Assyria Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Persia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.612 After 3 month siege, NINEVEH, capital of Assyria from 704, falls to coalition. 612 B76 9-833, 17, 946, CAH 3.2, FLAP 183, ISBE 1-631, Jud 12-1170, MCAW 74, RAH, RAI2 313, Sag1 139, Sdl 4-315, SOTS 167, 218, WBH 20
NEO-ASSYRIAN Period ends.  Began 912.
c.612 Son of Ashurbanipal, SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN dies.  King of Assyria from 627, burns in flames of Nineveh.  Assyrian army and last member of dynasty ASHUR-UBALLIT-II are chased into Syria, hold out in Haran until 609. 612 CAH 3.1, FLAP 184, HCC, ISBE 1-322, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-311, absA, bk, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.612 Nabopolassar tries to take Haran, fails, ravages surrounding area. 612
c.612 After fall of Nineveh, Haran remains unmolested because Medes & Scythians want to get their loot from Ashur home before it's stolen, so both of them go home.  Nabopolassar wants to consolidate as much of former Assyria as possible before Medes & Scythians return and grab it. 612 Sag1 140
c.612 NAKHCHIVAN, a city between Armenia and Iran, under Urartu from 900, comes under Media until 550. 612 rcCau
c.611 NISIBIS, under Assyria 896-608 attacked by Babylonian army, which suggests that it remained loyal to Assyria. 611 lvA
c.611 Ap/My "In the 16th year in the month of Iyyar the Babylonian king [Nabopolassar] called out his army and marched into Assyria.  From ... to the month of Marchesvan they marched about victoriously." Babylonian Chronicle
611 DOTT 77
c.610 SCYTHIANS (and possibly Medes) return to attack Haran. 610 RAI3 376, Sag1 140
c.610 Assyrian troops in Haran flee southwest to join Egyptian allies. 610 DOTT 77, IDB 2-998, Sag1 140     609 MCAW 74
c.610 HARAN, under Assyria from 900, plundered by Scythians & Babylonians.  Temple of Sin destroyed until 554Scythians leave a garrison in Haran until 556Nabopolassar takes loot home to Babylon. 610 B76 11-988, DOTT 77, RAI2 314, Sag1 140, Sdl 4-315, SOTS 238, 322, WBH 20
c.609 MARI, under Assyria from 750, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcS
c.609 NEKO-II king of Egypt 610-595 arrives in Syria, now owns all Syro-Palestine until 605. 609 ISBE 3-510, Sdl 4-339
c.609 ASHUR-UBALLIT-II, last member of Assyrian dynasty, holding out in Haran from 612, flees southwest, and joins Egyptians. 609 B76 I-582, 9-833, 11-988, CAH 3.1, 3.2, HCC, MRDK, RAI3 376, SOTS 322, irch     608 MCAW 74     606 FLAP 184
no date: Sag1 140
c.609 SCYTHIANS in Haran are counterattacked and besieged by a renewed Egyptian / Assyrian forceNABOPOLASSAR returns and breaks siege.  Egyptian/ Assyrian force withdraws to Carchemish, sends envoy to Egypt requesting reinforcements.  Scythians withdraw from Haran.  Nabopolassar leaves Babylonian garrison in Haran. 610 DOTT 77, Sag1 140
609 Sdl 4-315, SOTS 167, 233, lvA
c.609 MELITENE on Anatolia/Syria border, part of Assyria from 708, comes under Babylonia until 539. 609 rcT
c.609 SCYTHIANS invade URARTU, plunder capital TUSHPA.
URARTU, dormant from 714, is under Scythians until 608.
609 B76 18-1041, mxfld
c.609 CARCHEMISH, under Assyria from 717, taken by Neko-II, comes under Egyptians until 605. 612 rcS
609 RAI3 377, SOTS 234
c.609 HALAP (Aleppo), under Assyria from 900, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcS
c.609 KUMMUHU (Commagene), part of Assyria from 708, comes under Babylonia until 546. 609 rcT
c.608 MEDES turn on former allies, the SCYTHIANS, who withdraw. 608 MCAW 74
c.608 URARTU, under SCYTHIANS from 609, comes under MEDES until 550, as vassal state until 590. guess
c.608 Babylonian campaign into northwest Syria and mountains of Urartu south of Taurus range. 608 B76 18-1041, MNHK 182
c.608 NISIBIS, under Assyria from 896, part of Assyria from 852, comes under Babylonia until 536. 608 wikNsb
c.608/7 Northwest Syria south of Taurus Mts. annexed by Babylon. 608/7 B76 18-1041
c.607 CYAXARES-II king of Medes 625-585 gets Scythian chiefs drunk at a party and kills them.  Drives the rest north of Caucasus Mts. 607 DGRBM 1-908, 2-561
no date: B76 9-832-3
c.607 NABOPOLASSAR, king of Babylon 620-05, and son Nebuchadrezzar, cross Euphrates into Syria, seize Kimuhu near Carchemish. 607 MNHK 182
607/6 B76 12-925
c.606 NEKO-II marches as far as Euphrates. 605 BHoE 583, FLAP 185
c.606 ASHUR-UBALLIT-II murdered.  Last member of Assyrian dynasty from 612. 606 Sdl 4-315, 340
c.606 NABOPOLASSAR, king of Babylon 620-05, establishes a garrison at Quramati on north bank of Euphrates. 606
MNHK 183
c.606 Kimuhu, newly acquired by Babylon, besieged 4 months by Egyptians, and taken. 606
MNHK 182
c.606 NABOPOLASSAR, king of Babylon 620-05, leaves son Nebuchadrezzar in charge of Syria, withdraws to east of Euphrates. 606 B76 12-925, DOTT 78
605 SOTS 233
c.605 Egyptians from Carchemish cross Euphrates, drive Babylonians from Quramati. 605 BHoE 583, MNHK 183, SOTS 322, 344
c.605 Nabopolassar king of Babylon, in poor health, appoints son NEBUCHADREZZAR to clear Egyptians out of Syria.  Neb tries unsuccessfully to bridge Euphrates. 607 RAI2 315, RAI3 378 605 DOTT 78, MNHK 185, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 233
NebuchadRezzar, not NebuchadNezzar. IDB 1-253
c.605 NEBUCHADREZZAR, son of Nabopolassar king of Babylon attacks and defeats NEKO-II of Egypt and his Greek mercenaries at CARCHEMISH, burns Carchemish.  A remnant of Egyptians flee south to Hamath, and is wiped out.  Neb chases Egyptians south as far as Pelusium at the border of Egypt, gaining all lands north of it. 605 B76 6-480, 17-946, FLAP 185, HCC, IDB 2-54, ISBE 3-510, MCAW 74, MNHK 183, RAH 103, RAI2 315, RAI3 378, Sag1 141, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 233, TTPC, WPOT 166, bk
c.605 CARCHEMISH, under Egypt from 609, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcS
c.605 NABOPOLASSAR dies.  King of Babylon from 620, dies in Babylon.  Son quickly returns from Levant to Syria to Babylon, and succeeds as NEBUCHADREZZAR-II to 562. 611 hifi     605 B76 VII-158, 6-480, 11-988, 12-925, BaCh 12, FLAP 183, GHH, HCC, IDB 3-529, ISBE 1-631, MCAW 74, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 234, WPoT, bk, brKB, frM, stmaB, wikB
c.604 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, invades "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria) and Levant to collect tribute and deal with recalcitrants until 603. 604 DOTT 79, ISBE 3-507, MNHK 186, RAI3 379, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 224, 234
c.601 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562 invades "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria) without resistance, comes back to Syria, goes south to Levant unyil 600. 601 Sdl 4-349, SOTS 234
c.600 ARMENIANS of Phrygia gradually occupy area of Urartu (under Media 608-550), adopting Persian religion. post-612 LEWH 51
c.600 A group of Jews are sent to Urartu.  They become known as PAGRATIDS according to Armenian historians. 600 DGRBM 1-361
c.600 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, returns from Levant to Syria to Babylonia, rebuilds his army. 600 B76 12-925, MCAW 74, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.599 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562 fortifies Riblah and Hamath, sends raiders to plunder desert Arabs returns to Syria. 599 IDB 1-112, SOTS 235
c.598 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, fights Arab nomads of Syria, then invades Levant until 596. 599 RAI2 316, RAI3 379
598 B76 11-988, 12-925, IDB 3-530, MCAW 78, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.596 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, finished with Judah, turns north and repels enemy at Tigris River, continues campaigning in west until 595, according to Babylonian Chronicles. 596 B76 11-988, SOTS 235
c.595 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, away from Babylon from 598, in Syria from 596, returns to Babylon. 595 B76 12-925, MCAW 78, SOTS 235
c.594 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, marches into "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria). 595/4 Sdl 4-359
594 B76 12-926, IDB 4-948, SOTS 235
c.594/3 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, again campaigns in Akkad. 594 Jud 6-1090 594/3 ISBE 3-507
c.590 MENUAS-II, son of Erimina, king of Urartu from 605, ends. 612 LEWH 51     609 wikU
590 MRDK, anan, hifi
615 or 590 wikKU
590 or 585 wikU     585 lvA 580 hystn
SARDURI DYNASTY of Urartu ends.  Began 840.
URARTU, dominated by Medes from 608, is annexed by MEDIA until 550.
c.590 WAR:  Lydians & Scythians vs, Medes begins until 585. 590 B76 18-1041
c.588 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, marches into Syria, then to Levant. 587 IDB 3-803, Sdl 4-366
c.585 Son of Phraortes, CYAXARES-II dies.  King of Medes from 625.  Son ASTYAGES succeeds to 550. 595 DGRBM 1-389     594 DGRBM 1-908, 921 585 B76 III-318, 9-833, GRG 329, HCC, LEWH 53, MRDK, RAI2, WPOT 315, abasP, bk, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP     584 RAH 112
c.570 ORONTES-I Sakavakyats becomes king of Urartu under Medes until 560. 570 wikLAK
c.560 ORONTES-I Sakavakyats king of Urartu under Medes from 570, ends.  TIGRANES succeeds until 535, under Medes until 550. 560 wikLAK
May 19
SOLAR ECLIPSE observed by Xenophon at siege of Larisa.
"This city [Larisa] was besieged by the king of the Persians at the time when the Persians were seeking to wrest from the Medes their empire, but he could in no way capture it.  A cloud, however, overspread the sun and hid it from sight until the inhabitants abandoned their city; and thus it was taken."   (Anabasis 3-4-8)
557 May 19 hbar, nasaS
c.557 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR, king of Babylon 560-56, expecting attack by Astyages, goes to Syria, crosses Taurus Mts. into Cilicia, chases Appuasu beyond Lamos River. 557 B76 11-988, MCAW 88, Sag1 144, Sdl 5-8
yr 3 SOTS 238
c.556 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR, king of Babylon 560-56, seriously defeated in Cilicia by Astyages king of Media 585-50, returns thru Syria to Babylon. 556 Sag1 144, SOTS 238
c.556 HARAN, under Scythians from 610, taken by Astyages, king of Media until 554. 556 MCAW 88
c.555 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, besieges Medes in Haran. 555 B76 11-988, MCAW 88
c.554 HARAN, under Medes from 556, taken by Nabonidus, king of Babylon 556-39.  Temple of Sin, destroyed from 610, is restored.  Haran comes under Babylonia until 539. 554 MCAW 89
553 bk
no date: SOTS 238
c.554 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, based at Haran, campaigns against Amor, Hamath, Lebanon, Adummu (region of Arabia). 554
c.550 ASTYAGES, king of Media from 585, troops mutiny, delivered to Cyrus-II, taken to Susa, treated well until death. 559 DGRBM 1-921     550 B76 I-609, VII-891, 5-410, 9-833, BHoE 593, CMoG3 214, HCC, IDB 1-304, 754, LEWH 53, MRDK, OCD 4, SOTS 240, WPOT 315, 593, abasP, bk, hifi, KoP, taP, wapP     549 CAH 4-2
Kingdom of MEDIA, independent from 700, comes under PERSIA.
c.550 CADUSIANS of Mt. Caucasus subdued by Cyrus-II. 550 lvCd
c.550 URARTU, under Medes from 608, conquered by CYRUS-II, comes under Persia until 331.  During this time it becomes called ARMENIA.  TIGRANES, Orontid king of Urartu 560-35, under Medes from 560, comes under Persia until 331 550 B76 18-1041, RAH 112, hystn
549 LEWH 51, bk, hifi
c.550 AZERBAIJAN, east end of Caucasus Mountains, aside southwest coast of Caspian Sea, under Medes from late 600s, conquered by CYRUS-II, under Persians and Scythians until 331. 550 rcCau
c.550 Anti-Persian policy among Sparta, Lydia, Babylonia, Egypt, & others. 550 CAH 3
c.550 NAKHCHIVAN, a city between Armenia and Iran, under Media from 612, comes under Persia until 330. 550 rcCau
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, active in north Mesopotamia. 547 CAH 4-8
c.547 Anti-Medo-Persian alliance formed by Sparta, Lydia, Babylonia, Egypt, & others. 547 BHoE 593, CAH 4-9
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, marches west, bypasses Babylonia, proceeds along Tigris, crosses Euphrates into Cappadocia. 547
SOTS 242
c.546 CYRUS-II, king of king of Medo-Persia 550-30, returning from Anatolia, takes part of eastern Assyria from Babylonia 547 Sag1 150
546 SOTS 239, 242
c.546 COMMAGENE, under Babylonia from 609, comes under Medo-Persians until 322. 546 rcT
c.545 UGBARU (Gobryas) appointed governor of Gutium (north of Tigris between Lower Zab and Diyala Rivers) by Nabonidus until 539. 545 CAH 3
c.541 SYRIA, under Babylon from 605, acquired by CYRUS-II by bribery and propaganda.  Under Medo-Persia until ?.  DAMASCUS remains uncertain until 529. 541
c.540 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, begins Babylonian campaign, attacks Babylonian vassals northwest of Babylon. 540 B76 9-833, CAH 4-11
c.539 MARI, under Babylon from 609, comes under Medo-Persia until 332. 539 rcS
c.539 SAMAL, part of Assyria from 700, comes under Medo-Persia until 332. 539 rcT
c.539 MELITENE on Anatolia/Syria border, under Babylon from 609, comes under Medo-Persia until 333. 539 rcT
c.539 HARAN, under Babylon from 554, comes under Medo-Persia until 332. 539 rcT
c.539 CARCHEMISH, under Babylon from 605, comes under Persia until 353. 539 rcS
c.539 HALAP, under Babylon from 609, comes under Persia until 332. 539 B76 1-465, rcS
c.536 NISIBIS, under Babylonia from 608, comes under Medo-Persia until 332. 536 wikNsb
c.535 TIGRANES, Orontid king of Urartu under Persians from 560, ends.  No successor until 530. 535 wikLAK
c.530 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, makes son Cambyses regent in Babylon, marches to north frontier, attacks west of Caspian Sea beyond Araxes River, wounded in battle. 530 B76 II-478, OCD 198, SOTS 243
c.530 VAHAGN becomes Orontid king of Armenia under Persians until 515. 530 wikLAK
c.522 Son of Cyrus-II, CAMBYSES-II dies.  King of Medo-Persia from 529, after confessing the murder of his bro Smerdis, dies.
Of unknown causes at Damascus, according to Herodotus.
Accidentally stabs himself while leaping onto his horse at Haran, according to Behistun Inscription.
General Darius Hystaspes hurries to Media.  DARIUS-I HYSTASPES succeeds until 486.
522 B76 II-478, 5-491, 9-833, 11-989, 17-947, BaCh 14, CAH 4-173, CMoG3 219, FLAP 195, MCAW 99, MNHK, OCD 198, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-48, 63, Shaw 374, SOTS 244, TToH, WPOT 321, slkrd
c.521 Rebellion in Media under Fravartis (Hsatria). 521 Sdl 5-63
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, goes to Media to deal with Fravartis rebellion. 521
Sdl 5-63
c.521 FRAVARTIS (Hsatria) rebel in Media decisively defeated by Darius-I at Kurundni, captured, sent to Ecbatana, tortured, impaled. 521 Sdl 5-63, 103-4
c.520 AL MINA port in north Levant, becomes a new town under Medo-Persian suzerainty. 520
GRG 325
c.516 Syro-Palestine and Babylonia, until now one Medo-Persian satrapy, are divided at the Euphrates into 2 satrapies by Darius-I. 516
CDCC 116
c.515 VAHAGN, Orontid king of Armenia under Persians from 530, ends.  HIDARNES-I succeeds until ?.  Followed by Hidarnes-II and III, and Ardashir, but no solid dates until 401. 515 wikLAK
Royal Road
c.500 ROYAL ROAD built from Sardis to Susa with posting stations.  Connects capitals of Persia, Elam, and Syria, to Gordium and Sardis.  Crosses the Tigris at Amida. 500
PW 16

Syria-Armenia 500-301