. 510 DGRBM, GHH 508/7 B76 VII-975     507 MCAW 103
c.507 BOULE (Council), 100 reps from each of the 4 Athenian tribes from 594, changed to 50 reps each from the 10 newly created tribes. 507 wikBl
c.507 CLEISTHENES, democratic ruler of Athens, fears another attack by Cleomenes-I, seeks alliance with satrap of Sardis.  Envoys accept terms of satrap, but Athenians reject them. no date: OCD 249
c.507 Corinth mediates between Athens and Sparta. 507 OCD 290
c.507 ALCMAEON becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 506, after which successor is unknown until 504. 507 wikEA
c.506 MEGABYZOS, Persian commander in Aegean, recalled.  OTANES son of Sisamnes succeeds until ?. 506 DGRBM 3-65
c.506 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 520-490, tries to organize Peloponnesian League against Athens to restore Isagoras, but is obstructed by colleague Demaratus, Eurypontid king of Sparta 515-491.  Corinthians and other allies refuse to join Cleomenes, but he invades Attica anyway. 507
LEWH 66 506 HAG, OCD 250, OHG, 36
c.506 CLEISTHENES democratic ruler of Athens, temporarily expelled by Cleomenes-I. 506 OCD 250
c.506 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 520-490, expelled from Attica by Athenians. 506 OCD 250
c.506 AEGINA Island begins long struggle with Athens. 506 OCD 12     505 B76 I-108
c.506 ArgolisHYSIAE and OENOE on frontier of Attica, taken by Boeotians. 506 DGRG 1-329, 1107
c.506 CHALCIS Euboea:  Soon after the expulsion of the Pisistratids from Athens, the Chalcidians join the Boeotians against the Athenians.  But the Athenians cross over to Euboea with a great force, defeat the Chalcidians, and divide the lands of the wealthy Hippobotae "horse feeders" among 4,000 Athenian citizens as cleruchs. 506 B76 II-712, III-985, CAH 3.3, CDCC 332, DGRA 608, DGRG 1-599, 872, GRG, HAG, LEWH 66, OCD 226, 252, 412, OHG, bk
c.505 ARGOS & SPARTA, at peace from 546, war resumes until ?. -
c.505 Thebes asks Aegina island for aid in war against Athens.  Request granted.  Aeginetans send fleet to ravage the coast of Attica. 505
DGRG 1-33
c.505 Athens petitions Artaphernes-I satrap of Lydia, for help against Sparta and Thebes.  Artaphernes-I promises help only if Athens will become vassal to Darius-I 505
DGRG 1-369, GHH
c.505  CONSTITUTION of Peloponnesian League  written.  Separate treaties between Sparta and each state, which agrees to furnish troops for any Spartan war. 505
RAH 154
c.504 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 520-490, again tries to organize Peloponnesian League against Athens, this time to restore former tyrant Hippias, again obstructed by colleague Demaratus, Eurypontid king of Sparta 515-491.  Cleomenes invades Attica anyway. 504
OCD 250
c.504 ACESTORIDES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 503. 504 GHH, wikEA
c.504 Parmenides of Elea, philosopher, flourishes. 504 GHH
c.503 ACESTORIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 504, ends.  Successor unknown until 501. 503 wikEA
c.503 Laios of Hermione Argolis, lyric poet, flourishes. 503 GHH
c.502 Eretria is dominant in the Aegean. 502 GHH
c.501 ATHENS:  Office of STRATEGOS (chief general) introduced or reformed.  Henceforth 10 strategoi (one from each tribe) are elected by the assembly of all citizens.  Army is reorganized.  Number of archons is increased from 9 to 10. 501
B76 8-344, OCD 479,
RAH 161
c.501 DIONYSIA, Athens main dramatic competition from 534, reorganized.  The CHOREGIA for tragedy at the Great Dionysia begins. 501/0 B76 1-147
pre-500 OCD 230
c.501 Hecataeus the historian participates in deliberations of the Ionians respecting revolt. 501 DGRBM, OCD 230

Balkan Peninsula 500-381