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Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
ANATOLIA is now called ASIA (not Asia Minor) by Macedonians and Romans.  It is still called ANATOLIA here to avoid confusion with greater Asia.
c.200 Philocles, officer of Philip-V, sent from Caria to Attica. 200 DGRBM 3-300
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, crosses straits from Chersonese to the Troad, besieges Abydos until later 200. 201 wik2MW
200 B76 I-41, BHS 2-33, July CAH 8-163, 259, DGRBM 3-283
c.200 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, and some Rhodians, invited by Athenians, go to the Piraeus, meet the Roman embassy. 201 LdHR 2-18
200 CAH 8-258, DGRBM 1-410
c.200 PHRYGIA V, under Seleucids from 309, most comes under Pergamum until 133. 200 rcT
c.200 Senatorial legate M. Aemilius Lepidus, and others sails from Rhodes to Abydos, tells Philip-V in person of the senatus consultum forbidding him to attack any Greek state.  By now demands had been added that Philip keep his hands off Ptolemy's possessions and pay Rhodes and Pergamum for damages.  Lepidus then sails back to RhodesThe rest sail to Egypt. 200 CAH 8-260, wik2MW
c.200 Attalus-I of Pergamum makes a token attempt to relieve Abydos. 200 DGRBM 1-410
c.200 ABYDOS Mysia, until now a free city, surrenders to Philip-V king of Macedonia. 200 CAH 8-163, 260, OCD 1, SORH
Citizens kill all women and kids, throw their valuables into the sea and fight to the last man. wik2MW
c.200 After fall of Abydos, PHILIP-V, learns of arrival of Galba and Roman army in Illyria. 200 CAH 8-261, DGRBM 3-283
c.200 Senatorial legates:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, M. Aemilius Lepidus, sail from Rhodes to Anatolia, visit ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia to persuade him to remain neutral in Roman war with Philip-V , and secretly wish him success against Ptolemy-V.  They are assured that he has no intention of helping Philip.  They then go to Egypt. 200 BHS 2-35, CAH 8-165, 270, CHJ 2
c.200 Nearly all Seleucid possessions west of Taurus Mts. lost. by 200 RAI3 414
c.200  MNESIMACHUS INSCRIPTION  from temple of Artemis at Sardis contains indications of how the property of a great landowner is made up, the rights he exercises, his labor force, and payments which the peasants have to pay. 200 CAH 7.1-194
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, blockaded in Bargylia Caria by Attalus-I of Pergamum and Rhodians, breaks out into the Aegean, heads for Macedonia chased by Attalus and Rhodians who stop short at Aegina island. 201 BHS 2-33, LdHR 2-18
200 CAH 8-161, DGRBM 3-283, SORH
c.200 PAPHLAGONIA, under Galatia from 276, Comes under Galatian MORZIOS-I until 170, but he comes under Pontus 185, and losses some of it 182-179. 200 wikLPΦ
c.199 Praylos, pupil of sophist Timon, living in the Troad, is falsely accused of treason.  He refuses to speak a word in his defense, and is executed. 199 atl2
c.199 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum helps Romans with fleet and troops in Greece. 199 DGRBM 1-410
c.199 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 invades Pergamum while Attalus-I and his army are in Greece. 199 DGRBM 1-410, ISBE 1-144, SORH 199/8 BHS 2-36
c.199/8 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum rushes home from Greece to deal with Antiochus-III. 199/8 DGRBM 1-410
c.198 BOOKS with vellum leaves adopted instead of rolls by Attalus-I of Pergamum. 198 GHH 137 GHH
c.198 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 gives aid to city of Iasus on Halicarnassus peninsula to enable it to recover from damage (? caused by earthquake). 198 atl2
c.198 Attalus-I of Pergamum sends envoys to Rome, complains of Antiochus-III attacking his kingdom and asks the Senate for permission to pull his forces out of the Macedonian war in order to deal with it.  Senate not only complies but sends envoys to order Antiochus-III out of Pergamum. 199 atl2
c.198 Antiochus-III complies with Roman directive to leave Pergamum. 199 SORH
c.198 Antiochus-III withdraws army from Anatolia to Syria. 199 GHH
c.198 Now that Pergamum is safe, ATTALUS-I again joins Romans in Greece. 198 DGRBM 1-410
c.197 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum destroys Gergitha in Troad and resettles its inhabitants. 197 atl2
c.197 Sycophant Lysimachus is teacher and parasite of Attalus-I. 197 atl2
c.197 Rhodians defeat Philip-V's general Dinocrates near Alabanda Caria. 197 atl2
c.197 Rhodians send an embassy to Antiochus-III, in an attempt to get him to march west. 197 atl2
c.197 CTESIPHON of Athens appointed to be a judge in Aeolis by Attalus-I. 197 atl2
c.197 ATTALUS-I Soter dies.  Ruler of Pergamum from 241, king from 238, dies age 72 of stroke at ThebesSon EUMENES-II succeeds until 159. 197 B76 I-634, III-993, 1-825, 15-1-93, BHS 2-47, CAH 8-178, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-410, 2-90, DGRG 2-575, Dur 2-556, GHH, ISBE 1-326, MCAW, MRDK 333, OCD 144, 415, bk, frH, rcT
c.197 An oracular response from Delphi predicts that Attalus-I's family will reign until time of his grandchildren. 197 atl2
c.197 Heraclea Pontica attacked by Prusias-I king of Bitbynia. 197 GHH
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, invades Cilicia, in Anatolia until ?.  Sons Antiochus and Seleucus [Ardys & Mithridates??] march along coast.   A-III commands fleet. 197 B76 1-994, BHS 2-38, 39, CAH 8-173, 271, GHH, ISBE 1-145
c.197 Ptolemaic cities on coast of Anatolia surrender to Antiochus-III:  Soli, Corycus, Zephyrium, Aphrodisias, Anemurium, Selinus.  Only Coracesion, the strongest place along the coast, resists. 197 BHS 2-39
c.197 Sons of Antiochus-III arrive at Sardis and wait as instructed for A-III. 197 BHS 2-39
c.197 Rhodians, fearing that Antiochus-III wishes to join Philip-V, meet him at Coracesion on the Pamphylia/Cilicia border.  They insist that Antiochus not attack Ptolemaic possessions in their area, and successfully preserve independence of Kaunos, Myndus, Halicarnassus and Samos. 197 BHS 2-42, CAH 8-271
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, sails 100 galleys to Ephesus. 197 GHH
c.197 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 joins Romans against Antiochus-III. 197 GHH
c.197 Λ EPHESUS, under Philip-V from ?, taken by Antiochus-III, given to Pergamum until 133. 197 BHS 2-44,
CAH 8-271, atl2, rcT 188 B76 6-905
c.197 LyciaInhabitants of Arykanda in Lycia support Mithridates, son of Antiochus-III.  Though Athenaeus does not state the identity of this Mithridates, the story probably dates to when Antiochus-III regained control of Lycia. 197 atl2
c.197 Lycian cities: Andriace (harbor of Myra), Limyra, Patara, and Xanthus submit to Antiochus-III. 197 BHS 2-42
c.197 Telmessos, on Caria Lycia border, occupied by Antiochus-III Megas until 188. 197 lvA
c.197 SARDIS besieged by Ardys & Mithridates, sons of Antiochus-III. 197 GHH
c.197 LYCIA, under Ptolemies from 295, annexed to Egypt from 240, occupied by Antiochus-III Megas until 190. 197 lvA3, lvLc
c.197 HALICARNASSUS, under Ptolemies from 281, goes virtually independent, though technically under Seleucids until 129. 197 B76 IV-852
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, probably takes some towns of the Troad, Ilium and perhaps Abydos. 197 CAH 8-271
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, still controls coast of Anatolia from Cilicia to Hellespont, while also attacking Pergamum in the interior.  Carefully maintains good relations with Rhodes. 197
B76 1-825, CAH 8-178
c.197 Lycia ANTIOCHUS-III Megas captures several Ptolemaic cities in Anatolia.  Phaselis, Limyra, Andriake (port of Myra), Patara and Xanthos are mentioned. 197 lctk, wikC1
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas tries cajolery on Smyrna and Lampsacus, then sends in troops. 200
CAH 8-179
c.197 SMYRNA, free ally of Pergamum from 282, submits to Antiochus-III, who puts it under Pergamum until 133. 197
CAH 8-179
c.197 LAMPSACUS, free ally of Pergamum, submits to Antiochus-III. 197
CAH 8-179
c.197 Rhodian commander PAUSISTRATUS with an army lands in Kaunos Caria, defeats Macedonian general Deinocrates, and reduces the whole of Kaunos, but fails to take Stratonicea. 197 DGRBM 3-163
197 CYNOSCEPHALAE
c.197 Euromus Caria sends envoys to Zeuxis, rep of Antiochus-III in Sardis, immediately after receiving news of Cynoscephalae, and allies with Antiochus-III.  Neighboring Pedasa does the same, as does Iasus, to which Antiochus grants freedom. 197
CAH 8-271
c.197 In Caria even Philip-V's erstwhile possessions had shrunk, probably by the end of 197, to Bargylia alone. 197
CAH 8-271
c.197/6 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas winters in Ephesus, restores Seleucid rule over cities of northern Ionia and Hellespont.. 197/6 BHS 2-44, 48
c.196 Smyrna and Lampsacus send envoys to Rome complaining about Antiochus-III.  Welcomed with open arms. 197/6 CAH 8-271 196 CAH 8, atl2
c.196 Antiochus-III sends envoys HEGESIANAX and LYSIAS from Ephesus to Greece to meet Titus Flamininus and the 10 Roman commissioners. 196 BHS 2-48, 54, DGRBM 2-367
c.196 Roman envoys including L. Terentius meet Antiochus-IIIRomans demand freedom for Greek cities in Anatolia, and offer to negotiate in Ptolemaic-Seleucid conflict.  A-III rebuffs them. 196 BHS 2-38, CAH 8, CHJ 2-76, DGRBM 3-996
c.196 Calpurnius Cornelius and L. Villius Tappulus, envoys of Rome proceed from Macedonia to Anatolia to win back the Anatolians. 196 CAH 8-185, DGRBM 3-975
c.196 Smyrna and Lampsacus besieged by ANTIOCHUS-III. 196 CAH 8-271
c.196 All cities in Anatolia presently under Antiochus-III are declared free by Rome. 196 DGRG 1-7
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 at Abydos, crosses strait into Thrace. 196 B76 1-825, BHS 2-48, CAH 8-271, lvA
c.196 LIBRARY founded by Eumenes-II at Pergamum.  Architect Flavia Melitena.  This miffs Ptolemy-V, jealous for his Alexandrian Library, so he bans export of papyrus.  Therefore Eumenes starts copying books on parchment.  Pergamum becomes a major parchment developer and exporter. 196 Dur 2-556, MCAW    175 GHH 190 ISBE 3-769
158 atl2
no date: MTNT 4
c.195 Ptolemaic influence on west and south Anatolian coast is eliminated. by 195 Shaw 392
c.195 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 sends fleet to help Flamininus against Nabis of Sparta. 195 DGRBM 2-90
c.195 HANNIBAL sails from Antioch to Ephesus, waits for Antiochus-III. 195 B76 8-384, 627, CAH 8-191, DGRBM 1-197, Dur 3-54, LdHR 2-36     193 DGRBM 2-340
c.195 People of SMYRNA dedicate a temple to the city of Rome.  Earliest known worship of Dea Roma, a female deity personifying Rome. 195 IDB 4-393, atl2, wikRm 193 ISBE 4-555
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails back from Thrace to Ephesus to meet Hannibal. 195
CAH 8-191
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III meets Hannibal at Ephesus.  Hannibal advises him to invade ItalyHannibal asks for 10,000 inf, 1,000 cav, and 100 warships, promising to return to Carthage, and raise another war against Rome.  Tyrian named Ariston is dispatched from Ephesus to Carthage to coordinate with the popular faction. 195 LdHR 2-36, Sdl 5-236
194 BHS 2-56 193 GHH
c.194 CILICIA, under Ptolemies from ?, comes under Seleucids until 145. 194 rcT
c.194 EUMENES of Pergamum refuses marriage alliance with Antiochus-IV. 194 lvA3
c.194 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes of Cappadocia allies with Antiochus-III, marries his dau Antiochis. 194 lvA3
c.194 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails from Ephesus back to Thrace. 194
CAH 8-199
c.194/3 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 winters in Ephesus. 194/3 BHS 2-55
c.193 Roman envoys including P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, come to Ephesus, then to Eumenes-II of Pergamum, who urges them to declare war on Antiochus-III immediately.  Galba is detained at Pergamum by illness. 193 CAH 8-279, DGRBM 2-204, 3-746
c.193 Roman envoys T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus go to Ephesus, only to find that Antiochus-III is still fighting in Pisidia.  Though they talk to Minio, friend and counsellor of Antiochus-III, and to Hannibal, no agreement is reached. 193 BHS 2-62, CAH 8-279, DGRBM 2-204, 1090, 3-975, SORH, atl2
c.193 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, learns of Roman envoys in Ephesus, stops fighting Pisidians, goes to Apamea Phrygia. 193 BHS 2-62
c.193 Roman envoys T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus travel inland to Apamea Phrygia, where Antiochus-III finally meets them, but they fail to reach agreement.  Negotiations are interrupted by death of Antiochus, eldest son of the king.  Apamea goes into mourning mode.  Roman envoys return to Pergamum.  Antiochus-III goes to Ephesus. 193 BHS 2-62, CAH 8-279, DGRBM 2-204, 1090, 3-975, SORH, atl2
c.193 Envoys P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, return from Pergamum by way of Greece to Rome. 193 CAH 8-279-80
c.193 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, marries ANTIOCHIS dau of Antiochus-III. 193 atl2 192 GHH
c.193 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, offers a dau in marriage to Eumenes-II of Pergamum, but Eumenes, seeing that Antiochus plans on war against Rome, declines. 193 atl2, lvAp1-5
c.193 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, discusses plans for a war against Rome with his advisers at Ephesus. 193 atl2
c.193/2 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, winters in Syria. 193/2 BHS 2-57
c.192 In spring ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia sails from Syria to Ephesus. 192 BHS 2-57
c.192 SMYRNA and LAMPSACUS besieged by Antiochus-III 192 CAH 8-206
c.192 Aetolian strategos Thoas sails to Ephesus to meet Antiochus-III, urges his intervention in GreeceAntiochus agrees and sends rep Menippus back with Thoas to declare his intentions, thinking this will make Rome back down. 193 CAH 8-280
193/2 CAH 8-205-6
192 DGRBM 2-1041, 3-1104
c.192 In spring ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia is advised by Thoas and Alexander the Acarnanian to invade Greece, and by Hannibal to invade Italy.  He chooses Greece. 192 BHS 2-69
c.192 Envoys P. Sulpicius Galba and colleagues, return from Rome to Elea, harbor-town of Pergamum, and thence to the capital.  They find Eumenes in favor of war against Antiochus-III. 192 BHS 2-60
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, resumes efforts to subjugate independent cities of Asia, preliminary to his invasion of Greece.  Smyrna, Lampsacus, and Alexandria Troas remain unsubdued. 192 BHS 2-68
c.192 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, sides with Antiochus-III against Romans. 192 GHH, SORH
c.192 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 228-182, sides with Romans against Antiochus-III. 192 SORH
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, with 40 decked ships, 60 open, and 200 transports, crosses strait from Abydos into Thrace. 192 BHS 2-69, LdHR 2-35
c.192 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 sends bro Attalus to Rome to tell them Antiochus-III had crossed into Thrace. 192 DGRBM 1-411
c.191 Praetor C. Livius SALINATOR sails Roman fleet from Delos to Ionia. 191 CAH 8-217
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, flees from Euboea to Ephesus. 191 CAH 8, GHH,atl2
c.191 Aetolian envoys NICANDER and Thoas sent to Antiochus-III, now at Ephesus, to beg assistance.  They succeed.  12 days later they return to Phalara, on the Maliac Gulf of Thessaly. 191 DGRBM 2-1173
c.191 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 leaves bro Attalus in charge of Pergamum.  Eumenes with 24 warships and 30 light ships joins Salinator at Phocaea. 191 CAH 8-218
c.191 Romans and Eumenes-II of Pergamum defeat fleet of Antiochus-III off Corycos (location unknown).. 191 atl2 190 GHH
CONFUSION ALERT!  CORYCOS is a port city in Lycia and another in Cilicia.
c.191 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III, returns from Corycos to Ephesus 191 B76 8-384, CAH 8-218
c.191/0 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, musters army in Phrygia, strengthens fleet to 90 warships, sends Hannibal to raise fleet in Phoenicia, sets up son Seleucus to attack Pergamum, stations troops in Lycia against Rhodians, sends ships to attack Roman supply lines. 191/0 CAH 8-219-20
191/0 Roman fleet is hauled up at Canae in Aeolis for the winter, and protected by a ditch and rampart. 191/0 DGRG 1-498
c.190 ABYDOS in Troad, under Antiochus-III from ?, under commander Philotas, besieged by C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II. 190 BHS 2-108, CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-330
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, prepares new forces on land and sea. 190 atl2
c.190 PHOCAEA, allied with Seleucids, repel a Roman force under L. Aemilius Regulus, so ferociously that Regulus asks them not to take the war so seriously. 190 B76 VII-956
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, leaves Ephesus hastily, to avoid any impropriety with priestess of Artemis. 190 atl2
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III at Ephesus blockaded by C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II with a fresh Rhodian squadron. 190 CAH 8-220
c.190 Seleucus, son of Antiochus-III besieges Pergamum, and is resisted by Attalus, bro of Eumenes-II.  1,000 Achaeans help Eumenes-II. 190 CAH 8-338, DGRBM 1-411, GHH, atl2
c.190 SELEUCUS, son and successor of Antiochus-III, is stationed in Aeolis with an army, to keep in check the maritime cities.  He reduces Cyme and other places, by voluntary submission, and regains Phocaea by the treachery of the garrison. 190 DGRBM 3-775
c.190 C. Livius SALINATOR commander of Aegean fleet 191-89, blockading Syrian Polyxenidas at Ephesus, relieved by L. Aemilius REGILLUSSalinator remains commander of Aegean fleet until 189, and is now sent to Lycia and also to Prusias-I, king of Bithynia. 190 CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-471, 695, atl2
c.190 Defeat of the Rhodian fleet under Pamphilidas causes C. Livius Salinator to abandon the siege of Abydos in order to oppose Polyxenidas. 190 DGRBM 3-330
c.190 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 recalls his auxiliaries from Greece, recovers Pergamum, and doesn't dare leave. 190 CAH 8-220
c.190 Antiochus-III, preparing to contend with Rome, attempts to ally with Prusias-I, who at first listens to him, but yields to the arguments of the 2 Scipios, and allies with Rome, though Prusias appears to have taken no part in the following war. 190 DGRBM 3-559
c.190 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 230-182, refuses to enter alliance with Antiochus-III. 190 atl2
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, invades Pergamum. 190 Apr May CAH 8-220
c.190 NOTIUM, a port south of Colophon, under the Colophoni, besieged by Antiochus-III. 190 DGRG 1-647
c.190 HANNIBAL, admiral under Antiochus-III with 47 hastily built Phoenician ships, defeated near SIDE Pamphilia by Rhodian admiral EUDAMUS with 36 ships. 190 B76 8-384, CAH 8-221, CDCC 414, DGRBM 1-684, GHH, atl2
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III with 89 ships at Ephesus, blockaded by Regillus with 80 ships, must attack before Regillus is reinforced.  Regillus sails to relieve Notium, which gives Polyxenidas opportunity to attack. 190 CAH 8-221
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III with 89 ships attacks Regillus with 80 ships between Corycos and Myonnesus promontory southwest of LebedosPoly is hit on the left by Rhodian fleet, loses 42 ships, retreats to Ephesus, and remains until he receives news of the fatal battle of Magnesia. 191 bk     190 B76 1-994, 8-384, CAH 8-190, 286, DGRBM 3-471, 642, DGRG 2-386, LEWH 93, SORH, atl2
189 DGRG 1-836
CONFUSION ALERT!  CORYCOS is a port city of unknown location in Lycia and another city in Cilicia.
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, fleet commander of Antiochus-III, at Ephesus blockaded by C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II with a fresh Rhodian squadron of 20 ships under Eudamus. 190
CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-471
c.190 Consul L.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO and bro Publius with 30,000 men cross Hellespont, from Thrace to Bithynia, in Anatolia until 189. 190 B76 1-994, 15-1093, 16-397, CAH 8-222, atl2
c.190 Inhabitants of Heraclea Pontica send a delegation to P. Scipio. 190 atl2
c.190 Nov Antiochus-III sends Heracleides of Byzantium to agree with Romans previous demands, i.e. to withdraw from Thrace and all free cities of Ionia.  But Scipios now demand that Antiochus-III first evacuates Anatolia west of the Taurus Mts and pay for the whole cost of the war.  Antiochus of course refuses. 190 B76 1-994, 15-1093,
CAH 8-222, DGRBM 2-389, GHH, atl2
c.190 Roman army stops by town of Troy (now Ilium). 190 atl2
c.190 L. or Gn. SCIPIO, young son of Africanus, who accompanied his father, falls into the hands of Antiochus-III, who offers to restore him without ransom, if Africanus would grant him a favorable peace.  Africanus rejects the offer.  Antiochus sends him back his son while he was absent from the army because of illness. 190 DGRBM 3-746, 748
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, refuses to attack as advised by Hannibal, because a sacrificial offering is unfavorable. 189 atl2
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, with 70,000 heterogeneous and poorly trained troops, goes from Sardis to Thyatira Lydia, camps on broad plain east of Magnesia ad Sipylum northeast of Smyrna. 190 Dec CAH 8-223
c.190 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 personally commands his auxiliaries helping L. Scipio at Magnesia. 190 DGRBM 2-90
c.190 L. SCIPIO and allies, with 30,000 disciplined troops defeat Antiochus-III with 60,000 inf, 12,000 cav at Mt. Sipylos near MAGNESIA ad Sipylum.  Livy exaggerates Syrian losses at 50,000 inf, 2,000 cavLegate L. Apustius is killed in battle. 191 DGRG 2-624     190 B76 15-1093, CAH 8-286, CDCC 53, 544, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-252, 3-747, GHH, HRR, ISBE 1-145, 917, LEWH 93, MCAW, Sdl 5-237, SORH, TTPC, anan, atl2, bk, otw, wikMaS     190/89 B76 1-994, 8-384,     189 CAH 8-223, Dur 2-556, 3-20, OCD 415, SHWC 109
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 MAGNESIAs:  a region in Thessaly, in Caria:  on the Meander near the coast, and ad Sipylum in Lydia northeast of Smyrna.
c.190 MUSAEUS, an officer of Antiochus-III, after Magnesia, comes as ambassador to the Scipios, at Sardis, to request permission for the king to send commissioners to treat of peace. 190 DGRBM 2-1126
c.190 Peace talks begin at Sardis:  Antiochus-III's reps are Zeuxis and Antipater.  Terms had been stated in pre-battle talks and now merely acquire precision.  Antiochus must evacuate all territory north and west of the Taurus.  The war indemnity is made specific:  Antiochus must pay 15,000 Euboeic talents - 500 immediately, 2,500 as soon as terms are ratified in Rome, and the rest in 12 annual installments;  Eumenes to receive 400 talents and a quantity of grain, which Antiochus owed him by some treaty which Attalus-I had once made.  Exiles and enemies of Rome to be handed over.  Hannibal, Thoas, Mnasilochus the Acarnanian, and 2 Chalcidians Philon and Euboulidas.  20 hostages, including the king's youngest son Antiochus, to be given as pledge.  Antiochus agrees, and embassies are prepared for the journey to Rome. 190 CAH 8-286, SORH
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III, blockaded at Ephesus, proceeds by land to join Antiochus in Syria.  He drops out of history. 190 DGRBM 3-471
c.190 LAODICEA, on Phrygia / Caria border, comes under Pergamum until 133. 190
IDB 3-70
c.190 ASPENDOS Pamphilia, under Macedonia from 334, comes under Rome until ?. 190 wikAsp
c.190 LYCIA, under Antiochus-III Megas from 197, comes under Rome until 189. 190 lctk
c.190 LYDIA, under Seleucids from 281, , given by Romans to Pergamum until 133. 190 ISBE 3-191
c.190/89 HANNIBAL, after Magnesia, flees to Crete. 190 MCAW
c.190/89 GALATIANS join Antiochus-III against Romans and Pergamum. 190/89 B76 IV-383
c.190/89 Seleucid admiral Polyxenidas had left his fleet at Patara.  Fleet commander Q. Fabius Labeo goes to Patara and has all 50 of Antiochus-III's ships broken up or burnt. 190 lctk 188 BHS 2-114
c.190/89 Seleucid envoys under Antipater meets L.(4) Scipio at Ephesus, brings required hostages, including a younger son of Antiochus-III, called, like his dead bro, Antiochus. 190/89 BHS 2-112
c.190/89 MYSIA, incorporated into Pergamum until 133. 190 DGRG 2-389
c.190/89 CARIA:  Part comes under Pergamum until 133.  Part comes under Rome until 188. 190 DGRG 1-518, rcT
c.189 Senatorial envoys including M. Junius Brutus, sent to Anatolia to settle peace terms with Antiochus-III. 189 DGRBM 1-508
c.189 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, flees to Sardis, then to Apamea, joins son Seleucus. 189
CAH 8-224
c.189 KAUNOS Caria put by Romans under jurisdiction of Rhodes, and renamed PERAEA until 167. 189 wikKn
c.189 Scipio and Antiochus-III agree to discuss peace terms. 189 atl2
c.189 Anatolian cities join Romans. 189 CAH 8-224
c.189 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 goes to Rome. 190 GHH
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, comes from Rome to Anatolia as commander 189-8, undertakes the pacification of Anatolia, with intent to make a profit.  His bro Lucius and C. Helvius are his legates.  Goes 1st to Ephesus. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228, DGRBM 3-1286, LdHR 2-45, SORH, atl2
c.189 L.(4) SCIPIO, commander of Anatolia from 190, relieved by consul Gn. Manlius VULSO until 188.  Scipio returns to Rome with much loot. 189 spring CAH 8-228, DGRBM 3-1286, atl2
c.189 C. Livius SALINATOR commander of Aegean fleet from 190, relieved by Q. Fabius LABEO. 189 spring CAH 8-228
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-8, goes from Ephesus to Caria, extorts money on threat of sacking towns. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228
c.189 Sardis, Thyatira, Magnesia, Tralles, Ephesus, and other cities in Anatolia surrender to consul Vulso. 189 atl2
c.189 SARDIS surrenders to consul Vulso, becomes part of Pergamum until 133. 189 ISBE 4-336
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, goes from Caria to Pisidia and Pamphilia, extorts money on threat of sacking towns. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, with no authorization from senate, makes punitive expedition against Galatia for supplying Antiochus-III with mercenaries.  Storms barbarians in mountain strongholds at Mt. Olympos (near Prusa) and Magaba, penetrates as far as Ancyra, captures 40,000 for slaves, kills 10,000 - 40,000, the higher number shocking many Romans. 189 B76 IV-383, 8-384, 15, 1093, CAH 8-229, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 1-929, GHH, HRR, atl2, bk, hifiGlt
c.189 Galatian chief Ortiagon escapes from Romans.  His wife Chiomara is captured and raped by a centurion, who then offers her back to her relatives for ransom.  Keeping the arrangement from his men, the centurion collects the gold at a pre-agreed location at night.  He says his affectionate goodbyes to Chiomara when she signals to the Celt who brought the gold, and he decapitates the centurion.  Chiomara returns to Ortiagon in the Tectosage camp, and presents the Roman's head to him. 189 hifiGlt
c.189 ATTALUS, son of Attalus-I, king of Pergamum, helps Vulso campaign in Galatia. 189
B76 I-634
c.189 ARMENIA MINOR, psrt of Pontus from ?, independent until 89. 189 rcT '  
c.189 SELEUCUS is sent by father Antiochus-III to support consul Gn. Manlius Vulso.  He delivers grain to Antioch, and helps Manlius several times against the Galatians. 189 BHS 2-112, DGRBM 3-775
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, accompanied by Attalus, bro of Eumenes-II, after entering Phrygia, passes by Synnada, Beudos Vetus, Anabura, and the sources of the Alander to Abbassus, on the borders of the Tolistoboii Galatians, where he halts and encourages his men.  He then marches thru the woodless tract [Axylos], crosses the Sangarius, and reaches Gordium. 189 DGRG 1-929
c.189 MOAGETES, tyrant of the Cibyrates, in Upper Phrygia, who had helped Antiochus-III against Romans, is condenmed by Gn. Manlius Vulso, to pay a fine of 100 talents and to furnish 10,000 medimni of wheat to his legions. 189 DGRBM 2-1107
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-8, defeats Galatians at Mt. Olympos Galatia.  Galatians are forbidden to send out armed bands.  They never recover. 189 B76 IV-383, DGRG 1-134, ISBE 2-415, MCAW, SORH, atl2
c.189 ANTIOCH Pisidia, under Seleucids from ?, made a free city by Romans until 25. 189 B76 I-423, FLAP 260, IDB 1-144, OCD 71
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 ANTIOCHs:  on the Orontes, in Pisidia, and on the Meander (Pythopolis) in Caria.
c.189 Chiomara, wife of Orgiagon, takes revenge on a centurion who had raped her. 189 CAH 8-231, 281, atl2,
no date: OCD 107
c.189 ARIARATHES-IV, king of Cappadocia 220-163, former ally of Antiochus-III, buys peace with Vulso for 300 talents.  Allies with EUMENES-II of Pergamum 189 CAH 8-231, 281, lvA
188 DGRBM 1-284
no date: OCD 107
c.189 CAPPADOCIA, independent 261-17CE, former ally of Seleucids, allies with Pergamum until 133. 189 CAH 8-231, 281
c.189 ARIARATHES-IV, Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, fined 600 talents. 189 SORH
c.189 MILETOS, under Seleucids from 225, comes under Pergamum until 133. 189 rcT
c.189 Pergamum gets most of Anatolia west of the Halys River until 133. 189 rcT
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, loaded with Galatian loot, retires to winter quarters. 189 DGRBM 3-1286
c.189 LYCIA, under Rome from 190, given to ally Rhodes until 177. 189 DGRBM 3-317, 1021 188 ISBE 3-190
c.189 Lycians, resenting being subjects of Rhodes, send envoys from Ilium to Rome to plead their case before the Senate. 189
CAH 8-335
c.188 Rhodian ambassadors Philophoron and Theaetetus visit the 10 Roman commissioners in Anatolia.  They get Lycia assigned to the Rhodians as a reward for their services. 189 DGRBM 3-317, 1021, SORH
c.188 MUSAEUS, an officer of Antiochus-III, again sent to proconsul Gn. Manlius Vulso at Ephesus to learn the terms on which the peace would be finally ratified.  Antiochus-III is ordered to send his tale of grain, and the 2500 talents now due, to Pamphylia in spring. 189/8
BHS 2-112 188 DGRBM 2-1126
c.188 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, does not sit at Ephesus and wait for the 10 legati to arrive, but marches to Pamphylia to receive the first major installment of Antiochus' indemnity (2,500 talents)Manlius interferes at Perga (northeast of Attalia), where Antiochus still maintains a garrison, and has the garrison removed. 188 BHS 2-113, CAH 8-288
c.188 10 Roman commissioners sent to settle government of Anatolia, land at Ephesus.  They include M. Junius Brutus, L. Aurunculeius, P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus, Q. Minucius Rufus, P. Aelius Tubero.  Consul Manlius Vulso is still at Perga when he hears that the 10 and Eumenes had arrived at Apamea, where he joins them. 189 DGRBM 1-508, 3-317, 675, 1179, 1021     188 BHS 2-113, CAH 8-288, DGRBM 1-444, atl2
c.188 Treaty of Apamea Phrygia begins.  Presided by Gn. Manlius VULSO & 10 Roman commissioners and EUMENES-II of Pergamum. 189 ISBE 1-917, 188 B76 17-947, CAH 8-231, CHJ 2-76, OCD 79, frH
c. 188  TREATY of APAMEA  ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, agrees to evaccuate Anatolia beyond Taurus Mts., pay Rome 15,000 talents (500 down + 2,500 annually for 12 years), 400 talents to Eumenes-II of Pergamum, and to surrender Hannibal and Thoas and 20 hostages including his own son AntiochusPergamum gets ALL ANATOLIA west of Taurus Mts. from Antiochus-III, who loses all war elephants, his fleet is cut to 10 ships, and his army limitedRome orders Prusias-I of Bithynia to surrender all land taken from Pergamum in 208 (leads to war 186).  Cities which abandoned Antiochus-III before Magnesia are freed. 189 CAH 8-225, ISBE 1-145     188 B76 VII-873, 1-825, 8-384, 784, 17-947, BHS 2-113, CAH 8-231, 290, CDCC 53, CHJ 2-76, DGRBM 1-197, OCD 893, anan, atl2, bk, lvA
no date: B76 1-994
c.188 PergamunPERGAMUM at greatest extent. map: Munion
c.188 ANTIOCHUS, 3rd son of A-III taken prisoner to Rome until 178. 189 B76 1-994
c.188 LYCIA and Meander valley of CARIA, under Rhodes from 189, officially given to Rhodes by Treaty of Apamea.  Lycians want to be allies, but not subjects.  Lycia under Rhodes until 177Part of Caria under Rhodes until 167. 190 DGRG 1-518, rcT     189 SORH 188 B76 8-384, CAH 8-232, 287, lvLc, wikLc
c.188 PHRYGIA, mostly under Pergamum from 200, remaining remnant (Phrygia Epictetus) comes under Pergamum until 133. 188 wikwikΦ
c.188 PAMPHYLIA, comes under Pergamum until 133. 188 rcT
c.188 One of the 10 commissioners and Lucius Manlius (bro of Gnaeus) proceed from Apamea to Syria to enforce the terms of the treaty. 188 BHS 2-114
c.188 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, allies with Rome. 188 atl2, lvA
c.188 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 marries Stratonice, dau of Ariarathes-IV Eusebes of Cappadocia. 188 DGRBM 1-284
no date: lvA
c.188 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59, by Treaty of Apamea, gets Chersonese, Lysimacheia, Lydia, Propontis (Sea of Marmara), coastal cities including Bisanthe Thrace, Telmessos on Caria Lycia border .  Pergamum does not get Aenus or Maronea. 188
B76 8-384, CAH 8-232, GHH
c.188 MILETOS makes mutual aid treaty with Pedasa Caria. 188 lvA
c.188 LYDIA, under Rome from 190 given to Pergamum until 133. 188 rcT     no date: IDB 3-191, OCD 629
c.188 ICONIUM, capital of Lycaonia, comes under Pergamum, but Eumenes-II never takes possession, and it gradually slides under Galatia. 187 IDB 2-672
c.188 TELMESSOS Lycia, occupied by Antiochus-III from 197, comes under Pergamum until ?. 188 lvA
c.188 Gn. Manlius VULSO, commander of Anatolia from 189, evaccuates Anatolia with much loot by land to Thrace. 188 CAH 8-233, DGRBM 3-1286
c.188 EAST CILICIA is left under Seleucids by Treaty of Apamea. 188 IDB 1-628
c.187 Scipio AFRICANUS and bro Lucius, in east from 190, in Anatolia from 190, return to Rome. 187
Dur 3-91
c.186 Hannibal is allowed by Prusias-I to settle in Bithynia. 186 atl2
c.186 Pergamum / Bithynia War begins until 183.  Prusias-I, king of Bithynia 230-180, challenges peace of Apamea 188, attacks Pergamum, employs Hannibal.  Prusias wins support from Philip-V, who is disputing with Eumenes over Thracian cities Aenus and Maronea.  Prusias probably receives aid from Pontic king Pharnaces-I, and most importantly, from the Galatians, under Tolistobogian chieftain, Ortiagon, who had recently become king of all 3 tribes. 188 wikKPn
187 CAH 8-325
186 CAH 8-282, LEWH 94, OCD 893, atl2
184 GHH
c.186 Dispute between Rhodes and Lycia over terms of Roman settlement. 186 atl2
c.186 Son of M-II, MITHRIDATES-III dies.  King of Pontus from 220PHARNACES-I succeeds until 170. 190 DGRBM 2-1096, GHH     189 CAH 9-131, wikKPn     186 CAH 9-1023, OCD 696, 810     185 MRDK 333, frH, rcT
c.185 MILETOS makes mutual aid treaty with Heraclea (probably the one just east of it). 185 lvMlt
c.185 PAPHLAGONIA, under Galatian MORZIOS-I 200-170, comes under Pontus until 170. 185 rcT
c.185 Embassies from Eumenes-II and Greek states complain to senate about Philip's seizure of extra territory - Maroneia and Aenus, which Eumenes wants for himself. 185 CAH 8-293, DGRBM 3-284, DGRG 2-1188, atl2
c.184 Eumenes defeats Prusias and Ortiagon, the Galatians and their allies in autumn. 184 CAH 8-328
c.184 Ortiagon attempts to gain control of all Galatia. 184 atl2
c.183 GALATIA:  12 Tetrarchies period from 228, ends.  Galatia comes under Pergamum until 166. 183 frH, rcT
c.183 Greeks of Anatolia, now rescued from persecution by Galatia, proclaim Eumenes-II Soter (savior). 183 CAH 8-328
c.183 To commemorate victory over Galatia, Eumenes-II enlarges the sanctuary of Athena "Bringer of Victory" in Pergamum and raises her festival, founded by his father, to panhellenic rank. 183 CAH 8-328
c.183 Envoy from senate, T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, sails from Greece to Prusias-I of Bithynia, demands surrender of Hannibal. 183 CAH 8-328, CDCC 351, OCD 441, wikTQF
c.183 Hannibal defeats fleet of Eumenes-II by throwing pots full of poisonous snakes onto his ships. 183 atl2
c.183 Hannibal founds city of PRUSA in Bithynia. 183 atl2
c.183 HANNIBAL dies.  General under Prusias-I of Bithynia, unable to avoid capture by Romans, suicides by poison in Bithynia.  "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death." 184 Dur 3-55     183 B76 8-627, CAH 8-328, GHH, HRR, SORH, TTPC, atl2, frH     183/2 CDCC 414 182 CAH 8, MCAW
c.183 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59, at war with Prusias-I of Bithynia from 186, agree to peace terms.  Eumenes regains Phrygia Epictetus and establishes control over Galatia. 183 CAH 8-325, 328, OCD 415, atl2, wikKPn
c.183 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59, starts fighting Pontus until 179. 183 LEWH 94, OCD 415, atl2
c.183 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, helps Eumenes-II against Pharnaces until 179. 183 DGRBM 1-284
c.183 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, invades Galatia. 183 bk
c.183 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 230-182 captures Cierus and Tion (on coast), and attacks Heraclea. 183 atl2
c.183 SINOPE, independent Greek republic from 280, friendly to Rhodes, stormed and taken by Pharnaces-I, king of Pontus, becomes capital of Pontus until 70. 183 B76 VIII-115, IX-232, BHS 2-122, CAH 8-328, CAH 8-328, CDCC 826, GHH, OCD 810, atl2, rcT     182 CAH 9-131, wikKPn, wikM2Pn
c.183 Capital of Pontus:  AMASYA from ?, moved to SINOPE until 70. 183 B76 I-291
c.183 War between Pharnaces-I and the other 3 Anatolian kings begins until 179.  Seleucus-IV is about to intervene on the anti-Roman side. 183 BHS 2-123
c.182 North coast cities of Cotyora, Pharnacia, and Trapezus taken over by Pharnaces-I, of Pontus. 182 wikKPn
c.182 Pontus / Cappadocia War begins until 179. 182 lvA
c.182 PRUSIAS-I Cholus dies.  King of Bithynia from 230.  Son PRUSIAS-II Cynegus succeeds until 149. 185 rcT     182 CAH 8, MRDK 332, OCD 893, atl2, frH, wikLRB, wikP1B 180 CAH 8-282, 9, DGRG 1-405, GHH
c.182 Attalus and his bros visit Cyzicus with their mother Apollonis. 182 atl2
c.182 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, attacks PergamumPergamum / Pontus War begins until 181. 182 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-411, GHH 181 wikΦ1P    180 atl2
c.182 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 offers Seleucus-IV 500 talents to help him against Pharnaces-I. 182 CAH 8-339
c.182 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75, is offered 500 talents to help Eumenes-II of Pergamum against Pharnaces-I of Pontus.  Seleucus moves his army into Anatolia, when "it occurres to him" that the treaty of Apamea forbade his crossing the Taurus Mountains. 182 CAH 8-339
c.182 Envoys from Eumenes-II, Ariarathes, Pharnaces, and Philip, and from Spartans and Achaeans, appear before senate. 182 atl2
c.182 MORZIOS-I Galatian ruler of PAPHLAGONIA 200-170, is restricted to the southeast part until 179.  GAIZATORIX-I, ally of Pharnaces-I of Pontus, rules northwest until 179. 182 wikLPΦ
c.181 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 sends bros Attalus and Athenaeus, to Rome to tell senate about Pharnaces-I. 181 DGRBM 1-411, atl2
c.181 PRUSIAS-II, king of Bithynia 182-49, joins Pergamum against Pontus until 179. Prusias-II 181 OCD 893
c.181 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 supports Rhodes against Lycia. 181 CAH 8
c.181 Festival of Athena "Bringer of Victory", the first panhellenic Nikephoria, in Pergamum celebrated 1st time, henceforward to be held every 5 years. 181 CAH 8-328
c.181 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, at war with Pergamum, refuses Roman demand makes truce with Pergamum, soon violated by Pharnaces. 181 CAH 8-329, OCD 810
c.181 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, without waiting for his ambassadors ro return, suddenly attacks both Eumenes-II and Ariarathes-IV of Cappadocia, and invades Galatia. 181 wikΦ1Pn
c.181 LEOCRITUS general of Pharnaces-I, sent to invade Galatia. 181 DGRBM 2-750
c.181 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, defeated by Eumenes and a group of Anatolian kings.  Pharnaces abandons all gains in the west. 181 wikHA
c.181/80 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, resumes ravaging Galatia, in violation of truce with Eumenes. winter 181/80 CAH 8-329
c.180 TRAPEZOS (Trebizond), Milesian colony in Pontus from 756, comes under Armenia Minor until 89. 180 rcT
c.180 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-59, tries to prevent ships sailing thru Hellespont into Black Sea, but Rhodians intervene to stop him. 180 atl2
c.180 AQUEDUCT with a SIPHON to get water over a hill is built to fill pools at Pergamum. 200 B76 19-648 180 B76 1-1036
c.179 Eumenes and his allies take the field, and Pharnaces agrees to peace. 180 or 179 CAH 8-329, 357 179 GHH, wikΦ1P
c.179 Pontus / Cappadocia War from 182 ends. 179 lvA
c.179 Pharnaces-I and Eumenes-II agree to peace terms.  Pharnaces cedes all conquests in Galatia, which remains under Eumenes' control, and Paphlagonia, except Sinope.  Pharnaces must restore Tion to Eumenes.  Pharnaces also must return what he had taken from Ariarathes-IV and from Morzius, the dynast of Gangra in Paphlagonia.  Ariarathes is to receive 300 talents indemnity from Mithridates satrap of Armenia.
Included in the treaty are several other powers not mentioned as participants in the war:  Artaxias, ruler of Greater Armenia, Acusilochus (unknown);  in Europe, Sarmatian chieftain Gatalos, and several Greek cities:  Heraclea on the Black Sea, Cyzicus on the Propontis, Mesambria on the west coast of the Black Sea, and Chersonesus (Sevastopol) in the Crimea.  Pharnaces keeps Sinope.
179
CAH 8-329, DGRBM 3-241, 560, atl2, wikKPn, wikΦ1P
c.179 GAIZATORIX-I, ally of Pontus, ruler of northwest Paphlagonia from 182, ends.  MORZIOS-I Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia 200-170, recovers all of Paphlagonia. 179 wikLPΦ
c.179 Geographer Polemon of Ilium flourishes. 179 atl2
c.178 A Lycian embassy goes to Rome, complains to senate about their treatment by Rhodians. 178 CAH 8-302, atl2
c.177 LYCIA, under Rhodes from 189, officially from 188, granted independence until 168 by senate, but must remain ally of Rhodes.  Lycia then becomes enemy of Rhodes.  Rhodes is now miffed at Rome.  Lycia resumes hostilities with Rhodes until 1??. 177
CAH 8-287, 336, atl2
c.177 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, marries APAME, sis of Perseus of Macedon. 179-5
CAH 8-256

Anatolia 175-101
V