after Assyria
c.612 After 3 month siege, NINEVEH, capital of Assyria from 704, falls to coalition. 612 B76 9-833, 17, 946, CAH 3.2, FLAP 183, MCAW 74, RAH, RAI2 313, Sag1 139, Sdl 4-315, SOTS 167, 218, WBH 20
NEO-ASSYRIAN Period ends.  Began 912.
c.612 SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN, son of Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria from 627, burns in flames of Nineveh.  Assyrian army and last member of dynasty ASHUR-UBALLIT-II are chased into Aram, hold out in Haran until 609. 612 CAH 3.1, FLAP 184, HCC, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-311, absA, bk, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.612 Nabopolassar tries to take Haran, fails, and ravages surrounding area. 612 MCAW 74
c.612 After fall of Nineveh, Haran remains unmolested because Medes & Scythians want to get their loot from Ashur home before it's stolen, so both of them go home.  Nabopolassar wants to consolidate as much of Assyria as possible before Medes & Scythians return and grab it. 612
Sag1 140
c.611 Apr. May "In the 16th year in the month of Iyyar the Babylonian king [Nabopolassar] called out his army and marched into Assyria.  From ... to the month of Marchesvan they marched about victoriously." Babylonian Chronicle
611 DOTT 77
c.610 SCYTHIANS (and possibly Medes) return to attack Haran. 610 RAI3 376, Sag1 140
c.610 Assyrian troops in Haran flee southwest to join Egyptian allies. 610 DOTT 77, IDB 2-998, Sag1 140     609 MCAW 74
c.610 1st known STONE BRIDGE built by Nabopolassar across Euphrates.  It has a 116m drawbridge. 600 TTT
c.610 HARAN, under Assyria from 900, plundered by Scythians & Babylonians.  Temple of Sin destroyed until 554.  Scythians leave a garrison in Haran until 556.  Nabopolassar takes loot home to Babylon. 610 B76 11-988, DOTT 77, ISBE 3-470, RAI2 314, Sag1 140, Sdl 4-315, SOTS 238, 322, WBH 20
c.609 Last member of Assyrian dynasty, ASHUR-UBALLIT-II gone.  Holding out in Haran from 612, flees southwest, and disappears from history. 609 B76 9-833, 11-988, CAH 3.1, HCC, MRDK, RAI3 376, SOTS 322, bk, irch     608 MCAW 74     606 FLAP 184
no date: Sag1 140
c.609 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Assyria from 1329, comes under Medes until 550. 609 rcM
c.609 SCYTHIANS in Haran are counterattacked and besieged by a renewed Egyptian / Assyrian forceNABOPOLASSAR returns and breaks siege.  Egyptian / Assyrian force withdraws to Carchemish, sends envoy to Egypt requesting reinforcements.  Scythians withdraw from Haran.  Nabopolassar leaves Babylonian garrison in Haran. 610 DOTT 77, Sag1 140
609 Sdl 4-315, SOTS 167, 233, lvA
c.609 MARI, under Assyria from 750, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcS
c.608 MEDES turn on former allies, the SCYTHIANS, who withdraw. 608 MCAW 74
c.608 Babylonian campaign into northwest Syria and mountains of Urartu south of Taurus range. 608 B76 18-1041, MNHK 182
c.608/7 Northwest Syria south of Taurus Mts. annexed by Babylon. 608/7 B76 18-1041
c.607 NABOPOLASSAR, king of Babylon 620-05, and son Nebuchadrezzar, cross Euphrates into Syria, seize Kimuhu near Carchemish. 607 MNHK 182
607/6 B76 12-925
c.606 NABOPOLASSAR, king of Babylon 620-05, establishes a garrison at Quramati on east bank of Euphrates. 606 MNHK 183
c.606 NABOPOLASSAR, king of Babylon 620-05, leaves son Nebuchadrezzar in charge of Syria, withdraws to east of Euphrates. 606 B76 12-925, DOTT 78
605 SOTS 233
c.605 Egyptians from Carchemish cross Euphrates, drive Babylonians from Quramati. 605 BHoE 583, MNHK 183, SOTS 322
c.605 Nabopolassar king of Babylon, in poor health, appoints son NEBUCHADREZZAR to clear Egyptians out of Syria.  Neb tries unsuccessfully to bridge Euphrates. 607 RAI2 315, RAI3 378 605 DOTT 78, MNHK 185, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 233
NebuchadRezzar, not NebuchadNezzar. IDB 1-253
c.605 NEBUCHADREZZAR, son of Nabopolassar king of Babylon attacks and defeats NEKO-II of Egypt (and Ionian mercenaries) at CARCHEMISH, burns Carchemish.  A remnant of Egyptians flee south to Hamath, and is wiped outNeb chases Egyptians south as far as Pelusium at the border of Egypt, gaining all lands north of it. 605 B76 12-925, 17-946, FLAP 185, HCC, IDB 2-54, ISBE 3-507, MCAW 74, MNHK 183, RAH 103, RAI2 315, RAI3 378, Sag1 141, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 233, TTPC, WPOT 166, bk
c.605 1st DEPORTATION V of Jews from Jerusalem to Babylon: includes 7,000 craftsmen and smiths, 1,000 potential soldiers, and supposedly Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah, and DANIEL. 2K 24:14       606 GHH
605 MNHK 185, SOTS 346, ds, sl
Jehoiakim yr 3 Dan 1:1
c.605 NABOPOLASSAR dies.  King of Babylon from 620, dies in Babylon.  Son quickly returns from Levant to Syria and succeeds as NEBUCHADREZZAR-II to 562. 611 hifi     605 B76 VII-158, 6-480, 11-988, 12-925, BaCh 12, DHJ 286, FLAP 183, GHH, HCC, IDB 3-529, ISBE 1-385, 3-470, 507, Jud 12-912, MCAW 74, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-311, SHWC 39, SOTS 234, WPoT, bk, brKB, frM, stmaB, wikB     604 RAH
c.604 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, invades "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria) and Levant to collect tribute and deal with recalcitrants. 604 DOTT 79, ISBE 3-507, MNHK 186, RAI3 379, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 224, 234
c.603 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, in Levant from 604, returns to Babylon. 603
SOTS 234
c.603 NEB-II has a scarry dream and forgets it, asks his magi what the dream was, and what its interpretation is.  They don't know.  Daniel gets it right. Neb yr 2: Dan 2:1
c.601 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562 invades "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria) without resistance, comes back to Syria, goes south into Levant until 600. 601 Sdl 4-349, SOTS 234
c.600 CYAXARES-II king of Medes 625-585 gets Scythian chiefs drunk at a party and kills them.  Drives the rest north of Caucasus Mts. no date:
B76 9-832-3
c.600 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, returns from Levant to Syria to Babylonia, rebuilds his army. 600 B76 12-925, MCAW 74, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.600 SLAVERY:  A male slave in Babylonia costs 40 shekels. 600 RAI2 337
c.600 WATER-LIFTING:  Use of a hand wheel or continuous chain of buckets is evidenced in Babylonia. 600
SHT 1-525
c.600 COMMERCE in Babylonia:  wheeled carts drawn by onagers, riverboats powered by oarsmen, copper, silver, gold, vegetable oils from north of Tigris.  Camels enter with dyes, glassware, gems, textiles. 597 TTPC
c.600 Enameling and glazing of brick and tile is known in Assyria and Babylonia. 597
B76 3-163
c.599 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, fortifies Riblah and Hamath, sends raiders to plunder desert Arabs returns to Syria. 599 IDB 1-112 SOTS 235
c.598 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, fights Arab nomads of Syria. 599 RAI2 316, RAI3 379
598 MCAW 78, MNHK 186, SOTS 235
c.598 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, departs from Babylon, invades northwest Arabia, remains in west until 595. 599 RAI2 316, RAI3 379     598 B76 11-988, 12-925, IDB 3-530, MCAW 78, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.597 Λ 2nd DEPORTATION V of 10,800 JEWS including 3,023 adult males from Jerusalem to BABYLON.  Includes Ezekiel, officers, craftsmen, and smiths, temple furnishings and vessels. Jehoiakim yr 11: 2K 23:36, 2Ch 36:5
Neb-II yr 7 Jer 52:28
598 IDB 2-186, 203     597 B76 7-127, 11-988, IDB 4-948, Jud 4-35, Sdl 4-350, 5-4, SOTS 344, WBH 20, ds, hifiI
c.595 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, campaigns in Akkad. 595/4 ISBE 3-507
c.595 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, away from Babylon from 598, in Syria from 596, returns, because of palace revolt. 595 B76 12-925, MCAW 78, SOTS 235
c.595/4 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II subdues palace revolt. 595/4 B76 12-926
c.595/4 Babylonian army rebels.  Subdued by Neb-II, but causes some vassals to consider rebellion. 595-4 IDB 4-948, Sdl 4-358
c.594 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, marches into "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria). 595/4 Sdl 4-359
594 B76 12-926, IDB 4-948, SOTS 235     594/3 ISBE 3-507
c.594/3 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, again campaigns in Akkad. 594 Jud 6-1090, 594/3 ISBE 3-507
c.593 Jul 31 Priest EZEKIEL in Babylonia from 597, by Chebar River, gets first vision: dramatic, but with no message except to listen to Ezekiel, and don't be rebellious.  Remains active until 570. Jehoiachin yr 5 Eze 1:1
593 IDB 2-203, ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364, bihi, htc, vb     592 B76 7-127, MCAW 81, Sdl 4-402
c.592 EZEKIEL in Babylonia.  Has a complex vision full of sound and fury, signifying that Israel is in big trouble, but with no message. yr 6 Eze 8:1 - 11:25
592 ISBE 2-262, 591 Sdl 4-412
c.591 Elders confer with EZEKIEL in Babylonia.  He gives them the standard history lesson and exhortation to obey commandments, which if obeyed is followed by a promise to restore them to their land. yr 7 Eze 20:1
591 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
590 Sdl 4-417
c.588 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, marches into Syria. 587 Sdl 4-366
c.588 EZEKIEL message.  A parable about purging Israel. yr 9 Eze 24:1-14
588 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364 587 Sdl 4-418
c.587 Jan 7 EZEKIEL goes from Babylon to Egypt. 587 ISBE 2-255
Whether EZEKIEL operated in Babylon or Levant or both is disputed.
c.587 Yahweh tells EZEKIEL that his wife will die, and he must not mourn.  She dies.  When people ask him why he's not mourning, he tells them the same will happen to them - or it already has happened.  Anyway, it's supposed to make them know that he was told to do it by Yahweh. Eze 24:15-27
Sdl 4-418
c.587 EZEKIEL prophesy against Egypt, which is to be devastated and uninhabited for 40 years. yr 10 Eze 29:1-16
587 ISBE 2-262, 3-508, SOTS 364
c.587 EZEKIEL message.  Pharaoh will be conquered by Babylon. yr 11 Eze 30:20-26
587 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
c.587 EZEKIEL message.  Pharaoh will be conquered. yr 11 Eze 31:1
587 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
c.586 EZEKIEL prophesy against Tyre, which is to be scraped clean - by Babylonians under Nebuchadrezzar-II according to context. yr 11 Eze 26-28
587 ISBE 2-262, 586 SOTS 364
c.586 Λ 3rd DEPORTATION: V  832 adult males by Nebuzaradan to Babylon.  Includes leaders of Jerusalem.  Zedekiah, Seriah ben Azariah the High Priest from 600, Zephaniah the second priest, Gedaliah, prince Seriah ben Neriah.. 2K 25:11, Jer 39:5-8,
Jer 52:26-29
587 IDB 2-186, btl
586 B76 12-926, Jud 4-35, MCAW 82, Sdl 5-4, sl, trubi
c.585 Jewish deportees arrive in Babylonia. yr 11 Eze 33:21
585 SOTS 364
c.585 EZEKIEL lamentation over Egypt, which is to be conquered by the king of Babylon. yr 12 Eze 32:1-16
585 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
c.585 EZEKIEL lamentation over Egypt, Assyria (now defunct), Elam, Meshech, Tubal, Edom. yr 12 Eze 32:17-32
588 CAH 4-6     585 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
c.585 2nd ISAIAH born, probably in exile. 590-80 Sdl 5-24
c.582 Λ 4th DEPORTATION from Jerusalem to Babylon:  under authority of Nebuzaradan: 460 Jews. 582 B76 7-127, 12-926, HCC, LEWH 46, SOTS 249
581 Sdl 5-4, sl
c.573 EZEKIEL vision.  He is standing on a mountain in Israel, and is told to measure various parts of an architectural structure, which is gradually revealed to be a temple.  He is told various things what will happen when Israel is restored. yr 25 Eze 40-48 574 IDB 4-150 573 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
572 Sdl 4-430
c.571 EZEKIEL last dated prophesy.  Nebuchadrezzar-II will conquer Egypt.  When that happens, Israel will be restored. yr 27 Eze 29:17-21
571 ISBE 2-262, SOTS 364
570/69 Sdl 5-3
photo by Maj. Mike Feeney
c.570 BABYLON becomes biggest city on Earth under Neb-II.  (10,000 hectares = 25,000 acres) 700-601 TTS
c.570 Priest EZEKIEL in Babylonia from 597, active from 593, ends. 570 CBCOT, vb 570/69 Sdl 5-3
568 Jul 4 ECLIPSE in 37th year of Nebuchadrezzar. 568 July 4 doth
c.565 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, builds defensive wall north of Babylon (against Medes?). 565 MCAW 86
c.565 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, builds high DAM which joins Tigris to Euphrates and creates a lake behind it.  Dam is earth-filled and lined with baked brick using bitumen and sand for mortar.  It creates a defensive moat on one side of Babylon. 550 TTT
c.565 NEBUCHADREZZAR's own inscriptions refer to a 4 year suspension of interest in state affairs.
This may account for the reference to his insanity in  Daniel 4:31 .
no date: MCAW 84
c.562 Son of Nabopolassar, NEBUCHADREZZAR-II dies.  King of Babylon from 605.  Son AMEL-MARDUK succeeds to 560. 562 B76 12-926, 17-947, BaCh 12, CAH 3.2, FLAP 185, IDB 3-529, ISBE 1-631, 3-507, Jud 12-912, MCAW 86, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 1-415, SHWC 39, SOTS 237, TTPC, WPoT, bk, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB     561 BCoC 182
c.561 JEHOIACHIN imprisoned in Babylon from 597, released by order of Amel-Marduk, thus preserving a hope that the Davidic line would not become extinct.  Allowed to eat at king's table.  Becomes 1st EXILARCH (ruler of exiled Jews) until 559. Jer 52:31     562 SOTS 252 561 ISBE 3-508, SOTS 344, 364, trubi
560 Sdl 3-280, btl
c.560 Son of Nebuchadrezzar-II, AMEL-MARDUK dies.  King of Babylon from 562, murdered by bro-in-law NERGAL-SHAR-USUR (Neriglissar) who succeeds to 556. 560 B76 11-988, BaCh 12, CAH 3.2, 4, FLAP 189, ISBE 1-631, MCAW 89, MNHK, RAI2 317, Sag, Sdl 5-7, SOTS 237, TTPC, WPoT, bk, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB     no date: MRDK, RAI3
c.559 JEHOIACHIN 1st EXILARCH from 561, dies.  Stepson NERIAH (aka SHEALTIEL) succeeds until 545. 559 hawa
May 19
SOLAR ECLIPSE observed by Xenophon at siege of Larisa.
"This city [Larisa] was besieged by the king of the Persians at the time when the Persians were seeking to wrest from the Medes their empire, but he could in no way capture it.  A cloud, however, overspread the sun and hid it from sight until the inhabitants abandoned their city; and thus it was taken."   (Anabasis 3-4-8)
May 19
hbar, nasaS
c.557 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR, king of Babylon 560-56, expecting attack by Astyages king of Media 585-50, goes to Syria, crosses Taurus Mts. into Cilicia, chases Appuasu beyond Lamos River. 557 B76 11-988, MCAW 88, Sag1 144
yr 3 SOTS 238
c.556 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR, king of Babylon 560-56, seriously defeated in Cilicia by Astyages king of Media 585-50, returns to Babylon. 556 Sag1 144, SOTS 238
c.556 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR dies.  King of Babylon from 560.  Son LABASHI-MARDUK succeeds and ends 3 months later.  Chaldean officer related to Neb-II, NABONIDUS usurps throne to 539.
Nabonidus disdains Babylonian god Marduk in favor of Akkadian god Sin.
558 CAH 4-6, ISBE 1-631
556 B76 VII-158, 9-833, 11-988, BaCh 12-13, CAH 3.2, 3.3, FLAP 42, 189, ISBE 1-631, ISBE 3-468, MCAW 86, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, Sag, Sdl 5-7, SOTS 237-8, WPoT, bk, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB     no date: RAI3
c.556 HARAN, under Scythians from 610, taken by Astyages, king of Media until 554. 556 MCAW 88
c.555 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, besieges Medes in Haran. 555 B76 11-988, MCAW 88
c.554 HARAN, under Medes from 556, taken by Nabonidus, king of Babylon 556-39.  Temple of Sin, destroyed from 610, is restored.  Haran comes under Babylonia until 539 554 MCAW 89
553 bk
no date: SOTS 238
c.554 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, based at Haran, campaigns against Amor, Adummu, Hamath, Lebanon. 554
c.553 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, makes son BELSHAZZAR co-king, puts him in charge of Babylon. 554
c.552 DANIEL dreams about 4 beasts coming out of the sea. Belshaz yr 1: Dan 7:1
c.552 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, fails to see danger of Cyrus-II, leaves son Belshazzar in charge of Babylon, goes south into Arabia until 540.  TEMA, large oasis in west Arabia, taken by Nabonidus, who plans to retire there. 552 B76 11-989, OCD 91
550 MCAW 88
549 RAI2 322
by 548 SOTS 239
no date: MCAW 88
c.550 ASTYAGES, king of Media from 585, troops mutiny, delivered to Cyrus-II, taken to Susa, treated well until death. 560 SHWC 39     559 DGRBM 1-921 550 B76 I-609, VII-891, 5-410, 9-833, BHoE 593, CMoG3 214, HCC, IDB 1-304, 754, Jud 4-34, LEWH 53, MRDK, OCD 4, SOTS 240, WPOT 315, 593, abasP, bk, hifi, KoP, taP, wapP     549 CAH 4-2
Kingdom of MEDIA, independent from 700, comes under PERSIA.
c.550 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Medes from 609, comes under Persia until 331. 550 rcM
c.550 Nabonidus Cylinder NABONIDUS CYLINDER from Sippar:  In Akkadian cuneiform.  Records reconstruction of temples to Moon god Sin at Harran and sun god and the goddess Anunitum at Sippar.  Describes Belshazzar (Balthazar) as Nabonidus' eldest son.
"Nabonidus, the great king, the strong king, the king of the universe, the king of Babylon, the king of the four corners, the caretaker of Esagila and Ezida, for whom Sin and Ningal in his mother's womb decreed a royal fate as his destiny, the son of Nabu-balassi-iqbi, the wise prince, the worshiper of the great gods,..."
photo Jona Lendering

550 wikLABA

c.550 Nabonidus Cylinder NABONIDUS CYLINDER:  Terracotta in Akkadian cuneiform.  Describes repairs on the temple of moon-god Sin at Ur by Nabonidus, with a prayer for his son Belshazzar.  "As for me, Nabonidus, king of Babylon, save me from sinning against your great godhead and grant me as a present a life of long days, and as for Belshazzar, the eldest son my offspring, instill reverence for your great godhead (in) his heart and may he not commit any cultic mistake, may he be sated with a life of plenitude." photo Jastrow

555-39 wikNCl
no date: frjnk
c.550 Nabonidus ReliefNABONIDUS RELIEF:  showing him praying to the moon, sun and Venus. photo Jona Lendering

556-39 wikNbn
c.550 ECONOMY:  Prices increase 50% from 560 because of Nabonidus' building activities.  But a male slave costing 40 shekels in 600 now costs 50 shekels. 550 RAI2 337, Sag1 147-8
c.550 Anti-Persian policy among Sparta, Lydia, Babylonia, Egypt, & others. 550 CAH 3
c.550 NAKHCHIVAN, a city between Armenia and Iran, under Media from 612, comes under Persia until 330. 550 rcCau
c.550 SOAP:  Babylonian recipe of uhulu [ashes], cypress [oil] and sesame [seed oil] "for washing the stones for the servant girls".   (See Celts 750Phoenicia 600) reign of Nab: wikSop
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, active in north Mesopotamia. 547 CAH 4-8
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of king of Medo-Persia 550-30, marches west, bypasses Babylonia, proceeds along Tigris, into Syria. 547
SOTS 242
c.547 Anti-Medo-Persian alliance formed by Sparta, Lydia, Babylonia, Egypt, & others. 547 BHoE 593, CAH 4-9
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, marches west, bypasses Babylonia, proceeds along Tigris, crosses Euphrates into Cappadocia. 547
SOTS 242
c.546 CYRUS-II, king of king of Medo-Persia 550-30, returning from Anatolia, takes part of eastern Assyria from Babylonia, returns to Susa 547 Sag1 150
546 SOTS 239, 242
c.545 UGBARU (Gobryas) appointed governor of Gutium (north of Tigris between Lower Zab and Diyala Rivers) by Nabonidus until 539. 545 CAH 3
c.545 NERIAH (aka SHEALTIEL) 2nd EXILARCH from 559, dies.  Son ZERUBABEL succeeds until 510. 545 hawa
c.541 SYRIA, under Babylon from 605, acquired by CYRUS-II by bribery and propaganda.  Under Medo-Persia until ?. 541
c.540 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, begins Babylonian campaign, attacks Babylonian vassals northwest of Babylon. 540 B76 9-833, CAH 4-11
c.540 SECOND ISAIAH begins work in Babylon.  He is responsible for  chapters 40-55 , in which Cyrus is mentioned by name (44:28), and is therefore not likely the same Isaiah who died c.680. 600-500 wikBI
546 WBH 21
540 TAWH 17, bk 539 CMoG3 215 538 B76 2-917
c.540 NABONIDUS king of Babylon 556-39, leaves Tema in Arabia, returns to Babylon, sets up defense at wall on north side of Babylon. 545 RAI2 322
542 B76 11-989 540 MCAW 92
539 B76 VII-158, ISBE 1-846
c.539 NABONIDUS king of Babylon 556-39, celebrates new years festival.  Brings in idols from surrounding towns to Babylon in hopes of appeasing all gods.  Priests of Marduk and Nebo are not apprecative. 539
DOTT 83, SOTS 240
c.539 MARI, under Babylon from 609, comes under Medo-Persia until 332. 539 rcS
c.539 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, invades northern Babylonia. 539 B76 11-989, CAH 4, RAI2 322
c.539 BELSHAZZAR sent by father Nabonidus to counter Cyrus-II.   Ugbaru, governor of Gutium is on his left flank. 539
RAI2 322-3
c.539 UGBARU (Gobryas) Babylonian governor of Gutium, defects to Cyrus-II. 539
RAI2 323
c.539 RESEN on southeast Tigris comes under Persia until 331. 539 rcM
c.539 Oct CYRUS-II, king of Anshan 580-30, Media 550-30, captures Opis on Tigris north of Babylon, securing north Babylonia, divides army, puts some under recent defector Ugbaru. 539 B76 9-833, CAH 4-11, ISBE 1-846, RAI2 322, Sdl 5-13
c.539 BABYLON:  Revolt breaks out. 539 MCAW 92
c.539 EUPHRATES partially diverted by Medo-Persians. 539 MCAW 92
c.539 Oct 10 SIPPAR 30 miles north of Babylon, falls to Medo-Persians without a battle. 539 CAH 4, DHJ 331, DOTT 82, ISBE 1-846, RAI2 323, SOTS 240, WPOT 318
c.539 Oct NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, flees from Babylon. 539 DOTT 82
c.539 Oct 12 UGBARU (Gobryas) general under Cyrus-II, marches into Babylon unopposed, holds it for Cyrus. 539 B76 11-989, CAH 4, ISBE 1-846, RAI2 323, Sdl 5-13
c.539 Oct 12 BELSHAZZAR son of Nabonidus is killed. 539 ISBE 1-846, RAI2 323, Sdl 5-75, SOTS 240
c.539 Oct 29 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, enters Babylon, greeted as liberator, shows respect for Marduk, becomes king of Babylon with consent of population. 539 B76 5-410, 9-833, 17-946, CAH 4, ISBE 1-847, RAH, RAI2 310, 323, Sdl 5-13, WBH 21, bk
538 CAH 4-2, DGRBM 1-922, Jud 4-34
c.539 UGBARU appointed viceroy of Babylon by Cyrus-II until 525.  Possibly identical to Biblical DARIUS the Mede. 539
CAH 4-14
c.539 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, returns to Babylon, captured by Medo-Persians, exiled. 539
B76 VII-158
c.539 NABONIDUS, former king of Babylon, ends. 539 B76 VII-158, 9-833, BaCh 13, CAH 3.2, 3.3, FLAP 189, ISBE 1-631, 3-468, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 5-7, WPOT, bk, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB
Began 626.  Conquered by CYRUS-II.
539 CAH 3.2, FLAP 190, OCD 157, RAH, RAI3 372, WPOT 181
c.539/8 Cyrus Cylinder  CYRUS CYLINDER  Baked clay 22.5cm x 10cm (maximum) written in Akkadian cuneiform in Babylon.  Cites Cyrus' kingly lineage compared to Nabonidus' low class pedigree.  Says Babylonians welcomed him as liberator.  Appeals to Marduk to help Cyrus and son Cambyses.  Corroborates of Cyrus' repatriation of the Jews (Ezra 1:1-4; 6:3-4) following their Babylonian captivity. photo
Mike Peel

530 wikLABA
c.538 Λ Priestly "P" V version of  PENTATEUCH  begins in Babylon. no date:
ISBE 1-487
c.538 Λ BABYLONIAN CALENDAR V becomes standard thruout Persian Empire. 538
B76 3-605
c.538 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, sends detachment to occupy Jerusalem. 538
c.538 CAMBYSES, son of Cyrus-II, appointed king of Babylon by Cyrus, but possibly removed at end of same year, and Ugbaru reinstated. 539 CAH 4
538 Jud 5-70, RAI3 406
c.538  CYRUS DECREE  allows Jewish exiles in Babylon to return to Judah and rebuild the temple.  He wants good relations in Palestine to help him invade Egypt. 538 B76 17-947, CHJ 2-371, DHJ 331, ISBE 1-848, Jud 5-1185, MCAW 92, Sdl 3-285, 5-38, SOTS 159, WBH 21
c.538 Jews:  SHESHBAZZAR, ZERUBABEL, and JOSHUA lead first group of returnees to Jerusalem. Ezr 2:2, Neh 7:7, 1Esd 5:8
538 CAH 3-409, CBCOT, IDB 3-534, 4-325, ISBE 4-1193, Sdl 5-41, WBH 21, bihi, btl, htc, rcHL, trubi     538/7 bihi     537 DHJ 335     536 GHH, TToH
c.538 ZERUBABEL 3rd EXILARCH 545-510, leaves son MESHULLAM in charge of the exiles in Babylon until he returns in 513.  Leaves for Jerusalem. 520 WBH 20
no date: hawa
c.538 JUDAISM in Babylonia is probably exposed to ZOROASTRIANISM.  They are compatible as long as God is not named.  Cyrus refers to Yahweh as "the Great God," and "the God of Heaven". no date: DBANE 79
c.530 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, makes son Cambyses regent in Babylon, marches to north frontier, attacks west of Caspian Sea beyond Araxes River, wounded in battle. 538 ISBE 1-849 530 B76 II-478, OCD 198, SOTS 243
c.530 CYRUS-II dies.  King of Medo-Persia 550-30, marches east of Caspian, killed fighting Massagetae near Aral SeaSon CAMBYSES-II succeeds 529-22. 530 BaCh 14, CAH 4, FLAP 192, GRG 329, HCC, ISBE 1-582, 849, Jud 5-70, MCAW 99, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-47, SOTS 243, TToH, WPOT 320, hifiE, hifiP, wapP
529 B76 9-833, CAH 4-414, DGRBM 1-922, abasP, KoP, taP
c.528 The MAGI sow dissent following their loss of influence.  Therefore Cambyses-II curtails their power. no date: wikZr
c.525 CAMBYSES-II from Persia goes thru Mesopotamia to Levant. -
523 July 16 ECLIPSE seen in Babylon in 7th year of Cambyses-II. July 16, 523: doth
c.522 GAUMATA, a Magian backed by the Magi, claims to be Cambyses-II's dead bro SMERDIS (aka Bardiya).  Siezes control of Medo-Persia while Cambyses is in Egypt. 522 B76 IX-283,
CMoG3 219,
Jud 5-71, WPOT 321
c.522 Business accounts in Babylon are already being dated in reign of SMERDIS (aka Bardiya). 522 Apr Sdl 5-102
c.522 Son of Cyrus-II, CAMBYSES-II dies.  King of Medo-Persia from 529, after confessing the murder of his bro Smerdis, dies.
Of unknown causes at Damascus, according to Herodotus.
Accidentally stabs himself while leaping onto his horse at Haran, according to Behistun Inscription.
General Darius Hystaspes hurries to Media.  DARIUS-I HYSTASPES succeeds until 486.
522 B76 II-478, 5-491, 9-833, 11-989, 17-947, BaCh 14, CAH 4-173, CMoG3 219, FLAP 195, MCAW 99, MNHK, OCD 198, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-48, 63, Shaw 374, SOTS 244, TToH, WPOT 321, slkrd
c.522 Babylonian NIDINTU-BEL, son of Ainaira, claims to be a son of Nabonidus, siezes throne of Babylon as NEBUCHADREZZAR-III until December. 522 BaCh 15, ISBE 3-507, RAI2 341, Sdl 5-63-4, WPOT 322
c.522 NIDINTU-BEL (aka NEBUCHADREZZAR-III) routed on Tigris and Euphrates by Darius-I, then nearly annihilated at Zazannu, chased back to Babylon, captured, executed. 522 BaCh 15, ISBE 3-507, RAI2 341, Sdl 5-63-4, WPOT 322     520 MCAW 100
c.521 MEDO-PERSIAN EMPIRE reaches from Nile to Indus Rivers. 521 TAWH 17
c.521 ARKHA, son of Haldita, also claims to be Nebuchadrezzar son of Nabonidus, rules Babylon as NEBUCHADREZZAR-IV until November. 521 BaCh 16, ISBE 3-507, RAI2 341, Sdl 5-63, WPOT 322
c.521 Rebellion in Media under Fravartis (Hsatria). 521 Sdl 5-63
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, goes to Media to deal with Fravartis rebellion. 521
Sdl 5-63
c.521 FRAVARTIS (Hsatria) rebel in Media decisively defeated by Darius-I at Kurundni, captured, sent to Ecbatana, tortured, impaled. 521 Sdl 5-63, 103-4
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, fighting in Media and Persia, sends general Vindafarna to deal with Nebuchadrezzar-IV. 521
RAI2 341
c.521 General VINDAFARNA marches into Babylon. 521 Nov 27 Sdl 5-97
c.521 ARKHA (aka NEBUCHADREZZAR-IV) defeated by general Vindafarna, impaled. 521 BaCh 15, RAI2 341, Sdl 5-64, 104, WPOT 322
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, recognized as king of Babylon. 521 CAH 4, Sdl 5-64, WPOT 322
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, claims to be king of the whole Earth as viceregent of god Ahura Mazda. no date: B76 8-309
c.521  DANIEL 10:4  says Daniel is by the Tigris and receives a vision now.  Ch 11 predicts Medo-Persian kings, Then a Greek kingconquers Medo-Persia. May 7, 521 Sdl 5-61
c.520 Λ MATH:  ZERO is given a unique symbol.   (See China 800, Pythagoras 520) late 6th cen. IDB 3-562
c.520 ZERUBABEL, governor of Judah 538-13, leads 2nd group of returnees from Babylonia to Jerusalem: 42,360 men, 7,337 servants, 245 singers, 49,942 total. Ezr 2:55-70,
Neh 7:60-66, 1Esd 5:8
520 Sdl 5-41, WBH 21
Persian Empire
Provinces of Medo-Persian Empire at its peak c.520. History of Persia
c.519 DARIUS-I locates Cyrus' 538 decree allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem, confirms it, orders his satrap of Samaria, Tattenai, to help the Jews. 520 ISBE 1-848, 519 GHH
519/8 HCC
c.519 SUSIANA (formerly Elam):  a third Babylonian uprising is put down. 519 B76 5-491, MCAW 100
c.518  BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION , commissioned by Darius-I, written in Old Persian, Akkadian, and Elamite on the side of a cliff. 520-18 about     516 anprs
515 crst
c.518 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, sets out for Egypt with army. 519 SOTS 243, WPOT 323
518 B76 5-491
c.516 Syro-Palestine and Babylonia, until now one Medo-Persian satrapy, are divided at the Euphrates into two satrapies by Darius-I. 516
CDCC 116
c.510 ZERUBABEL 3rd EXILARCH from 545, former governor of Judah 538-13, executed.  Son HANANIAH succeeds until 490. 510 hawa, rcHL
c.510 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, adjusts weights to include fractions, changes imprinted image on coins from celestial lion and ox to the king at war.  Gives his name to a gold piece. 510
OCD 260
502 Nov 19 ECLIPSE seen in 20th year of Darius-I. 502 Nov 19 doth
Royal Road
c.500 ROYAL ROAD built from Sardis to Susa with posting stations.  Connects capitals of Persia, Elam, and Assyria, to Gordium and Sardis.  Crosses the Tigris at Amida. 500
PW 16

Mesopotamia 500-301