anan     atl2     awCap     bk     frH     lvA     rcT     wikLc     wikLPΦ

Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
ANATOLIA is now called ASIA (not Asia Minor) by Macedonians and Romans.  It is still called ANATOLIA here to avoid confusion with greater Asia.
c.200 Philocles, officer of Philip-V, sent from Caria to Attica. 200 DGRBM 3-300
c.200 Thracian coast, Ptolemaic from ?, siezed by PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179.  Maronea, Cypsela, Aenos, Chersonese all taken. 200 BHS 2-33, CAH 8-163, 254, 259, DGRBM 3-283
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, crosses straits from Chersonese to the Troad, besieges Abydos until later 200. 200 B76 I-41, BHS 2-33, July CAH 8-163, 259, DGRBM 3-283
c.200 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, and some Rhodians, invited by Athenians, go to the Piraeus, meet the Roman embassy. 201 LdHR 2-18
200 CAH 8-258, DGRBM 1-410, GHH
c.200 PHRYGIA V, under Seleucids from 309, most comes under Pergamum until 133. 200 rcT
c.200 Senatorial legate M. Aemilius Lepidus sails from Rhodes to Abydos, tells Philip-V in person of the senatus consultum.  By now demands had been added that Philip keep his hands off Ptolemy's possessions and pay the Rhodians for damages.  Lepidus then sails back to Rhodes. 200 CAH 8-260
c.200 Attalus-I of Pergamum makes a token attempt to relieve Abydos. 200 DGRBM 1-410
c.200 ABYDOS Mysia, until now a free city, surrenders to Philip-V king of Macedonia. 200 CAH 8-163, 260, OCD 1, SORH
c.200 After fall of Abydos, PHILIP-V, learns of arrival of Galba and Roman army in Illyria. 200 CAH 8-261, DGRBM 3-283
c.200 Senatorial legates:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, M. Aemilius Lepidus, from Rhodes sail to Anatolia, visit ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia to persuade him to remain neutral in Roman war with Philip-V , and secretly wish him success against Ptolemy-V.  They are assured that he has no intention of helping Philip.  They then go to Egypt. 200 BHS 2-35, CAH 8-165, 270, CHJ 2
c.200 Nearly all Seleucid possessions west of Taurus Mts. lost. by 200 RAI3 414
c.200  MNESIMACHUS INSCRIPTION  from temple of Artemis at Sardis contains indications of how the property of a great landowner is made up, the rights he exercises, his labor force, and payments which the peasants have to pay. 200 CAH 7.1-194
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, blockaded in Bargylia Caria by Attalus-I of Pergamum and Rhodians, breaks out into the Aegean, heads for Macedonia chased by Attalus and Rhodians who stop short at Aegina island. 201 BHS 2-33, LdHR 2-18
200 CAH 8-161, DGRBM 3-283, SORH
c.200 PAPHLAGONIA, under Galatia from 276, Comes under Galatian MORZIOS-I until 170, but he losses some of it 182-179. 200 wikLPΦ
c.199 Praylos, pupil of sophist Timon, living in the Troad, is falsely accused of treason.  He refuses to speak a word in his defense, and is executed. 199 atl2
c.199 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum joins Romans with fleet and troops in Greece. 199 DGRBM 1-410
c.199 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 invades Pergamum while Attalus is in Greece. 199 DGRBM 1-410, SORH
c.199/8 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum rushes home from Greece to deal with Antiochus-III. 199/8 DGRBM 1-410
c.198 BOOKS with vellum leaves adopted instead of rolls by Attalus-I of Pergamum. 198 GHH 137 GHH
c.198 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 gives aid to city of Iasus on Halicarnassus peninsula to enable it to recover from damage (? caused by earthquake). 198 atl2
c.198 Attalus-I of Pergamum sends envoys to Rome, complains of Antiochus-III attacking his kingdom and asks the Senate for permission to pull his forces out of the Macedonian war in order to deal with it.  Senate not only complies but sends envoys to order Antiochus-III out of Pergamum. 199 atl2
c.198 Envoys from Rome visit Antiochus-III. 199 GHH
c.198 Antiochus-III complies with Roman directive to leave Pergamum. 199 SORH
c.198 Antiochus-III withdraws army from Anatolia. 199 GHH
c.198 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum again joins Romans in Greece. 198 DGRBM 1-410
c.197 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum destroys Gergitha in Troad and resettles its inhabitants. 197 atl2
c.197 Sycophant Lysimachus is teacher and parasite of Attalus. 197 atl2
c.197 Rhodians defeat Philip-V's general Dinocrates near Alabanda Caria. 197 atl2
c.197 Rhodians send an embassy to Antiochus-III, in an attempt to get him to march west. 197 atl2
c.197 CTESIPHON of Athens appointed to be a judge in Aeolis by Attalus-I. 197 atl2
c.197 ATTALUS-I Soter dies.  Ruler of Pergamum from 241, king from 238, dies of stroke at Thebes.  Son EUMENES-II succeeds until 160. 197 B76 I-634, III-993, 1-825, 15-1-93, CAH 8-178, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-410, 2-90, DGRG 2-575, Dur 2-556, GHH, MCAW, MRDK 333, OCD 144, 415, bk, frH, rcT
c.197 An oracular response from Delphi predicts that Attalus-I's family will reign until time of his grandchildren. 197 atl2
c.197 Heraclea Pontica attacked by Prusias-I king of Bitbynia. 197 GHH
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, invades Cilicia, in Anatolia until ?.  Sons Antiochus and Seleucus march along coast.   A-III commands fleet. 197 B76 1-994, CAH 8-173, 271, GHH
c.197 Rhodians, fearing that Antiochus-III wishes to join Philip-V, meet him at Coracesion on the Pamphylia/Cilicia border.  They insist that Antiochus not attack Ptolemaic possessions in their area, and successfully preserve Kaunos, Myndus, Halicarnassus and Samos. 197 CAH 8-271
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, sails 100 galleys to Ephesus for invasion of Anatolia until ?.  Sons Antiochus and Seleucus march along coast. 197 GHH
c.197 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 joins Romans against Antiochus-III. 197 GHH
c.197 EPHESUS, under Seleucids from 260, occupied by Antiochus-III, given to Pergamum until 133. 197 CAH 8-271, atl2, rcT     188 B76 6-905
c.197 LyciaInhabitants of Arykanda in Lycia support Mithridates, son of Antiochus-III.  Though Athenaeus does not state the identity of this Mithridates, the story probably dates to when Antiochus-III regained control of Lycia. 197 atl2
c.197 Telmessos, on Caria Lycia border, occupied by Antiochus-III Megas until 188. 197 lvA
c.197 SARDIS besieged by Ardyes & Mithridates, sons of Antiochus-III. 197 GHH
c.197 LYCIA, under Ptolemies from ?, occupied by Antiochus-III Megas until 190. 197 lvLc
c.197 HALICARNASSUS, under Ptolemies from 281, goes virtually independent, though technically under Seleucids until 129. 197 B76 IV-852
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, probably takes some towns of the Troad, Ilium and perhaps Abydos. 197 CAH 8-271
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, still controls coast of Anatolia from Cilicia to Hellespont, while also attacking Pergamum in the interior.  Carefully maintains good relations with Rhodes. 197
B76 1-825, CAH 8-178
c.197 Lycia ANTIOCHUS-III Megas captures several Ptolemaic cities in Anatolia.  Phaselis, Limyra, Andriake (port of Myra), Patara and Xanthos are mentioned. 197 lctk, wikC1
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas tries cajolery on Smyrna and Lampsacus, then sends in troops. 200
CAH 8-179
c.197 SMYRNA, free ally of Pergamum from 282, submits to Antiochus-III, who puts it under Pergamum until 133. 197
CAH 8-179
c.197 Rhodian commander PAUSISTRATUS with an army lands in Kaunos Caria, defeats Macedonian general Deinocrates, and reduces the whole of Kaunos, but fails to take Stratonicea. 197 DGRBM 3-163
c.197 LAMPSACUS, free ally of Pergamum, submits to Antiochus-III. 197
CAH 8-179
c.197 Euromus Caria sends envoys to Zeuxis, rep of Antiochus-III in Sardis, immediately after receiving news of Cynoscephalae, and allies with Antiochus-III.  Neighboring Pedasa does the same, as does Iasus, to which Antiochus grants freedom. 197
CAH 8-271
c.197 In Caria even Philip-V's erstwhile possessions had shrunk, probably by the end of 197, to Bargylia alone. 197
CAH 8-271
c.196 Smyrna and Lampsacus send envoys to Rome complaining about Antiochus-III.  Welcomed with open arms. 197/6 CAH 8-271 196 CAH 8, atl2
c.196 Antiochus-III sends envoy HEGESIANAX to Greece to meet the 10 Roman commissioners. 196 DGRBM 2-367
c.196 Roman envoys including L. Terentius meet Antiochus-IIIRomans demand freedom for Greek cities in Anatolia, and offer to negotiate in Ptolemaic-Seleucid conflict.  A-III rebuffs them. 196 CAH 8, CHJ 2-76, DGRBM 3-996
c.196 Calpurnius Cornelius and L. Villius Tappulus, envoys of Rome proceed from Macedonia to Anatolia to win back the Anatolians. 196 CAH 8-185, DGRBM 3-975
c.196 Smyrna and Lampsacus besieged by ANTIOCHUS-III. 196 CAH 8-271
c.196 All cities in Anatolia presently under Antiochus-III are declared free by Rome. 196 DGRG 1-7
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 at Abydos, crosses strait into Thrace. 196 B76 1-825, CAH 8-271, lvA
c.196 LIBRARY founded by Eumenes-II at Pergamum.  This miffs Ptolemy-V, jealous for his Alexandrian Library, so he bans export of papyrus.  Therefore Eumenes starts copying books on parchment.  Pergamum becomes a major parchment developer and exporter. 196 Dur 2-556, MCAW 175 GHH     158 atl2
no date: MTNT 4
c.195 Ptolemaic influence on west and south Anatolian coast is eliminated. by 195 Shaw 392
c.195 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 sends fleet to help Flamininus against Nabis of Sparta. 195 DGRBM 2-90
c.195 HANNIBAL sails from Antioch to Ephesus, waits for Antiochus-III. 195 B76 8-384, 627, CAH 8-191, DGRBM 1-197, Dur 3-54, LdHR 2-36 193 DGRBM 2-340
c.195 People of SMYRNA dedicate a temple to the city of Rome.  Earliest known worship of Dea Roma, a female deity personifying Rome. 195
IDB 4-393, atl2, wikRm
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails back from Thrace to Ephesus to meet Hannibal. 195
CAH 8-191
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III meets Hannibal at Ephesus.  Hannibal advises him to invade ItalyHannibal asks for 10,000 troops and 100 warships, promising to return to Carthage, and raise another war against Rome. 195 LdHR 2-36, Sdl 5-236
193 GHH
c.194 CILICIA, under Ptolemies from ?, comes under Seleucids until 145. 194 rcT
c.194 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails from Ephesus back to Thrace. 194
CAH 8-199
c.193 Roman embassy including P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, go to Eumenes of Pergamum, who urges them to declare war on Antiochus-III immediately.  Galba is detained at Pergamum by illness. 193 CAH 8-279, DGRBM 2-204, 3-746
c.193 Roman envoys T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus go to Ephesus, only to find that Antiochus-III is in Pisidia.  Though they talk to Minio, friend and counsellor of Antiochus-III, and to Hannibal, no agreement is reached. 193 CAH 8-279, DGRBM 2-204, 1090, 3-975, SORH, atl2
c.193 Roman envoys T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus travel inland to Apamea Phrygia, where Antiochus-III finally meets them, but they fail to reach agreement.  Negotiations are interrupted by death of Antiochus, eldest son of the king. 193 CAH 8-279, DGRBM 2-204, 1090, 3-975, SORH, atl2
c.193 Envoys P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, return for Rome by way of Greece. 193 CAH 8-279-80
c.193 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, marries ANTIOCHIS dau of Antiochus-III. 193 atl2 192 GHH
c.193 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, offers a dau in marriage to Eumenes-II of Pergamum, but Eumenes, seeing that Antiochus plans on war against Rome, declines. 193 atl2, lvAp1-5
c.193 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, discusses plans for a war against Rome with his advisers at Ephesus. 193 atl2
c.192 Alexander the Acarnanian advises Antiochus-III to invade Greece. 192 DGRBM 1-110
c.192 SMYRNA and LAMPSACUS besieged by Antiochus-III 192
CAH 8-206
c.192 Aetolian strategos Thoas sails to Ephesus to meet Antiochus-III, urges his intervention in GreeceAntiochus agrees and sends rep Menippus back with Thoas to declare his intentions, thinking this will make Rome back down. 193 CAH 8-280
193/2 CAH 8-205-6
192 DGRBM 2-1041, 3-1104
c.192 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, sides with Antiochus-III against Romans. 192 GHH, SORH
c.192 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 228-182, sides with Romans against Antiochus-III. 192 SORH
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, crosses strait from Abydos into Thrace. 192 LdHR 2-35
c.192 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 sends bro Attalus to Rome to tell them Antiochus-III had crossed into Thrace. 192 DGRBM 1-411
c.191 Praetor C. Livius SALINATOR sails Roman fleet across Aegean to Ionia. 191 CAH 8-217
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, flees from Greece to Ephesus. 191 CAH 8, GHH,atl2
c.191 Aetolian envoys NICANDER and Thoas sent to Antiochus-III, now at Ephesus, to beg assistance.  They succeed.  12 days later they return to Phalara, on the Maliac Gulf of Thessaly. 191 DGRBM 2-1173
c.191 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 leaves bro Attalus in charge of Pergamum.  Eumenes with 24 warships and 30 light ships joins Salinator at Phocaea. 191
CAH 8-218
c.191 Romans and Eumenes-II of Pergamum defeat fleet of Antiochus-III off Corycos (location unknown).. 191 atl2 190 GHH
CONFUSION ALERT!  CORYCOS is a port city in Lycia and another in Cilicia.
c.191 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III, returns from Corycos to Ephesus 191 B76 8-384, CAH 8-218
c.191/0 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, musters army in Phrygia, strengthens fleet to 90 warships, sends Hannibal to raise fleet in Phoenicia, sets up son Seleucus to attack Pergamum, stations troops in Lycia against Rhodians, sends ships to attack Roman supply lines. 191/0 CAH 8-219-20
191/0 Roman fleet is hauled up at Canae in Aeolis for the winter, and protected by a ditch and rampart. 191/0 DGRG 1-498
c.190 ABYDOS in Troad, under Antiochus-III from ?, under commander Philotas, besieged by C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II. 190 CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-330
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, prepares new forces on land and sea. 190 atl2
c.190 PHOCAEA, allied with Seleucids, repel a Roman force under L. Aemilius Regulus, so ferociously that Regulus asks them not to take the war so seriously. 190 B76 VII-956
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, leaves Ephesus hastily, to avoid any impropriety with priestess of Artemis. 190 atl2
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III at Ephesus blockaded by C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II with a fresh Rhodian squadron. 190 CAH 8-220
c.190 Seleucus, son of Antiochus-III besieges Pergamum, and is resisted by Attalus, bro of Eumenes-II.  1,000 Achaeans help Eumenes-II. 190 CAH 8-338, DGRBM 1-411, GHH, atl2
c.190 SELEUCUS, son and successor of Antiochus-III, is stationed in Aeolis with an army, to keep in check the maritime cities.  He reduces Cyme and other places, by voluntary submission, and regains Phocaea by the treachery of the garrison. 190 DGRBM 3-775
c.190 C. Livius SALINATOR commander of Aegean fleet 191-89, blockading Syrian Polyxenidas at Ephesus, relieved by L. Aemilius REGILLUSSalinator remains commander of Aegean fleet until 189, and is now sent to Lycia and also to Prusias-I, king of Bithynia. 190 CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-471, 695, atl2
c.190 Defeat of the Rhodian fleet under Pamphilidas causes C. Livius Salinator to abandon the siege of Abydos in order to oppose Polyxenidas. 190 DGRBM 3-330
c.190 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 recalls his auxiliaries from Greece, recovers Pergamum, and doesn't dare leave. 190 CAH 8-220
c.190 Antiochus-III, preparing to contend with Rome, attempts to ally with Prusias-I, who at first listens to him, but yields to the arguments of the 2 Scipios, and allies with Rome, though Prusias appears to have taken no part in the following war. 190 DGRBM 3-559
c.190 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 230-182, refuses to enter alliance with Antiochus-III. 190 atl2
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, invades Pergamum. 190 Apr May CAH 8-220
c.190 NOTIUM, a port south of Colophon, under the Colophoni, besieged by Antiochus-III. 190 DGRG 1-647
c.190 HANNIBAL, admiral under Antiochus-III with 47 hastily built Phoenician ships, defeated near SIDE Pamphilia by Rhodian admiral EUDAMUS with 36 ships. 190 B76 8-384, CAH 8-221, CDCC 414, DGRBM 1-684, GHH, atl2
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III with 89 ships at Ephesus, blockaded by Regillus with 80 ships, must attack before Regillus is reinforced.  Regillus sails to relieve Notium, which gives Polyxenidas opportunity to attack. 190 CAH 8-221
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III with 89 ships attacks Regillus with 80 ships between Corycos and Myonnesus promontory southwest of LebedosPoly is hit on the left by Rhodian fleet, loses 42 ships, and retreats to Ephesus. 191 bk     190 B76 1-994, 8-384, CAH 8-286, DGRBM 3-471, 642, DGRG 2-386, LEWH 93, SORH, atl2
189 DGRG 1-836
CONFUSION ALERT!  CORYCOS is a port city of unknown location in Lycia and another city in Cilicia.
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III retreats to Ephesus and remains until he receives news of the fatal battle of Magnesia. 190 B76 8-384, CAH 8-190, DGRBM 3-471, DGRG 2-386, LEWH 93, atl2
189 DGRG 1-836
c.190 L. and P. SCIPIO with 30,000 men cross Hellespont, enter Bithynia, in Anatolia until 189. 190 B76 1-994, 15-1093, CAH 8-222, atl2
c.190 Inhabitants of Heraclea Pontica send a delegation to P. Scipio. 190 atl2
c.190 Nov Antiochus-III sends Heracleides of Byzantium to agree with Romans previous demands, i.e. to withdraw from Thrace and all free cities of Ionia.  But Scipios now demand that Antiochus-III first evacuates Anatolia west of the Taurus Mts and pay for the whole cost of the war.  Antiochus of course refuses. 190 B76 1-994, 15-1093,
CAH 8-222, DGRBM 2-389, GHH, atl2
c.190 Roman army stops by town of Troy (now Ilium). 190 atl2
c.190 L. or Gn. SCIPIO, young son of Africanus, who accompanied his father, falls into the hands of Antiochus-III, who offers to restore him without ransom, if Africanus would grant him a favorable peace.  Africanus rejects the offer.  Antiochus sends him back his son while he was absent from the army because of illness. 190 DGRBM 3-746, 748
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, refuses to attack as advised by Hannibal, because a sacrificial offering is unfavorable. 189 atl2
c.190 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, with 70,000 heterogeneous and poorly trained troops, goes from Sardis to Thyatira Lydia, camps on broad plain east of Magnesia ad Sipylum northeast of Smyrna. 190 Dec CAH 8-223
c.190 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 personally commands his auxiliaries helping L. Scipio at Magnesia. 190 DGRBM 2-90
c.190 L. SCIPIO and allies, with 30,000 disciplined troops defeat Antiochus-III with 60,000 inf, 12,000 cav at Mt. Sipylos near MAGNESIA ad Sipylum.  Livy exaggerates Syrian losses at 50,000 inf, 2,000 cavLegate L. Apustius is killed in battle. 191 DGRG 2-624     190 B76 15-1093, CAH 8-286, CDCC 53, 544, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-252, 3-747, GHH, HRR, LEWH 93, MCAW, Sdl 5-237, SORH, TTPC, anan, atl2, bk, otw, wikMaS     190/89 B76 1-994, 8-384,     189 CAH 8-223, Dur 2-556, 3-20, OCD 415, SHWC 109
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 MAGNESIAs:  a region in Thessaly, in Caria:  on the Meander near the coast, and ad Sipylum in Lydia northeast of Smyrna.
c.190 MUSAEUS, an officer of Antiochus-III, after Magnesia, comes as ambassador to the Scipios, at Sardis, to request permission for the king to send commissioners to treat of peace. 190 DGRBM 2-1126
c.190 Peace talks begin at Sardis:  Antiochus-III's reps are Zeuxis and Antipater.  Terms had been stated in pre-battle talks and now merely acquire precision.  Antiochus must evacuate all territory north and west of the Taurus.  The war indemnity is made specific:  Antiochus must pay 15,000 Euboeic talents - 500 immediately, 2,500 as soon as terms are ratified in Rome, and the rest in 12 annual installments;  Eumenes to receive 400 talents and a quantity of grain, which Antiochus owed him by some treaty which Attalus-I had once made.  Exiles and enemies of Rome to be handed over.  Hannibal, Thoas, Mnasilochus the Acarnanian, and 2 Chalcidians Philon and Euboulidas.  20 hostages, including the king's youngest son Antiochus, to be given as pledge.  Antiochus agrees, and embassies are prepared for the journey to Rome. 190 CAH 8-286, SORH
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III, blockaded at Ephesus, proceeds by land to join Antiochus in Syria.  He drops out of history. 190 DGRBM 3-471
c.190 LAODICEA, on Phrygia / Caria border, comes under Pergamum until 133. 190
IDB 3-70
c.190 LYCIA, under Antiochus-III Megas from 197, comes under Rome until 189. 190 lctk
c.190/89 HANNIBAL, after Magnesia, flees to Crete. 190 MCAW
c.190/89 GALATIANS join Antiochus-III against Romans and Pergamum. 190/89 B76 IV-383
c.190/89 Fleet commander Q. Fabius Labeo goes to Patara and has all 50 of Antiochus-III's ships broken or burnt up. 190 lctk
c.190/89 MYSIA, incorporated into Pergamum until 133. 190 DGRG 2-389
c.190/89 CARIA:  Part comes under Pergamum until 133.  Part comes under Rome until 188. 190 DGRG 1-518, rcT
c.189 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, flees to Sardis, then to Apamea, joins son Seleucus. 189
CAH 8-224
c.189 KAUNOS Caria put by Romans under jurisdiction of Rhodes, and renamed PERAEA until 167. 189 wikKn
c.189 Scipio and Antiochus-III agree to discuss peace terms. 189 atl2
c.189 Anatolian cities join Romans. 189 CAH 8-224
c.189 Consul Gn. Manlius VULSO arrives in Ephesus to conclude the peace.  His bro Lucius and C. Helvius are his legates. 189 fall CAH 8-288, spring DGRBM 3-1286, atl2
c.189 L. SCIPIO, commander of Anatolia from 190, relieved by consul Gn. Manlius VULSO until 188. 189 spring CAH 8-228, DGRBM 3-1286, atl2
c.189 C. Livius SALINATOR commander of Aegean fleet from 190, relieved by Q. Fabius LABEO. 189 spring CAH 8-228
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-8, undertakes the pacification of Anatolia, with intent to make a profit.  Goes 1st to Ephesus. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228, SORH
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-8, goes from Ephesus to Caria, extorts money on threat of sacking towns. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228
c.189 Sardis, Thyatira, Magnesia, Tralles, Ephesus, and other cities in Anatolia surrender to consul Vulso. 189 atl2
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, goes from Caria to Pisidia and Pamphilia, extorts money on threat of sacking towns. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, with no authorization from senate, makes punitive expedition against Galatia for supplying Antiochus-III with mercenaries.  Storms barbarians in mountain strongholds at Mt. Olympos (near Prusa) and Magaba, penetrates as far as Ancyra, captures 40,000 for slaves. 189 B76 IV-383, 8-384, 15, 1093, CAH 8-229, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 1-929, GHH, HRR, atl2, bk
c.189 ATTALUS, son of Attalus-I, king of Pergamum, helps Vulso campaign in Galatia. 189
B76 I-634
c.189 SELEUCUS is sent by father Antiochus-III to support consul Gn. Manlius Vulso.  He gives him grain, and helps him on more than one occasion against the Galatians. 189 DGRBM 3-775
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, accompanied by Attalus, bro of Eumenes, after entering Phrygia, passes by Synnada, Beudos Vetus, Anabura, and the sources of the Alander to Abbassus, on the borders of the Tolistoboii Galatians, where he halts and encourages his men.  He then marches thru the woodless tract [Axylos], crosses the Sangarius, and reaches Gordium. 189 DGRG 1-929
c.189 MOAGETES, tyrant of the Cibyrates, in Upper Phrygia, who had helped Antiochus-III against Romans, is condenmed by Gn. Manlius Vulso, to pay a fine of 100 talents and to furnish 10,000 medimni of wheat to his legions. 189 DGRBM 2-1107
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-8, defeats Galatians at Mt. Olympos Galatia.  Galatians are forbidden to send out armed bands.  They never recover. 189 B76 IV-383, DGRG 1-134, MCAW, SORH, atl2
c.189 ANTIOCH Pisidia, under Seleucids from ?, made a free city by Romans until 25. 189 B76 I-423, FLAP 260, IDB 1-144, OCD 71
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 ANTIOCHs:  on the Orontes, in Pisidia, and on the Meander (Pythopolis) in Caria.
c.189 Chiomara, wife of Orgiagon, takes revenge on a centurion who had raped her. 189 CAH 8-231, 281, atl2,
no date: OCD 107
c.189 ARIARATHES-IV, king of Cappadocia 220-163, former ally of Antiochus-III, buys peace with Vulso for 300 talents.  Allies with EUMENES-II of Pergamum 189 CAH 8-231, 281, lvA
188 DGRBM 1-284
no date: OCD 107
c.189 Cappadocia, independent 261-17CE, former ally of Seleucids from 255, allies with Pergamum until 133. 189 CAH 8-231, 281
c.189 ARIARATHES-IV, Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, fined 600 talents. 189 SORH
c.189 MILETOS, under Seleucids from 225, comes under Pergamum until 133. 189 rcT
c.189 Pergamum gets most of Anatolia west of the Halys River until 133. 189 rcT
c.189 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, loaded with Galatian loot, retires to winter quarters. 189 DGRBM 3-1286
c.189 Rhodian ambassadors Philophoron and Theaetetus visit the 10 Roman commissioners in Anatolia.  They get Lycia assigned to the Rhodians as a reward for their services. 189 DGRBM 3-317, 1021
c.189 LYCIA, under Rome from 190, given to ally Rhodes until 177. 189 DGRBM 3-317, 1021
c.189 Lycians, resenting being subjects of Rhodes, send envoys from Ilium to Rome to plead their case before the Senate. 189
CAH 8-335
c.188 Consul Gn. MANLIUS VULSO, commander of Anatolia 189-88, does not sit at Ephesus and wait for the 10 legati to arrive, but marches to Pamphylia to receive the first major installment of Antiochus' indemnity (2,500 talents)Manlius interferes at Perge (northeast of Attalia), where Antiochus still maintains a garrison, and has the garrison removed. 188 CAH 8-288
c.188 10 Roman commissioners sent to settle government of Anatolia.  They include M. Junius Brutus, L. Aurunculeius, P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus, Q. Minucius Rufus, P. Aelius Tubero.  Consul Manlius Vulso is still at Perge when he hears that the 10 and Eumenes had arrived at Apamea, where he joins them. 189 DGRBM 1-508, 3-317, 675, 1179, 1021 188 CAH 8-288, DGRBM 1-444, atl2
c.188  TREATY of APAMEA  Phrygia begins.  Presided by Gn. Manlius VULSO & 10 Roman commissioners and EUMENES-II of Pergamum. 188 B76 17-947, CAH 8-231, CHJ 2-76, OCD 79, frH
c.188  TREATY of APAMEA  ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, agrees to evaccuate Anatolia beyond Taurus Mts., pay Rome 15,000 talents (500 down + 2,500 annually for 12 years), 400 talents to Eumenes-II of Pergamum, and to surrender Hannibal and Thoas and 20 hostages including his own son AntiochusPergamum gets ALL ANATOLIA west of Taurus Mts. from Antiochus-III, who loses all war elephants, his fleet is cut to 10 ships, and his army limitedRome orders Prussias-I of Bithynia to surrender all land taken from Pergamum in 208 (leads to war 186).  Cities which abandoned Antiochus-III before Magnesia are freed. 189 CAH 8-225 188 B76 VII-873, 1-825, 8-384, 784, 17-947, CAH 8-231, 290, CDCC 53, CHJ 2-76, DGRBM 1-197, OCD 893, anan, atl2, bk, lvA
no date: B76 1-994
c.188 MUSAEUS, an officer of Antiochus-III, again sent to proconsul Gn. Manlius Vulso to learn the terms on which the peace would be finally ratified. 188 DGRBM 2-1126
c.188 ANTIOCHUS, 3rd son of A-III taken prisoner to Rome until 178. 189 B76 1-994
c.188 LYCIA and Meander valley of CARIA, under Rhodes from 189, officially given to Rhodes by Treaty of Apamea.  Lycians want to be allies, but not subjects.  Lycia under Rhodes until 177Part of Caria under Rhodes until 167. 190 DGRG 1-518, rcT     189 SORH 188 B76 8-384, CAH 8-232, 287, lvLc, wikLc
c.188 PHRYGIA, mostly under Pergamum from 200, remaining remnant (Phrygia Epictetus) comes under Pergamum until 133. 188 wikwikΦ
c.188 PAMPHYLIA, comes under Pergamum until 133. 188 rcT
c.188 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, allies with Rome. 188 atl2, lvA
c.188 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 marries Stratonice, dau of Ariarathes-IV Eusebes of Cappadocia. 188 DGRBM 1-284
no date: lvA
c.188 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60, by Treaty of Apamea, gets Chersonnese, Lysimacheia, Lydia, Propontis (Sea of Marmara), coastal cities including Bisanthe Thrace, Telmessos on Caria Lycia border .  Pergamum does not get Aenus or Maronea. 188
B76 8-384, CAH 8-232, GHH
c.188 MILETOS makes mutual aid treaty with Pedasa Caria. 188 lvA
c.188 LYDIA, under Rome from 190 given to Pergamum until 133. 188 rcT     no date: IDB 3-191, OCD 629
c.188 ICONIUM, capital of Lycaonia, comes under Pergamum, but Eumenes-II never takes possession, and it gradually slides under Galatia. 187 IDB 2-672
c.188 TELMESSOS Lycia, occupied by Antiochus-III from 197, comes under Pergamum until ?. 188 lvA
c.188 Gn. Manlius VULSO, commander of Anatolia from 189, evaccuates Anatolia with much loot by land to Thrace. 188 CAH 8-233, DGRBM 3-1286
c.188 EAST CILICIA is left under Seleucids by Treaty of Apamea. 188
IDB 1-628
c.187 Scipio AFRICANUS and bro Lucius, in east from 190, in Anatolia from 190, return to Rome. 187
Dur 3-91
c.186 Hannibal is allowed by Prusias-I to settle in Bithynia. 186 atl2
c.186 Pergamum / Bithynia War begins until 183.  Prusias-I, king of Bithynia 230-180, challenges peace of Apamea 188, attacks Pergamum, employs Hannibal.  Prusias wins support from Philip-V, who is disputing with Eumenes over Thracian cities Aenus and Maronea.  Prusias probably receives aid from Pontic king Pharnaces, and most importantly, from the Galatians, under Tolistobogian chieftain, Ortiagon, who had recently become king of all 3 tribes. 187
CAH 8-325 186 CAH 8-282, LEWH 94, OCD 893, atl2
184 GHH
c.186 Dispute between Rhodes and Lycia over terms of Roman settlement. 186 atl2
c.186 Son of M-III, MITHRIDATES-IV dies.  King of Pontus from 220.  PHARNACES-I succeeds until 170. 190 DGRBM 2-1096, GHH
189 CAH 9-131     186 CAH 9-1023, OCD 696, 810     185 MRDK 333, frH, rcT
c.185 MILETOS makes mutual aid treaty with Heraclea (probably the one just east of it). 185 lvMlt
c.185 PAPHLAGONIA, semi-independent from 301, comes under Pontus until 170. 185 rcT
c.185 Embassies from Eumenes-II and Greek states complain to senate about Philip's seizure of extra territory - Maroneia and Aenus, which Eumenes wants for himself. 185 CAH 8-293, DGRBM 3-284, DGRG 2-1188, atl2
c.184 Eumenes defeats Prusias and Ortiagon, the Galatians and their allies in autumn. 184 CAH 8-328
c.184 Ortiagon attempts to gain control of all Galatia. 184 atl2
c.183 GALATIA:  12 Tetrarchies period from 228, ends.  Galatia comes under Pergamum until 166. 183 frH, rcT
c.183 Greeks of Anatolia, now rescued from persecution by Galatia, proclaim Eumenes-II Soter (savior). 183 CAH 8-328
c.183 To commemorate victory over Galatia, Eumenes-II enlarges the sanctuary of Athena "Bringer of Victory" in Pergamum and raises her festival, founded by his father, to panhellenic rank. 183 CAH 8-328
c.183 Envoy from senate, T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, sails from Greece to Prusias-I of Bithynia, demands surrender of Hannibal. 183 CAH 8-328, CDCC 351, OCD 441, wikTQF
c.183 Hannibal defeats fleet of Eumenes-II by throwing pots full of poisonous snakes onto his ships. 183 atl2
c.183 Hannibal founds city of PRUSA in Bithynia. 183 atl2
c.183 HANNIBAL, general under Prusias-I of Bithynia, unable to avoid capture by Romans, suicides by poison in Bithynia.  "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death." 184 Dur 3-55     183 B76 8-627, CAH 8-328, GHH, HRR, SORH, TTPC, atl2, frH     183/2 CDCC 414 182 CAH 8, MCAW
c.183 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60, at war with Prusias-I of Bithynia from 186, agree to peace terms.  Eumenes regains Phrygia Epictetus and establishes control over Galatia. 183 CAH 8-325, 328, OCD 415, atl2
c.183 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60, starts fighting Pontus until 179. 183 LEWH 94, OCD 415, atl2
c.183 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes, king of Cappadocia 220-163, helps Eumenes-II against Pharnaces until 179. 183 DGRBM 1-284
c.183 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, invades Galatia. 183 bk
c.183 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 230-182 captures Cierus and Tion (on coast), and attacks Heraclea. 183 atl2
c.183 SINOPE, independent republic from 280, friendly to Rhodes, stormed and taken by Pharnaces-I, king of Pontus, becomes capital of Pontus until 70. 183 B76 VIII-115, IX-232, CAH 8-328, CAH 8-328, CDCC 826, GHH, OCD 810, atl2, rcT     182 CAH 9-131
c.182 Pontus / Cappadocia War begins until 179. 182 lvA
c.182 PRUSIAS-I Cholus dies.  King of Bithynia from 230.  Son PRUSIAS-II Cynegus succeeds until 149. 185 rcT     182 CAH 8, MRDK 332, OCD 893, atl2, frH, wikLRB, wikP1B 180 CAH 8-282, 9, DGRG 1-405, GHH
c.182 Attalus and his brothers visit Cyzicus with their mother Apollonis. 182 atl2
c.182 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, attacks PergamumPergamum / Pontus War begins until 181. 182 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-411, GHH 181 wikΦ1P    180 atl2
c.182 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 offers Seleucus-IV 500 talents to help him against Pharnaces. 182 CAH 8-339
c.182 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75, is offered 500 talents to help Eumenes-II of Pergamum against Pharnaces-I of Pontus.  Seleucus moves his army into Anatolia, when "it occurres to him" that the treaty of Apamea forbade his crossing the Taurus Mountains. 182 CAH 8-339
c.182 Envoys from Eumenes-II, Ariarathes, Pharnaces, and Philip, and from Spartans and Achaeans, appear before senate. 182 atl2
c.182 MORZIOS-I Galatian ruler of PAPHLAGONIA 200-170, is restricted to the southeast part until 179.  GAIZATORIX-I, ally of Pharnaces I of Pontus, rules northwest until 179. 182 wikLPΦ
c.181 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 sends bros Attalus and Athenaeus, to Rome to tell senate about Pharnaces. 181 DGRBM 1-411, atl2
c.181 PRUSIAS-II, king of Bithynia, joins Pergamum against Pontus until 179. Prusias-II 181 OCD 893
c.181 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 supports Rhodes against Lycia. 181 CAH 8
c.181 Festival of Athena "Bringer of Victory", the first panhellenic Nikephoria, in Pergamum celebrated 1st time, henceforward to be held every 5 years. 181 CAH 8-328
c.181 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, at war with Pergamum, refuses Roman demand makes truce with Pergamum, soon violated by Pharnaces. 181 CAH 8-329, OCD 810
c.181 LEOCRITUS general of Pharnaces-I, sent to invade Galatia. 181 DGRBM 2-750
c.181 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, defeated by Eumenes and a group of Anatolian kings.  Pharnaces abandons all gains in the west. 181 wikHA
c.181/80 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, resumes ravaging Galatia, in violation of truce with Eumenes. winter 181/80 CAH 8-329
c.180 TRAPEZOS (Trebizond), Milesian colony in Pontus from 756, comes under Lesser Armenia until 89. 180 rcT
c.180 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-60, tries to prevent ships sailing thru Hellespont into Black Sea, but Rhodians intervene to stop him. 180 atl2
c.180 AQUEDUCT with a SIPHON to get water over a hill is built to fill pools at Pergamum. 200 B76 19-648 180 B76 1-1036
c.179 Eumenes and his allies take the field, and Pharnaces agrees to peace. 180 or 179 CAH 8-329, 357 179 GHH, wikΦ1P
c.179 Pontus / Cappadocia War from 182 ends. 179 lvA
c.179 Pharnaces and Eumenes-II agree to peace terms.  Pharnaces cedes all conquests in Galatia, which remains under Eumenes' control, and Paphlagonia, except Sinope.  Pharnaces must restore Tion to Eumenes.  Pharnaces also must return what he had taken from Ariarathes-IV and from Morzius, the dynast of Gangra in Paphlagonia.  Ariarathes is to receive 300 talents indemnity from Mithridates satrap of Armenia.
Included in the treaty are several other powers not mentioned as participants in the war:  Artaxias, ruler of Greater Armenia, Acusilochus (unknown);  in Europe, Sarmatian chieftain Gatalos, and several Greek cities:  Heraclea on the Black Sea, Cyzicus on the Propontis, Mesambria on the west coast of the Black Sea, and Chersonesus (Sevastopol) in the Crimea.
CAH 8-329, DGRBM 3-241, 560, atl2, wikΦ1P
c.179 GAIZATORIX-I, ally of Pontus, ruler of northwest Paphlagonia from 182, ends.  MORZIOS-I Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia 200-170, recovers all of Paphlagonia. 179 wikLPΦ
c.179 Geographer Polemon of Ilium flourishes. 179 atl2
c.178 A Lycian embassy goes to Rome, complains to senate about their treatment by Rhodians. 178 CAH 8-302, atl2
c.177 LYCIA, under Rhodes from 189, officially from 188, granted independence until 168 by senate, but must remain ally of Rhodes.  Lycia then becomes enemy of Rhodes.  Rhodes is now miffed at Rome.  Lycia resumes hostilities with Rhodes until 1??. 177
CAH 8-287, 336, atl2
c.177 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, marries APAME, sis of Perseus of Macedon. 179-5
CAH 8-256
c.175 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 187, murdered by treasurer Heliodoros.  This leaves 3 possible claimants to throne:
1st son Demetrius, now a hostage in Rome
bro Antiochus, now living in Athens
infant son Antiochus, now in Syria
HELIODOROS usurps throne as regent for infant son Antiochus.
175 B76 8-383, CAH 8-332, 341, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-279, DGRBM 1-198, 3-775, Dur 2-573, IDB 4-267, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, Sdl 5-292, atl2, bk, frH, rcM     174 RAI2
c.175 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 supports Antiochus for king of Syria.  Pergamum and Syria are friendly for as long as Antiochus lives. 175
CAH 8-332
c.175 MUSEUM founded at Pergamum. 175 GHH
c.174 Rhodians suppress resistance in Lycia. 174 atl2
c.172 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60, visits Rome, accuses Perseusof Macedon of hostility to Rome. 173 atl2,     172 B76 III-993, 8-384, 15-1094, CAH 8-256, DGRBM 2-90, MCAW, OCD 415
c.172 Attalus, bro of Eumenes-II, tries to marry his sister-in-law Stratonice, following false rumors of death of Eumenes-II. 172 atl2
c.171 TARSUS and MALLUS in Cilicia are given by Antiochus-IV to his mistress Antiochis. 2Mac. 4:30
171 IDB 4-518
c.171 Roman enyoys including M. Junius Brutus are sent to Ionia to get allies to help in war against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-508
c.171 PHILETAERUS bro of Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum, is left by Eumenes in charge of Pergamum, while Eumenes and Attalus sail to Greece to help the Romans against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 3-266
c.171 ATTALUS and Athenaeus, bros of Eumenes-II of Pergamum, sails to Greece, joins Crassus. 171 B76 I-634, DGRBM 1-411
c.171 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, leaves Antioch under viceroy Andronicus, marches to Cilicia until 169 to handle rebellion of Tarsus & Mallus. 2Mac. 4:31
170 CAH 8-503
c.171 TARSUS Cilicia receives civic constitution as a free Greek city until 64 from Antiochus-IV. 171
BNTH 234
c.170 PHARNACES-I, king of Pontus 186-70, marries NYSA, dau of Antiochus-IV and Laodice. 172/1 wikNs, wikΦ1P
160 CAH 8
no date: CAH 9-132
c.170 PHARNACES-I dies.  King of Pontus from 186.  Son of M-III and Laodice, MITHRIDATES-IV Philopator Philadelphus succeeds until 150. 170 CAH 9-1023, MRDK 333, frH, rcT     159 CAH 9-132
pre-156 OCD 696
c.170 Stoic philosopher CRATES of Mallus, head of the library at Pergamum, goes to Rome as ambassador of Eumenes-II. 170
B76 III-223
c.170 TARSUS and MALLUS in Cilicia, having been given by Antiochus-IV to his mistress Antiochis 171, rebel. 2Mac. 4:30
170 atl2
c.170 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 suppresses bandits in Mount Taurus, who have been ravaging Cilicia. 170 atl2
c.170 PAPHLAGONIA, under Pontus from 185, comes under a Galatian dynasty until 108. 170 rcT
c.170 MORZIOS-I Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 200, ends.  Son MORZIOS-II succeeds until 150. 170 wikLPΦ
c.169 Roman allies RHODES, PERGAMUM, BITHYNIA waver, consider joining Perseus. 169 CAH 8
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 in Cilicia from 171, returns to Syria. 2Mac. 4:35
169 CAH 8-503
c.169 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, sends an embassy to Rome, to interpose his good offices in favor of Perseus, and to get the senate to grant him a favorable peace. 169 DGRBM 3-560
c.169 Side Pamphylia, independent city, allies with Rome. 169 lvA
c.169 Alleged secret negotiations between Perseus and Eumenes-II costs him the friendship of Rome. 169 GHH, atl2
c.168 RHODES, persuaded by Perseus, sends envoys to Rome requesting that they stop the war on Perseus, but envoys don't arrive until after Pydna. 168
CAH 8-228
c.168 LYCIA, subordinate ally of Rhodes from 177, is declared free by Rome.  Independent until 43CE. 168 lvLc, wikLc
167 CAH 8-337, lctk
c.168 LyciaLYCIAN LEAGUE, extant from 205, formally established under democratic principles.  Comprises 23 known city-states.  Major cities include Xanthos, Patara, Pinara, Olympos, Myra, and Tlos, with Patara as capital. 168 wikLc
c.168 Embassy from Eumenes-II of Pergamum sent to Rome. 168 atl2
c.168 Galatians, encouraged by the absence of part of the Pergamene forces in Macedonia, attack Eumenes-II of Pergamum, who decisively defeats them somewhere in Phrygia, and suppresses the insurrection. 168
CAH 8-333, atl2
c.168 Cretan CYDAS tries to negotiate peace between Eumenes-II of Pergamum and Antiochus-V. 168 DGRBM 1-910
c.168 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, receives Roman deputies sent to his court, in the garb of an emancipated slave, and styles himself the freedman of the Roman people. 168 DGRBM 3-560, atl2
c.167 PAMPHILIA recognized by Rome as independent. 167 SORH
c.167 Period of Rhodian domination in Ionia from 188 ends when Lycia is declared free, and becomes Roman protectorate. 167 B76 1-825, 15-1094
c.167 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum sends bro Attalus to Rome to congratulate them on victory over Perseus, and to appeal for help against Galatians. 167 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-286-7, DGRBM 1-411, 2-90, DGRG 1-930
c.167 A Roman embassy tries to end fighting between Eumenes-II and Galatians. 167 atl2
c.167 Rhodians forced to evaccuate Lycia and Caria. 167 B76 15-1094, CAH 8
c.167 The part of CARIA which had been under Rhodes from 188 comes under Rome, but not established until 129.  A senatorial decree orders the Rhodians to remove their garrisons from Stratonicea and Kaunos, which had been Rhodian long before 188.  They are declared free. 167
CAH 8-337, DGRG 1-576, atl2
c.167 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 182-49 and young son Nicomedes, visit RomePrusias congratulates senate on victory in Macedonia, sucks up to senate, calls them "savior gods".  His alliance with Rome is renewed, plus an extension of territory.  From this time, Prusias repeatedly sends embassies to Rome to complain against Eumenes, which, however, lead to no results. 167
B76 15-1094, DGRBM 2-1196, 3-560, atl2
no date: OCD 893
c.167 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-60, lands at Brundisium expecting to be received at Rome.  A quaestor informs him that the senate will receive no kings at Rome. 167
B76 15-1094, DGRBM 2-90
c.166 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-60 defeats Galatians. 166 CAH 8, atl2
c.166 GALATIA, under Pergamum from 183, declared independent by Rome until 101.  12 Tetrarchies period resumes until 89. 167 SORH
166 CAH 8-360, IDB 2-337, frH
c.165 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS is sent east to visit Rhodes, Anatolia, and Syria to inspect the affairs of Roman allies. 166 atl2     165 CAH 8-319, LdHR 2-99     164 DGRBM 2-289
c.165 Senate promises a Galatian embassy that their country will remain autonomous. 165 atl2
c.165 Ti.(5) Gracchus subdues the Cammani, partly by force and partly by fraud. 165 atl2
c.165 ICONIUM Phrygia, supposedly under Pergamum from 188, is now under Galatia. 165 IDB 2-672
c.164 C. Sulpicius GALLUS sent as envoy thru Greece to Pergamum, and other Anatolian states, where he openly invites accusations against the king of Pergamum.  At Sardis, Gallus spends 10 days listening to slanders against Eumenes, who is still Rome's ally.  Gallus fails to get desired evidence. 164 CAH 8-318, 334, OCD 456
no date: LdHR 2-99
c.164 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 sends bro Attalus to Rome. 164 DGRBM 1-411
c.164 COLCHIS, independent from ?, annexed by Pontus until ?. 164 wikCl
c.164 The TROCMI intrude into Cappadocia. 164 GHH
c.164 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 182-49 sends envoy Python to Rome to complain against Eumenes-II king of Pergamum. 164 DGRBM 3-629
c.163 ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes dies.  King of Cappadocia from 220, dies.  Son Mithridates succeeds as ARIARATHES-V Eusebes Philopator until 130.  Succession is disputed until 155.  His alleged older bro Orophernes offers Antiochus-V 1,000 talents for support, and gets it, but Rome and Attalus-I of Pergamum support Ariarathes, and advise a shared kingdom. 164 CAH 8-334
163 CAH 8-281, 359, 9-1023, DGRBM 1-284, MRDK 332, atl2, lvA, rcT 162 DGRG 1-506, GHH, awCap, frH
c.163 An embassy from Ariarathes-V king of Cappadocia 163-30 to Rome gets alliance renewed. 163 atl2 160 GHH
c.163 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia is voluntarily sent to Rome, ostensibly a guest, practically a hostage until 149. no date:
DGRBM 2-1196
c.163 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, intervenes in crisis in Sophene (along Upper Tigris), puts puppet king Mithrobuzanes on the throne. 163 lvA
c.163 COMMAGENE, under Seleucids from 201, satrap from 201 PTOLEMAEUS asserts independence, becomes king until 130.  Commagene is independent kingdom until 17CE, capital at Samosata. 163 CDCC 224, MRDK 333, frH, rcT, wikKC, wikLrC     163/2 CAH 9-1023 162 B76 III-36, OCD 273     161 atl2
c.163 CALYNDA probably on the Indus River at the Lycia/Caria border, under Kaunos from ?, rebels.  Knidos sends relief to Calynda. 163 DGRG 1-639
c.163 CALYNDA Caria, technically under Kaunos, having been given to Rhodes by Rome, seized by Rhodians. 163 atl2
c.163 CERAMOS on the north coast of the Ceramic Gulf in Caria, at its own initiative, is granted a treaty by Rhodes. 163
CAH 8-380
c.163 Attalus appears before senate to defend his bro Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum against accusations of Prusias of Bithynia. 163 atl2
c.163 Roman envoy C. Sulpicius Gallus investigates accusations against Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum. 163 atl2
c.163 Two Roman embassies investigate dispute between Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia and Galatians. 163 atl2
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV, hostage in Rome from 178, escapes to Lycia.  From a port, D-I sends a message to Rome saying that his target is not his cousin, King Antiochus-V, but chancellor Lysias, who had failed to avenge the murder of Gn. Octavius.  D-I raises an army and fleet. 162
B76 III-456, CAH 8-355
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV in Lycia, sails army to Tripolis Syria. 2Mac 14:1     162 CAH 8-518, IDB 4-711, RAI3
c.162 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, rejects Artaxias' plan to seize Sophene. 162 atl2
c.162 Gn. MERULA accompanies Ptolemy Physcon from Rome to Crete to AnatoliaMerula then sails to Alexandria. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.161 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, fearing displeasure of Rome, rejects offer of Demetrius-I of Syria to marry his sis. 161 CAH 8-519
no date: OCD 107
c.161 OROPHERNES (Holophernes) becomes rival king of Cappadocia until 159. 163 rcT
161 awCap
c.161 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, sends Menochares to plead his cause with Ti.(5) Gracchus and his fellow-commissioners, now in Cappadocia. 161 DGRBM 2-1042
c.161 OROPHERNES, rival king of Cappadocia, sends envoys Diogenes and Timothy with a gold crown to Rome to renew friendship and alliance, and to support allegations against Ariarathes-V. 161 DGRBM 1-1019
160 atl2
c.160 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-60, sends bro Attalus to Rome. 160 DGRBM 1-411, 2-90
c.160 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, is offered by Demetrius-I the hand of Laodice-V, dau of Seleucus-IV, widow of Perseus from 166.  Ariarathes declines. 160 wikL5
c.160/59 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum, in bad health, appoints bro Attalus-II co-king. 160/59 CAH 8-334
Pliny will erroneously credit Eumenes-II with having invented parchment. 158 IDB 4-918
159 CRATES of Mallus, Stoic philosopher, head of library at Pergamum, visits Rome on official business. 159 CDCC 225, CDGRA 338, Dur 3-95, SORH,     157 DGRBM 1-884
c.159 Son of Attalus-I, EUMENES-II dies.  King of Pergamum from 197, dies.  His son Attalus is too young to rule.  Bro, already co-ruler, ATTALUS-II Philadelphus succeeds until 139. 160 CAH 8, Dur 2-556, MRDK 333, bk, frH 160/59 CAH 8-282, OCD 144, 415, rcT 159 B76 I-634, 8-385, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 2-576, GHH, LEWH 95     158 CAH 8-334, CDCC 659, IDB 4-918 atl2
c.159 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, makes it clear from the beginning that his brother's son is to be his heir.  He also marries his brother's widow Stratonice, dau of Ariarathes-IV of Cappadocia. 159 CAH 8-373
c.159 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 182-49, driven to make peace with Attalus-II of Pergamum because Attalus got back in with Rome. 159 CAH 8
156 B76 8-385
c.159 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50 invades Cappadocia, expels Ariarathes-V and establishes Orophernes as king. 159 CAH 8 158 GHH
c.158 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30 driven out of Cappadocia by OROPHERNES.  Flees to Rome. 159/8 CAH 8-359,     158 CAH 8-359, DGRBM 1-284, GHH, atl2, wikA5
c.158 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, soon after his accession, considers using force to regain some control of Galatia.  All his advisers but one agree. no date: CAH 8-373
c.157 OROPHERNES, rival king of Cappadocia sends to Rome 2 unscrupulous ambassadors Timothy and Diogenes to join emissaries of Demetrius-I of Syria in opposing his (so called) brother. 157 DGRBM 3-21
c.157 OROPHERNES learns that the senate decreed that Cappadocia be divided between him and Ariarathes-V.  Orophernes refuses to comply, but Ariarathes is supported by Attalus-II, new king of Pergamum. 157 CAH 8-359
c.157 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, helped by Romans and Attalus-II of Pergamum, defeats Orophernes, and regains control of Cappadocia.  But Romans force him to accept Orophernes as co-king until 156. 157 SORH, atl2
c.156 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, supported by Attalus-II of Pergamum, defeats co-king from 161 OROPHERNES, who flees to Demetrius-I, king of Syria, who welcomes him.  Ariarathes-V is sole ruler. 159 awCap
158 CAH 8-359, lvA 157 OCD 107
156 CAH 8-522
c.156 PHARNACIA, small fortified town in Pontus, founded. 156 atl2
c.156 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49 invades Pergamene territory, attacks and defeats Attalus-II of Pergamum, who calls on Romans, Ariarathes-V, and Mithridates for help. 156 CAH 8-359, DGRBM 1-411, 3-560, atl2
c.156 Senate sends C. Petronius and L. Appuleius, to investigate dispute between Prusias-II and Attalus-II. 156 DGRBM 3-215
c.156 ANDRONICUS, envoy of Attalus-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome to inform senate of Prusias-II' attack. 156 DGRBM 1-173
c.156 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, finds a contemptible kid in Smyrna named Balas who looks like Antiochus-IV.  Passes him off as a son of A-IV, and names him ALEXANDER BALAS.  Puts him in office in Cilicia. 157 atl2
156 CAH 8
c.156 WARAttalus-II of Pergamum and Mithridates-IV of Pontus vs. Prusias-II of Bithynia begins until 154. 156 B76 I-634, OCD 696, 893     154 GHH
c.155 Senate sends 3 legates: C. Aurunculeius, Aulus(2) Postumius Albinus, L.(1) Anicius Gallus, to investigate dispute between Prusias-II and Attalus-II, and try to make peace.  This is one of 4 such embasies. 155 DGRBM 1-444, 2-223, atl2
153 DGRBM 1-92
c.155 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49 drives Attalus-II back to Pergamum and besieges it, but can't take it.  Prusias ravages the sanctuaries outside the city of Athena Nikephoros. 155
CAH 8-360, atl2
c.155 Fleet of Prusias-II is destroyed in a storm. 155 atl2
c.155 Romans send out decemviri to restrain Prusias-II. 155 atl2
c.154 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, refuses to obey Roman decemviri. 154 atl2
c.154 WARAttalus-II of Pergamum and Mithridates-IV of Pontus vs. Prusias-II of Bithynia from 156, ends.  Prusias-II is defeated and forced to pay indemnity to Attalus in a  treaty  forced by the Romans. 154 B76 I-634, CAH 8, 9-132, DGRBM 1-411, 3-560, DGRG 2-351, OCD 893, atl2, bk
153 GHH
c.154 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, sends his son Demetrius in command of troops helping Attalus-II against Prusias-II. 154 DGRBM 1-284, wikA5
c.154 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, attacks Priene.  He and Attalus-II ravage Priene territory.  Rome intervenes. 154 CAH 8, atl2
no date: CAH 8-381
c.154 Coalition of Ptolemy-VI, Attalus of Pergamum and Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia against Demetrius-I of Syria. 154 CAH 8
c.152 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, joins a Rome-supported coalition against Demetrius-I Soter, king of Syria.  Other members are Attalus-II and Ptolemy-VI Philometor. 152 lvA
c.152 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, being childless, sends neph Attalus son of Eumenes to Rome to get him acquainted. 152 DGRBM 1-411
c.152 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, sends troops to help Balas. 152 DGRBM 1-411
c.150 Son of M-III and Laodice, MITHRIDATES-IV Philopator Philadelphus ends.  King of Pontus from 170.  Neph and son of Pharnaces-I & Nysa, MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes succeeds until 120. 157 GHH     150 B76 8-385, CAH 9-1023, MRDK 333, OCD 696, bk, frH, rcgn, rcT
c.150 MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes, king of Pontus 150-20, marries LAODICE-VI, dau of Antiochus-IV and Laodice-IV. post-152 wikL6
c.150 Son of M-I, MORZIOS-II Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 170, ends.  Son or bro PYLAEMENES-I succeeds until 140. 150 wikLPΦ
c.149 MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes, king of Pontus 150-20, allies with Rome in 3rd Punic War. 149 CAH 8, 9-132, OCD 696
c.149 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 182-49, plots against son Nicomedes. 149 atl2
c.149 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS sends envoy MENAS to Rome to join Nicomedes (son of Prusias) in asking the senate to remit the remainder of the sum which they had compelled him to pay to Attalus-II by the treaty of 154.  Menas has secret orders assassinate Nicomedes.  Menas, on finding the favor which Nicomedes enjoyed at Rome, tells Nicomedes of Prusias' order.  In conjunction with Andronicus, ambassador of Attalus, Menas urges Nicomedes to dethrone his father. 149
CAH 8-374, DGRBM 2-1034, 1196
c.149 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia in Rome from 163, having sailed to Epirus, and openly assuming title of king of Bithynia, proceeds to the court of Attalus-II of Pergamum, who then demands from Prusias the cession of part of his kingdom to Nicomedes. 149 DGRBM 2-1196
no date: CAH 8-375
c.149 ATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, helps Nicomedes with troops against father Prusias-II. 149 DGRBM 1-411, 2-1196
c.149 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, son of P-I, king of Bithynia from 182, abandoned by his subjects, flees to the citadel of Nicaea, writes to Rome to solicit aid of the senate, then goes to Nicomedia in Bithynia. 149 CAH 8-375, DGRBM 2-1196
c.149 3 deputies are despatched by the senate to investigate the civil conflict in Bithynia, they ultimately retire without effecting anything. 149 DGRBM 2-1196
c.149 Son of P-I, PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS dies.  King of Bithynia from 182, killed by his son's troops at the altar of Zeus at Nicomedeia.  Son NICOMEDES-II Epiphanes succeeds until 127. 149 B76 8-385, CAH 8-375, DGRBM 2-1197, 3-560, DGRG 1-405, GHH, MRDK 332, OCD 734, 893, atl2, frH, rcT, wikLRB
c.149 ANDRISCUS, pretender to throne of Macedonia, in Thrace, escapes to Anatolia. 149 atl2
c.149 ATTALUS-II king of Pergamum, supports Romans against Andriscus. 149 CAH 8
c.149 ANDRONICUS, envoy of Attalus-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome. 149 DGRBM 1-174
c.149 ANDRISCUS crosses from from Anatolia back to Thrace where he is welcomed by chieftain Teres and begins to collect an army. 149 atl2
c.149 PHILADELPHIA Lydia founded by Attalus-II Philadelphus of Pergamum. no date: IDB 3-782
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, son of D-I, in Crete from ?, sails to Cilicia with Cretan mercenaries, rivals usurper Alexander Balas for throne of Syria.  Appoints Apollonius governor of Coele-Syria. 1Mac 10:67     148/7 DGRBM 1-967 147 B76 3-457, CAH 8-524, CHJ 2-314, atl2
147/6 IDB, RAI2
Demetrius goes to Phoenicia. 147 CAH 8-364
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, with help of Ptolemy-VI, returns from Cilicia to Syria. 147 wikD2
c.147/6 ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, goes from Ptolemais? to Cilicia to counter Demetrius-II Nicator, son of D-I. 147 CAH 8
146 1&2BM 151
no date: CAH 8-364
c.146 APOLLODOROS of Athens, in Alexandria from ?, goes to Pergamum until ?. 146
B76 I-448
c.145 War between Attalus-II of Pergamum and Diegylis the Thracian. 145 atl2
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, in Cilicia from 147/6, returns to Syria, challenges Demetrius-II Nicator and Ptolemy-VI. 1Mac 11:14 145 AΨA 108
c.145 CILICIA, under Seleucids from 194, comes briefly under Ptolemy, then back under Seleucids until 83. 145 rcT
c.140 Son or bro of Morzios-II, PYLAEMENES-I, Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 150, ends.  Son PYLAEMENES-II succeeds until 130. 140 wikLPΦ
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, captured in Babylonia by Mithridates-I of Parthia, detained until 129.  Wife CLEO THEA holds Antioch against Trypho. 1Mac 14:??       141 B76, Jud 5-1489
140 CDCC 803, bk, frH     140/39 B76 8-385, CAH 8-368, 9-580, Sdl 5-332     139 B76 III-457, 9-842, CAH 8, IDB 1-816, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, wikD2 139/8 CHJ 2,     138 DGRBM 1-354, lvA
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus from Rome to the east, visits Attalus-II of Pergamum, finds a well-organized and stable kingdom, proceeds to Rhodes. 143 SORH 139
CAH 8-376
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus sails from Pergamum to Rhodes. no date: Diodotus 33.28b
143 SORH     140 B76 16-395 140/39 CAH 9-311     139 atl2
c.139 Tyrant Semias is assassinated in Pisidia. 139 atl2
c.139 ATTALIA Pamphylia founded by Attalus-II, king of Pergamum 139-33. 138 atl2
c.139 ATTALUS-II, king of Pergamum 160-39, tries to improve harbor at Ephesus. 138 atl2
c.139 ATTALUS-II, king of Pergamum 160-39, settles the Dionysiac artists at Myonnesus promontory southwest of Lebedos Ionia, but they soon migrate to Lebedos. 138 atl2
c.139 Son of A-I, ATTALUS-II Philadelphus dies.  King of Pergamum from 160, age 82, dies childless.  Neph and son of Eumenes-II, ATTALUS-III, succeeds until 133. 139 CAH 8-376, Dur 2-578, MRDK 333, frH     139/8 rcT     138 B76 I-634, 1-825, 8-385, CAH 8, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 2-576, GHH, LEWH 95, OCD 144, atl2, bk
c.139 ATTALUS-III, king of Pergamum 139-33, becomes indolent, and hands over control of his kingdom to Philopoemen. 138 atl2
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria 142-38, flees by ship from Orthosia to Apamea Phrygia, his home town. Antiq 13:7:2
139 GHH, LEWH 95
138 1&2BM 209, Jud 6-61
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO dies.  Attempted usurper of Syria 142-38, at Apamea, his home town, chased by agents of Antiochus-VII Sidetes, he is either killed or suicides. 139 DGRBM 3-1179, GHH 138 CAH 8, atl2, wikDT
137 Jud 6-61
c.137 ATTALUS-III, son of Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum 139-33, purges his opponents. 137 atl2
c.136±10 HIPPARCHUS of Nicaea Bithynia flourishes - but in Rhodes.
c.135 NICANDER of Colophon, Greek poet, physician, grammarian, flourishes.  His surviving works deal with astronomy and animal bites. 135 OHG     130 CDCC 272
no date: wikNc
c.135 Decree of senate settles dispute between Samos and Priene. 135 CAH 8
c.133 Grammarian Daphitas (or Daphidas) is put to death by Attalus-III. 133 atl2
133 Son of Eumenes-II, ATTALUS-III Philometor dies.  King of Pergamum from 139, dies of a fever.  Bequeaths Pergamum to the Roman people.
PERGAMUM, independent from 262, comes under Rome, but not as a province until 130.  Aristonicus, a claimed bastard of Eumenes-II, opposes Rome until 128.
133 B76 VII-873, 1-825, 8-380, 385, 15-1095, CAH 8, 9-102, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 1-238, 2-576, Dur 3-114, GHH, HRR, IDB 1-258, 3-734, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 333, OCD 145, OHG, SHWC 110, SORH, anan, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcT
c.133 EPHESUS, under Pergamum from 188, comes under Rome until 88. 133 B76 III-918, 6-905, CDCC 316, rcT
c.133 SARDIS, under Pergamum from , comes under Rome until ?. 133 CDCC 786, lvA
c.133 MILETOS, under Pergamum from 189, comes under Rome until ?. 133 CDCC 579, lvA, rcT
c.133 CYZICUS, under Pergamum from 263, comes under Rome until 27. 133 rcT
c.133 Λ PHRYGIA, under Pergamum from 200, comes under Rome until 129. 133 rcT, wikΦ
c.133 LAODICEA, on Phrygia / Caria border, under Pergamum from 190, comes under Rome until ?.  Increases in prosperity. 133
IDB 3-70
c.133 LYDIA, under Pergamum from 188, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 IDB 3-192, rcT
c.133 ASPENDOS Pamphylia under Pergamum from ? comes under Rome until ?. 133 B76 I-588
c.132 C. BLOSSIUS of Cumae, philosopher and associate of Ti. Gracchus flees from Rome to Aristonicus of Pergamum. 132 DGRBM 1-492, atl2
c.132 Claimed bastard of Eumenes-II and an Ephesian concubine, ARISTONICUS claims to be legal heir of Pergamum as Eumenes-III until 130, takes Leucae, expects support from local Greeks, but is opposed by much of the urban population and other former Pergamese, by kings of Anatolia allied with Rome, Nicomedes-II of Bithynia, Mithridates-V of Pontus, Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia, and Pylaemenes of Paphlagonia, and by Byzantium and other cities abroad. 133 CAH 8-379, GHH, OCD 112, 734, atl2
c.132 ARISTONICUS defeated off Cyme by Ephesians. 132 oldCAH 9-103
c.132 Slaves from interior of Anatolia join in Aristonicus' revolt, but he is kept in check with help of Nicomedes. 132 OCD 963, atl2
c.132 Among the Ionian cities only Phocaea joins Aristonicus spontaneously.  Others like Samos, Colophon and Myndos (in Ionia and Caria) must be taken by force. no date: CAH 8-379
c.132 ARISTONICUS, claimed heir of Pergamum, wins most of Pergamum, takes Thyatira.  Apollonius, spreads anti-Roman rebellion from Thrace to Caria until 130. 132
CAH 9-104
c.132 5 Roman legates headed by pontifex maximus Scipio Nasica Serapio sent to Ionia to settle affairs and arbitrate against Aristonicus.  Nasica never returns to Rome. 133 CAH 8-378 132 OCD 963, SORH, atl2
c.132 ARISTONICUS, claimed heir of Pergamum 132-30, is opposed by Roman clients, Mithridates-V of Pontus, Pylamenes of Paphlagonia, Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia. 132 CAH 9-105, OCD 696
131 GHH
c.131 SCIPIO NASICA Serapio, still pontifex maximus from 141 is killed in battle at Pergamum. 131 atl2
no date: wikPM
c.131 NICOMEDES of Bithynia helps Romans against Aristonicus, claimed heir of Pergamum. 131 DGRBM 2-1197
c.131 PYLAEMENES, king of Paphlagonia, helps Romans against Aristonicus. 131 DGRBM 3-606
c.131 Consul CRASSUS MUCIANUS and army arrive in Asia Province to counter Aristonicus, claimed heir of Pergamum. 131 CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRBM 1-311, GHH, atl2
c.131 Consul CRASSUS MUCIANUS punishes a magistrate from Mylasa for not completely obeying his orders. 131 atl2
c.131 Consul Licinius CRASSUS fights ARISTONICUS at Leucae on coast of Ionia. 131 DGRG 2-168
c.130 P. Licinius CRASSUS MUCIANUS, commander in Anatolia from 131, defeated by Aristonicus near Pergamum, retreats north, captured by Thracian cavalry, killed.  Consul M. PERPERNA is rushed from Rome to succeed. 131 atl2,     130 B76 III-223, CAH 9-105, DGRBM 3-202, GHH, OCD 295
c.130 Son of A-IV, ARIARATHES-V Eusebes Philopator dies.  3rd king of Cappadocia from 163, killed fighting Aristonicus for Rome.  Son ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator succeeds until 111 under regency of queen mother NYSA until 126.  Kingdom in disorder until 126. 131/0 lvA     130 CAH 9-106, 141, 1023, DGRBM 1-284, LdHR 2-191, MRDK 332, OCD 107, atl2, awCap, rcT, wikA5
c.130 ARISTONICUS, claimed heir of Pergamum from 132, besieged in Stratonicea Caria by M. Perperna, captured, shipped to Rome and executed in prison. 130 B76 8-385, CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRBM 1-311, DGRG 2-576, SORH, anan, atl2,     129 DGRG 1-238, GHH 128 rcT
c.130 STRATONICAEA Caria captured by M. Perperna. 130 DGRBM 3-202, atl2
c.130 PHOCAEA, under Romans from ?, rebels. 130 B76 VII-956
c.130 C. BLOSSIUS of Cumae, Stoic philosopher, associate of Ti. Gracchus, in Ionia from ?, partisan of Aristonicus, suicides. 130 atl2
no date: wikGB
c.130 PTOLEMAEUS dies.  King of Commagene from 163.  Son SAMOS-II succeeds until 109. 130 CAH 9-1023, CDCC 224, 782, MRDK 333, frH, rcT, wikKC, wikLrC, wikS2    no date: OCD 273
c.130 SAMOSATA refounded by Samos-II, king of Commagene, becomes capital until ?. 150
OCD 273
c.130 Son of P-I, PYLAEMENES-II, Galatian ruler of Paphlagonia from 140, bequeathes his kingdom to Pontus and dies.  Son of Pharnaces-I of Pontus, MITHRIDATES Euergetes succeeds until 121. 130 wikLPΦ
c.130 PERGAMUM, under Rome 133, becomes Rome's 8th povince: ASIA. 130 anan 129 GHH
c.129 ASIA PROVINCE organized by M. Perperna. 129 B76 I-634, VII-873, CAH 9, DGRG 1-238, HRR, LEWH 103, OHG, TTPC, bk,     128 MCAW
c.129 CARIA, under Rome from 167, annexed to Asia Province. 129 B76 II-564, DGRG 1-519, IDB 1-537, rcT
c.129 KNIDOS made a free city by M. Perperna. 129 OCD 257
c.129 KAUNOS on the Caria/Lycia border, is assigned to Lycia. 129 wikKn
c.129 HALICARNASSUS, virtually independent though technically under Seleucids from 197, comes under Rome. 129
CDCC 414
c.129 Laodice (? Nysa) murders sons of Ariarathes-V?. 129 atl2
c.129 M. PERPERNA, commander of Asia Province from ?, dies at Pergamum, while victory celebrations, to be held in Pergamum, are being prepared. 130 atl2
129 CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRBM 3-202, OCD 90
c.129 Consul Manius AQUILLIUS arrives in Asia Province until 126 to replace late M. Perperna and reorganize the province. 129 B76 8-385, CAH 8-380, 9-105, DGRG 1-238, OCD 90, SORH
c.129 Consul Manius AQUILLIUS subdues remaining rebels. 129 DGRBM 1-311, SORH, atl2
c.129 ICONIUM, under Galatia from at least 165, comes under Pontus. 129 IDB 2-672
c.129 PHRYGIA, under Rome from 133, given by Manius Aquillius to Mithridates-V of Pontus, but senate refuses to let it be hereditary, and demands it back when M-V dies 120. 129 CAH 9-106
c.127 Son of Prusias-II, NICOMEDES-II Epiphanes dies.  King of Bithynia from 149.  Son NICOMEDES-III succeeds until 94. 128 rcT     127 MRDK 332, OCD 734, frH, wikLRB
c.126 ASIA PROVINCE, organized by M. Perperna 129, reorganized by Manius AQUILLIUS.  He hands over some interior areas to Pontus, Cappadocia, etc.  Detaches Chersonese and gives it to Macedonia Province.
ASIA now consists of Mysia, Caria, and Lydia.  Regions Aeolis and Ionia are included.  It is governed by a propraetor, who is often called praetor, and sometimes proconsul.
CDCC 91 no date: DGRG 1-238
c.126 Manius AQUILLIUS, governor of Asia Province from 129, returns to Rome. 126 OCD 91
c.126 ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator, 4th king of Cappadocia under regency of queen mother NYSA from 130, comes of age, rules until 111. 126 CAH 9-1023, rcT 120 frH
c.121 Praetor Q. Mucius SCAEVOLA arrives in Asia Province until 120. 121 DGRBM 3-733
c.121 Mithridates-V of Pontus gains control of Paphlagonia. 121 atl2
c.120 Son of Pharnaces-I & Nysa, MITHRIDATES-V Euergetes dies.  King of Pontus from 150, ruler of Paphlagonia from 130, poisoned at a banquet at Sinope.  Questionable will names widow LAODICE-VI and minor children Eupator and Chrestus heirs.  Their mother LAODICE-VI, dau of Antichus-IV, is regent until 119.  1st son MITHRADATES Eupator Dionysius, age 12-13, flees into exile until 115. 121 CAH 9-1023, MRDK 333, wikLPΦ     121/0 frH, rcT
120 B76 8-385, 12-287, BNTH 7, CAH 9-106, CDCC 584, DGRBM 2-1096, GHH, OCD 696, anan, bk, wikL6
c.120 PHRYGIA, under Mith-V of Pontus from 129, empounded by Rome and declared free. 120 CAH 9-106,
DGRG 2-624     116 atl2
c.119 PAPHLAGONIA, under a confused mixture of Pontics from 120, taken by Galatian ASTREODON-I, who rules until 108. 119 wikLPΦ
c.116 PHRYGIA, under Rome from 120, incorporated into Asia Province. 116 B76 12-288,
IDB 1-258, OCD 131
c.116 ASIA Province is now everything between the Aegean, Lycia, Galatia, and Bithynia.  It is not a solid territory, but contains free cities and temple states. 116 IDB 1-258
c.115 SINOPE siezed by MITHRADATES-VI Eupator Dionysius. 115 B76 12-283, CAH 9
c.115 Dau of Antichus-IV, LAODICE-VI, widow of Mithridates-V, regent for Eupator and Chrestus, rulers of Pontus from 120, overthrown by son Mithridates-VI.  Laodice-VI is imprisoned.  Chrestus is executed.  MITHRADATES-VI Eupator Dionysius rules until 66, but doesn't establish power until 112. 120 MCAW
115 B76 VIII-115, 8-385, 12-287, CAH 9, rcT
c.115 Venus de MiloVENUS de MILO made in marble by otherwise unknown sculptor Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander.  Probably a copy of a 4th century Corinthian original.  It will be found on Melos island 1820. 150 B76 X-392
140 TToH
130-00 wikAoA, wikSc
no date: MCAW 213

left Jastrow
right Mattgirling
c.115/4 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus crosses Black Sea to Asia, intervenes in conflict between the hellenistic Bosporan kingdom and the Scythians north of it. 115/4 lvA 114 MCAW
c.114 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus drives Scythians from the Tauric Chersonese in Crimea. 114 GHH
c.114 ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator, 4th king of Cappadocia 130-111, marries LAODICE, sis of Mithridates of Pontus. 114 GHH
c.114 NICOMEDES-III, king of Bithynia 127-94, invades Cappadocia, and forces Laodice, sister of Mithridates, to become his wife. 114 atl2
c.113 MITHRADATES-VI hides from plots of his opponents for 7 years before taking control of his kingdom. 113 atl2
c.113 LAODICE-VI, dau of Antiochus-IV and Laodice-IV, wife of Mith-V of Pontus 150-20, mother of Laodice of Cappadocia, Mith-VI of Pontus, Mith Chrestus, Laodice-VII, Nysa, dies in prison of natural causes. 115-13 wikL6     113 atl2
c.113 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus murders his mother and brother. 113 atl2
c.113 LAGETAS, great-uncle of geographer Strabo, moves from Knossus to Pontus at invitation of Mithridates. 113 atl2
c.112 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus marries sis LAODICE-VII. no date: wikLM6
c.112 PONTUS comes effectively under Mithridates-VI. 112 B76 8-385
c.111 Son of A-V, ARIARATHES-VI Epiphanes Philopator dies.  4th king of Cappadocia from 130, ruling from 126, murdered by Cappadocian noble Gordius.  1st son ARIARATHES-VII Philometor succeeds until 100. 116 MRDK 332, OCD 107, awCap, rcT, wikwikBθPn
115 atl2     111 CAH 9-1023, frH
c.110 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus, at invitation of Paerisades Spartocid king of Bosporus, invades Crimea. 110 B76 II-178, OCD 1008, atl2 109 MRDK 271
c.110 Farnese Bull FARNESE BULL sculpted from one block of marble by Rhodian sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus at Tralles Caria for a client in Rhodes.  Copies will be carved, the largest single sculpture ever recovered from antiquity to date.  Scholars disagree on when the original and its copies were made, and what it's about. 190 Dur 2-556     150 cast bronze Dur 2-623
100 wsly wikFB

taken to Italy 222-35CE wikFB

Photo Jastrow
c.109 Son of Ptolemaeus, SAMOS-II dies.  King of Commagene from 130.  Son MITHRIDATES-I Callinicus succeeds until 70. 109 rcT, wikLrC, wikS2
100 CAH 9-1023, CDCC 224, 782, MRDK 333, frH     96 OCD 273
c.108 PAPHLAGONIA, under Galatian ASTREODON-I from 119, occupied by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-III of Bithynia.  Son of Nicomedes-III of Bithynia, PYLAEMENES-III Euergetes rules until 89. 108 rcT, wikLPΦ
c.107 Occupation of Paphlagonia by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-III of Bithynia - regarded by some as start of Mithridatic Wars. 108 GHH 107 atl2
c.104 CAPPADOCIA occupied by Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 104 bk     101 lvA
c.104 COLCHIS comes under Pontus until ?. 104 lvA
c.104 C. MARIUS sends envoys to Nicomedes-III of Bithynia asking for auxiliaries in the war against the Cimbri.  Nicomedes complains that the Romans had already taken his subjects as slaves. 103 CAH 9-35, DGRBM 2-1197
c.104 NICOMEDES-III, king of Bithynia 127-94, refuses C. Marius request.  Says most of his men have been siezed and enslaved by Roman publicans. 104 OCD 734 103 DGRBM 2-1197
c.104 M.(3) Antonius (the orator) is made praetor and proconsul of Cilicia to fight pirates until 102.  Friend L. Tullius Cicero accompanies. 104 DGRBM 1-213
103 DGRBM 1-708
c.103 Mithridates-VI of Pontus sends an embassy to the Cimbri. 103 atl2
c.103 LAODICE-VII, sis/wife of Mithridates-VI of Pontus allies herself to king Nicomedes-III Euergetes of Bithynia against her son Ariarathes-VII Philometor. 103 lvA
c.102 Mithridates, the real power in Cappadocia, and Nicomedes-III of Bithynia join in the conquest of Paphlagonia, the throne of which had been left vacant by the death of Pylaemenes.  The senate quickly orders the two kings to restore their new acquisition, but Nicomedes merely transfers the crown to one of his own sons, who had taken the name of Pylaemenes, and whom he pretends to regard as the rightful heir. 102 DGRBM 2-1197
c.102 M. Drusus serves as quaestor in Asia. 102 atl2
c.102 M. Antonius (the orator) proconsul of Cilicia from 104, suppresses Cilician pirates; M. Gratidius is killed during campaign.  M. Antonius and friend L. Tullius Cicero return to Rome.  Results don't last. 102
DGRBM 1-213, IDB 1-628, atl2
c.102 PROVINCE of CILICIA formed out of parts of Lycia, Phrygia, Pisidia, Pamphilia (according to Cicero), but none of the original Cilicia, which is now Tracheia and Pedias. 102 OCD 239 101 anan
c.101 EGRISI, part of Iberia (Kartli) from 302, conquered by Mithridates of Pontus. 101 wikCl
c.101 Mithridates-VI of Pontus sends envoys to Rome with money for bribing senators. 101 DGRBM 3-724, GHH, HRR
c.101 GALATIA, independent from 166, 12 tetrarchies period 166-83, occupied by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-II of Bithynia. 101 CAH 9, lvA
c.101 PAPHLAGONIA partitioned by Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Nicomedes-II of Bithynia. 101 CAH 9
c.101/00 Roman law engraved at Delphi and Knidos:  The senior consul is instructed, as part of a campaign to put down piracy, to write to kings in Syria, Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene and to give special audience to the Rhodians. 101-00 CAH 9-17
c.100 Writings of ARISTOTLE and THEOPHRASTOS, in a cellar in Scepsis in the Troad from 286, sold to philosopher Apellicon of Teos, who edits them, and takes them to Athens. 100 Dur 2-601, OCD 115
no date: B76 1-1165
c.100 CAPPADOCIA occupied by Mithridates-VI of Pontus.  Mithridates of Pontus intervenes, expells his sister Laodice and Nicomedes, restores Ariarathes VII, but on second thought decides to put his own son on the throne, Ariarathes Eusebes. 101 lvA, rcT
100 CAH 9
c.100 Meeting in presence of both armies of Mithridates-VI of Pontus and Ariarathes-VII of Cappadocia. 101 OCD 107
c.100 Son of A-VI, ARIARATHES-VII Philometor dies.  5th king of Cappadocia from 111, murdered personally by Mithridates-VI of Pontus, who appoints his own 8 year old son ARIARATHES Eusebes Philopator king until 96 under regency of Gordius. 101 MRDK 332, OCD 107, atl2, awCap, lvA
100 CAH 9-141, 1023, frH
c.100 ARTEMIDORUS, geographer of Ephesus, flourishes. 101 DGRBM 1-374