|WOODLAND PERIOD of eastern North America continues 1000BCE-1000CE. A developmental stage without significant changes, except that POTTERY begins. Continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction. Hunting and gathering remains primary. Some Woodland peoples use spears and atlatls until the end of the period when they are replaced by bows and arrows.
EARLY WOODLAND period (Burial Mound-I) continues 1000-0. True agriculture is absent in much of the Southeast for a couple thousand years after the introduction of pottery.
|ANCESTRAL PUEBLO culture continues 1200BCE-1300CE in Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico. They live in a range of structures including small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, and cliff-dwellings. They are called Anasazi "ancestors of enemies" by the Navajo.||map Yuchitown|
|TCHEFUNCTE culture continues 1000BCE-200CE. Hunter-gatherers who lived in small hamlets in the Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf Coast. They live in coastal areas and lowlands, usually near slow-moving streams. Food includes clams, alligators, fish but surprisingly not crabs or crawfish which were likely to have been abundant. They also hunt deer, raccoons, and some migratory birds.|
|Point Peninsula Complex continues 600BCE-700CE: An indigenous Hopewell culture in Ontario and New York. Influenced by the Hopewell traditions of the Ohio River valley until 250CE, its ceramics are first introduced in Canada. Thinner and more decorated than existing ceramics, this new pottery has superior clay modeling, is better fired, and contains finer grit temper.|
|MANASOTA culture continues 550BCE-800CE in Florida. Each settlement contains a few related families. Dead are buried near their home or in nearby cemeteries. No grave goods or indication of differential treatment in death.|
|DEPTFORD CULTURE continues 800-200CE near Savannah, Georgia. Elaborate ceremonial complexes, increasing social and political complexity, mound burial, permanent settlements, population growth, increasing reliance on cultigens.|
|c.200||ADENA culture (part of Woodland culture) centered in Ohio River valley from 1000 ends. Rich burial mounds. People live in small, scattered villages with round houses, wattle for walls, and thatched roofs. Similar areas exist from Canada thru Minnesota down to the Louisiana-Texas border.||200 wikAdena|
|c.200||Woodland culture begins spreading from Ohio to eastern plains from Oklahoma to North Dakota until 200CE.||200 B76 13-219|
|c.200||HOPEWELL tradition begins along rivers in northeast and midwest US until 500CE. Not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. Most items traded are exotic materials received by people in major trading and manufacturing areas, who convert the materials into products and export them thru exchange networks. Dead are cremated, unless rich enough for burial. Mounds are made for burial and other unknown purposes.||200
B76 13-218, iu, wikAP, wikH
|c.200||Point Peninsula Complex, 600BC-700CE: An indigenous Hopewell culture in Ontario and New York. Its ceramics in Canada from 600, spread south into New England V. Thinner and more decorated than existing ceramics, this new pottery has superior clay modeling, is better fired, and contains finer grit temper.||200 wikPPC|
|c.200||OHIO HOPEWELL tradition begins until 500CE along rivers in the northeast and midwest US. They are connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell Exchange System, which at its greatest extent, runs from southeast US to the southeast Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Most items traded are exotic materials received by people in major trading and manufacturing areas, converted into products and exported thru exchange networks.||200 wikH 100 wikLH|
|c.200||GOODALL FOCUS begins until 500CE. A Hopewellian culture from Middle Woodland period peoples of Michigan and northern Indiana begins. Extensive trade networks. Ceramics contain expanding and contracting stemmed projectile points and obsidian flakes.||200 wikH|
|c.200||MOGOLLON culture begins in southeast Arizona mountains until 1200CE.||200
|c.200||San Dieguito-Pinto tradition ends. In southwest North America from 6500.||200 wikAP|
|c.200||COCHISE tradition ends. (part of Picosa culture) of southwest US from 5000. SAN PEDRO phase from 1500 ends. Has large projectile points with corner or side notches and straight or convex bases. Sites contain oval pithouses, requiring effort to build. Some communities cultivate maize and other crops.||200 wikAP, wikCT|
|c.200||Havana Hopewell culture begins in Illinois River and Mississippi River valleys in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri until 400CE. More a system of trading networks among societies than as a single society or culture.||200 wikAP, wikHHC|
|MESO-AMERICA: : PRE-CLASSIC Age continues 2000BCE-200CE. Manufacture of ceramics is widespread, cultivation of maize and other vegetables becomes well-established, society starts to become socially stratified. Capacha culture civilizes Mesoamerica, and its pottery spreads widely. Heavy concentration of pottery on Pacific Coast. Maise and pottery in Panama. Unknown culture in La Blanca and Ujuxte, Monte Alto culture, Mokaya culture|
|Zapotec MONTE ALBAN culture continues 400BCE-1521. Phase 1 continues until 100.|
|PARACAS culture continues 800-100 in the Paracas Peninsula of Peru. Known for shaft tombs containing elongated human skulls, knowledge of irrigation and water management. Ceramics include incised polychrome. Textiles include many complex weave structures and elaborate plaiting and knotting techniques. Necropolis of Wari Kayan contains 2 clusters of hundreds of burials set closely together inside and around abandoned buildings on the steep north slope of Cerro Colorado. Burials here continue until 250CE.|
|c.200||CHAVIN art phase called "New Temple" from 500 ends. Chavin art decorates the walls of the temple and includes carvings, sculptures and pottery. Art is intricately complex and deliberately cryptic, to be understood only by priests. Eagles are common.||200 le, wikC, wikCdH|
|c.200||CASMA/SECHIN culture of Peru from 3600, ends. Early Horizon phase from 900 ends. It is in the valleys of the Casma River and its tributary the Sechin River. Archaeological sites include Sechin Bajo, Sechin Alto, Cerro Sechin, Mojeque (Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke), Chankillo, and Taukachi-Konkan. The culture extends 40km inland from the sea.||200 wikCSc|
|c.200||SALINAR culture begins on north coast of Peru until 200CE. Possibly a short transition period between the Cupisnique and Moche cultures.||200 wikMcc|
|c.200||NAZCA civilization begins on south coast of Peru in river valleys of Rio Grande de Nazca and Ica Valley until 800CE. Known for textiles, and geoglyphs.||200
B76 VII-233, PW 17
100 wikNC, wikNzc
|c.200||NAZCA LINES begun: Geometric & animal figures scratched on desert plain of south Peru. Identifiable only from air.||photo PruAdvntr
200 PW 17
|c.150||Point Peninsula Complex, 600BC-700CE: An indigenous Hopewell culture in Ontario and New York. Its ceramics, in New England from 200, first appear in Maine. Thinner and more decorated than existing ceramics, this new pottery has superior clay modeling, is better fired, and contains finer grit temper. Includes Serpent Mounds Park||300-0 wikPPC|
|c.150||CUICUILCO becomes an urban regional center, population about 20,000, comparable with Teotihuacan until 100.||150 wikCui|
|c.100||TOOLESBORO Iowa: Conical burial mound building begins until 200CE. A group of Havana Hopewell culture earthworks on the north bank of the Iowa River near its discharge into the Mississippi. Site contains Hopewell and Middle Mississippian remains. At one time, there may have been up to 12 mounds. Largest remaining is 100' in diameter by 8' high. .||begins 200, ends 100 wikTMG
|c.100||PORTSMOUTH EARTHWORKS: Construction begins until 500CE near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky. A series of rectangular enclosures.
Group A is a large square enclosure with 2 series of parallel walls extending from the northeast and southwest corners. The Old Fort Earthworks consist of several sites, including the Old Fort Earthworks (15Gp1), Mays Mound (15Gp16), Hicks Mound (15Gp265), Stephenson Mound (15Lw139), and several other unnamed mounds and enclosures.
Group B, northern most section, was made up of circular enclosures, 2 large horseshoe-shaped enclosures, and 3 sets of parallel-walled roads leading away in different directions. One set of walled roads extends across the Ohio River to Group A.
Group C, aka the Biggs Site (15Gp8), is a large series of concentric circles surrounding a central cone mound, believed to have been built by the Adena culture.
|100 wikH, wikPE|
|c.100||KANSAS CITY Hopewell culture begins until 700CE in Kansas and Missouri around mouth of Kansas River where it enters the Missouri River. Westernmost variation of the Hopewell tradition. There are 30 recorded sites made up of distinctive pottery styles and impressive burial mounds containing stone vault tombs. It is uncertain whether this culture developed locally when people adopted Hopewell traits, or if westward migrating Hopewell people brought it all with them. Includes:
Cloverdale site (23BN2)
Renner Village Site (23PL1) contains Hopewell and Middle Mississippian artifacts.
Trowbridge Site in Kansas City, Kansas.
|100 wikAP, wiCl, wikH, wikKCH, wikLH|
|c.100||MARKSVILLE culture begins at Ohio/Miss. River Confluence until 400CE. Includes:
1. Crooks Mound in La Salle Parish, Louisiana, a conical burial mound that was part of at least 6 episodes of burials.
2. Grand Gulf Mound near Port Gibson in Claiborne County, Miss.
|100 wikAP, wikLH|
|c.100||MILLER culture begins in Mississippi until 100CE. Includes Bynum Mound and Village Site on a low ridge overlooking Houlka Creek in the Tombigbee River drainage area. 5 mounds, containing artifacts made from non-local materials such as Greenstone, copper, and galena, and distinctive projectile points that did not originate at the site or even in Mississippi. .||100 wikBMVS, wikLH|
|c.100||TEOTIHUACAN, first settled 300, begins to emerge rapidly.||100 hito|
|c.100||CUICUILCO's hegemony over the southeast Valley of Mexico begins decline.||100 wikCui, wikMC|
|c.100||MONTE ALBAN, Zapotec capital, phase 1 from 400 ends. Phase 2 begins until 100CE. Zapotec rulers begin seizing provinces outside the valley of Oaxaca.||100 wikZC|
|c.100||PARACAS culture ends. In the Paracas Peninsula of Peru from 800. Known for shaft tombs containing elongated human skulls, knowledge of irrigation and water management. Ceramics include incised polychrome. Textiles include many complex weave structures and elaborate plaiting and knotting techniques. Necropolis of Wari Kayan contains two clusters of hundreds of burials set closely together inside and around abandoned buildings on the steep north slope of Cerro Colorado. Burials here continue until 250CE.||200
B76 1-843 100 TTT, wikPC