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c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 with son Seleucus and 2 daus of Demetrius-II marches east to reconquer Seleucid Empire.  He compels John Hyrcanus to accompany him in attack on ParthiaHyrcanus goes to Syria, as far as Lycus river between Gaugamela and Arbela, where A-VII defeats Parthian satrap IndatesHyrcanus asks him to remain there because it is a Jewish holiday. Ant 13:8:4
131 GHH
130 BHS 2-241, CAH 8-371, E2LM 147, Jud 4-37, lvD2
129 Jud 4-37
c.130 John HYRCANUS tells Antiochus-VII that he refuses to travel on Sabbaths or feast days.  A-VII sends him home. Ant 13:8:4
130 Jud 4-37
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 invades Parthia, proceeds down east side of Tigris. 131 CAH 8-370,     130 B76 VII-971, CAH 9-581, CHJ 2, ISBE 1-147, 2-623, Jud 5-1490 129 GHH, Sdl 5-340 128 BI+N 169
c.130 SELEUCIA on the Tigris, under Parthians from 141, recovered by Antiochus-VII. 130 CAH 8-372
c.130 PTOLEMAEOS dies.  King of Commagene from 163.  Son SAMOS-II succeeds until 109. 130 CAH 9-1023 wikKC, wikRCmg, wikS2
no date: OCD 273
c.129 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator released.  King of Syria 145-40, prisoner of Parthians from 140, released by Phraates-II to stir up civil war in Syria. 1Mac 14:??
130 CAH 8-372
129 B76 III-457, ISBE 1-147, 2-623, LEWH 95, OCD 326
c.129 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes gets lost while hunting and is given shelter by a poor family. 129 atl2
c.129 2nd son of Dem-I, 3rd husband of Cleo Thea, ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes dies.  King of Syria / Babylonia from 138 at Ecbatana, killed after a native uprising.  His 2nd son Seleucus is taken prisoner by Phraates-II king of Parthia, and never regains freedom.  Phraates sends A-VII's body home in a silver coffin.  This leaves DEMETRIUS-II Nicator unchallenged king of Syria / Babylonia until 126. Ant 13:8:4     130 CAH 9, OHG     129 B76 I-423, VII-971, 9-843, BHS 2-244, CAH 8-352, 372, 530, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-322, E2LM 148, IDB 1-50, 152, ISBE 1-147, 2-623, Jud 3-75, 5-1490, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-333, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, lvD2, rcM     129/8 CHJ 2     128 DGRBM 1-199, 967, 3-770, ISBE 1-918, MCAW     127 LEWH 95
c.129 ANTIOCHUS(ix), son of A-VII Sidetes & Cleo Thea is sent by mom to Cyzicus for safe keeping. 129 BHS 2-248, 253
c.128 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria / Babylonia 129-26, intervenes in Egyptian civil war, supporting Cleo-II, mom of his 1st wife Cleo Thea. 128 lvD2
c.128 Syrians, dissatisfied with sickly king DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, ask Ptolemy-VIII Physcon to send another Seleucid to rule Syria. Ant 13:9:3
128 CHJ 2-327, atl2
c.128 ALEXANDER ZEBINA, son of an Alexandrian broker, pretended son of Alex Balas, is sent with troops by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon to claim the throne of Syria until 125. Ant 13:9:3
128 CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-127, atl2, lvPt8
125 GHH
c.128 Pretended son of Alex Balas, ALEXANDER ZEBINA becomes counter king of Syria at Antioch. 128 CHJ 2-327, MRDK 353
c.127 CLEOPATRA-II, queen of Egypt from 130, flees to Syria, joins dau Cleo Thea and son-in-law Demetrius-II Nicator until 124. 127 lvC3, wikP
c.127 OSRHOES ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 132, succeeded or ousted by Arab ABDU bar Mazur who succeeds until 120. 127 CAH 9-586, MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs
c.126 Demetrius-II Nicator supports pretensions of Cleo-II as queen of Egypt. 126 GHH
c.126 VALARSACES, Parthian ruler of Armenia 148-26, defeats Seleucids, and strengthens kingdom of Armenia.  Valarsaces is said to have ruled for 22 years. 126 atl2
c.126 VALARSACES dies.  Parthian ruler of Armenia from 148, dies at Nisibis.  Son ARSACES (? Arshag) succeeds until 114. 127 DGRBM 1-365     126 atl2
c.126/5 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria from 129, decisively defeated by Alexander Zebina at DamascusD-II flees to wife Cleo Thea in Ptolemais.  Pretender ALEXANDER ZEBINA is king of Syria 125. Ant 13:9:3     126 CHJ 2-327, atl2, frH, wikD2     126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490     125 B76 III-456, DGRBM 1-127, 3-775, ISBE 1-918, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI2, Sdl 5-333, rcM
c.125 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator dies.  King of Syria from 129, flees from Damascus to Ptolemais, but his wife Cleo Thea closes the gates against him.  He is killed on a ship near Tyre, by order of the governor of Tyre.  3 sons of Cleo Thea are candidates for king:  Seleucus-V and Antiochus-VIII Grypus (sons of Dem-II), Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus (son Ant-VII).  SELEUCUS-V is chosen, but Pretender ALEXANDER ZEBINA controls most of Syria 125. Ant 13:9:3     126 RAI3, frH, Sdl 5-340, wikD2
126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490     125 B76 III-456, DGRBM 1-127, 967, 2-543, 3-775, ISBE 1-917, LEWH 95, MRDK, OCD 326, RAI2, Sdl 5-333, atl2, lvD2, rcM
c.125 LAODICEA on coast south of Seleucia Pieria taken by Alex Zebina. 124 atl2
c.125 Son of Demetrius-II & Cleo Thea, SELEUCUS-V dies.  S-V tries to take throne of Syria, lasts a few months.  Killed by mom, who recalls his younger bro Antiochus Grypus from Athens, where he had been studying. 125 DGRBM 1-199, 3-775, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, atl2, frH, lvCθ, rcM
c.125 Pretender ALEXANDER ZEBINA ends.  King of most of Syria 125, supported by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, defeated and captured by Antiochus Grypus, teenage 2nd son of son of Demetrius-II & Cleo Thea.  ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus becomes joint ruler of Syria with mom CLEOPATRA THEA until 120.  A-VIII remains defensive because he expects attack by bro A-IX Cyzicenus. Ant 13:10:1     126 RAI3 126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803
125 CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-800, 3-594, IDB 1-152, MRDK 353, atl2, lvA2Z, rcM     124 lvPt8 123 CHJ 2-327, MRDK 353, atl2
c.124 Cleo TRYPHAENA, 2nd dau of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon by Cleo-III, sent from Egypt to Syria to marry Antiochus-VIII Grypus. 125 GHH
124 wikC6E, wikP8
c.124 CLEOPATRA-II, in Syria from 127, reconciled with Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, returns to Egypt. 124 wikC2
c. 124/3 ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus, joint ruler of Syria with mom Cleo Thea, marries Cleo TRYPHAENA, dau of P-VIII & Cleo-III.  She will bear him 5 sons, and be queen of Syria until 111. 125 GHH     124 wikC3 124/3 lvC3, lvCT, lvPt8 123 lvA8G     122 atl2
c.123 CLEOPATRA THEA endorses her son by A-VII Sidetes, A-IX CYZICENUS, as king of Syria. 123 GHH
c.123 TIGRAN-I ends.  King of Greater Armenia from 149, ends.  Son of Artaxias-I and Queen Satenik, TIGRAN-II (Ardavasdes-I) succeeds until 97. 123 hifi, hystn, wikArtD, wikLAK
95 aca, rcCau, lvArt
123/2 ALEXANDER ZEBINA, defeated in battle, falls back on Antioch. 123/2 BHS 2-252
c.122 Pretender ALEXANDER ZEBINA dies.  Former king of Syria 125, tries to rob a temple, falls into hands of thieves, who deliver him to ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus, who kills him. 122 DGRBM 1-128, GHH, lvA2Z, prs
c.122 VOLOGASES ends.  King of Media from 144, ends.  ARSACES succeeds until 111. 122 wikPsk
c.121/0 CLEOPATRA THEA tries to poison son and co-ruler of Syria / Babylonia ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus, who returns from a hunt, and is offered a cup of wine by her.  He makes her drink it. 121 lvA8G, 121/0 wikCT
c.121/0 2nd dau of P-VI & Cleo-II, divorcee of Alex Balas 150-46, widow of Demetrius-II 146-25, widow of Antiochus-VII 138-29, CLEOPATRA THEA dies.  Co-ruler of Syria / Babylonia from 125.  Son ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus is sole ruler of Syria until 115. 121 CHJ 2-327, GHH, frH, lvA8G, lvCθ     121/0 BHS 2-252     120 DGRBM 1-199, LEWH 95, atl2
c.120 Arab ABDU bar Mazur ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 127, ends.  FARDHASHT bar Gebau succeeds until 115. 120 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs
c.116 Son of A-VII Sidetes & Cleo Thea, ANTIOCHUS(ix) accuses half-bro A-VIII Grypus of trying to have him poisoned, attacks A-VIII, despite no legal right to the throne. 116 BHS 2-253
c.115 FARDHASHT bar Gebau ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 120.  Son BAKRU-I succeeds until 112. 115 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs
c.115 CLEOPATRA-IV, dau of A-VII & Cleo Thea, sis/wife of P-IX Soter-II, divorced so P-IX can marry their sis Cleo-V Selene.   Cleo-IV assembles an army and offers her hand to Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, son of Sidetes & Cleo Thea, sails from Cyprus to Syria.  They marry, which gives A-IX an army. 117 DGRBM 1-800     115 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9, lvA9C, lvCT
c.115 ANTIOCHUS(ix) Cyzicenus occupies southern Syria. lvA9C
c.115 ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus sole ruler of Syria from 120, is forced to accept ½ half-bro/cousin ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus co-ruler until 96. 116 IDB 1-152, frH 115 LEWH 95, MRDK 353, rcM
c.114 Son of Valarsaces, ARSACES (? Arshag) ends.  King of Armenia from 126.  ARTACES succeeds until 89. 114 DGRBM 1-365
c.114 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus marries CLEOPATRA-IV, dau of A-VII & Cleo Thea, sis/divorcee of P-IX. 113 atl2
c.114 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus instigated by his intriguing Egyptian wife Cleo-IV, raises an army to dislodge his half-bro A-VIII Grypus from the throne. 114 GHH
c.114/3 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus now married to Cleo-IV, revolts against his bro, the lawful king Antiochus-VIII Grypus, attacks A-VIII. 114/3 lvCT 113 atl2
114/3 ANTIOCH taken by Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus until ?.  A-IX also takes most if not all of the Seleucid empire. 114/3 CHJ 2-327 113 lvA9C
114/3 SELEUCID DYNASTY splits into north and south branches:  North Antiochus-VIII Grypus until 111.  South Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus until 95. 114/3 lvD3
c.113 SYRIA:  civil war begins between bros Antiochus-VIII and IX until 111, indecisive battles until 112. 113 LEWH 95
112 DGRBM 1-199
c.113 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88 invades Armenia, takes hostage the Armenian king's son, the future Tigranes the Great. 113 wikM2P, wikPE
c.112 COLCHIS on east coast of Black Sea, conquered by MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88. 112 CAH 9, atl2
c.112 ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus, supported by Ptolemaic Egypt, defeats A-IX Cyzicenus and captures Antioch.  A-IX Cyzicenus retreats into Coele-Syria, and holds Sidon, Damascus, Ptolemais and Ashkelon. 112
CHJ 2-328, GHH, atl2, lvA8G,
c.112 ANTIOCH, under Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus from 114/3, recovered by Antiochus-VIII Grypus supported by Ptolemaic Egypt until 111/0. 112 CHJ 2-328, LEWH 95, atl2, wikTr
c.112 BAKRU-I bar Fradhasht ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 115.  Son BAKRU-II succeeds until 94. 112 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs
c.112 COINS minted in Ashkelon, Ptolemais, Damascus, and Antioch bear the name of Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, rather than Antiochus-VIII Grypus. by mid 112 CHJ 2-327-8
c.112 CLEOPATRA-IV, wife of Antiochus-IX, captured by Antiochus-VIII Grypus. 112 lvCT
c.112 CLEOPATRA TRYPHAENA accuses sis Cleo-IV of introducing foreign armies into the dispute between Seleucid stepbros and marrying outside Egypt against the will of her mother.  Husband Antiochus-VIII tries unsuccessfully to get Cleo-IV spaired. 112 wikTrΦ
c.112 CLEOPATRA-IV, dau of Antiochus-VII & Cleo Thea, sis/divorcee of P-IX, wife of Antiochus-IX from 115, hacked to death at altar of Apollo at Daphne by command of Cleo Tryphaena. 112 CAH 9-387, atl2, lvCT, wikTr
c.111 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus defeats Antiochus-VIII Grypus.
ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus is deposed
and sails to Aspendus on coast of Pamphilia.  Some places in Syria remain loyal to A-VIII during his absence, notably Seleucia Pieria.
113 CHJ 2, GHH 113/2 BHS 2-255
111 atl2
c.111 CLEOPATRA TRYPHAENA, wife of Antiochus-VIII Grypus taken by Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96. 111 wikTr
c.111 ARSACES ends.  King of Media from 122, ends.  ARTAXERXES succeeds until 97. 111 wikPsk
c.111 CLEOPATRA TRYPHAENA, dau of P-VIII & Cleo-III, wife of Antiochus-VIII Grypus, murdered in Antioch by Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96. 111 lvCT, wkwnC6, wikC6E
c.111 SYRIA, in civil war between bros Antiochus-VIII and IX from 113, divided.  Antiochus-VIII Grypus at Antioch, bro Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus at Damascus gets Coele-Syria until 96. 111 CHJ 2, GHH, LEWH 95
c.111/0 ANTIOCH, under Antiochus-VIII Grypus from 112, recovered by Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus until 110/9. 111/0 lvA8G,
c.110/9 ANTIOCH, under Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus from 111/0, recovered by Antiochus-VIII Grypus. 110/9 lvA8G
c.109 SAMOS-II dies.  King of Commagene from 130.  Son MITHRIDATES-I Callinicus succeeds until 70. 109 wikRCmg, wikKC, wikS2
c.109 MIRVAN-I, king of Colchis/Iberia from 159, ends.  Son PARNAJOM succeeds as king of Georgia until 90. 112 rcCau
109 CEKI 10,
MRDK 343, hifiGeo
c.108 SELEUCIA PIERIA, under Egypt from 146, granted independence by Antiochus Grypus for its loyalty, independent until 1st cen. CE. 109 IDB 4-265
109/8 BHS 2-256
108 ISBE 4-384, atl2
c.108 6,000 Ptolemaic troops sent from Egypt to aid Antiochus Cyzicenus. 108 atl2
c.108 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, goes to Coele-Syria, and returns. Ant 13:10:2
108 CAH 8-533
c.107 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, goes again to Coele-Syria. Ant 13:10:2
c.107 A naval expedition from Cleo-III forces Ptolemy-IX to flee from Cyprus to Seleucia, but he soon returns. 107 B76 VIII-281, lvPt9
c.107 ANTIOCHUS-VIII Grypus marries CLEO SELENE, dau of P-8 & Cleo-3, and former wife of P-9 Lathyrus. 107 lvPt9
103 lvA8G, lvA9C 102 BHS 2-258
no date: wikCS1
c.106 A plot by Cleo-III against Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus is uncovered at Seleucia Pieria. 106 atl2
c.105 Chinese envoys using the new Silk Road reach Seleucia. 105 bk
c.104 COLCHIS, several small independent kingdoms from ?, comes back under Pontus until ?. 104 lvA 101 wikCl
c.102 Poet A. Licinius ARCHIAS of Antioch goes to Rome. 102 DGRBM 1-708, atl2
c.101 EGRISI, part of Iberia (Kartli) from 302, conquered by Mithridates of Pontus. 101 wikCl
c.101 Seleucid civil war has by now become intertwined with conflict in Ptolemaic Empire. 101 lvPt9
c.101 Antiochus-VIII Grypus is in control of the northern part of the Seleucid Empire and is supported by Ptolemy-X Alexander. 101 lvPt9

Syria-Armenia 100-70