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Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
ANATOLIA is now called ASIA (not Asia Minor) by Macedonians and Romans.  It is still called ANATOLIA here to avoid confusion with greater Asia.
c.175 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 187, murdered by treasurer Heliodoros.  This leaves 3 possible claimants to throne:
1st son Demetrius, now a hostage in Rome
bro Antiochus, now living in Athens
infant son Antiochus, now in Syria
HELIODOROS usurps throne as regent for infant son Antiochus.
175 B76 8-383, CAH 8-332, 341, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-279, DGRBM 1-198, 3-775, Dur 2-573, IDB 4-267, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, Sdl 5-292, atl2, bk, frH, rcM     174 RAI2
c.175 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 supports Antiochus for king of Syria.  Pergamum and Syria are friendly for as long as Antiochus lives. 175
CAH 8-332
c.175 MUSEUM founded at Pergamum. 175 GHH
c.174 Rhodians suppress resistance in Lycia. 174 atl2
c.172 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59, visits Rome, accuses Perseus of Macedon of hostility to Rome. 173 atl2,     172 B76 III-993, 8-384, 15-1094, CAH 8-256, DGRBM 2-90, MCAW, OCD 415
c.172 Attalus, bro of Eumenes-II, tries to marry his sister-in-law Stratonice, following false rumors of death of Eumenes-II. 172 atl2
c.171 TARSUS and MALLUS in Cilicia are given by Antiochus-IV to his mistress Antiochis. 2Mac. 4:30
171 IDB 4-518
c.171 Rebellion in Cilicia against Antiochus-IV. 171 lvA4
c.171 Roman enyoys including M. Junius Brutus are sent to Ionia to get allies to help in war against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-508
c.171 PHILETAERUS bro of Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum, is left by Eumenes in charge of Pergamum, while Eumenes and bro Attalus sail to Greece to help the Romans against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 3-266
c.171 ATTALUS and Athenaeus, bros of Eumenes-II of Pergamum, sails to Greece, joins Crassus. 171 B76 I-634, DGRBM 1-411
c.171 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, leaves Antioch under viceroy Andronicus, marches to Cilicia until 169 to handle rebellion of Tarsus & Mallus. 2Mac. 4:31
170 CAH 8-503
c.171 TARSUS Cilicia receives civic constitution as a free Greek city until 64 from Antiochus-IV. 171
BNTH 234
c.170 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, marries NYSA, step dau of Antiochus-IV, (from his wife Laodice's first marriage). 172/1 lvA4, wikNs, wikΦ1P     160 CAH 8
no date: CAH 9-132
c.170 PHARNACES-I dies.  King of Pontus from 186.  Son of M-III and Laodice, MITHRIDATES-IV Philopator Philadelphus succeeds until 150. 170 CAH 9-1023, MRDK 333, frH, rcT     159 CAH 9-132, wikKPn     pre-156 OCD 696
c.170 Stoic philosopher CRATES of Mallus, head of the library at Pergamum, goes to Rome as ambassador of Eumenes-II. 170
B76 III-223
c.170 TARSUS and MALLUS in Cilicia, having been given by Antiochus-IV to his mistress Antiochis 171, rebel. 2Mac. 4:30
170 atl2
c.170 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 suppresses bandits in Mount Taurus, who have been ravaging Cilicia. 170 atl2
c.170 PAPHLAGONIA, under Pontus from 185, comes under a Galatian dynasty until 108. 170 rcT
c.170 MORZIOS-I Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 200, ends.  Son MORZIOS-II succeeds until 150. 170 wikLPΦ
c.169 Roman allies RHODES, PERGAMUM, BITHYNIA waver, consider joining Perseus. 169 CAH 8
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 in Cilicia from 171, returns to Syria. 2Mac. 4:35
169 CAH 8-503
c.169 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, sends an embassy to Rome, to interpose his good offices in favor of Perseus, and to get the senate to grant him a favorable peace. 169 DGRBM 3-560
c.169 Side Pamphylia, independent city, allies with Rome. 169 lvA
c.169 Alleged secret negotiations between Perseus and Eumenes-II costs him the friendship of Rome. 169 GHH, atl2
c.168 LYCIA, subordinate ally of Rhodes from 177, is declared free by Rome, and becomes Roman protectorate under Pergamum until 133. 168 ISBE 3-190, lvLc, wikLc     167 B76 1-825, 15-1094, CAH 8-337, lctk
c.168 LyciaLYCIAN LEAGUE, extant from 205, formally established under democratic principles.  Comprises 23 known city-states.  Major cities include Xanthos, Patara, Pinara, Olympos, Myra, and Tlos, with Patara as capital. 168 wikLc
c.168 Embassy from Eumenes-II of Pergamum sent to Rome. 168 atl2
c.168 CARIA, under Rhodes from ?, freed by Rome, independent until 129. 168 ISBE 1-617
c.168 Galatians, encouraged by the absence of part of the Pergamene forces in Macedonia, attack Eumenes-II of Pergamum, who decisively defeats them somewhere in Phrygia, and suppresses the insurrection. 168
CAH 8-333, atl2
c.168 Cretan CYDAS tries to negotiate peace between Eumenes-II of Pergamum and Antiochus-V. 168 DGRBM 1-910
c.167 PAMPHILIA recognized by Rome as independent. 167 SORH
c.168 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, receives Roman deputies sent to his court, in the garb of an emancipated slave, and styles himself the freedman of the Roman people. 168 DGRBM 3-560, atl2
c.167 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum sends bro Attalus to Rome to congratulate them on victory over Perseus, and to appeal for help against Galatians. 167 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-286-7, DGRBM 1-411, 2-90, DGRG 1-930
c.167 A Roman embassy tries to end fighting between Eumenes-II and Galatians. 167 atl2
c.167 Rhodians forced to evaccuate Lycia and Caria. 167 B76 15-1094, CAH 8
c.167 The part of CARIA which had been under Rhodes from 188 comes under Rome, but not established until 129.  A senatorial decree orders the Rhodians to remove their garrisons from Stratonicea and Kaunos, which had been Rhodian long before 188.  They are declared free. 167
CAH 8-337, DGRG 1-576, atl2
c.167 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 182-49 and young son Nicomedes, visit RomePrusias congratulates senate on victory in Macedonia, sucks up to senate, calls them "savior gods".  His alliance with Rome is renewed, plus an extension of territory.  From this time, Prusias repeatedly sends embassies to Rome to complain against Eumenes, which, however, lead to no results. 167
B76 15-1094, DGRBM 2-1196, 3-560, atl2
no date: OCD 893
c.167 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-59, lands at Brundisium expecting to be received at Rome.  A quaestor informs him that the senate will receive no kings at Rome. 167
B76 15-1094, DGRBM 2-90
c.166 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-59 defeats Galatians. 166 CAH 8, atl2
c.166 GALATIA, under Pergamum from 183, declared independent by Rome until 101.  12 Tetrarchies period resumes until 89. 167 SORH
166 CAH 8-360, IDB 2-337, frH
c.166/5 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS is sent east to visit Rhodes, Anatolia, and Syria to inspect the affairs of Roman allies. 166 atl2     165 CAH 8-319, LdHR 2-99 164 DGRBM 2-289
c.166/5 Roman embassy including Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS goes from Anatolia to Syria, visits court of Antiochus-IV to explore his state of mind and intentions.  Politely received. 166 CAH 8-346, atl2
c.165 Senate promises a Galatian embassy that their country will remain autonomous. 165 atl2
c.165 Ti.(5) GRACCHUS subdues the Cammani, partly by force and partly by fraud. 165 atl2
c.165 ICONIUM Phrygia, supposedly under Pergamum from 188, is now under Galatia. 165 IDB 2-672
c.164 C. Sulpicius GALLUS sent as envoy thru Greece to Pergamum, and other Anatolian states, where he openly invites accusations against the king of Pergamum.  At Sardis, Gallus spends 10 days listening to slanders against Eumenes, who is still Rome's ally.  Gallus fails to get desired evidence. 164 CAH 8-318, 334, OCD 456
no date: LdHR 2-99
c.164 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-59 sends bro Attalus to Rome. 164 DGRBM 1-411
c.164 COLCHIS, independent from ?, annexed by Pontus until ?. 164 wikCl
c.164 The TROCMI intrude into Cappadocia. 164 GHH
c.164 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 182-49 sends envoy Python to Rome to complain against Eumenes-II king of Pergamum. 165 atl2
164 DGRBM 3-629
c.163 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes dies.  King of Cappadocia from 220, dies.  Son Mithridates succeeds as ARIARATHES-V Eusebes Philopator until 130.  Succession is disputed until 155.  Ariarathes-V has 2 (alledged) elder bros, one of whom, Orophernes, had been educated in Ionia.  Orophernes offers Antiochus-V 1,000 talents for support, and gets it, but Rome and Attalus of Pergamum support Ariarathes, and advises a shared kingdom. 164 CAH 8-334
163 CAH 8-281, 359, 9-1023, DGRBM 1-284, ISBE 1-289, MRDK 332, atl2, lvA, rcT
162 DGRG 1-506, GHH, awCap, frH
This happens later, and the 1,000 talents is offered to Demetrius-I. no date: BHS 2-205
c.163 An embassy from Ariarathes-V king of Cappadocia 163-30 to Rome gets alliance renewed. 163 atl2 160 GHH
c.163 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia is voluntarily sent to Rome, ostensibly a guest, practically a hostage until 149. no date:
DGRBM 2-1196
c.163 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, intervenes in crisis in Sophene (along Upper Tigris), puts puppet king Mithrobuzanes on the throne. 163 lvA
c.163 COMMAGENE, under Seleucids from 301, satrap from 201 PTOLEMAEUS asserts independence, becomes king until 130.  Commagene is independent 83, capital Samosata. 163 CDCC 224, MRDK 333, frH, rcT, wikKC, wikLrC
163/2 CAH 9-1023
162 B76 III-36, OCD 273     161 atl2
c.163 CALYNDA probably on the Indus River at the Lycia/Caria border, under Kaunos from ?, rebels.  Knidos sends relief to Calynda. 163 DGRG 1-639
c.163 CALYNDA Caria, technically under Kaunos, having been given to Rhodes by Rome, seized by Rhodians. 163 atl2
c.163 CERAMOS on the north coast of the Ceramic Gulf in Caria, at its own initiative, is granted a treaty by Rhodes. 163
CAH 8-380
c.163 Attalus appears before senate to defend his bro Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum against accusations of Prusias of Bithynia. 163 atl2
c.163 Roman envoy C. Sulpicius Gallus investigates accusations against Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum. 163 atl2
c.163 Two Roman embassies investigate dispute between Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia and Galatians.  One of them includes Gn. Octavius, Spurius Lucretius and L. Aurelius. 163 BHS 2-186, atl2
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV, hostage in Rome from 178, escapes to Lycia.  From a port, D-I sends a message to Rome saying that his target is not his cousin, King Antiochus-V, but chancellor Lysias, who had failed to avenge the murder of Gn. Octavius.  D-I raises an army and fleet. 162
B76 III-456, CAH 8-355
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV in Lycia, sails army to Tripolis Syria. 2Mac 14:1     162 CAH 8-518, IDB 4-711, RAI3
c.162 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, rejects Artaxias' plan to seize Sophene. 162 atl2
c.162 Gn. MERULA accompanies Ptolemy Physcon from Rome to Crete to AnatoliaMerula then sails to Alexandria. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.161 Embassy headed by Ti.(5) GRACCHUS arrives in Cappadocia. 161 BHS 2-196
c.161 OROPHERNES (Holophernes) becomes rival king of Cappadocia until 159. 163 rcT
161 awCap
c.161 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, sends Menochares to plead his cause with Ti.(5) Gracchus and his fellow-commissioners, now in Cappadocia. 161 BHS 2-196, DGRBM 2-1042
c.161 OROPHERNES, rival king of Cappadocia, sends envoys Diogenes and Timothy with a gold crown to Rome to renew friendship and alliance, and to support allegations against Ariarathes-V. 161 DGRBM 1-1019
160 atl2
c.160 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-59, sends bro Attalus to Rome. 160 DGRBM 1-411, 2-90
c.160 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, is offered by Demetrius-I the hand of his sis Laodice-V, dau of Seleucus-IV, widow of Perseus from 166.  Ariarathes fears displeasure of Rome, and rejects offer. 161 CAH 8-519
160 wikL5
no date: OCD 107
c.160/59 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum, in bad health, appoints bro Attalus-II co-king. 160/59 CAH 8-334
Pliny will erroneously credit Eumenes-II with having invented parchment. 158 IDB 4-918
159 CRATES of Mallus, Stoic philosopher, head of library at Pergamum, visits Rome on official business. 159 CDCC 225, CDGRA 338, Dur 3-95, SORH,     157 DGRBM 1-884
c.159 Son of Attalus-I, EUMENES-II dies.  King of Pergamum from 197.  His son Attalus is too young to rule.  Bro, already co-ruler, ATTALUS-II Philadelphus succeeds until 139. 160 CAH 8, Dur 2-556, MRDK 333, bk, frH 160/59 CAH 8-282, OCD 144, 415, rcT 159 B76 I-634, 8-385, BHS 2-207, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 2-576, GHH, ISBE 1-326, LEWH 95     158 CAH 8-334, CDCC 659, IDB 4-918 atl2
c.159 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, makes it clear from the beginning that his brother's son is to be his heir.  He also marries his bro's widow Stratonice, dau of Ariarathes-IV of Cappadocia. 159 CAH 8-373
c.159 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 182-49, driven to make peace with Attalus-II of Pergamum because Attalus got back in with Rome. 159 CAH 8
156 B76 8-385
c.159 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50 invades Cappadocia, expels Ariarathes-V and establishes Orophernes as king. 159 CAH 8, ISBE 1-917 158 GHH, lvD1
c.158 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30 driven out of Cappadocia by OROPHERNES supported by Demetrius-I.  Flees to Rome. 159/8 CAH 8-359 158 CAH 8-359, DGRBM 1-284, GHH, atl2, wikA5
c.158 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, soon after his accession, considers using force to regain some control of Galatia.  All his advisers but one agree. no date: CAH 8-373
c.157 OROPHERNES, rival king of Cappadocia sends to Rome 2 unscrupulous ambassadors Timothy and Diogenes to join emissaries of Demetrius-I of Syria in opposing his (so called) bro Ariarathes-V. 157 BHS 2-205, DGRBM 3-21
c.157 OROPHERNES learns that the senate decreed that Cappadocia be divided between him and Ariarathes-V.  Orophernes refuses to comply, but Ariarathes is supported by Attalus-II, new king of Pergamum. 157 BHS 2-205, CAH 8-359
c.157 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, in Rome from 158, sails for home. 157 atl2
c.157 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, helped by Romans and Attalus-II of Pergamum, defeats Orophernes, and regains control of Cappadocia.  But Romans force him to accept Orophernes as co-king until 156. 157 SORH, atl2
c.156 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, supported by Attalus-II of Pergamum, defeats co-king from 161 OROPHERNES, who flees to Demetrius-I, king of Syria, who welcomes him.  Ariarathes-V is sole ruler. 159 awCap
158 CAH 8-359, lvA 157 OCD 107
156 CAH 8-522, lvD1
c.156 PHARNACIA, small fortified town in Pontus, founded. 156 atl2
c.156 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49 invades Pergamene territory, attacks and defeats Attalus-II of Pergamum, who calls on Romans, Ariarathes-V, and Mithridates for help. 156 CAH 8-359, DGRBM 1-411, 3-560, atl2
c.156 Senate sends C. Petronius and L. Appuleius, to investigate dispute between Prusias-II and Attalus-II. 156 DGRBM 3-215
c.156 ANDRONICUS, envoy of Attalus-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome to inform senate of Prusias-II' attack. 156 DGRBM 1-173
c.156 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, finds a contemptible kid in Smyrna named Balas who looks like Antiochus-IV.  Passes him off as a son of A-IV, and names him ALEXANDER BALAS.  Puts him in office in Cilicia. 157 atl2
156 CAH 8
c.156 WARAttalus-II of Pergamum and Mith-IV of Pontus vs. Prusias-II of Bithynia begins until 154. 156 B76 I-634, OCD 696, 893     154 GHH
c.155 Senate sends 3 legates: C. Aurunculeius, Aulus(2) Postumius Albinus, L.(1) Anicius Gallus, to investigate dispute between Prusias-II and Attalus-II, and try to make peace.  This is one of 4 such embasies. 155 DGRBM 1-444, 2-223, atl2
153 DGRBM 1-92
c.155 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49 drives Attalus-II back to Pergamum and besieges it, but can't take it.  Prusias ravages the sanctuaries outside the city of Athena Nikephoros. 155 CAH 8-360, atl2
c.155 Fleet of Prusias-II is destroyed in a storm. 155 atl2
c.155 MITH-IV helps Roman ally Attalus-II Philadelphus of Pergamum against Prusias-II of Bithynia. 155 wikKPn
c.155 Romans send out decemviri to restrain Prusias-II. 155 atl2
c.154 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, refuses to obey Roman decemviri. 154 atl2
c.154 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, invades Pergamum unsuccessfully. 154 wikBθPn
c.154 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, sends his son Demetrius in command of troops helping Attalus-II against Prusias-II. 154 DGRBM 1-284, wikA5
c.154 WARAttalus-II of Pergamum and Mith-IV of Pontus vs. Prusias-II of Bithynia from 156, ends.  Prusias-II is defeated and forced to pay indemnity to Attalus in a  treaty  forced by the Romans.   See 149. 154 B76 I-634, CAH 8, 9-132, DGRBM 1-411, 3-560, DGRG 2-351, OCD 893, atl2, bk
153 GHH
c.154 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, attacks Priene.  He and Attalus-II ravage Priene territory.  Rome intervenes. 154 CAH 8, atl2
no date: CAH 8-381
c.154 Coalition of Ptolemy-VI, Attalus of Pergamum and Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia against Demetrius-I of Syria. 154 CAH 8
c.152 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, joins a Rome-supported coalition against Demetrius-I Soter, king of Syria.  Other members are Attalus-II and Ptolemy-VI Philometor. 152 lvA
c.152 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, being childless, sends neph Attalus son of Eumenes-II? to Rome to get him acquainted. 152 DGRBM 1-411
c.152 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, sends troops to help Balas. 152 DGRBM 1-411
c.152/1 DEMETRIUS, son of D-I & Laodice sent to Knidos for safety by D-I. 152 lvD2 151 CAH 8-523
c.150 Son of M-III and Laodice, MITHRIDATES-IV Philopator Philadelphus ends.  King of Pontus from 170.  Neph and son of Pharnaces-I & Nysa, MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes succeeds until 120. 157 GHH     150 B76 8-385, CAH 9-1023, MRDK 333, OCD 696, bk, frH, rcgn, rcT, wikM4Pn, wikM5Pn
c.150 MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes, king of Pontus 150-20, marries LAODICE-VI, dau of Antiochus-IV and Laodice-IV. post-152 wikL6
c.150 Son of M-I, MORZIOS-II Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 170, ends.  Son or bro PYLAEMENES-I succeeds until 140. 150 wikLPΦ
c.149 MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes, king of Pontus 150-20, allies with Rome in 3rd Punic War, sends ships and a small force of auxiliaries. 149 CAH 8, 9-132, OCD 696, wikKPn
c.149 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, plots against son Nicomedes. 149 atl2
c.149 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS sends envoy MENAS to Rome to join Nicomedes (son of Prusias) in asking the senate to remit the remainder of the sum which they had compelled him to pay to Attalus-II by the treaty of 154.  Menas has secret orders to assassinate Nicomedes.  Menas, on finding the favor which Nicomedes enjoyed at Rome, tells Nicomedes of Prusias' order.  In conjunction with Andronicus, ambassador of Attalus, Menas urges Nicomedes to dethrone his father. 149
CAH 8-374, DGRBM 2-1034, 1196
c.149 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia in Rome from 163, having sailed to Epirus, and openly assuming title of king of Bithynia, proceeds to the court of Attalus-II of Pergamum, who then demands from Prusias the cession of part of his kingdom to Nicomedes. 149 DGRBM 2-1196
no date: CAH 8-375
c.149 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, helps Nicomedes with troops against father Prusias-II. 149 DGRBM 1-411, 2-1196
c.149 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, son of P-I, king of Bithynia from 182, abandoned by his subjects, flees to the citadel of Nicaea, writes to Rome to solicit aid of the senate, then goes to Nicomedia in Bithynia. 149 CAH 8-375, 9-16, DGRBM 2-1196
c.149 3 deputies are despatched by the senate to investigate the civil conflict in Bithynia, they ultimately retire without effecting anything. 149 DGRBM 2-1196
c.149 Son of P-I, PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS dies.  King of Bithynia from 182, killed by his son's troops at the altar of Zeus at Nicomedeia.  Son NICOMEDES-II Epiphanes succeeds until 127. 149 B76 8-385, CAH 8-375, DGRBM 2-1197, 3-560, DGRG 1-405, GHH, MRDK 332, OCD 734, 893, atl2, frH, rcT, wikBθ, wikBθPn, wikLRB
c.149 ANDRISCUS (Philip-VI), pretender to throne of Macedonia, in Thrace, escapes to Anatolia. 149 atl2
c.149 ATTALUS-II king of Pergamum, supports Romans against Andriscus. 149 CAH 8
c.149 ANDRONICUS, envoy of Attalus-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome. 149 DGRBM 1-174
c.149 ANDRISCUS crosses from from Anatolia back to Thrace where he is welcomed by chieftain Teres and begins to collect an army. 149 atl2
c.149 PHILADELPHIA Lydia founded by Attalus-II Philadelphus of Pergamum. no date: IDB 3-782
c.148/7 Those who hold Demetrius, son of D-I in their keeping decide to set the true king on the Seleucid throne.  They need mercenaries, and Crete is the best recruiting ground.  Demetrius goes to Crete. 148/7 BHS 2-218
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, son of D-I, in Crete from 148/7, sails to Cilicia with Cretan mercenaries under Lasthenes, rivals usurper Alex Balas for throne of SyriaD-II appoints Apollonius governor of Coele-Syria. 1Mac 10:67     148/7 DGRBM 1-967 147 B76 3-457, BHS 2-218, CAH 8-524, CHJ 2-314, ISBE 1-918, atl2
147/6 IDB, RAI2
Demetrius goes to Phoenicia. 147 CAH 8-364
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, with help of Ptolemy-VI, returns from Cilicia to Syria. 147 wikD2
c.147/6 ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, goes from Ptolemais? to Cilicia to counter Demetrius-II Nicator, son of D-I. 147 CAH 8
146 1&2BM 151 145 BHS 2-221
no date: CAH 8-364
CONFUSION ALERT!  Sources put this Cilicia trip at different places in the sequence of events.  I have no idea where it goes, if it even happened.
c.147/6 CILICIA revolts in favor of Demetrius-II Nicator, son of D-I. 146 lvAB
c.146 APOLLODOROS of Athens, in Alexandria from ?, goes to Pergamum until ?. 146
B76 I-448
c.145 War between Attalus-II of Pergamum and Diegylis the Thracian. 145 atl2
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, in Cilicia from 147/6, returns to Syria, challenges Demetrius-II Nicator and Ptolemy-VI. 1Mac 11:14 145 AΨA 108
145±15 HIPPARCHUS of Nicaea Bithynia flourishes - but in Rhodes.
c.145 CILICIA, under Seleucids from 194, comes briefly under Ptolemy, then back under Seleucids until 83. 145 rcT
c.140 Son or bro of Morzios-II, PYLAEMENES-I, Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 150, ends.  Son PYLAEMENES-II succeeds until 130. 140 wikLPΦ
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, captured in Babylonia by Mithridates-I of Parthia, detained until 129.  Wife CLEO THEA holds Antioch against Trypho. 1Mac 14:??       141 B76, Jud 5-1489
140 CDCC 803, bk, frH     140/39 B76 8-385, CAH 8-368, 9-580, Sdl 5-332     139 B76 III-457, 9-842, CAH 8, IDB 1-816, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, wikD2 139/8 CHJ 2,     138 DGRBM 1-354, lvA
c.140 /39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus from Rome to the east, visits Attalus-II of Pergamum, finds a well-organized and stable kingdom, proceeds to Rhodes. no date: Diodotus 33.28b
143 SORH     140 B76 16-395     140/39 CAH 9-311     139 CAH 8-376, atl2
140/39 Rome distributes a circular letter to Anatolia and eastern allied countries declaring friendship toward Jews. 140/39 Jud 4-37 139 DHJ 551, IDB 1-537, ISBE 1-289
c.139 Tyrant Semias is assassinated in Pisidia. 139 atl2
c.139 ATTALIA Pamphylia founded by Attalus-II, king of Pergamum 139-33. 138 atl2
c.139 ATTALUS-II, king of Pergamum 160-39, tries to improve harbor at Ephesus. 138 atl2
c.139 ATTALUS-II, king of Pergamum 160-39, settles the Dionysiac artists at Myonnesus promontory southwest of Lebedos Ionia, but they soon migrate to Lebedos. 138 atl2
c.139 Son of A-I, ATTALUS-II Philadelphus dies.  King of Pergamum from 159, age 82, dies childless.  Neph and son of Eumenes-II, ATTALUS-III, succeeds until 133. 139 CAH 8-376, Dur 2-578, MRDK 333, frH     139/8 rcT     138 B76 I-634, 1-825, 8-385, CAH 8, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 2-576, GHH, ISBE 1-326, LEWH 95, OCD 144, atl2, bk
c.139 ATTALUS-III, king of Pergamum 139-33, becomes indolent, and hands over control of his kingdom to Philopoemen. 138 atl2
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria 142-38, flees by ship from Orthosia to Apamea Phrygia, his home town. Antiq 13:7:2
139 GHH, LEWH 95
138 1&2BM 209, Jud 6-61
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO dies.  Attempted usurper of Syria 142-38, at Apamea, his home town, chased by agents of Antiochus-VII Sidetes, he is either killed or suicides. 139 DGRBM 3-1179 138 CAH 8, atl2, wikDT
137 Jud 6-61
c.137 ATTALUS-III, son of Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum 139-33, purges his opponents. 137 atl2
c.135 NICANDER of Colophon, Greek poet, physician, grammarian, flourishes.  His surviving works deal with astronomy and animal bites. 135 OHG
130 CDCC 272
no date: wikNc
c.135 Decree of senate settles dispute between Samos and Priene. 135 CAH 8
c.133 Grammarian Daphitas (or Daphidas) is executed by Attalus-III. 133 atl2
133 Son of Eumenes-II, ATTALUS-III Philometor dies.  King of Pergamum from 139, dies of a fever.  Bequeaths Pergamum to the Roman people.
PERGAMUM, independent from 262, comes under Rome, but not as a province until 130.  Aristonicus, a claimed bastard of Eumenes-II, opposes Rome until 128.
133 B76 VII-873, 1-825, 8-380, 385, 15-1095, CAH 8, 9-102, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 1-238, 2-576, Dur 3-114, GHH, HRR, IDB 1-258, 3-734, ISBE 1-326, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 333, OCD 145, OHG, SHWC 110, SORH, anan, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcT, wikBθPn
c.133 EPHESUS, under Pergamum from 197, comes under Rome until 88. 133 B76 III-918, 6-905, CDCC 316, ISBE 2-116, rcT
c.133 SARDIS, under Pergamum from , comes under Rome until ?. 133 CDCC 786, lvA
c.133 MILETOS, under Pergamum from 189, comes under Rome until ?. 133 CDCC 579, lvA, rcT
c.133 SMYRNA, under Pergamum from 197, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 rcT
c.133 CYZICUS, under Pergamum from 263, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 rcT
c.133 Λ PHRYGIA, under Pergamum from 200, comes under Rome until 129. 133 rcT, wikΦ
c.133 ASPENDOS Pamphylia under Pergamum from ? comes under Rome until ?. 133 B76 I-588
c.133 LAODICEA, on Phrygia / Caria border, under Pergamum from 190, comes under Rome until ?.  Increases in prosperity. 133 IDB 3-70, ISBE 3-73, wikLdc
c.133 LYDIA, under Pergamum from 188, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 IDB 3-192, ISBE 3-191, rcT
c.133 LYCIA, Roman protectorate under Pergamum from 168, comes under Rome until 395CE, autonomous under Roman supervision until 64. 133 rcT '  
c.132 C. BLOSSIUS of Cumae, philosopher and associate of Ti. Gracchus flees from Rome to Aristonicus of Pergamum. 132 DGRBM 1-492, atl2
c.132 Claimed bastard of Eumenes-II & an Ephesian concubine, ARISTONICUS claims to be legal heir of Pergamum as Eumenes-III until 130, takes Leucae, expects support from local Greeks, but is opposed by much of the urban population and other former Pergamese, by kings of Anatolia allied with Rome, Nicomedes-II of Bithynia, Mithridates-V of Pontus, Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia, and Pylaemenes of Paphlagonia, and by Byzantium and other cities abroad. 133 CAH 8-379, GHH, OCD 112, 734, atl2
c.132 ARISTONICUS defeated off Cyme by Ephesians. 132 oldCAH 9-103
c.132 Slaves from interior of Anatolia join in Aristonicus' revolt, but he is kept in check with help of Nicomedes. 132 OCD 963, atl2
c.132 Among the Ionian cities only Phocaea joins Aristonicus spontaneously.  Others like Samos, Colophon and Myndos (in Ionia and Caria) must be taken by force. no date: CAH 8-379
c.132 ARISTONICUS, claimed heir of Pergamum, wins most of Pergamum, takes Thyatira.  Apollonius, spreads anti-Roman rebellion from Thrace to Caria until 130. 132
CAH 9-104
c.132 5 Roman legates headed by pontifex maximus Scipio Nasica Serapio sent to Ionia to settle affairs and arbitrate against Aristonicus.  Nasica never returns to Rome. 133 CAH 8-378 132 OCD 963, SORH, atl2
c.132 ARISTONICUS, claimed heir of Pergamum 132-30, is opposed by Roman clients, Mithridates-V of Pontus, Pylamenes of Paphlagonia, Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia. 132 CAH 9-105, OCD 696    131 GHH
c.131 SCIPIO NASICA Serapio, still pontifex maximus from 141 is killed in battle at Pergamum. 131 atl2
no date: wikPM
c.131 NICOMEDES of Bithynia helps Romans against Aristonicus, claimed heir of Pergamum. 131 DGRBM 2-1197
c.131 PYLAEMENES, king of Paphlagonia, helps Romans against Aristonicus. 131 DGRBM 3-606
c.131 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS MUCIANUS and army arrive in Asia Province to counter Aristonicus, claimed heir of PergamumCrassus is governor of Asia until 130. 131 CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRBM 1-311, GHH, atl2, wikLRGA
c.131 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS MUCIANUS punishes a magistrate from Mylasa for not completely obeying his orders. 131 atl2
c.131 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS fights ARISTONICUS at Leucae on coast of Ionia. 131 DGRG 2-168
c.130 P. Licinius CRASSUS MUCIANUS, commander in Anatolia from 131, defeated by Aristonicus near Pergamum, retreats north, captured by Thracian cavalry, killed.  Consul M. PERPERNA is rushed from Rome to succeed until 129. 131 atl2     130 B76 III-223, CAH 9-105, DGRBM 3-202, GHH, OCD 295, wikBθPn, wikLRGA     129 wikBθPn,
c.130 Son of A-IV, ARIARATHES-V Eusebes Philopator dies.  3rd king of Cappadocia from 163, killed fighting Aristonicus for Rome.  Son ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator succeeds until 116 under regency of queen mother NYSA until 126.  Kingdom in disorder until 126. 131/0 lvA     130 CAH 9-106, 141, 1023, DGRBM 1-284, ISBE 1-289, LdHR 2-191, MRDK 332, OCD 107, atl2, awCap, rcT, wikA5
c.130 ARISTONICUS dies.  Claimed heir of Pergamum from 132, besieged in Stratonicea Caria by M. Perperna, captured, shipped to Rome and executed in prison. 130 B76 8-385, CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRBM 1-311, DGRG 2-576, SORH, anan, atl2,     129 DGRG 1-238, GHH 128 rcT
c.130 STRATONICAEA Caria captured by M. Perperna. 130 DGRBM 3-202, atl2
c.130 PHOCAEA, under Romans from ?, rebels. 130 B76 VII-956
c.130 C. BLOSSIUS of Cumae, Stoic philosopher, associate of Ti. Gracchus, in Ionia from ?, partisan of Aristonicus, suicides. 130 atl2
no date: wikGB
c.130 PTOLEMAEUS dies.  King of Commagene from 163.  Son SAMOS-II succeeds until 109. 130 CAH 9-1023, CDCC 224, 782, MRDK 333, frH, rcT, wikKC, wikLrC, wikS2    no date: OCD 273
c.130 SAMOSATA refounded by Samos-II, king of Commagene, becomes capital until ?. 150
OCD 273
c.130 Son of P-I, PYLAEMENES-II dies.  Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 140, bequeathes his kingdom to Pontus and dies.  Son of Pharnaces-I of Pontus, MITHRIDATES Euergetes succeeds until 120. 130 wikLPΦ
c.130 PERGAMUM, under Rome 133, becomes Rome's 8th povince: ASIA until 88. 130 anan 129 GHH
c.129 ASIA PROVINCE organized by governor M. Perperna. 133-28 ISBE 3-1026, 129 B76 I-634, VII-873, CAH 9, DGRG 1-238, HRR, LEWH 103, OHG, TTPC, bk,     128 MCAW
c.129 CARIA, supposedly independent, but really under Rome from 167, annexed to Asia Province. 129 B76 II-564, DGRG 1-519, IDB 1-537, ISBE 1-617, rcT
c.129 KNIDOS made a free city by M. Perperna. 129 OCD 257
c.129 KAUNOS on the Caria/Lycia border, is assigned to Lycia. 129 wikKn
c.129 HALICARNASSUS, virtually independent though technically under Seleucids from 197, comes under Rome. 129
CDCC 414
c.129 Laodice (? Nysa) murders sons of Ariarathes-V?. 129 atl2
c.129 Commander of Asia Province from 130, M. PERPERNA dies at Pergamum, while victory celebrations, to be held in Pergamum, are being prepared. 130 atl2, wikLRGA
129 CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRBM 3-202, OCD 90
c.129 Consul Manius(1) AQUILIUS arrives in Asia Province until 126 to replace late M. Perperna and reorganize the province. 129 B76 8-385, CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRG 1-238, OCD 90, SORH, wikLRGA
c.129 Consul Manius(1) AQUILIUS subdues remaining rebels. 129 DGRBM 1-311, SORH, atl2
c.129 ICONIUM Phrygia, under Galatia from at least 165, comes under Pontus until 39. 129 IDB 2-672
c.129 PHRYGIA, under Rome from 133, given by Manius(1) Aquillius to Mithridates-V of Pontus, but senate refuses to let it be hereditary, and demands it back when M-V dies 120. 129 CAH 9-106
c.127 Son of Prusias-II, NICOMEDES-II Epiphanes dies.  King of Bithynia from 149.  Son NICOMEDES-III Euergetes succeeds until 94. 128 rcT     127 MRDK 332, OCD 734, frH, wikBθPn, wikLRB
c.126 ASIA PROVINCE, organized by M. Perperna 129, reorganized by Manius(1) AQUILIUS.  He hands over some interior areas to Pontus, Cappadocia, etc.  Detaches Chersonese and gives it to Macedonia Province.
ASIA now consists of Mysia, Caria, and Lydia.  Regions Aeolis and Ionia are included.  It is governed by a propraetor, who is often called praetor, and sometimes proconsul.
CDCC 91 no date: DGRG 1-238
c.126 Manius(10 AQUILIUS, governor of Asia Province from 129, returns to Rome. 126 OCD 91, wikLRGA
c.126 ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator, 4th king of Cappadocia, under regency of queen mother NYSA from 130, comes of age, rules until 116. 126 CAH 9-1023, rcT 120 frH
c.121 Mithridates-V of Pontus gains control of Paphlagonia. 121 atl2
c.120 Son of Pharnaces-I & Nysa, MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes dies.  King of Pontus from 150, ruler of Paphlagonia from 130, poisoned at a banquet at Sinope.  Questionable will names widow LAODICE-VI and minor children Eupator and Chrestus heirs.  Their mother LAODICE-VI, dau of Antichus-IV, is regent until 119.  She favors Chrestus.  1st son MITHRADATES Eupator Dionysius, age 12-13, flees into exile until 115. 121 CAH 9-1023, MRDK 333, wikLPΦ     121/0 frH, rcT, wikKPn     120 B76 8-385, 12-287, BNTH 7, CAH 9-106, CDCC 584, DGRBM 2-1096, GHH, OCD 696, anan, bk, wikL6, wikM5Pn
c.120 Praetor Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA arrives in Asia Province as governor until 120. 121 DGRBM 3-733 120 B76 VIII-940, wikLRGA
c.120 PHRYGIA, under Mith-V of Pontus from 129, empounded by Rome and declared free. 120 CAH 9-106,
DGRG 2-624     116 atl2
c.119 PAPHLAGONIA, under a confused mixture of Pontics from 120, taken by Galatian ASTREODON-I, who rules until 108. 119 wikLPΦ
c.116 Gn. Papirius CARBO Is propraetor of Asia this year alone. 116 wikLRGA
c.116 PHRYGIA, under Rome from 120, incorporated into Asia Province. 116 B76 12-288,
IDB 1-258, OCD 131
c.116 ASIA Province is now everything between the Aegean, Lycia, Galatia, and Bithynia.  It is not a solid territory, but contains free cities and temple states. 116 IDB 1-258
c.116 Son of A-V, ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator dies.  4th king of Cappadocia from 130, ruling from 126, murdered by Cappadocian noble Gordius.  1st son ARIARATHES-VII Philometor succeeds until 100 under regency of mom. 116 MRDK 332, OCD 107, awCap, rcT, wikwikBθPn
115 atl2
111 CAH 9-1023, frH
c.115 SINOPE, capital of Pontus 183-70, siezed by Mith-VI. 115 B76 12-283, CAH 9
c.115 Dau of Antichus-IV, LAODICE-VI, widow of Mith-V, regent for Eupator and Chrestus, rulers of Pontus from 120, overthrown by son Mith-VI.  Laodice-VI is imprisoned.  Chrestus is executed.  MITHRADATES-VI Eupator Dionysius rules until 66, but doesn't establish power until 112. 120 ISBE 3-903, MCAW, wikM6Pn
115 B76 VIII-115, 8-385, 12-287, CAH 9, ISBE 1-326, rcT, 116-13 wikM6Pn 113 wikKPn
c.115 Venus de MiloVENUS de MILO made in marble by otherwise unknown sculptor Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander.  Probably a copy of a 4th century Corinthian original.  It will be found on Melos island 1820. left Jastrow
right Mattgirling

150 B76 X-392
140 TToH
130-00 wikAoA, wikSc
no date: MCAW 213
c.115/4 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus crosses Black Sea to Asia, intervenes in conflict between the hellenistic Bosporan kingdom and the Scythians north of it. 115/4 lvA 114 MCAW
c.114 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus drives Scythians from the Tauric Chersonese in Crimea. 114 GHH
c.114 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus marries sis LAODICE-VI. 115-13 wikM6Pn no date: wikLM6
c.114 NICOMEDES-III, king of Bithynia 127-94, invades Cappadocia, and forces Laodice, sis of Mithridates, to become his wife. 114 atl2
c.113 MITHRADATES-VI hides from plots of his opponents for 7 years before taking control of his kingdom. 113 atl2
c.113 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus murders his mother and brother. 113 atl2
c.113 LAGETAS, great-uncle of geographer Strabo, moves from Knossus to Pontus at invitation of Mithridates. 113 atl2
c.113 Dau of Antiochus-IV and Laodice-IV, LAODICE-VI dies.  Wife of Mith-V of Pontus 150-20, mother of Laodice of Cappadocia, Mith-VI of Pontus, Mith Chrestus, Laodice-VII, Nysa, dies in prison of natural causes. 115-13 wikL6 113 atl2
c.112 M. ANTONIUS (the orator) Is quaestor/propraetor of Asia this year alone. 112 wikLRGA
c.112 PONTUS comes effectively under Mithridates-VI. 112 B76 8-385
c.110 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus, at invitation of Paerisades Spartocid king of Bosporus, invades Crimea. 110 B76 II-178, OCD 1008, atl2 109 MRDK 271
c.110 Farnese Bull FARNESE BULL sculpted from one block of marble by Rhodian sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus at Tralles Caria for a client in Rhodes.  Copies will be carved, the largest single sculpture ever recovered from antiquity to date.  Scholars disagree on when the original and its copies were made, and what it's about. photo Jastrow

190 Dur 2-556     150 cast bronze Dur 2-623
100 wsly wikFB

taken to Italy 222-35CE wikFB
c.109 Son of Ptolemaeus, SAMOS-II dies.  King of Commagene from 130.  Son MITHRIDATES-I Callinicus succeeds until 70. 109 rcT, wikLrC, wikS2
100 CAH 9-1023, CDCC 224, 782, MRDK 333, frH     96 OCD 273
c.109/8 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus travels incognito thru Bithynia and into Asia province, gathering info. 109/8 CAH 9-140
c.108 PAPHLAGONIA, under a Galatian dynasty from 170, under ASTREODON-I from 119, occupied and partitioned by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-III of Bithynia until 74.  Son of Nicomedes-III of Bithynia, PYLAEMENES-III Euergetes is installed until 89Rome sends envoys to object, but with no army to do anything about it.  They return to Rome. 108 rcT, wikLPΦ 108/7 CAH 9-141 101 CAH 9
c.107 Occupation of Paphlagonia by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-III of Bithynia - regarded by some as start of Mithridatic Wars. 108/7 CAH 9-141, GHH 107 atl2
c.106 C. BILLIENUS is governoror of Asia this year alone. 106 wikLRGA
c.104 C. CLUVIUS is governoror of Asia this year alone. 104 wikLRGA
c.104 CAPPADOCIA occupied by Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 104 bk    101 lvA
c.104 COLCHIS comes under Pontus until ?. 104 lvA
c.104 C. MARIUS sends envoys to Nicomedes-III of Bithynia asking for auxiliaries in the war against the Cimbri.  Nicomedes complains that the Romans had already taken his subjects as slaves. 103 CAH 9-35, DGRBM 2-1197
c.104 NICOMEDES-III, king of Bithynia 127-94, refuses C. Marius request.  Says most of his men have been siezed and enslaved by Roman publicans. 104 OCD 734 103 DGRBM 2-1197
c.104 M.(3) Antonius (the orator) is made praetor and proconsul of Cilicia to fight pirates until 102.  Friend L. Tullius Cicero accompanies. 104 DGRBM 1-213
103 DGRBM 1-708
c.103 Mithridates-VI of Pontus sends an embassy to the Cimbri. 103 atl2
c.103 NICOMEDES-III, king of Bithynia 127-94, sends a garrison into Cappadocia and induces Laodice to marry him. 102 CAH 9-141
c.103 LAODICE-VII, sis/wife of Mithridates-VI of Pontus allies herself to king Nicomedes-III Euergetes of Bithynia against her son Ariarathes-VII Philometor. 103 lvA
c.103 Mithridates-VI of Pontus expells Bithynian garrisons, hands Cappadocia back to a neph, Ariarathes-VII Philometor. 102 CAH 9-141
c.102 Mithridates, the real power in Cappadocia, and Nicomedes-III of Bithynia join in the conquest of Paphlagonia, the throne of which had been left vacant by the death of Pylaemenes-II 130.  The senate quickly orders the 2 kings to restore their new acquisition, but Nic-III merely transfers the crown to one of his own sons, who had taken the name Pylaemenes, and whom he pretends to regard as the rightful heir. 102 DGRBM 2-1197
c.102 M. Drusus serves as quaestor in Asia. 102 atl2
c.102 M. Antonius (the orator) proconsul of Cilicia from 104, suppresses Cilician pirates; M. Gratidius is killed during campaign.  M. Antonius and friend L. Tullius Cicero return to Rome.  Results don't last. 102
DGRBM 1-213, IDB 1-628, atl2
c.102 LAODICE-VII, sis/wife of Mithridates-VI of Pontus, regent of Bithynia from ?, ends. 102 wikKPn
c.102 PROVINCE of CILICIA formed out of parts of Lycia, Phrygia, Pisidia, Pamphilia (according to Cicero), but none of the original Cilicia, which is now Tracheia and Pedias. 102 ISBE 1-326, 699, OCD 239 101 anan
c.101 EGRISI, part of Iberia (Kartli) from 302, conquered by Mithridates of Pontus. 101 wikCl
c.101 GALATIA, independent from 166, 12 tetrarchies period 166-83, occupied by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-II of Bithynia. 101 CAH 9, lvA
c.101 Mithridates-VI of Pontus sends envoys to Rome with money for bribing senators to ratify his presence in Paphlagonia and Galatia, and to counter claims of Nic-3 and Laodice to Cappadocia. 101 CAH 9-141, DGRBM 3-724, GHH, HRR
c.101 /00 Roman law engraved at Delphi and Knidos:  The senior consul is instructed, as part of a campaign to put down piracy, to write to kings in Syria, Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene and to give special audience to the Rhodians. 101-00 CAH 9-17

Anatolia 100-64