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Late Period Go to Mediterranean Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Africa Go to North Africa

Some sources begin the Late Period here, others at the end of the 25th dyn.

c.715 CAPITAL of Egypt:  at TANIS from 1070, moved back to THEBES until ? by Shabaka. no date: B76 VII-430
c.702 Son of Kashta, SHABAKA dies.  2nd king of Kushite 25th dyn from 716.  Son or bro SHEBITKU succeeds until 690. 730 GEoP     721 ktut, wikP     717 DMoN     716 Clay, Grim, JIAE, RAI3, Shaw, frN, nar, phou, resh, scar, tig, treg     712 ae
702 CAH 3.2, 3.3, Grim     701 IDB 2-177, RAI3, Sdl 4-248, lveg    700 BHoE    699 FLAP 695 B76 IX-98
c.700 Late (Neo) Egyptian Language Period from 1600, ends.
Demotic Language Period begins
until after 400CE.
700
B76 8-595
c.700  DEMOTIC SCRIPT , hieroglyphic evolved into cursive for use in hand written texts, develops during Kushite dynasty, used until early 5th century CE. 700 GEoP 21
660 Wiki
c.700 INCUBATORS used in Egypt to hatch chicken eggs. 700 TTT
c.695 AMMERIS, governor of Sais installed by Kushites, dies.  STEPHINATES (aka TEFNACHT-II) succeeds to 688. 695 Grim 346
c.690 Son of Shabaka, SHEBITKU dies.  3rd king of Kushite 25th dyn from 702.  Son or bro TAHARKA succeeds until 664. 690 CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, IDB 2-177, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, Shaw, ae, bk, frN, ktut, lveg, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP
689 B76 IX-767, FLAP 178, RAI3, Sdl 4-259, resh
c.688 STEPHINATES (aka TEFNACHT-II), governor of Sais under Kushites, ends.  688 Grim 346
c.684 Nile inundation. Taharka yr 6 Grim 347
c.675 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69, invades Egypt, but is halted by a sandstorm, returns north. 675 B76 III-954, MCAW 68
674 DMoN 184, Grim 350, Sdl 4-296, resh
c.672 NEKAWAB, prince of Sais from ?, ends.  Son of Bokchoris, NECO-I (Necho), succeeds until 664. 672 Grim, Shaw, ktut, nar, phou, pic, wikP     664 resh
c.671 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69, invades Egypt again until 670, defeats Taharka, takes Memphis, captures crown prince. 675 MCAW 68     674 BHOE 555
671 B76 III-954, VII-237, 6-479, 11-986, Grim 350, IDB 2-54, 3-530, MCAW 68, RAI3 328, Sag1 127, Sag2 119, Sdl 4-296, WPOT 95, resh
670 BHoE 20, DMoN 185
c.671 TAHARKA king of Egypt 690-64, flees from Memphis to Thebes until 670.  All Lower Egypt, under Kushites from 715, acknowledges Esarhaddon as sovereign.
Assyrian domination begins until 655.
671 B76 III-954, Grim 350, IDB 2-54, MCAW 68, RAH, RAI2, Sag1 127, Sag2 119, bk, lveg
c.671 ESARHADDON claims to be king of all Egypt and Kush (an exaggeration).  Installs Assyrian administrators, makes NECO-I prince of Sais satrap of Egypt (technically just Lower Egypt). 671 B76 VII-238, Sag1 127,
Sag2 119
c.670 1st evidence of IRON V TOOLS in Egypt.  (probably brought there by Assyrians)   (See Crete 1200, Levant 1200, Europe 900, Africa 700) 670
SHT 1-597
c.670 ESARHADDON, in Egypt from 671, has some kind of problem in Assyria that causes him to return north. -
c.670 TAHARKA king of Egypt 690-64, as soon as Assyrian army leaves, returns from Thebes, recovers Memphis.  Lower Egypt is divided between Kushites and Assyrians until 664. 669 B76 6-479, RAI3 328, phou
no date: Sag1 127, Sag2 119
c.667 Army of Ashurbanipal with allies from Cyprus, Aram, Phoenicia, Palestine, invades Egypt, defeats Taharka near Memphis, retakes Memphis, confirms Neco-I as satrap of Egypt. 668 B76 11-986     667 B76 VII-238, 6-480, GEoP 346, IDB 1-112, MCAW 68, Sag1 127, Sag2 120, Shaw 353
c.667 TAHARKA king of Egypt 690-64, flees from Memphis to Thebes again 667 MCAW 68, Sag1 128, Sag2 120, Shaw 353
no date: B76 2-144
c.666 Assyrian army marches from Memphis south to attack Thebes, learns of potential rebellion in Lower Egypt, returns to Memphis. 666 Sdl 4-299
no date: RAI3 330
c.664 NECO-I, son of Bokchoris, prince of Sais from 672, ends.  Son PSAMTIK-I succeeds until 610. 664 CAH 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, Shaw, SHWC 38, ae, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP    656 resh
c.664 26th (Saite) DYNASTY begins until 525. 668 MRDK, pic     664 B76 6-480, CAH 3.3, Clay, JIAE, Shaw, ae, nar, resh, tig     663 WERE     656 bk
c.664 Son of Shebitku, TAHARKA dies.  4th king of Kushite 25th dyn from 690, dies at Napata in Nubia.  Neph Tanutamon immediately goes south to Napata to be crowned in the cushite capital.  TANUTAMON succeeds until 656. 665 RAI2     664 B76 IX-767, CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-300, Shaw, ae, bk, frN, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP
663 BHoE 558, Sdl 4-259, resh
c.664 TANUTAMON, king of Kushite 25th dyn 664-56, invades Lower Egypt, goes to Elephantine, then Thebes, unopposed until he reaches Memphis, takes Memphis, drives pro-Assyrian princes out of delta, remains until 663. 664 B76 VII- 238, 11-986, Sag1 129, MCAW 68, WPOT 165, bk
663 BHoE 558
c.664 NECO-I, son of Bokchoris, prince of Sais from 672, satrap of Egypt from 671, deposed by Tanutamun. 664 CAH 3.2, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, Shaw, ae, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP
663 B76 2-144     656 resh
c.664 Ionian mercenaries and traders begin in Egypt. 664 OHG
c.663 ASHURBANIPAL final invasion of Egypt.  Chases Kushites up Nile. 664 B76 2-144     663 B76 VII-238, GEoP 347, MCAW 70, Sag1 129-30, SOTS 167, 216     661 B76 VII-430
c.663 THEBES sacked by ASHURBANIPAL, never fully recovers. 663 B76 2-144, IDB 1-256, MCAW 70, Sag1 129, Shaw 332, lveg
661 B76 18-261, 1066, IDB 4-617
by c.663 PSAMTIK-I, son of Neco-I, prince of Sais, appointed satrap of Egypt until 610 by Ashurbanipal.  Psamtik-I has control of the whole delta.   NECO-I, former satrap of Egypt, deported to Nineveh. 664 B76 VIII-264, CAH 3.2, 3.3, Grim, RAI3     663 BHoE 20, CAH 4-87, RAH, lveg     660 Shaw 366
c.661 KUSHITES in control of Egypt from 715, under TANUTAMON 664-56, expelled by Ashurbanipal. 663 BHoE 20
661 BHoE 559     656 Grim
c.660 Greek trade (probably Ionian) begins in Egypt. 660 Dur 2-221
c.660 PEDIESE, prince of Heracleopolis from ?, ends.  SAMTUTEFNAKHT succeeds until ?. Psam yr 4 Grim 354
c.660  DEMOTIC SCRIPT , used from 700, is first attested. 660 B76 8-856
c.658 PSAMTIK-I, prince of Sais, satrap of Egypt 660-10, rebels against Ashurbanipal, gets help from Gyges of Lydia plus Ionian and Carian mercenaries. 658 B76 VIII 264, MCAW 70,
Shaw 365     655 RAI3 332
654 IDB 3-191
659-50 Sag1 130
c.657 Recalcitrant Libyan chiefdoms in the Delta submit to PSAMTIK-I, prince of Sais. 657 Grim 354
Psam yr 8 Grim 354
c.656 PSAMTIK-I, prince of Sais, satrap of Egypt 660-10, sends a fleet escorting his dau Nitocris to Thebes. 656 Grim 354
c.656 TANUTAMON ends.  5th king of Kushite 25th dyn from 664. 657 ae, treg     656 CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, RAI3, Shaw, ktut, nar, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig     653 frN, resh, wikP
c.656 25th DYNASTY ends.  Kushites from 747. 712 tig     663 WERE     657 ae
656 B76 6-479, Clay, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, Shaw, pic, lveg, nar, resh     663 WERE
c.655 PSAMTIK-I, king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, chases Assyrians into Philistia as far as Ashdod, recovers Lower Egypt, rules a united independent Egypt.  Lower Egypt is under Egyptians until 525.  Trade with Assyria continues. 663 CAH 4-87     656 B76 11-987     655 Jud 10-290, RAI2 276, RAI3 332, Sdl 4-338     654 B76 2-144, SOTS 233     653 Grim 358
651 MCAW 70, RAH 102, WPOT 165
yr 9 DMoN 188
c.655 Assyrian domination ends.  Began 671.
Egypt united & independent until 525.
-
c.653  SAQQARA STELE  of PSAMTIK-I shows defeat of Libyans. yr 11 Shaw 374
c.650 PSAMTIK-I, king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, uses dau NITOCRIS to gain power in Thebes, where Kushites still rule.  Makes her the wife of Amun.  Therefore she rules over the priests of Amun. 654 IDB 2-54
650 MCAW 73
c.650 ELEPHANTINE island in Nile at Nubian border, receives a military installation. 650 wikEP
c.650  DEMOTIC SCRIPT , hieroglyphic evolved into cursive for use in hand written texts from 700, starts to replace Hieratic script for secular purposes. 650 B76 III-463, V-32
c.640 PSAMTIK-I king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, invades Philistia. 640 BHoE 580
c.630 NAUCRATIS trading post founded in western Delta by Meletian mercenaries. 660 GRG 325     650 Dur 2-173
620 B76 8-330     600 Dur 2-66
c.628 Greeks of Miletos establish colonies in Egypt. 628 GHH
c.620 SCYTHIANS under Partatua & Madyes, move toward Egypt, bought off by Psamitk-I. 620 B76 6-480
no date: B76 16-438
c.616 PSAMTIK-I, king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, helps Assyrians against Nabopolassar and Scythians. 616 Grim 359
c.611 SCYTHIANS raid Egypt. 611 PAE 176
c.610 Son of Neco-I, PSAMTIK-I dies.  King of 26th Saite dyn from 663.  Son NECO-II (Necho) succeeds until 595. 616 GHH     610 CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DHJ 276, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Shaw, ae, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP     609 BHoE 582, RAI3, SHWC 38, WERE, lveg, resh
c.610 NECO-II, king of 26th Saite dyn 610-595, attempts to join Nile to Red Sea by canal.  In a year, he will give up.  Over 120,000 men will die in the effort to build it. 610 GHH, MCAW 73 609 TTPC, bk
after 609 mxfld
c.609 NECO-II, king of 26th Saite dyn 610-595, leads full army into Levant to grab former Assyrian possessions. 609 Grim 359
608 MCAW 74
c.609 NECO-II, grateful for Ionian mercenaries at Megiddo, sends thank offering to shrine of Apollo at Miletos. 608 MCAW 75
c.605 NECO-II marches as far as Euphrates. 605 FLAP 185, resh
c.605 NECO-II defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadrezzar-II. 605 FLAP 185, TTPC, resh
c.601 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II tries to invade Egypt.  Both sides suffer heavy losses.  Repelled by NECO-II.  Withdraws. 601 Grim 360, MCAW 78, Sdl 4-349, phou, resh     600 MCAW 78
c.600 VOYAGE AROUND AFRICA commissioned by Neco-II using Phoenician sailorsStarts at Ezion-Geber and sails clockwise around Africa, arriving back in Egypt 3 years later. 600 WPOT 277, TTS, TTT
Herodotus 4-42
BAR Jul-Aug 1979 vol V #4
c.600 Λ IRON AGE is finally accepted in Egypt, though it had reached Nubia in 700Assyrian STEEL tools have been found at El-Amarna. 600 SHT 1-597, 649
c.600 ELEPHANTINE island in Nile established by pharaoh as a community for Jewish mercenaries. 600 E2LM 7
c.600 TIN:  First bar of tin appears in an Egyptian grave. 600 SHT 1-592
c.595 Son of Psamtik-I, NECO-II (Necho) dies.  King of 26th Saite dyn from 610.  Son PSAMTIK-II succeeds until 589.  Continues defensive policy, except for 1 Nubian campaign. 600 GHH     595 CAH 3.2, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, Murn, Shaw, ae, bk, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP
594 CAH 3.3, DHJ 288, IDB 4-948, RAI3, Sdl 4-362, WERE, lveg, resh
c.592 PSAMTIK-II king of Egypt 595-89, expedition to Nubia, advances to 3rd cataract, but withdraws to 1st cataract. 593 bk
592 CAH 3.3, Grim 362
c.591 PSAMTIK-II king of Egypt 595-89, peaceful expedition into Palestine as far as Byblos, returns same year. 591 Grim 362
yr 4 Shaw 372
c.590 PSAMTIK-II king of Egypt 595-89, expedition to Nubia, sacks Napata. 590 B76 VII-430
c.590 PSAMTIK-II king of Egypt 595-89, sends naval expedition to Phoenicia to harass Nebuchadrezzar-II and inspire revolt. 590
Sdl 4-363
c.589 Son of Neco-II, PSAMTIK-II dies.  King of 26th Saite dyn from 595, dies returning from Phoenicia.  Son APRIES (Hophra) succeeds until 570. 594 GHH     589 CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, OCD 88, Shaw, ae, bk, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP 588 BHoE, CAH 4-87, RAI3, Sdl 4-363, WERE, lveg     587 resh
c.589 IONIAN MERCENARIES of Psamtik-I leave Greek grafitti on legs of statues of Ramses-II at Aswan. 589 MCAW 83
c.588 APRIES king of 26th Saite dyn 589-70 sends naval expedition to Phoenicia, subjugates Phoenicia, takes Sidon. 588 MCAW 89
no date: Sag1 142
c.587 APRIES sends army into Levant to counter Nebuchadrezzar-II. 588 wikApr
587 MCAW 82
c.587 Defeated Egyptian troops return from Palestine, and mutiny at Aswan.  Mutiny is contained. no date: wikApr
c.586 NITOCRIS-I dau of Psamtik-I, Wife of Amun at Thebes, dies. 586 wikDAA, wikPsm 585 wikNit
c.585 ANKHNESNEFERIBRE, sis of Apries, adopted as the new Wife of Amun at Thebes. Apries yr4: wikApr
585 May 28 SOLAR ECLIPSE, predicted by Thales, is said to be in the 8th or 12th year of Apries by Eusebius of Caesarea.  This does not necessarily mean the eclipse was seen in Egypt. wikApr
c.585 JOHANAN ben Kareah, and remnant of Judah, and JEREMIAH go from Judah to Egypt.  Stay at Tahpanhes, (Tahphanes, Daphnae) a settlement of Greek mercenaries in eastern delta. Jer 43 586 E2LM 32
c.585 JEREMIAH at Tahpanhes, propecies against Egypt.  Says Nebuchadrezzar-II will devastate Egypt.  Apries will be delivered to his enemies. Jer 43:8, 44:30
c.580 JOHANAN ben Kareah, Jewish mercenary leader takes a detachment to Elephantine.  Their duty henceforth is to guard against invasion from the south. 580 DHJ 368
c.574 APRIES begins series of campaigns into Cyprus and Phoenicia until 570. 574 Shaw 373
c.571 early LIBYANS ask Egyptian help against Ionian Greeks of Cyrene. 571 Shaw 374
c.570 Prophet JEREMIAH, active from 627, in Egypt from 585, dies in Egypt. 580 CBCOT, bk
570 B76 10-135, vb
c.570 Oct. APRIES, allied with Ionians, attacks and is defeated by AHMOSE at Momemphis in northwest delta.  Ahmose occupies Sais. 570 DMoN 192, Grim 363, Shaw 368
Apries is killed: Grim 363
c.570 AHMOSE proclaimed king by army in opposition to Apries. 570 B76 I-460
569 IDB 2-644, OCD 49
c.570 APRIES, son of Psamtik-II, king of 26th Saite dyn from 589, deposed by Ahmose, flees north to Babylonians in Levant until 567.  Vizir AHMOSE-II usurps until 526. 570 B76 I-156, CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, Murn, OCD 88, Shaw, ae, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, treg, wikP
569 RAH 110, Sdl 4-363, 5-49, resh
568 BHoE, RAI3, WERE, lveg
569-8 Egyptian troops rebel against Ahmose-II. 569-8 CAH 4-16
c.568 Babylonians in Levant attack Egypt again until 567 with little success.  A fragmentary tablet alludes to this, but Ahmose-II is not affected adversely. 568 B76 I-156, 11-988, Grim 363, Sdl 5-6, bk 567 IDB 3-530
c.567 In NEB-II's year 37 he campaigns against Ahmose-II until 566. 568 B76 11-988, Sdl 5-6
567 IDB 3-530
c.567 AHMOSE-II, king of 26th Saite dyn 570-26, asks Ionian mercenaries of Cyrene for help against Babylonians. 567
Shaw 374
c.567 APRIES, now working for Babylonians with Babylonian army, attacks AHMOSE-II, routs his Ionian mercenaries. 568 TTPC, RAI2 317, SOTS 236, resh
567 DMoN 192
566 IDB 2-644
c.566 AHMOSE-II, king of 26th Saite dyn 570-26, defeats Babylonian invasion of Egypt.  Former pharaoh Apries is captured by Egyptians.  Sources conflict on whether he is executed or allowed to live.  No further Babylonian attempts on Egypt are recorded. 566 CAH 4-87
yr 4 Shaw 373
c.563 AEGINA island establishes a footing for its merchants at Naucratis, erect a temple of Zeus. 563 DGRG 1-33
c.560 DAPHNAE (Tahpanhes), Greek trade-port in east delta:  Greeks forced to evacuate by Ahmose. 560 CAH 4-107
c.550 GLASS making:  A declining industry in Egypt from 1200, revives.   (See Mesopotamia 750) 6-500 txgls
c.526 AHMOSE-II dies.  King of 26th Saite dyn from 570.  Son PSAMTIK-III succeeds until 525. 526 B76 I-156, CAH 3.2, 3.3, 4, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, RAH 110, RAI3, Shaw, WERE, ae, ktut, nar, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP   525 Sdl 5-48, lveg
c.525 PHANES, Ionian mercenary working for Egypt, defects to Cambyses-II. no date: SOTS 244
c.525 POLYCRATES of Samos sends 40 triremes to help Cambyses-II against Egypt. 525 B76 8-347-8, CAH 4, MCAW 96
524 CAH 4-75
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, invades Egypt, defeats PSAMTIK-III at Pelusium, Psam retreats to Memphis. 525 B76 II-478, 8-347, 9-834, BHoE 595, 601, CAH 4-15, 100, FLAP 115, GHH, Grim 364, MCAW 96, Sdl 5-48, Shaw 374, SOTS 244, WERE 272, WPOT 320, bk, lvA
c.525 CAMBYSES-II sends a herald with 200 men in a ship up the Nile to Memphis.  The Egyptians murder them. 525 GHH
c.525 CAMBYSES-II, proceeds to Memphis, besieges and captures Memphis, in Africa until 522. 525 B76 II-478, CAH 4-15, 100, GHH, Grim 364, MCAW 96, Sdl 5-48, SOTS 244
c.525 CAMELS:  Domestic dromedaries brought to Egypt by Cambyses.
(See Sahara 950, Qarqar 853, Thymbra 547, China 300, )
525 wikDrm
c.525 Son of Ahmose-II, PSAMTIK-III ends.  King of 26th Saite dyn from 526, either carried off to Susa or killed by order of Cambyses. 525 BCoC 221, CAH 3.2, 4, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, RAI3, Shaw, WERE, ae, ktut, lveg, nar, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP
c.525 26th (Saite) DYNASTY ends.  Began at Sais 664.
United & independent Egypt ends.  Began 655.
Medo-Persian domination begins until 404.
525 B76 6-480, BCoC 221, Clay, DBANE 70, GHH, Grim, IDB 2-55, JIAE, MRDK, OCD 198, RAH, Shaw, SHWC 38, ae, nar, pic, resh, tig, WERE
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, follows father's example in respecting local religion, entitles self "Son of Ra", consults local oracles, visits sanctuaries, prostrates himself before image of Neith and possibly other images, restores former traditions. 525 DBANE 71
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, recognized as king of Egypt.  Annexes Egypt to Persia until 404. 525 CAH 3.3, 4-20, GHH, OHG 35, lveg, lvG
c.525 THEBES, destroyed 661, destroyed again by Canbyses-II. 525 B76 18-1066 523 GHH
c.525 Cambyses-II invades Libya. 525 B76 III-329, CAH 4-20, OCD 307, rcNA
c.525 CAMBYSES reaches Nubia (according to Herodotus). 525 B76 6-480, BHoE 561, GHH     523 B76 VII-430
c.523 6,000 Egyptians deported to Susiana. 523 GHH
c.522 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, in Upper Egypt, hears of insurrection of Gaumata, rushes north in a rage.  At Elephantine he destroys Egyptian temples, sparing only the Jewish temple.  At Memphis he kills the sacred Apis bull, flogs the priests, displaces mummies in tombs, burns images of gods. 525 DHJ 369 523 GHH
522 B76 9-834, CAH 4-23
no date
DBANE 72
c.522 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, leaves satrap ARYANDES in charge of Egypt until 518, departs into Palestine. 522 B76 9-834, CAH 4-23,
Grim 368, Sdl 5-48, WPOT 321
c.519 EGYPT, under Medo-Persia 522-404, briefly rebels until 518. 519 SOTS 245, WPOT 323
517 DBANE 75, MCAW 101
c.518 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, king of Babylon 521-486, enters Egypt with army, encounters little opposition, occupies Memphis. 519 SOTS 243, WPOT 323
518 B76 5-491
517 MCAW 101
c.518 DARIUS regains complete control of Egypt, executes former satrap Aryandes. 519/18 Shaw 375     518 B76 5-491, bk     517 Grim 369
c.518 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, king of Babylon 521-486, respects local religion, orders laws of Egypt written down, establishes a committee to do so.  Project takes 15 years. 519 DBANE 79
517 DBANE 75,
MCAW 101
c.518 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, king of Babylon 521-486, leaves PHERENDATES in charge of Egypt, departs for Palestine. 518 SOTS 245, WPOT 323
517 Grim 369
c.515 SCYLAX of Caria, navigator under Darius-I, sent on voyage down Red Sea and into Indian Ocean.  Establishes sea route to India. 517 CHI 641
515 MCAW 101
c.515 Persians in Egypt advance as far west as Greek city of EUESPERIDES Libya. 515 CDCC 332
c.515 Earliest  ARAMAIC papyrii and ostraca  in Egypt attested, mostly at Elephantine. 515 B76 1-620
c.510 DARIUS-I begins construction until 500 to complete canal begun by Neco-II from Nile to Red Sea. 515 MCAW 101
510 Shaw 375
c.500 CANAL from Nile to Red Sea, begun by Neco-II in 610, completed by Darius-I. 520 TAWH 17, TTPC    515 MCAW 101
500 PW 16, TTT     497 Shaw 375

Egypt 500-301
V