Levant
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.800 JOPPA, under Israel from 990, comes under Askalon until 701. 800 rcHL
c.800 Tel Dan Stele TEL DAN STELE:  Inscribed with Old Aramaic, claimed by some scholars to contain the phrase House of David. photo
yoav dothan


800 wikLABA
c.798 JEHOAHAZ, king of Israel 814-798, makes son JOASH co-king. 861 trubi     801 ISBE 2-1063, Jud 9-1317     799 btl
798 htc, lara
c.798 Son of Jehu, JEHOAHAZ dies.  King of Israel from 814.  Son JOASH sole rule until 793. 2K 13:9     858 trubi     839 GHH     802 bk     801 B76 V-538, IDB 2-810, 817, MRDK, rcHL   800 Jud 9-1315, hifiI     798 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-459, 683, MCAW 61, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-112, SOTS 194, WPOT 238, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, frN
797 DHJ 195     796 lara     767 lgbt
c.796 ATARSHUMKI king of Arpad from 805 ends. 796 CAH 3.1
c.796 JOASH king of Israel 798-82, pays tribute to Adad-Nirari-III. 796 MNHK 112
c.796 Prophet JOEL, active from 835, ends. 796 ds
c.796 Son of Ahaziah, JEHOASH dies.  King of Judah from 835, killed by servants at Beth Millo because he killed Zechariah ben Jehoiada.  Son (age 25) AMAZIAH succeeds to 767, immediately kills the servants who had killed his father. 2K 12:21, 2Ch 24:25, Jehoahaz yr 2 2K 14:1
839 GHH     801 bk     800 B76 17-946, IDB 2-909, MRDK, WBH 34, rcHL     798 Jud 10-110, hifiI     797 LEWH 45, Sdl 4-112     796 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, DHJ 196, HCC, ISBE 1-478, 683, MNHK, RAI3, SOTS 203, WPOT 236, bihi, biti, bivu, btl, ds, frN, htc    795 lara    763 lgbt
c.795 All land east of Jordan River that was taken by HAZAEL king of Damascus c.830 is recovered by JOASH king of Israel 798-82. 2K 13:25
795 CBCOT
c.794 AMAZIAH ben Jehoash, king of Judah 796-67, raises army of 300,000 from Judah and Benjamin, hires 100,000 mercenaries from Israel.  Rebuked by a prophet for hiring Israelites because Yahweh doesn't like Israel.  Pays off the mercenaries and sends them home angry. 2Ch 25:5-10
c.794 AMAZIAH ben Jehoash, king of Judah 796-67, invades EDOM, kills 10,000 Edomites in Valley of Salt, takes another 10,000 prisoner and murders them, captures Edomite capital Sela, changes its name to Joktheel.  He then brings Edomite idols back to Jerusalem, and worships them.  Rebuked by a prophet who foretells his destruction. 2K 14:7, 2Ch 25:11-16
827 GHH
794 CBCOT
no date: WPOT 236-7
c.794 While Amaziah king of Judah is in Edom, the Israelite mercenaries whom he sent back plunder cities in Samaria and Judah. 2Ch 25:13
c.793 JOASH ben Jehoahaz, king of Israel 798-82, makes son JEROBOAM-II co-king. 836 GHH     801 IDB 2-910     793 CBCOT, HCC, MNHK, SOTS 164, 195, biti, btl, ds 793/2 bivu     792 ISBE 1-683, lara
c.792 AMAZIAH king of Judah 796-67, proposes a business meeting with JOASH king of Israel.  Insulted and rebuffed.  Takes an army to Beth-shemesh, and is routed and captured by the army of Israel. 2K 14:8-12, 2Ch 25:17-22
795 stlt     793 Sdl 4-140
792 MNHK 119
791 SOTS 204     790 bk
c.791 JOASH king of Israel 798-82, advances to Jerusalem, breaks down 400 cubits of wall, loots the temple, takes hostages including AMAZIAH, and returns to Samaria. 2K 14:13-14, 2Ch 25:23-24 826 GHH     791 SOTS 204 791/0 MNHK
c.790 AMAZIAH king of Judah 796-67, makes son AZARIAH (aka Uzziah) co-king. 792 ISBE 1-683, MNHK, ds
791 B76 X-320     791/0 ISBE 2-886, 1010     790 CBCOT, HCC, bihi, htc    785 Jud 16-43    780 btl
c.785 AMAZIAH king of Judah 796-67, hostage at Samaria from 791, released at an unknown time.  Restored to throne of Judah while son AZARIAH (Uzziah) continues as co-king. implied by 2K 14:19
782 SOTS 204, 206
c.785 AMAZIAH king of Judah 796-67, attacks Philistines, breaks walls of Gath, Jabneh, and Ashdod, establishes Judahite communities in Philistine land. 2Ch 26:6-7
785 CBCOT
c.783 AMAZIAH king of Judah 796-67, suffers palace revolt, flees to Lachish. 2K 14:19, 2Ch 25:27
783 ISBE 3-56
c.782 Son of Jehoahaz, JOASH dies.  King of Israel from 798.  Son JEROBOAM-II sole rule until 753. 2K 14:16       825 GHH     789 Jud 9-1374     788 IDB 1-118, 2-810, 817     787 bk     786 IDB 2-842, 910, ISBE 2-1063, MRDK, WBH 20, rcHL     785 Jud 9-1317     784 hifiI     783 LEWH 47, RAI3, Sdl 4-141, frN     782 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-683, MNHK, SOTS 194, WPOT 238, bihi, biti, btl, ds, htc, lara     782/1 ISBE 1-459, bivu     749 lgbt
c.782 Prophet JONAH begins activity until 753. 783 bihi, htc
782 CBCOT, bivu     775 ds
c.780 HAMATH attacked by north Syrian confederacy. 2K 14:25-28
780 ISBE 1-853
c.780 JEROBOAM king of Israel 782-53 expands northward at expense of Hamath. 2K 14:28, Amos 6:2 780 ISBE 2-603
c.780 JEROBOAM king of Israel 782-53 takes back cities which had been taken by Judah. 2K 14:25-28
780 CBCOT
c.774 TYRE, independent 969-722.  PYGMALION ends.  King of TYRE from 820.  Succession uncertain until 750. 797 arg     785 wikT
774 LEWH 48, MWΦ 17, Sdl 1-159, adeT, rcLeb
c.773 SHALMANEZER-IV king of Assyria from 783-72, attacks BEN-HAADAD-II. 773 Jud 3-288, 5-1237, Sdl 4-143, SOTS 196, WPoT 146
c.773 Zakir Stele ZAKIR king of Hamath defeats Anti-Assyrian coalition under Ben Hadad.  Erects a basalt stele to commemorate it, 62cm x 13cm.  Gains independence from Damascus.
  I am Zakir, king of Hamath and Luash . . . Bar-Hadad, son of Hazael, king of Aram, united against me seventeen kings . . .all these kings laid siege to Hazrach . . . Baalshamayn said to me, "Do not be afraid! . . .I will save you from all [who] have besieged you". 
photo Rama


805-775 wikSZ 775 IDB 2-712
no date: SOTS
c.772 Son of Hazael, BEN-HADAD-III ends.  King of Damascus from 806, overthrown by Shalmanezer-IVTAB-EL succeeds until 750. 770 CBCOT, ISBE 1-459, MRDK
750 LEWH 44
no date: HCC
c.767 Son of Jehoash, AMAZIAH dies.  king of Judah from 796, killed by conspirators at Lachish.  Son (age 16) AZARIAH (Uzziah) sole rule to 740. 2K 14:19, 2Ch 25:27     828 trubi     810 GHH 790 biti     787 bk     783 B76 17-946, IDB 1-104, MRDK, WBH 34, rcHL     781 RAI3, frN, hifiI     769 LEWH 45     768 ISBE 1-683, Sdl 4-149, SOTS 298, btl     767 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-478, 2-886, MNHK, SOTS 203, WPOT 236, bihi, bivu, htc, lara     766 Sag, RAI2
c.765 Assyrians invade Aram. 765 Sdl 4-143
c.760 EZION-GEBER on Gulf of Aqaba, under Edom from 846, recovered by AZARIAH king of Judah until 734. 2K 14:22
no date: IDB 2-71
c.760 Prophet AMOS, begins at Bethel where Israel has an important temple.  Amos continues until 753. 765 MCAW 62     764 bihi, htc 763 ds     760 CBCOT, IDB 1-118, bivu, bk     750 BCoC 190, TAWH 16, mxfld
c.760 Earthquake in Israel mentioned by Amos. Amos 1:1     760 ISBE 2-4
c.755 Assyrians invade Aram again. 755 Sdl 4-143
c.755 Prophet HOSEA, begins ministry in Israel just before extermination of house of Jehu.  On Yahweh's order, he marries prostitute Gomer, and conceives son Jezreel.  Ministry lasts until 715. Hos 1:4     760 CBCOT
755 bihi, bivu, ds, htc
750 bk    747 or earlier: IDB 2-651     745 ISBE 1-486     740 mxfld
c.754 MATI-ILU becomes king of Arpad until 740. 754 CAH 3.1
c.753 Prophet JONAH, begun activity 782, ends. 753 bivu
c.753 Son of Joash, JEROBOAM-II dies.  King of Israel from 782.  Son ZECHARIAH succeeds until 752. 2K 14:29, 15:8     802 trubi     784 GHH     754 Sdl 4-140     753 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-683, MNHK, SOTS 164, 195, WPOT 238, bihi, biti, ds, htc 751 lara     748 LEWH 47, hifiI     747 IDB 1-118, bk 746 IDB 2-842, MRDK, rcHL     745 WBH 20
743 RAI3, frN     742 btl     686 lgbt
c.752 Son of Jeroboam-II, ZECHARIAH dies.  King of Israel from 753, killed by Shallum ben Jabesh.  SHALLUM succeeds 1 month. 2K 15:10       777 trubi     772 GHH
753 MNHK, Sdl 4-191, ds
752 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-683, SOTS 196, bihi, biti, bivu, htc     750 lara     748 hifiI
747 IDB 4-304, Jud 14-1269
745 MRDK, rcHL     743 RAI3
741 btl     685 lgbt
JEHU DYNASTY ends.  Began 841.
c.752 MENAHEM ben Gadi marches from Tirzah against Shallum. 748 Jud 15-1153
c.752 Son of Jabesh, SHALLUM dies.  King of Israel 752, killed in Samaria by Menahem ben Gadi, MENAHEM succeeds until 742. 2K 15:14     777 trubi     772 GHH     752 CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-683, MNHK, RAI2, Sag, SOTS 197, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, htc     750 lara     748 hifiI
747 IDB 4-304, Jud 14-1269     746 Jud 11-1302 745 IDB 3-347, MRDK, rcHL     743 RAI3     741 btl 685 lgbt
c.752 PEKAH ben Remaliah, general of Israel, becomes independent king in Gilead and rival of the kings of Israel until 740. 752
MNHK 63
c.750 TAB-EL ends.  King of Damascus from 772.  Son REZON-II succeeds until 732. 750 CBCOT, HCC, SOTS 164
740 ISBE 4-180, MRDK, RAI3, rcS
c.750 TYRE, independent 969-722, under uncertain rulership from 774, comes under a known king.  ITTOBALE-II rules until 739. 772 arg    750 ISBE 1-854, adeT, wikT     702 arg
c.750 AZARIAH-II becomes High Priest of Jerusalem until ?. 750 af
c.750 AZARIAH (Uzziah), king of Judah 767-40, tries to burn incense at temple altar.  High Priest Azariah and 80 priests forbid him.  King gets angry at priests, then gets leprosy.  Lives the rest of his life in "a separate house". 2K 15:5, 2Ch 26:16
772 GHH
750 IDB 4-743, SOTS 298, 322
c.750 AZARIAH (Uzziah) ben Amaziah, king of Judah 767-40, makes son JOTHAM co-king. 772 GHH     751 Sdl 4-149 750 ISBE 1-683, 2-1140, ds
c.750 Λ Elohist "E" V version of  PENTATEUCH  begins in Samaria. 750 ISBE 1-487
c.750  Book of AMOS  written.  The idea of its being divinely inspired comes 500 years later. 750 IDB 1-501, ISBE 1-486
c.750 Prophet AMOS, earliest of the literary prophets, begun 760, ends. 755 ds     753 bivu
750 IDB 1-501, MCAW 62
745 IDB 1-118
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, enters Levant until 738. 770 GHH     745 Sdl 4-169
743 SOTS 207
c.743 North Phoenicia as far as, but excluding, Gebal, made an Assyrian province with center at Simirra.  Only Arvad remains autonomous. 743 ISBE 3-859
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, begins series of campaigns in Aramean state of Arpad until 739.  Besieges city of Arpad (25km north of Halap) until 740. 743 Sdl 4-194, MNHK 146, SOTS 207
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, enters Levant until 738. 745 Sdl 4-169 743 SOTS 207
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, takes several towns around Hamath, distributes territories among his generals, forcibly removes 1,223 inhabitants to the valley of the Upper Tigris.  He takes tribute from Hamath's king, Eni-Ilu (Eniel). 743 wikHm
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, claims to receive tribute from HIRAM king of Tyre. 743 MNHK 147, Sdl 4-197
c.743 AZARIAH (Uzziah), king of Judah 767-40, plus allies, defeated at Arpad north of Halap by Assyrians. 743 CBCOT, SOTS 298, 322
not recorded in Bible
c.743 AZARIAH (Uzziah), king of Judah 767-40, makes grandson Ahaz co-king. 743 ISBE 1-683, Jud 2-455
c.743 MENAHEM, king of Israel 752-42, gives Tiglath-Pilezer-III 1,000 talents of silver to leave Israel alone.  Extracts 50 shekels from each of his nobles. 2K 15:19
743/2 MNHK 128
743 or 40 ISBE 3-317
c.742 Son of Gadi, MENAHEM dies.  King of Israel from 752.  Son PEKAHIAH succeeds until 740. 2K 15:22     767 trubi     762 GHH    743 Sdl 4-191 742 CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-683, 3-735, MNHK, RAI2, Sag, bihi, biti, ds, htc     742/1 bivu     741 SOTS 197     740 lara     738 IDB 3-347, 708, RAI3, bk, frNhifiI, rcHL     737/6 Jud 11-1302, 13-215,     736 MRDK     731 btl     674 lgbt
c.740 ARPAD, 25km north of Halap, main Aramean city in north Aram, under Urartian influence from ?, besieged by TIGLATH-PILESER-III from 743, taken.  Inhabitants massacred.   Under Assyria until ?.   Made capital of an Assyrian province.   Many principalities of Urartu also taken by Assyria. 741 RAI2
740 B76 I-475, 1-821, 11-984, B76 I-475, IDB 1-193, LEWH 47, MNHK 147, Sdl 4-197
c.740 MATI-ILU king of Arpad from 754 ends.  Arpad under Assyria until ?. 740 CAH 3.1
c.740 Son of Menahem, PEKAHIAH dies.  King of Israel from 742, killed in palace at Samaria by Pekah, king of Gilead from 752PEKAH succeeds until 732. 2K 15:25, 27     764 trubi     759 GHH
741 Sdl 4-195     740 CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, ISBE 1-683, 3-735, MNHK, Sdl 4-197, biti, htc 740/39 bivu     739 SOTS 197     738 lara
737 IDB 3-708, rcHL     736 MRDK
735 Jud 13-214     735/4 Jud 13-215
733 hifiI     729 btl     672 lgbt
c.740 Son of Amaziah, AZARIAH (Uzziah) dies.  King of Judah from 767, dies of leprosy.  Son JOTHAM and grandson AHAZ are co-kings to 735. 2K 15:7, 2Ch 26:23     764 trubi     758 GHH
742 B76 17-946, IDB 2-737, 4-742, Jud 10-301, MRDK, WBH 35, rcHL     741 bk     740 CAH 3.1, 3.2, CBCOT, ISBE 1-683, 2-886, 1140, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-140, SOTS 205, 298, biti, ds, frN, hifiI     740/39 ISBE 2-886     739 B76 X-320, HCC, bihi, htc     737 lara     736 bk    734 Jud 16-43    728 btl
c.740 ISAIAH ben Amoz, gets vision, volunteers to be sent to tell Judah that the land shall be desolate, and that 1/10 will return and be eaten.  Isaiah active until 680. Isa 6:1     742 B76 2-916, IDB 2-732     740 Sdl 4-197, bivu
739 CBCOT, HCC, bihi, ds, htc
733 MCAW 65     702 mxfld
c.740 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, invades Israel, takes Ijon, Abel-maim (same as or close to Abel-beth-maacah), Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor (i.e. the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh) and deports them all. 2K 15:29 740 htc
c.740 ASHDOD, independent from ?, surrenders to TP-III, comes under Assyria until 712. 740 rcHL
734 Jud 3-695
c.740 Philistine cities ASKALON, EKRON, GAZA, and GATH, independent from ?, come under Assyria until 612. 740 rcHL
c.739 ITTOBALE-II ends.  King of Tyre from 750, ends.  HIRAM-II succeeds to 730. 739 adeT, rcLeb, wikT 739/8 arg
c.738 All Phoenician states become vassals of Assyria, but local governments are left in place. 738 hifi
c.738 HAMATH taken by Assyrian troops.  Over 30,000 natives are deported to Ullaba and replaced with captives from the Zagros Mountains. 738 wikHm
c.738 ENIL becomes king of Hamath to 732. 738 CAH 3.1
c.738 HIRAM-II king of Tyre 739-30, and REZON-II king of Damascus 750-32 pay tribute to TP-III. 738 IDB 4-74, ISBE 4-180, LEWH 48
c.738 DAMASCUS, under Arameans 965-732, besieged by TP-III. 738 GHH
c.738 Sibittibaal king of Gebal pays tribute to TP-III. 738 wikBbl
c.738 HALAP comes under Assyria until 609. 738 B76 1-465
c.738 Everyone from Damascus to eastern Anatolia is forced to pay tribute to TP-III.  People are deported to Kir in Assyria, and to several cities of Media. 738 B76 11-984, GHH
c.738 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, invades Israel, takes Ijon, Abel-Beth-Maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor. no date:
2K 15:29
c.738 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, in Aram & Levant from 743, returns north. 738 MNHK 121
c.738 JOTHAM, co-king of Judah with son AHAZ 740-35, attacks Ammon, extracts tribute.  Edom pays tribute 2 more years, but remains independent. 2Ch 27:5 742 GHH 738 CBCOT
c.737 JOTHAM, co-king of Judah with son AHAZ 740-35, vexed by REZON of Damascus and PEKAH of Israel. 2K 15:37, 16:5-6
735 CBCOT
c.736  Book of HOSEA  ch 4-13 written. post Assyrian invasion 739, pre-Syro-Ephraimite war 734: IDB 2-651
c.736 CALF WORSHIP at Bethel denounced by HOSEA. whole book
c.736 AFTERLIFE V according to Hosea:  "I will ransom them from the power of sheol."   "I will redeem them from death."   (See Odyssey 750) 13:14
c.735 PHILISTINES invade Shephelah and south Judah, take Beth-Shemesh, Aijalon, Gederah, Soco, Timnah.  They occupy those areas. 2Ch 28:18
735 WPOT 239 734 stlt
c.735 Prophet MICAH begins ministry until 700. 737 CBCOT     736 bihi, htc     735 bivu, ds     733 MCAW 65     720 ISBE 1-486
c.735 Pro-Assyrian party brings AHAZ into control of Judah while JOTHAM technically still rules. 735 SOTS 198, 208
c.735 ELATH on Gulf of Aqabah, under Judah from ?, recovered by Edom. 735 ISBE 2-53
c.735 Son of Azariah, JOTHAM deposed.  Co-king of Judah from 740 with son AHAZ, deposed by Ahaz (age 20).  AHAZ rules alone to 732.  2K 15:38     747 trubi     742 GHH     736 RAI3, Sag, frN, hifiI     735 CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 1-64, 2-999, ISBE 1-76, 2-1140, Jud 10-301, MNHK, MRDK, Sdl 4-149, WBH 35, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, htc, rcHL     732/1 bivu
731 biti     721 lara     709 btl
c.735 REZON-II king of Damascus 750-32, and PEKAH of Israel invade Judah, besiege AHAZ king of Judah in Jerusalem.   Syro-Ephraimite War begins until 732. 2K 16:5, Isa 7:1     742 GHH
735 CBCOT, ISBE 1-854, Sdl 4-204     734 B76 2-917, IDB 1-758, ISBE 2-886
c.734 REZON-II king of Damascus 750-32, and PEKAH of Israel, with some backing from Hittites and Urartu, ally and try to rally the north Aramean states against TP-III of AssyriaAhaz of Judah refuses to join. 2Ch 28:16-21
750 Sag1 109
734 LEWH 47, hifiI
733 MCAW 64
c.734 PEKAH king of Israel 740-32, kills 120,000 Jews in 1 day.  Takes 200,000 captives and spoils to Samaria, warned by prophet ODED for taking Hebrew slaves, lets them go. 2Ch 28:5-9
741 GHH 735 CBCOT
c.734 ISAIAH tells AHAZ not to worry about Rezon and Pekah, says Ephraim will be gone within 65 years, tells Ahaz to ask for a sign to prove it.  Ahaz refuses on grounds of Dt 6:16.  Isaiah offers this sign:  A young woman will bear a son and call him Immanuel.  Before he knows right from wrong, Rezon and Pekah will be gone. Isa 7:1-16
735/4
Sdl 4-220
c.734 AHAZ king of Judah 735-15, ignores warning of Isaiah, appeals with bribes to TP-III for help against Rezon and Pekah. 741 GHH   732/1 LEWH 47 732/1 MNHK
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 invades Phoenician coast. 734
Jud 13-215
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, invades Aram, defeats REZON and PEKAH, seizes Gilead and Galilee, marches down Phoenician coast, defeats Samaria, advances into Philistia, in Levant until 732. 2K 15:29     740 GHH     734 B76 11-984, DOTT 53, IDB 2-344, 3-348, ISBE 2-416, 886, Jud 2-857, Sdl 4-223, SOTS 198, 208, WPOT 66     733 CBCOT, MCAW 64
c.734 GALILEE, under Israel from 1100, taken by TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 until ?. 2K 15:29
734 IDB 2-344, ISBE 2-886
c.734 NAPHTALI and ZEBULUN, under Israel from ?, taken by TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27. 2K 15:29
734 IDB 4-660
c.734 AHAZ king of Judah 735-15 asks TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 for help against Edom and Philistia. 2Ch 28:16
c.734 Edom attacks Judah, takes captives. 2Ch 28:17     735 CBCOT
734 Jud 4-773, Sag1 109
c.734 Philistines attack Judah, take Beth-Shemesh, Ajalon, Gederah, Soco, Timnah, Gimzo. 2Ch 28:18     735 CBCOT
734 Jud 4-773, Sag1 109
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 invades Phoenician coast. 734 Jud 13-215
c.734 MOAB conquered by TP-III. 735 nglfr
c.734 ASKALON taken by TP-III.  King Mitini is replaced by an Assyrian vassal until ?. 734 IDB 3-794, Jud 3-714
c.734 GAZA taken by TP-III.  King HANNO flees south, but is soon reinstated as an Assyrian vassal to 720. 734 IDB 3-794, ISBE 2-416, 886, DOTT 59, WPOT 66
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III threatens AHAZ king of Judah, extracts tribute. 2Ch 28:20 733 CBCOT
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III claims to receive tribute from JEHOAHAZ of Judah, but it must have been AHAZ, also from Kushtashpi of Commagene, Urik of Que, Sibbiti-Bel of Gebal, Enil of Hamath, Panammu of Samal, Tarhulara of Gumgum, Sulumal of Mitelene, Uassurme of Tabal, Ushitti of Tuna, Urballa of Tehuna, Tuhamme of Ishtunda, Matanbel of Arvad, Sanipu of Bit-Amon, Salamanu of Moab, Mitini of Askalon, Kaushmalku of Edom, Hanno of Gaza. 2Ch 28:21
734 WPOT 238
732 IDB 2-26
no date:
DOTT 57, PANE1 193
c.734 AHAZ king of Judah 735-15, now at Damascus, asks gods of Damascus for help against Assyrians, then builds altars in Jerusalem and high places in cities of Judah to various gods. 2Ch 28:23-25
c.734 EZION-GEBER on Gulf of Aqaba, under Judah from 760, recovered by Edom until ?. 2K 16:6
735 IDB 2-71, WPOT 237
c.733 HAZOR destroyed by Assyrians. 733/2 WBANE 98     732 IDB 2-540, Jud 7-1539
c.733 MEGIDDO destroyed by Assyrians. 733 IDB 3-341     733/2 WBANE 98
c.733 Countries submitting to Assyria:  Tyre, Askalon, Aribi, Gaza, Sabaeans, Ammon, Moab, Edom. 733 WPOT 241 732 CBCOT
c.733 North and east PALESTINE ravaged by Assyrians.  Israel surrenders much land to Assyria. 733 B76 11-984, WPOT 241
c.733 Assyrian army probes border of Egypt at Rapha V. 734-32 BHoE 536, 549
c.733/2 KEDESH Galilee taken by TP-III. 2K 15:29     733/2 Jud 10-664
c.732 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 besieges Damascus. 738 GHH
733 Jud 13-215, 732 MNHK 125
c.732 ENIL, king of Hamath from 738, ends. 732 CAH 3.1
c.732 Son of Tab-El, REZON-II dies.  King of Damascus from 750, killed by T-P-III.
Aramean KINGDOM of DAMASCUS ends.  Inhabitants deported to Kir in Assyria and cities in Media.
SYRO-EPHRAIMITE WAR from 735 ends.
2K 16:9     738 GHH
732 B76 2-917, 5-447, 11-984, BCoC 165, B76 I-475, CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 4-74, ISBE 1-854, 4-180, MNHK 125, MRDK, RAH 95, RAI3, Sdl 4-225, SOTS 198, 298, rcS
c.732 DAMASCUS under Arameans from 965, comes under Assyrians until 609. 2K 16:9     733/2 IDB 1-758
732 B76 5-447, 11-984, HCC,
IDB 4-74, ISBE 2-886, 4-447, Jud 5-1237, RAI3, SOTS 198, 298, rcS
c.732 ABILA, capital of Abilene, under Damascus from ?, comes under Assyrians until 609. 732 rcS
c.732 BASHAN, under Damascus from 850, comes under Assyrians until 609. 732 rcS
c.732 Abel-Beth-Maacha taken by TP-III. 733/2 Jud 2-61
c.732 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 invades Galilee, takes much of it and turns it into Assyrian province of Magiddu (Megiddo). 2K 15:29, 1Ch 5:26
733 Jud 13-215
732 ISBE 2-390, 4-447, Jud 7-266, 1476
c.732 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 invades Ephraim, threatens Samaria. 732 Jud 13-215
c.732 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 in Levant from 734, returns north. 732 Jud 2-857
c.732 Son of Remaliah, PEKAH dies.  King of Israel from 740, killed by Hoshea ben Elah.  HOSHEA succeeds with Assyrian help until 722. 2K 15:30     744 trubi     739 GHH     732 B76 V-146, CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-653, 3-708, ISBE 1-683, 3-735, Jud 13-214, MNHK, MRDK, RAI3, SOTS 322, bihi, biti, bivu, frN, hifiI, htc, rcHL 732/1 ISBE 2-886     731 Sag, Sdl 4-195, SOTS 197, 199     718 lara     709 btl     644 lgbt
c.732 AHAZ ben Jotham, sole ruler of Judah from 735, makes son HEZEKIAH (age 25) co-king to 715. 732/1 MNHK     729 ISBE 2-886     728 DGRG 1-356, ISBE 1-683, Sdl 4-231   727 Jud 2-455 727/6 Jud 8-450     726 GHH     725 bk
723 MCAW 67

never happened: CBCOT, HCC
c.732 AHAZ ben Jotham, co-king of Judah from 732-15, goes to Damascus to pay homage to TP-III.  He decides for unstated reasons to send word to priest Uriah at Jerusalem to make a copy of a pagan altar to replace the traditional altar.  When he gets back to Jerusalem he makes further Assyrian modifications. 2K 16: 10-18 732 ISBE 1-77
c.732 JOTHAM ben Azariah, former king and co-king of Judah 740-35, dies. 2Ch 27:9     732 ISBE 1-683, 2-1140, MNHK, SOTS 208     732/1 ISBE 2-886     731 CBCOT, HCC
c.730 HIRAM-II ends.  King of Tyre from 739, ends.  MATTAN-II succeeds and ends.  ELULAIOS succeeds to 701. 730 ENBD 1303, LEWH 48, adeT, wikT     730/29 arg, rcLeb     717 GHH
c.730 MATTAN-II, king of Tyre pays tribute to TP-III. 732 ISBE 4-446
c.730 ENILU king of Hamath pays tribute to Tiglath Pileser-III. 730 ISBE 2-603
c.727 DAMASCUS, under Assyria 732-609, rebels and is suppressed. 727 wikDms
c.726 HOSHEA king of Israel 732-22, stops tribute to Assyria.  Gives gifts to "So" of Egypt (either Osorkon-IV or a general). 2K 17:4     726/5 ENBD 1201 725 GHH     728 MCAW 64
c.726 SHALMANEZER-V king of Assyria 727-22 invades Israel.  Hoshea immediately submits and pays tribute. Shalmanezer then learns that Hoshea had paid tribute to Egypt, and therefore imprisons Hoshea. 2K 17:3-4
728 GHH
725 MCAW 64
c.725 SIDON pays tribute to Shalmanezer-V king of Assyria 727-22. 725 IDB 4-344
c.725 SAMARIA, capital of Israel 880-722, besieged until 722 by Shalmanezer-V king of Assyria 727-22. 2K 18:9       Hezekiah yr 4 2K 18:9
Hoshea yr 7 2K 18:9     727 Sdl 4-235     725 SOTS 199, trubi
724 B76 11-984, GHH, ISBE 2-886
c.725 YAHWEH tells ISAIAH to write concerning the son Isaiah is about to conceive:  MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ (Haste the booty, haste the spoil) Yahweh says before the child is old enough to say "my father", Damascus and Samaria will be plundered by Assyria. Isa 8
c.725 ISAIAH, message to Philistia:  Don't rejoice because he [TP-III] who hurt you is broken.  His descendant [Sargon-II] will destroy you. Isa 14:28-32
715 IDB 2-732
c.724 DOR, under Israel from 922, taken by TP-III, comes under Assyria until 612. 734 hifiDr     732 Jud 6-172     724 rcHL
c.724 ELULAIOS king of Tyre 730-701 tries to invade Cyprus, which asks help from Shalmanezer-V, therefore Assyrians besiege Tyre. 724 wikAGhC 721 GHH
c.724 ELULAIOS king of Tyre 730-701, besieged until 722 by Shalmanezer-V king of Assyria 727-22. 724
ENBD 1303
c.724 SHECHEM destroyed as a city by Shalmanezer-V.  Remains a village among ruins until 475. 724 IDB Sup-821, ISBE 4-462
c.724 EDOM, comes under Assyria until 612. 724 hifiEd, rcHL
c.722 TYRE, independent from 969, besieged by Assyrians from 724 makes treaty and falls to Sargon-II.  TYRE under Assyria until 703. 722 ENBD 1303 IDB 4-722
721 GHH
c.722 ZAREPHATH placed under governance of Tyre. 722 hifi
c.722 GALILEE, under Israel from ?, comes under Assyria until 615. 722 rcHL
c.722 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley, under Israel from 990, comes under Assyria until 612. 722 rcCan
c.722 Son of Elah, HOSHEA ends.  King of Israel from 732, prisoner of Assyrians from 726. 724 B76 V-146, IDB 2-653, MRDK, frN, rcHL
723 MNHK, bk, hifiI     723/2 ISBE 2-886, bivu     722 CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 3-708, ISBE 1-683, Sag, SOTS 199, biti, ds     709 lara
c.721 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, marches to Levant. 721 implied
c.721 SAMARIA, capital of Israel from 880, besieged by Assyrians from 725, falls to Sargon-II.  Under Assyria until 612. Hezekiah yr 6 2K 18:10
Hoshea yr 9 2K 17:6, 18:10
724 rcHL     723/2 trubi     722 CAH 3.2, 3.3, ENBD 1303, ISBE 4-338, Sdl 4-235, SHWC 30, SOTS 155, bk, frN, htc     722/1 Jud 14-723     721 B76 11-984, GHH     709 lara
Kingdom of ISRAEL ends.  Began 930.
c.721 TIRZAH, former capital of Israel, destroyed by Sargon-II. 721 Jud 15-1153
c.721 SYRO-PHILISTINE COALITION defeated at Qarqar by SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05.  A deportation detachment is set up in Samaria.  Sargon-II then marches on Philistia. 721 Sag1 112, DOTT 62
c.721 12,290 Israelites deported to places north of Euphrates by SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05.  They are replaced by colonists from Babylon, Cuthah, and other Mesopotamian cities.  Lions move in and challenge them for territory. 2K 17:6, 24, 18:11
722 MCAW 64, htc
721 GHH, Sag 722-20 Sdl 4-270
c.721 TOBIT, wife Anna, & son Tobiah, Naphtalites of Samaria, are deported to Nineveh.  Tobit refuses pagan food, becomes a purchasing agent for king "Shalmanezer" (error). Fiction c.7th cen. BCE
AΨA 183
175-164 B76 X-18
c.721 HAMATH is made an Assyrian vassal by SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05.  IAUBIDI is appointed governor. 721 Sag1 112
720 CAH 3.1
c.721 SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05, in Philistia, learns that MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA (Merodach Baladan) has taken Babylon, hurries north. 721 Sag1 112
c.721 IAUBIDI Assyrian governor of Hamath, declares himself king, incites Arameans, Israelites, and Philistines to stop tribute to Sargon-II and rebel. 721 DOTT 59, Sag     720 rcS
c.720 Arpad joins rebellion of Hamath against Sargon-II. 720 Jud 3-497
c.720 IAUBIDI king of Hamath from 721, vassal of Assyria, captured by Sargon-II king of Assyria 722-05.  HAMATH, Assyrian vassal kingdom from 853, becomes Assyrian province until 705. 720 B76 I-475, 1-822, 11-984, ISBE 2-603, MOAR 5-42     719 rcS
c.720 SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05, attacks Gaza, defeats Hanno of Gaza, Sibe of Musri, tartan of Egypt at RAPHA.  Burns Rapha, probes Egyptian frontier. 721 Jud 13-1509
720 IDB 4-13, ISBE 2-416, RAH 100
no date: B76 11-984, Sag1 112
c.720 GAZA stormed by Assyrians.  King HANNO, vassal of Assyria from 734, captured, taken to Assyria. 720 IDB 3-794
no date: DOTT 61
c.720 Assyrian army probes border of Egypt at Λ Rapha again. 720 BHoE 536, DOTT 61
c.716 West SINAI subdued by Assyrians. 716 Jud 14-881
c.715 SAMARIA:  Disorderly desert tribes which had been hassling trade routes are imported to Samaria by Sargon-II.  These immigrants have a problem with lions.  They complain to the Assyrians that they don't know how to appease the god of the land.  Therefore SARGON-II sends them one Israelite priest to live at Bethel and teach them Yawism.  They continue to worship their former gods. 2K 17:24-5
716/5 Jud 6-1034
715 PANE 196
c.715 SARGON-II reports receiving gifts from a pharaoh. 715 BHoE 550
c.715 GERASA, east of Jordan R., under Ammon from 880, comes under Assyria until 585. 715 rcJdn
c.715 AMMON, independent from 880, comes under Assyria until 612. 740 hifiAm 715 rcLeb
c.715 ISAIAH prophesies against Assyro-BabylonMedes will defeat Babylon, which will become desolate. Isa 13 & 14
maybe 2nd Isaiah and prophesied after the fact
Λ AFTERLIFE:  Sheol will stir up the dead to meet Assyro-Babylon at its coming.   (Isa 14:9)
c.715 Son of Jotham, AHAZ dies.  King of Judah from 735, dies.  Son HEZEKIAH succeeds to 686. 2K 16:20, 2Ch 28:27     716 ISBE 1-78, 683, RAI3, SOTS 209, frN, hifiI     716/15 bivu
715 B76 V-27, CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 1-64, 2-732, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, Sag, WBH 35, bihi, biti, ds, htc, lara, rcHL     698 btl     641 lgbt
c.715 HEZEKIAH, king of Judah 715-686, cleans the temple, repairs doors, reforms worship. 2Ch 29:3
c.715 Prophet HOSEA, active from 755, ends. 720 CBCOT     715 bivu     710 ds
c.715 ISAIAH writes against various nations:  Babylon, Assyria, Phillistia, Moab Egypt - any enemy of Judah. Isa 13-23
715 B76 2-917
c.715 HEZEKIAH, king of Judah 715-686, stops tribute to Sargon-II, chases Philistines back to Gaza, rebels until 711. 2K 18:7-8       721 GHH
715 CBCOT   714 Sdl 4-249
c.714 SAMARIAN IMMIGRANTS:  Babylonians build Succoth-Benoth.  Cuthites build Nergal.  Hamathites build Ashima.  Avvites build Nibhaz and Tartak (none significant). 2K 17:30
c.713 AZURI king of Ashdod, weakly backed by Shilkanni of Egypt, aided by Gath, seeks to include Hezekiah, Palestine, Edom, and Moab in a coalition against Sargon-II. 715 DOTT 58
713 WPOTT 239
712 Sag1 112
no date: PANE 197-8
c.713 AZURI king of Ashdod, deposed by Sargon-II, who install his younger bro AHIMTI, who is then deposed by Hittites and others who install Greek mercenary IAMANI. 713 IDB 3-794
713/2 WPOTT 66
711 Sdl 4-250
no date: PANE 197
c.713 ISAIAH says Moab will be punished within 3 years. Isa 15 & 16
c.712 ASHDOD, under Assyria from 740, under Greek mercenary IAMANI from 713, emboldened by Egypt, rebels against Sargon-II until 711.  Judah and Moab join in. 712 CAH 3.3, Jud 8-452, RAI2 259
711 ISBE 1-314, 2-704 no date: PANE 197
c.711 EDOM joins the Ashdod, Judah, Moab coalition against Sargon-II. 711 IDB 2-26
c.711 Tartan of Sargon-II, king of Assyria arrives to besiege Ashdod. 711 SOTS 210
c.711 IAMANI Greek mercenary ruler of Ashdod, faced by approaching Assyrian army, flees to Egypt. 712 IDB 3-794
no date: DOTT 61-2, PANE 197, Sdl 4-251
c.711 ASHDOD, GATH, ASDUDIMU (location unknown), and EKRON taken by tartan of Sargon-II.  Ashdod becomes Assyrian province until ?.  Gath drops out of history.  Gibbethon also raided. 713/2 Jud 14-881     712 ISBE 2-47, Jud 3-695     711 IDB 1-248, 2-356, 732, 3-417, ISBE 2-703, 886, 4-339, SOTS 301
no date: IDB 3-794, DOTT 61-2, PANE 197
c.711 EDOM, under Assyria from 724, reconquered by tartan of Sargon-II. 711 CBCOT
c.711 YAHWEH tells ISAIAH to walk naked 3 years as a sign that Egyptians and Kushites will be led away naked by Assyrians. Isa 20:1
711 IDB 2-732
c.710 All Palestine except Judah is under control of SARGON-II, king of Assyria. 710
IDB 3-355, ISBE 2-51, Jud 11-1390, RAI2 261
c.710 MOAB, independent from 850, comes under Assyria until 612. 710 rcJdn
c.707 Tang-i Var  TANG-I VAR INSCRIPTION  carved into a cliff at Tang-i Var pass, in the district of Sanandaj, Kurdistan.   " I [SARGON-II] plundered Ashdod.  Iamani its king feared and ... He fled to Meluhha and lived stealthfuly.  Shapataku, king of Meluhha heard of the might of the gods Ashur, Nabu, and Marduk, which I placed over all lands.  He put Iamani in manacles ... He brought him captive to my presence." photo Fereidoun Biglari


707/6 wikSbtk
no date:
Sdl 4-251
c.705 At death of Sargon-II, the anti-Assyrian coalition in the Levant rebels against Assyria. 705 Sdl 4-255
c.705 HAMATH, Assyrian province from 720, goes independent until 700. 705 guess
c.704 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, again rebels against Assyria until 701. 704 Sdl 4-255
c.703 ELULAIOS king of Tyre 730-701, under Assyria from 722, rebels.  Independent until 701. 703 ISBE 4-446
c.702 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, gets serious illness. 2K 20:1, 2Ch 32:24, Isa 38:1-8 714 ISBE 2-886     702 SOTS 322     701 ISBE 2-704
c.702 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, seriously ill.  Isaiah tells him to prepare to die.  Hezekiah asks for more time, says his heart has been perfect. 2K 20:1, 2Ch 32:24, Isa 38:1-8
702 SOTS 322
701 ISBE 2-704
c.702 ISAIAH gets word from Yahweh, returns to Hezekiah, says he will recover in 3 days and live 15 years.  Hezekiah asks for a sign.  Isaiah says the sun will go back 10 degrees.  Of course it happens. 2K 20:5-11
c.702 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, receives embassy from MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II, king of Babylon asking for assistance against Assyrians.  Hezekiah shows the embassy his royal treasures.  Isaiah prophesies that all of his treasure and his sons will be taken to Babylon. 2K 20:12
712 ISBE 2-886 710 GHH
703 ISBE 1-385 701 Jud 11-1390
c.701 LEVANT:  Hezekiah, Edom, and others, backed by Egypt, rebel against Sennacherib.  PADI, Philistine king of Ekron, refuses to join rebels, overthrown and arrested by Ekronites and delivered to Hezekiah. 701 IDB 2-26, Jud 2-857, 8-452, Sag1 119, WPOT 163, bk, hifiI       no date: DOTT 66, PANE 1-199
c.701 ELULAIOS ends.  Anti-Assyrian king of Tyre & Sidon from 730, flees to CyprusSennacherib appoints ETHBAAL-III king of Tyre & Sidon until 694.  TYRE, independent from 703, back under Assyria until 694. 701 B76 11-985, ENBD 1303, IDB 4-344, ISBE 4-501, Jud 14-1506, LEWH 48, MWΦ 20, PANE1 199, RAI3 320, hifi
c.701 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, invades Levant until 700. 2Ch 32:1     701 B76 11-985, DOTT 64, HCC, IDB 2-599, 3-794, ISBE 2-886, 4-501, Jud 13-403, 14-1161, MCAW 66, Sag1 119, htc     Hezekiah yr 14 2K 18:13
It is disputed whether Sennacherib invaded only in 701, or also in 688/7. ISBE 4-396
c.701 Achzib, Canaanite harbor north of Acco, taken by Sennacherib. 701 Jud 2-213
c.701 EKRON taken by Sennacherib. 701 Jud 6-559
c.701 SIDQA king of Askalon from ?, fails to submit to Sennacherib quickly enough, deported to Assyria with his whole family.  Sennacherib appoints SHARULUDARI (son of former king) king of Askalon until ?. 701 IDB 3-794, DOTT 66, PANE1 199, RAI3 320, SOTS 213, WPOT 163
c.701 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, rejects advice of Isaiah, seeks help from Egypt. Isa 30:1-5
701 Sag1 119
c.701 An army sent from Egypt to rescue Ekron is defeated by Assyrians. 701 DHJ 265, RAI3 320
c.701 SENNACHERIB, claims victory over TAHARKA of Egypt and Nubia, at Eltekeh, but fails to follow up.  Captures Eltekeh and Timnah (location disputed), assaults Ekron, kills rebel leaders of Ekron, besieges Lachish. 701 B76 11-985, DHJ 265, DOTT 65, IDB 2-95, 4-649, Jud 6-483, Shaw 348, 352     700 IDB 2-54
c.701 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, now without allies, fears invasion by Sennacherib, releases Padi, king of Ekron to Sennacherib, plugs up wells outside of Jerusalem, repairs walls, prepares for war. 2Ch 32
701 DOTT 66, PANE1 200
c.701 SENNACHERIB, invades Judah, captures and loots 46 walled cities of Judah, destroys villages, besieges Hezekiah in Jerusalem, returns to siege at Lachish. 2K 18:13, 2Ch 32:1     713 GHH
701 B76 V-27, 17-946, CBCOT, ISBE 2-886, Jud 9-1383, MNHK 64, SOTS 210, WBH 20
no date: DOTT 67, PANE1 200
c.701 AIARAMMU, king of Edom, submits to Sennacherib. 701 Jud 6-376
c.701






c.701
SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, claims voluntary submission of:  Sidon, mainland Tyre, Bit-Ziti, Zarbitu, Mahalliba, Achzib, Acco, Menahem of Samsimuruna, Abdiliti of Arvad, Urmilki of Gebal, Mitinti of Ashdod, Buduli of Beth-Amon (location unknown), Kammusunadbi of Moab, Aiarammu of Edom.  Philistine cities slow in submitting are besieged, conquered, and looted:  Joppa, Asor & Bene-Berak (both southeast of it), Beth-Dagon (location unknown).
Taylor Prism  TAYLOR PRISM:  "As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke.  I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to the countless small villages in their vicinity, and conquered [them) by means of well-stamped [earth-]ramps, and battering-rams brought [thus] near [to the walls] [combined with] the attack by foot soldiers, [using] mines, breeches as well as sapper work.  I drove out [of them] 200,150 people, young and old, male and female, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, big and small cattle beyond counting, and considered [them] booty.  Himself I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a bird in a cage." 
photo: David Castor

701
DOTT 66, IDB 3-794,
Jud 12-196, PANE1 199
c.701 SIDON, under king Luli of Tyre from ?, taken by Sennacherib, under Assyria until 694. 701 Jud 14-1506 700 ISBE 3-859
c.701 SILLIBEL, pro-Assyrian king of Gaza, and other Philistine rulers, are given much land of Judah by SENNACHERIB,. 701 IDB 2-357
c.701 JOPPA, under Askalon from 800, comes under Assyria until 609. 701 rcHL
c.701 HEZEKIAH besieged in Jerusalem, sends envoy to Sennacherib at Lachish, asks for peace terms.  Sennacherib demands 300 talents of silver + 30 talents of gold.  Hezekiah strips the temple and complies.  Judah is under Assyria until 625. 2K 18:14
701 DHJ 266, DOTT 64, PANE1 200
c.700 HAMATH, independent from 705, taken by Sennacherib, under Assyria until 612. 2K 18:34, 19:13, 1Chr 36:19, 37:13 700 ISBE 2-603
c.700 SENNACHERIB besieging Lachish, sends a rabshakeh, a tartan, and a rabsaris (Who knows?) with an army to Jerusalem.  Rabshakeh rebukes Hezekiah for alliance with Egypt, demands submission and tribute, promises deportation to a good land. 2K 18:17-19,
2Ch 32:9-10, Isa 36
700 MCAW 68
c.700 Eliakim and Shebna ask the rabshakeh to stop speaking Hebrew and use Aramaic so the general populace won't understand them.  Request denied.  (see 444) 2K 18:26,
Isa 36:11
701 BBP 40
c.700 Λ ARAMAIC V LANGUAGE spreads in all directions, loses its homogeneity.  Different dialects emerge in Assyria, Babylonia, Levant, and Egypt.  Used diplomatically in Palestine, evidenced by 2K 18:26-f.  Common language of Mid East until 700CE.   (See Assyria 745) 700
WPOT 148, mom, wikAL
c.700 HEZEKIAH sends envoys to Isaiah to ask advice.  Isaiah says not to fear the Assyrians.  Assyrians have blasphemed, and will be hit by plague.  Sennacherib will hear a rumor and return to Assyria and be killed. 2K 19:1-7, 20-34,
Isa 37
c.700 SENNACHERIB besieging Lachish, learns of rebellion of MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II in Babylonia, abandons siege, returns to Assyria. 2K 19:35-6
711 GHH
700
RAI2 266
Or maybe he was distressed by the plague that killed 185,000 Assyrian troops in 1 night.   (2K 19:35, Isa 37:36)
Or maybe mice ate their bowstrings.   (Herodotus 2:141)
c.700 Rabshakeh, returns from Jerusalem to Lachish, finds that Sennacherib has gone to nearby Libnah, hears that Taharka of Egypt is coming against the Assyrians, sends a messenger back to Jerusalem to tell Hezekiah not to get his hopes up. 2K 19:8-10
c.700 NERIAH ben Jotham becomes High Priest of Jerusalem to 675. 700 af
c.700 LACHISH, besieged by Assyrians from 701, falls. 701 ISBE 3-58
c.700 ACCO, under Tyre from 950, comes under Assyria until 612. 701 Jud 2-222 700 rcHL
c.700 Prophet MICAH, operating from 735, ends. 710 ds     708 ISBE 1-486 700 bivu     690 CBCOT
c.700  PROVERBS ch 25-29  "Proverbs of Solomon"  assembled by scribes of Hezekiah. 700 B76 2-925
c.700 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, having withstood siege, begins building a water TUNNEL to Pool of Siloam. 2K 20:20
700 MCAW 69, TTT
c.700 Lachish relief LACHISH RELIEF :  A part of the Sennacherib relief, carved 700-681, as a decoration of the South-West Palace of Sennacherib in Nineveh.  It depicts captives from Judah being led into captivity after the Siege of Lachish in 701, inscribed with Assyrian cuneiform.  "Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment, before the city of Lakhisha.  I give permission for its slaughter." photo
oncenawhile


700 wikLABA
c.700 Azekah Inscription AZEKAH INSCRIPTION :  Inscribed with Akkadian cuneiform, describes a campaign by Sennacherib against Hezekiah, King of Judah, including the conquest of Azekah in Judah.  Found in Library of Ashurbanipal.  photo
{{PD-US}}

700 wikLABA
no date: wikLAzI
c.696 HEZEKIAH king of Judah 715-686, makes 2 year old son MANASSEH co-king. 698 Jud 11-852     697 ISBE 1-683, ds, lara     696 ISBE 3-234, MNHK,
SOTS 215     695 CBCOT, HCC
c.694 ETHBAAL-III ends.  King of Tyre & Sidon from 730.  ABD-MELQART succeeds to 678. 694 adeT, rcLeb, wikT, arg
c.694 TYRE & SIDON, under Assyria from 701, independent until 678. guess
c.691 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, invades north Arabia until 689. 691 ISBE 2-887
c.690 AMMON suppressed by SENNACHERIB. 690 CBCOT
c.690 MOAB suppressed by SENNACHERIB. 690 CBCOT
c.690






c.690
Siloam Inscription  SILOAM INSCRIPTION  written in Hebrew language in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet on wall on east end of Hezekiah's tunnel contains 6 extant lines
 "... the tunnel ... and this is the story of the tunnel while ...
the axes were against each other and while three cubits were left to cut? ... the voice of a man ...
called to his counterpart, (for) there was ZADA[?] in the rock, on the right ... and on the day of the
tunnel (being finished) the stonecutters struck each man towards his counterpart, ax against ax and flowed
water from the source to the pool for 1200 cubits. and 100?
cubits was the height over the head of the stonecutters ..." 
photo
deror_avi


701 wikLABA
700
BBP 28 no date: wikSI
c.688 SENNACHERIB makes 2nd threat to Hezekiah. 688 SOTS 322
c.686 Son of Ahaz, HEZEKIAH dies.  King of Judah from 715.  Son (age 12) MANASSEH sole rule to 642. 2K 20:21, 2Ch 32:33         700 DGRG 1-356, trubi
699 ISBE 2-886, 697 GHH, bk     694 MCAW 71
692 IDB 1-502     690 DHJ 273     687 CAH 3.2, IDB 2-598, 3-254, ISBE 1-683, LEWH 45, MRDK, RAI3, WBH 20, frN, hifiI, rcHL     687/6 ISBE 2-886, bivu
686 B76 V-27, HCC, IDB 2-600, MNHK, RAI2, Sag, bihi, biti, ds, htc, lara     679 btl     612 lgbt
c.680 Prophet ISAIAH dies.  Active from 740, possibly martyred by Manasseh.  He is author of chapters 1 thru 39 of his book.   (See 2nd Isaiah 540) 701 TToH     696 GHH 690 ISBE 1-486
687 B76 2-916
685 CBCOT
680 SOTS 322, ds
c.678 TYRE & SIDON, independent from 694, under king ABD-MELQART from 694, taken by Esarhaddon, who installs BAAL-I until 660.  Sidon under Assyria until 677.  Tyre under Assyria until 675. 680 adeT, arg, rcLeb, wikT
678 SOTS 216
677 ENBD 1303, LEWH 48, MWΦ 21, RAI3 326, Sdl 4-295
c.678 ARZANI a city on the brook between Egypt and Sinai, taken by Assyrians. 679 RAI2 271, RAI3 327
c.678 ESARHADDON installs a garrison at the border of Egypt. 679 B76 11-986
c.678 MANASSEH king of Judah 686-42, vassal of Assyria, listed among 22 kings required to visit Esarhaddon in Nineveh. 678
RAI2 271
c.677 SIDON, under Assyria 694-77 leads a rebellion against Esarhaddon. 677 IDB 3-803, ISBE 3-859, 4-501, Jud 14-1506, bk
c.677 ABD-MELQART, former king of Tyre & Sidon, beheaded by Esarhaddon. 679 Sag1 125     677 ENBD 1303, RAI2 270, RAI3 326     676 MWΦ 21
c.677 SIDON, under Assyria from 694, destroyed by Esarhaddon, independent until 609. 677 IDB 4-344, 722, bk
c.676 MARUBBU & SARPENTA, cities formerly under Sidon, given to BAAL-I king of Tyre & Sidon by Esarhaddon. 676 MWΦ 21
c.676 Buduilu king of Ammon, "the kings of Hatti, the seashore, and the islands" are forced to supply cedar and pine for Esarhaddon's palace at Nineveh. 676 Jud 2-857
c.675 SAMARIA settled with foreigners by Esarhaddon, some from Hamath. 675
ISBE 2-603
c.675  TREATY  ESARHADDON and BAAL-I king of Tyre. 675 IDB 1-333
c.675 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69, invades Egypt, but is halted by a sandstorm, returns north. 675 B76 III-954
674 B76 11-986, BhoE 555
c.675 BAAL-I, king of TYRE, vassal of Assyria from 678, again led into anti-Assyrian intrigue by Taharka, pharaoh 690-64.   TYRE independent until 664. 675 Sag1 127, Sag2 119     671 MWΦ 21, ISBE 3-859
665 RAI2 275
c.675 NERIAH ben Jotham, High Priest of Jerusalem from 700, ends.  Son HOSHIAH succeeds to 650. 675 af
c.671 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69, again invades Aram, sets up siege at Tyre, proceeds south. 673 MCAW 68     671 B76 11-986, ISBE 4-934, RAI3 328, Sag1 127     670 BHoE 555
c.671 APHEK, Samaria conquered by Esarhaddon enroute to Egypt. 671 Jud 3-176
c.671 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69 invades Egypt again until 670. 675 MCAW 68     674 BHOE 555
671 B76 III-954, VII-237, 6-479, 11-986, Jud 6-853, Sag1 127, Sag2 119, WPOT 95     667 Jud 12-196
c.670 ESARHADDON, in Egypt from 671, has some kind of problem in Assyria that causes him to return thru Levant to Assyria. guess
c.668 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, (and now in Assyria) makes  treaty  with TYRE.  Treaty contains first Assyrian mention of Tyrian god BAAL MELQART. 668 MCAW 68, DBANE 239
c.667 BODEL, king of Ammon from ?, dies.  Son AMNIADAB succeeds until ?. 667 IDB 1-112
c.664 TYRE, independent from 675, besieged by Assyrians from 671, falls to Assyrian army.  Remains under Assyrians to 630. 664
ENBD 1303
c.662 BAAL-I king of Tyre 678-60, subdued by Assyria. 663 ISBE 4-934 662 RAI3 331
c.660 BAAL-I ends.  King of Tyre from 678, ends.  ESHBAAL-III succeeds 599-74. 701 ENBD 1303     669 arg
660 adeT, rcLeb, wikT
c.655 PSAMTIK-I king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, pursues Assyrians north to ASHDOD, besieges Ashdod until 630. 655 B76 6-480, RAI3 332, Shaw 372
c.650 MOAB & EDOM, under Assyria from ?, rebel.  Maybe Judah also rebels. 650
SOTS 216
c.650 MOAB conquered by invading Arabs. 650 nglfr
c.650 MANASSEH king of Judah 686-42 captured by Assyrians, taken to "Babylon", prays, gets released. 2Ch 32:11-13
677 GHH     664 htc 650 CBCOT
c.650 Prophet NAHUM begins ministry until 630. 660 ISBE 1-486
650 CBCOT, ds     620 bk
c.650 HOSHIAH ben Neriah, High Priest of Jerusalem from 675, ends.  Son SHALLUM succeeds to 625. 650 af
c.650 MANASSEH king of Judah 686-42 has a Yahwist conversion, builds an outer wall for Jerusalem, purges most idolatry from Judah. 2Ch 32:13-16
c.650 Ekron inscription EKRON INSCRIPTION :  Inscribed on limestone with Phoenician alphabet, first known inscription from the area ascribed to Philistines.  King Padi is mentioned in connection to events of 701 and 699, King Ikausu in relation to 673 and 667. photo Matanya

700-650 wikERDI 650 wikLABA
c.648 Prophet NAHUM predicts fall of Nineveh. 648 htc
c.642 Son of Hezekiah, MANASSEH dies.  King of Judah from 686.  Son (age 22) AMON succeeds to 640. 2K 21:18 643 GHH, Jud 11-852, Sdl 4-331     643/2 bivu     642 CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 1-114, 3-254, ISBE 3-234, Jud 2-862, LEWH 45, MNHK, MRDK, RAI3, Sdl 4-303, SOTS 216, WBH 36, bihi, biti, bk, ds, frN, hifiI, htc, lara, rcHL     642/1 ISBE 2-886     640 RAI2, Sag     639 IDB 1-502     637 btl     558 lgbt
c.640 PSAMTIK-I king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, invades Philistia. 640 BHoE 580
c.640 Son of Manasseh, AMON dies.  King of Judah from 642, killed by servants.  Son (age 8) JOSIAH succeeds to 609, under regency of high priest until ?. 643 trubi     641 GHH     641/40 bivu
640 B76 V-614, CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 1-114, 2-996, ISBE 2-1138, Jud 2-862, 10-288, LEWH 45, MNHK, MRDK, RAI3, Sdl 4-332, SOTS 219, WBH 20, bihi, biti, ds, frN, hifiI, htc, lara, rcHL 639 ENBD 664, RAI2     638 IDB 1-502, RAI2, Sag     637 MCAW 72     555 lgbt
c.640 When Josiah comes to the throne, there are manuscripts in circulation containing prophesy which are believed to contain Yahweh's inspired words. 638
IDB 1-502
c.635 Prophet ZEPHANIAH begins ministry until 625. 640 CBCOT, WBH 20
635 ds     634 htc     630 bk
c.632 JOSIAH king of Judah 640-09, age 16, either begins seeking Yahweh, or becomes a tool of the priesthood. yr 8 2Ch 34:3
632 ISBE 2-1138, Jud 10-290, SOTS 322
c.630 Prophet NAHUM, active from 650, ends. 630 ds     628 ISBE 3-478
c.630 TYRE, under Assyrians from 664, regains independence, mainland until 573, island until 332, increases sea trade. 630 ENBD 1303
c.630 ASHDOD besieged by PSAMTIK-I from 655, unsieged. 630 Shaw 372
c.628 Regions SAMARIA, GILEAD, & GALILEE, an Assyrian province from 721, is taken over by Josiah, while Assyria is occupied with internal troubles. 628
WPOT 166
c.628 JOSIAH king of Judah 640-09, begins purging Judah of idolatry and high places. 628 ISBE 2-1138, IDB 2-997, Jud 10-290, SOTS 220, ds
yr 12 2Ch 34:3
c.627 Prophet JEREMIAH begins in Judah until 585, then Egypt until 570. Josiah yr 13 Jer 1:2     627 HCC, Jud 9-1346, Sdl 4-343, SOTS 223, 322, bk, ds, htc     627/6 B76 10-134, ISBE 2-985     626 B76 2-917, DHJ 278, IDB 2-825, ISBE 1-486, MCAW 73, hifiI
c.625 SCYTHIANS under Partatua & Madyes in Persia, invade and devastate Aram and Palestine, bypass Judah, capture Askalon from Philistines. 630-25 Sdl 4-321
626 B76 11-988, MCAW 72 625 B76 16-438
c.625 Prophet ZEPHANIAH, active from 635, ends. 625 ds
c.625 SHALLUM ben Hoshiah, High Priest of Jerusalem from 650, ends.  Son HILKIAH succeeds to 600. 625 af
c.622 JOSIAH king of Judah 640-09, sends Shaphan the scribe to High Priest Hilkiah to count donation money taken at the temple gate and use it to to hire workers to repair the temple. yr 18 2K 22:3 621 DHJ 280
c.622  Λ BOOK of the LAW  (most of DeuteronomyV found in the collection box in the temple by High Priest Hilkiah.  It must have been compiled by Israelite scribes a year or so previously.  Hilkiah gives it to Shaphan, who takes it to Josiah. yr 18 2K 22:3-20, 2Ch 34:14, wikBD
631 WBH 20     622 B76 2-882, HCC, IDB 2-997, Jud 5-1577, 10-290, SOTS 220     621 CMoG3 97, E2LM 45, ENBD 664, IDB 1-498, 502, TTPC    620 bk
c.622 JOSIAH king of Judah 640-09, reads  BOOK of the LAW , believes that all Israel's woes are due to failure to obey Law of Moses, tells priests to ask Yahweh what he should do.  Priests ask prophetess Huldah for advice.  Huldah chastises Israel and praises Josiah, but offers no recorded advice. yr 18 2K 22:3-20
622 B76 2-882, Sdl 4-334
621 B76 2-904, IDB 1-502
c.622  BOOK of the LAW  is regarded as the Word of Yahweh.  This is a 1st.  After this, all future history of Isreal is written in the spirit and style of  Deuteronomy . 2K 22:19
622 Jud 10-290 621 IDB 1-502, 504
c.622 JOSIANIC REFORMATION:  Josiah gathers elders to temple, reads them the law for the FIRST TIME, vows to keep the law.  Elders do same.  Bible CANONIZATION begins.  Josiah orders all vessels dedicated to idols to be removed from temple and destroyed, then purges all Judah of all idolatry, high places, mediums, etc., holds the biggest passover since Samuel. 2K 23:1-24
622 ISBE 2-1138, Jud 10-290     621 B76 10-134, BNTH 136, IDB 1-502-3, ISBE 1-486
c.621 The word "TORAH" at this time refers to only the  Sermon of Moses in Deuteronomy .  The definition will be gradually expanded. 621
IDB 1-506
c.621 No book was ever regarded as God's Word before 621. 621 IDB 1-498
c.621 Λ Deuteronomic "D" V version of  PENTATEUCH  begins in Judah. 621 ISBE 1-487
c.620 SCYTHIANS under Partatua & Madyes, move toward Egypt, bought off by Psamitk-I. 620 B76 6-480
no date: B76 16-438
c.619 Prophet HABAKKUK begins until 605. 620 ds     619 bihi, htc
609 CBCOT     600 bk
c.616 PSAMTIK-I, king of 26th Saite dyn 664-10, helps Assyrians against Nabopolassar and Scythians. 616 Grim 359, Jud 10-292
c.615 GALILEE, under Assyria from 722, comes under Judah until 609. 615 rcHL
c.612 Prophet NAHUM rejoices at fall of Nineveh. 612 Jud 12-794, MCAW 75, WBH 20

Levant 612-501
V