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c.150 ZELEUCOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 151, ends.  SPEUSIPPOS succeeds until 149. 150 wikEA
c.150 Achaean general Menalcidas receives 10 talents bribe from people of Oropos to help them against the Athenians, who maintained a garrison in Oropos.  Callicrates is offered 5 talents by the Oropians, and refuses it. 150 DGRBM 1-569, 2-1029, atl2
c.150 Andriscus ruler of Adramyttium in Aeolis Anatolia, claims to be son of Perseus, crosses to Thrace, where he is welcomed by a chief called Teres and begins to collect an army.  At Pella ANDRISCUS becomes king of Macedonia as PHILIP-VI until 148. 152 brit   150 frH
149 GHH, atl2, mace, wikAnd
c.150 CALLICRATES, pro-Roman leader of 2nd Achaean League 183-49, charges general Menalcidas of a capital offense.  Menalcidas escapes by bribing Diaeos with 3 talents. 150 DGRBM 1-569, 997
c.150 Achaean general MENALCIDAS replaced by DIAEOS. 150 DGRBM 1-997
c.150 THRACE under Rome from 168 independent until 146.  DIYGLYES becomes king of Odrysians until 140. 150 frH
c.150 Achaean League and Sparta begin hostilities. 150 GHH, bk
no date: OCD 299
c.150 The Platonic ACADEMY under Carneades has now reached the conclusion of epistemic skepticism, denying even the possibility of knowledge.  It now devotes itself mostly to dialectic, and becomes little more than a parasite on other schools, content to expose their logical fallacies and absurdities, thereby contributing nothing to the advancement of human thought, except to force some upgrades to Stoic doctrine. 150 IDB 2-496
c.150 CRITOLAOS, head of Aristotelian Lyceum from 190, ends, but doesn't die until 118.  DIODOROS of Tyre succeeds until 105. 155 wikPr
140 atl2
no date: OCD 299
c.150 Boy choking gooseBOETHOS, sculptor, flourishes.  Noted for his representations of children, especially for a group including this boy choking a goose (literally).  Only Roman copies survive.

Another sculptor of this time is POLYCLES, known mainly for a statue of a hermaphrodite.  What few Greek sculptors remain have become caricatures of their glorious predecessors.  Why make great art, when the Romans will just steal it?
photo: Jastrow

2nd cen. wikBθ, wikPlc
c.149 Λ 4th MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 148.  Andriscus, pretended son of Perseus, supported by Thracians, raises rebellion, gets control of Macedonia. 149 B76 VI-442, 8-385, 15-1095, CAH 8, DGRG 2-235, LEWH 92, OCD 1065, SORH, frH, vrb, wikTAR
c.149 ANDRISCUS ravages Thessaly. 149 SORH, bk
c.149 Praetor P. Juventius Thalna is sent by senate to counter Andriscus. 149 CAH 8-321
c.149 SPEUSIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 150, ends.  LYSIADES succeeds until 148. 149 wikEA
c.149 2nd Achaean League seeks to impose authority in Sparta by threatening war. 149 atl2
c.149 ANDRISCUS is driven back from Thessaly by Q. Caecilius Metellus and allies. 149 IDB 3-216, atl2
c.149 ANDRISCUS escapes from Thrace to Anatolia. 149 atl2
c.149 ANDRISCUS crosses from Anatolia back to Thrace where he is welcomed by chieftain Teres and begins to collect an army. 149 atl2
c.149 ANDRISCUS gains control of Macedonia. 149 atl2
c.149 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia in Rome from 163, secretly sails to Epirus, openly assumes title of king of Bithynia, proceeds with Andronicus to the court of Attalus-II of Pergamum. 149 DGRBM 2-1196
c.149 Spartan embassy goes to Rome, appeals to the senate about a disputed territory. 149 atl2
c.149 CALLICRATES, pro-Roman leader of 2nd Achaean League from 183, is sent by Achaean League to oppose Spartan envoys in Rome, but dies on the way at Rhodes.  Anti-Roman DIAEOS succeeds until 148. 150 CAH 8
149 DGRBM 1-569, LEWH 92, atl2
c.149 SPARTA, in 2nd Achaean League from ?, drops out.  Achaean leader DIAEOS urges war. 149 CAH 8, LEWH 92     148 atl2
c.149 2nd Achaean League attacks Sparta. 150 bk     149 LEWH 92
no date: OCD 299
c.149 A Spartan embassy appeals to the senate about a disputed territory, but they are told to accept Achaean jurisdiction. 149 MCAW, atl2
c.149 Greek historian POLYBIUS is summoned by consul M' Manilius to Lilybaeum.  But on reaching Corcyra, he hears from the consuls that the Carthaginians had given hostages, and thinking, therefore, that the war was over, and that his presence was no longer needed, Polybius returns to Peloponnese. 149 DGRBM 3-444, atl2
c.149/8 Praetor P. Juventius Thalna, in Macedonia 149, is defeated and killed in battle in Macedonia by Andriscus, who then advances into Thessaly. 149 CAH 8-321, DGRBM 2-691, SORH 148 B76 8-385, atl2
c.148 Son of Amadokos-III, TERES-V, a king in Thrace from 183, independent from 180, ends. 149 wikLRTD 148 frH, wikOK
c.148 ANDRISCUS, pretended son of Perseus, rebel in Macedonia, rejects negotiations with Scipio Nasica. 148
OCD 63
c.148 LYSIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 149, ends.  ARCHON (That's his name) succeeds until 147. 148 wikEA
c.148 Achaeans think Romans are too busy fighting Carthage and Andriscus.  An Achaean army, led by Damocritus, invade Laconia.  Achaea / Sparta war begins until ? despite prohibition of Rome 148 DGRBM 1-997, atl2
147 LdHR 2-111, SORH
c.148 Praetor Q. Caecilius METELLUS (later Macedonicus arrives with a strong force to replace Thalna. 148 CAH 8-321, DGRBM 2-1057 147 LdHR 2-111
c.148 Attalus-II of Pergamum with his fleet in Aegean supports Romans against Andriscus in Thessaly. 148 CAH 8-375
c.148 ANDRISCUS, is successful in a cavalry battle near Pydna, but out of fear of the infantry turns back.  He divides his army in 2, remaining on watch with one, and sending the other to ravage Thessaly. 148 atl2
c.148 ANDRISCUS, pretended son of Perseus, rebel in Macedonia from 148, is defeated by praetor Q. Caecilius Metellus, and flees to Thrace.  Defeated again, he is betrayed by Thracian prince Byzes, and delivered to Metellus. 148 B76 VI-836, 8-385, 15-1095, CAH 8-321, DGRBM 2-1057, DGRG 2-235, GHH, OCD 63, 677, SORH, atl2
c.148 ANDRISCUS "PHILIP-VI", king of Macedonia from 150, sent to Rome, executed. 148 B76 8-385, frH
c.148 4th MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 149, ends. 148 B76 VI-442 146 frH
c.148 Achaeans send Diaeos as envoy to Rome to try to patch things up. 148 atl2
c.148 Achaeans fine Damocritus for his failure in war against Sparta. 148 atl2
c.148 MACEDONIA, divided into 4 districts from 167, is reunified as Rome's 6th Province, imperial until 27, capital at Thessalonica, governed by a proconsul who also governs Illyria. 149 vrb     148 IDB 3-216, 4-104, 629, Jud 16-1263, SORH
147 GHH, OCD 928     146 BAA 311, BBA 307, CAH 8, CDCC 539, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-638, TTPC
c.148 THESSALONICA becomes capital of Macedonia Province until ?. 148 B76 IX-951, BAA 324
c.148 THESSALY incorporated into Macedonia Province until 300CE. 148 B76 IX-952, wikHθ
c.148 CORCYRA under Rome from 229, incorporated into Macedonia Province, remains under Rome until 395CE. 148
OCD 289 146 rcSB3
c.147 ARCHON (That's his name), eponymous archon of Athens from 148, ends.  EPIKRATES succeeds until 146. 147 wikEA
c.147 2nd Achaean League under Anti-Romans DIAEOS and CRITOLAOS 149-6, now at war with Sparta, becomes truculent against Rome. 147 B76 8-385
c.147 SOSICRATES, a vice-general of the Achaeans in their war against the Romans, is chief mover of a resolution at Corinth, to negotiate with Metellus, for which, upon arrival of Diaeos at Corinth, Sosicrates is condemned to death.  In hope of extorting a confession from him, he is tortured, and dies.  This so disgusts the people, that Diaeos does not dare to execute the ambassadors who had been sent to praetor Q. Caecilius Metellus. 147 DGRBM 3-882
c.147 Philinus of Corinth is killed by Diaeos. 147 atl2
c.147 When the war between Achaeans and Spartans had been suspended at the command of Q. Caecilius Metellus, MENALCIDAS, persuades the Spartans to break the truce, and seizes and plunders lasus, a subject town of the Achaeans on the borders of Laconia.  The Spartans repent of their rashness, and turn against Menalcidas, who suicides by poison. 147 DGRBM 2-1030, atl2
c.147 DIAEOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, tries to sway towns around Sparta by negotiation. 147 DGRBM 1-997
c.147 DIAEOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 149, suspended.  CRITOLAOS (also anti-Roman) succeeds until death 146. 147 DGRBM 1-894, 997
c.147 Praetor Q. Caecilius METELLUS (later Macedonicus) suppresses a minor revolt led by Alexander, another pretended son of Perseus. 147 atl2
c.147 Byzantium loses its liberty as punishment for supporting Andriscus. 147 atl2
c.147 Inconclusive meeting between Achaean general Critolaos and Roman envoys at Tegea. 147 atl2
c.147 Roman envoys, led by L. Aurelius Orestes, arrive in Greece, summon the magistrates of Achaean League cities and Diaeos federal general to Corinth, and demands that Sparta, Corinth, Argos, Orchomenos, And Heraclea Trachis (west of Thermopylae) be made independent of Achaean League.  Achaean general Critolaos incites a mob against Lacedaemonians and Romans, who are allegedly assaulted. 147
B76 8-385, 15-1095, CAH 8-322, DGRG 1-16, LdHR 2-112, MCAW, atl2
c.147 Achaean THEARIDAS heads an embassy bound for Rome to excuse the insult offered to legate L. Aurelius Orestes.  He meets Sextus Julius Caesar, and is compelled to return with him to Achaea. 147 DGRBM 3-1022
c.147 Sextus Julius Caesar, under senate orders to speak softly, leads another Roman embassy to Achaea to investigate dispute between Achaeans and Sparta.  Critolaos, strategos of Achaean League says the League will consider Roman demands at their next regular meeting in 6 months.Caesar and embassy return to Rome. 147
CAH 8-322, DGRG 1-16, LdHR 2-112, atl2
147/6 Achaeans spend winter preparing for war against Sparta, knowing that this would likely mean war with Rome. 147/6 CAH 8-322
147/6 Q. Caecilius METELLUS winters in Macedonia. 147/6 LdHR 2-112
c.146 EPIKRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 147, ends.  ARISTOPHANTOS succeeds until 145. 146 wikEA
c.146 THRACE V, independent from 150, under Diyglyes, king of Odrysians 150-40, conquered by Romans, under Rome until 100. 146 wikOK
c.146 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE meets at Corinth.  CRITOLAOS, strategos of Achaean League, persuades assembly to declare war on Sparta, but in reality on RomansRome / Achaean League war begins until later 146. 147 CAH 9-32, GHH, MCAW
146 spring
CAH 8-323, atl2
c.146 An embassy from Q. Caecilius Metellus arrives fortuitously at the Corinth meeting, offering the Achaeans a last chance to submit peacefully to Rome's orders. 146 spring CAH 8-323, LdHR 2-112
c.146 Thessalian PHILON, accompanies the Achaean deputies on their return from the camp of Q. Caecilius Metellus, and try in vain, to induce the Achaeans to accept the terms offered them by Metellus. 146 DGRBM 3-306
c.146 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE under Anti-Romans Diaeos and Critolaos 149-6, develops general conflict involving Boeotia, Phocis, Locris.  Announces war of liberation.  Leaders of the poor sieze control, liberate slaves, suspend debts, promise redistribution of land. 146
B76 8-385, Dur 2-665, 3-86, atl2
c.146 MEGARA, under Achaean League from 224, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcSB3
c.146 PHLIOS, allied with Sparta from 225, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcPl
c.146 CRITOLAOS, strategos of Achaean League, with a large army, marches toward Thermopylae to arrouse Greeks to rebel against Romans, and to chastise Heraclea Trachis for abandoning the Achaeans. 146 DGRBM 1-894
c.146 CORINTH joins 2nd Achaean League in rebellion. 146 IDB 1-685
c.146 CRITOLAOS, strategos of Achaean League besieges Heraclea Trachis. 146 DGRBM 1-894, LdHR 2-112, atl2
c.146 THEBES and Chalcis Euboea join Achaean League against Romans. 146 B76 II-712, LdHR 2-112
c.146 Q. Caecilius Metellus sends pro-Roman Achaeans Andronidas, Archippos, and Lagios to Diaeos the Achaean commander to offer a lenient peace.  Diaeos rejects the offer, imprisons all of them, later releases Andronidas for 1 talent ransom, Archippos and Lagios for less money. 146 DGRBM 1-176, 273, 2-712, atl2
c.146 CRITOLAOS, strategos of Achaean League, marches north thru Boeotia into south Thessaly. 146 DGRG 1-16
c.146 Q. Caecilius Metellus marches south from Macedonia to counter Achaeans under Critolaos. 147 LdHR 2-112, MCAW
146 DGRG 1-16
c.146 Philopoemen, general with troops under Attalus-II supports Romans against Achaeans. 146 CAH 8-375
c.146 Q. Caecilius Metellus invades Greece. 147 GHH
c.146 Q. Caecilius Metellus relieves Achaean siege of Heraclea Trachis, chases Achaeans south. 146 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-894
c.146 Q. Caecilius METELLUS defeats Arcadians in Phocis. 146 atl2
c.146 A group of soldiers from Patrae are overwhelmed by Romans in Phocis. 146 atl2
c.146 Q. Caecilius METELLUS finds Thebes deserted, continues to the isthmus. 146 LdHR 2-112
c.146 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE under anti-Romans Diaeos and Critolaos 149-6, divided by class conflict, easily conquered by Q. Caecilius Metellus, who routs Critolaos near Scarphea in Locris south of Thermopylae. 146 B76 8-385, 15-1095, CAH 8-323, DGRBM 2-1057, DGRG 1-16, Dur 3-86, GHH, IDB 1-25, LdHR 2-112, LEWH 92, SORH
c.146 CRITOLAOS, strategos of Achaean League, drops out of history, probably killed.  Achaean army flees to Corinth, pursued by Metellus. 146 CAH 8-323, DGRBM 1-894, 2-1057, DGRG 1-16, LdHR 2-112, atl2
c.146 MESSENE in Messenia, in 2nd Achaean League from 164, comes under Rome until 395. 146 rcPl
c.146 ELIS, town and region in northwest Peloponnese, in 2nd Achaean League from 191, no longer so. 146 rcPl
c.146 EPIRUS, province 167-?, subdued by Romans. 146 GHH
c.146 DIAEOS, leader of Achaean League, frees slaves and raises another 15,000 men to defend at Corinth. 146 LdHR 2-113, atl2
c.146 Q. Caecilius METELLUS commander in Macedonia/Greece from 148, sweeps towards the Isthmus, where he is relieved by consul L. MUMMIUS until 145.  His bro Spurius and Aulus(2) Postumius Albinus are his legates.  Metellus returns to Rome, and is henceforth called Macedonicus. 146 CAH 8-323, DGRBM 2-1057, 1120, DGRG 1-16, LdHR 2-115, MCAW, atl2
146 CORINTH, independent from 197, hqs of Achaean League under Diaeos, surrenders to consul L. MUMMIUS, and is then sacked and destroyed on orders from senate as punishment for rebellion.  Men killed, women enslaved, treasures shipped to RomeThis marks the end of free Greece.  Corinth remains leveled until 45, and under Rome until 395. 147 B76 15-1095, LEWH 92, 102, OCD 853, TAWH 17
146 B76 5-173, 14-762, BAA 342, BBA 345, CAH 8-323, CDCC 237, DGRBM 1-997, DGRG 2-1150, Dur 2-666, FLAP 279, GHH, IDB 1-682, ISBE 1-773, LdHR 2-113, MCAW, SHWC 110, SORH, atl2, bk, wikHR
c.146 GREEK HELLENISTIC PERIOD ends.  Began 323.
ROMAN PERIOD begins until ?.
146 wikHG
c.146 Now that Corinth is gone, Argos and Delos become main commercial cities. 146 SORH
c.146 Isthmian games, held at Corinth from ?, transferred to Sicyon until Corinth is rebuilt 45BCE. 146 DGRA 646
c.146 SICYON, under 2nd Achaean League from 251, becomes Roman territory, but by now, Sicyon, so long dominated by Sparta or Corinth, has declined so far that it is abandoned. 146 rcPl
c.146 THEBES, under Romans from 197, is destroyed by Mummius.  It is abandoned by its inhabitants and never recovers. 146 DGRG 2-1150, GHH, atl2
c.146 EUBOEAN LEAGUE, independent from 196, dissolved by L. Mummius for helping Achaeans against Romans.  Euboea is attached to Macedonia Province. 146
CDCC 332, OCD 412
c.146 2nd AETOLIAN LEAGUE, independent from 290, dissolved by L. Mummius.  AETOLIA comes under Rome until 395 146 rcSB3
c.146 CHALCIS Euboea partly destroyed for helping Achaeans against Romans. 146
OCD 226
c.146 Consul L. MUMMIUS defeats Achaean army at the Isthmus. 146 CAH 8, SORH, atl2, bk
c.146 DIAEOS, strategos of Achaean League 146, flees to Megalopolis, kills his wife to prevent her from being captured, suicides by poison. 146 DGRBM 1-997, LdHR 2-113, atl2
c.146 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE, operating from 280, completed 272, disolved by L. Mummius. 146 B76 I-56, CAH 8, GHH, OCD 3
c.146 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, in 2nd Achaean League from 239, comes under Rome until 395. 146 rcPl
c.146 ARCADIA under 2nd Achaean League from 222, independent until 87. 146 rcPl
c.146 ACHAEA becomes a province and is annexed by L. Mummius to Macedonia Province until 27.  Achaea is under Rome until 395CE. 146 B76 I-56, rcPl, wikARP     145 GHH
c.146 POLYBIUS acts as mediator between Rome and Greece thru 145 in reconstruction of Macedonia/Greece. 146 OCD 853 146/5 CDCC 703
c.146 Senate sends 10 commissioners to L. Mummius to organize Achaea into a province.  They include C. Sempronius Tuditanus. 146 DGRBM 3-1182, SORH, atl2
c.146 POLYBIUS'  History , having begun in 220, ends here. 146 DGRBM 3-445
c.146 Greek historian POLYBIUS sails on a journey of exploration along northwest coast of Africa. 146 atl2
c.146 MACEDONIA PROVINCE 148, reorganized by 10 commissioners to include Epirus, Illyria, Achaea.  Only Athens and Sparta are allowed to make their own laws.  Thessalonica is capital. 146 B76 8-385, BAA 311, BBA 309, Dur 3-87, CDCC 883, ISBE 4-837, LEWH 92, atl2, vrb
c.145 ARISTOPHANTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 146, ends.  METROPHANES succeeds until 144. 145 wikEA
c.145 10 Roman commissioners leave Achaea for Macedonia. 145 atl2
c.145 Proconsul L. MUMMIUS tours Greek cities. 145 atl2
145 Proconsul L. MUMMIUS, commander in Greece from 146, loads up many Corinthian paintings and statues on his ships.  He tells the shipping contractors if they lose anything they must replace it with another of equal value.  He returns to Rome. 146 LdHR 2-115, MCAW 145 DGRBM 2-1119, atl2
c.145 Statues of Philopoemen and Aratus, which the Roman commissioners had ordered to be taken to Italy, are allowed, at intercession of Polybius, to remain in Peloponnese.  So much respect did the commissioners pay Polybius, that when they leave in spring , after arranging its affairs, and reducing it to a Roman province, they ordered Polybius to visit various cities, and explain the new laws and constitution. 145 DGRBM 3-444
c.145 War between Attalus of Pergamum and Diegylis king of the Thracian Caeni who live in the hinterland of Byzantium.  Diegylis is killed. 146/5
CAH 8-375 145 atl2
c.144 METROPHANES, eponymous archon of Athens from 145, ends.  THEAITETOS succeeds until 143. 144 wikEA
c.144 Polybius goes as Achaean envoy to Rome. 144 atl2
144/3 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, sends letters of friendship via envoy Numenius (Jew with a Roman name) to Rome, Sparta, etc. 1Mac 12:1
143 atl2
no date: IDB 3-572
c.143 Praetor A. Licinius NERVA arrives in Macedonia. 143 DGRBM 2-1168
c.143 THEAITETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 144, ends.  ARISTOPHON succeeds until 142. 143 wikEA
c.142 Praetor D. Junius SILANUS MANLIANUS sent from Rome to Macedonia until 140. 142 DGRBM 3-819
c.142 Praetor A. Licinius NERVA, in Macedonia from 143, becomes governor of Macedonia.  During Nerva's absence, his quaestor, L. Tremellius Scrofa defeats a body of 16,000 men in arms under another pretender to Macedonian throne, a Pseudo-Perseus (Pseudo-Philippus? Alexander?), who is killed. 142 DGRBM 2-1168, 3-758, SORH, atl2 140 CAH 9-32
c.142 VIA EGNATIA begun from Dyrrhachium and Apollonia eastward by otherwise unknown praetor Gn. Egnatius.  Finished c.130. late 140s lvVE
c.142 ARISTOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 143, ends.  MIKION(?) succeeds until 141. 142 wikEA
142/1 CHARMADAS, age 22, goes to Athens, joins Platonic Academy. 142/1 CHHΦ
c.141 The Celtic SCORDISCI at the confluence of the Savus, Dravus, and Danube in north Illyria are attacked by Romans, and defeat them.  A Scordisci counter-attack is also repulsed.  This begins conflict with Roman held Macedonia. 141 atl2, hifiSc, wikSc
c.141 MIKION(?), eponymous archon of Athens from 142, ends.  DIONYSIOS succeeds until 140. 141 wikEA
c.140 DIYGLYES ends.  King of Odrysians from 150, under Rome from 146.  Son of Cotys-IV, BITIS succeeds until 120. 140 frH, wikLRTD
c.140 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 141, ends.  HAGNOTHEOS succeeds until 139. 140 wikEA
c.140 Gramarian APOLLODOROS of Athens flourishes.  Pupil of Aristarchus, historian.  Writes  Chronica , a history of individuals from fall of Troy to 144, later continued to 119,   On Gods  Greek religion rationalized. 140 B76 I-448, DGRBM 1-234
no date: OCD 83
c.140 D. Junius SILANUS MANLIANUS in Macedonia from 142, returns to Rome.  He is guilty of so many acts of robbery and oppression, that the Greeks follow him to accuse him before the senate. 140 DGRBM 3-819
140 /39 CLITOMACHUS, pupil of Carneades from 158, splits off from the Platonic Academy until 129/8.  Starts his own school in the Palladium at Athens. 140/39 CHHΦ, OCD 253     139 atl2
c.139 Restoration of Achaean and other leagues. 139 atl2
c.139 HAGNOTHEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 140, ends.  DIOCLES succeeds until 138. 139 wikEA
c.138 DIOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 139, ends.  TIMARCHOS succeeds until 137. 138 wikEA
c.137 TIMARCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 138, ends.  HERACLEITOS succeeds until 136. 137 wikEA
137/6 CARNEADES-I son of Epicomus, head of New Platonic Academy from 163, resigns because of age and weakness.  Never published.  CARNEADES-II son of Polemarchus succeeds until 129/8. 137/6 CHHΦ, OCD 206
136 atl2
c.136 HERACLEITOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 137, ends.  TIMARCHIDES succeeds until 135. 136 wikEA
c.136±10 HIPPARCHUS of Nicaea Bithynia flourishes - in Rhodes.
c.135 Roman embassy goes to Illyria to deliver an ultimatum to the Ardiaei and Pleraei. 135 atl2
c.135 The Celtic SCORDISCI of north Illyria enter Thrace, and are defeated by Praetor M. Cosconius. 135 CAH 9-32, SORH, atl2, hifiSc, wikSc
c.135 Consul Servius Fulvius FLACCUS is sent from Rome to Illyria. 135 DGRBM 2-155
c.135 Consul Ser. Fulvius Flaccus subdues the Vardaei of Illyria. 135 DGRBM 2-155, SORH, atl2
c.135 TIMARCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 136, ends.  DIONYSIOS succeeds until 134. 135 wikEA
c.135 Stoa of AttalusATTALUS-II Philadelphus, king of Pergamum 160-39, in grattitude for his Athenian education, builds a STOA (covered walkway) in the agora of Athens.  115 by 20 metres, made of Pentelic marble and limestone, containing 2 levels of colonades with 21 rooms in the back. exterior A.Savin

interior Gertjan R.

CDCC 554
no date: wikSA
c.135 Servius Flaccus has success on Dalmatian coast.  Praetor M.(2) Cosconius succeeds against Scordisci in Thrace.  Neither produces lasting results. 135 CAH 9-107, DGRBM 1-863
c.135 DELMINIUM (location disputed), capital of Dalmatia, Scipio Nasica destroys the walls and public buildings. 135 DGRG 1-748
c.135 Protarchus of Bargylia, Epicurean philosopher, flourishes.  Mentor of Demetrius Lacon. 150-40 CHHΦ
c.134 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 135, ends.  NICHOMACHOS succeeds until 133. 134 wikEA
c.134 SLAVE REBELLION in Attica silver mines until 133. 134 B76 8-390, atl2
c.133 ChersoneseCHERSONESE, mostly under Pergamum from 189, mostly converted to Roman public land.  Part of Asia Province until 129. 133
OCD 229
128 rcT
c.133 Menas of Sestus acts as envoy to Straton, Attalid general in Thrace. 133 atl2
c.133 AEGINA island, under Pergamum from 210, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 rcAg
c.133 NICHOMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 134, ends.  XENON succeeds until 132. 133 wikEA
c.132 XENON, eponymous archon of Athens from 133, ends.  ERGOCLES succeeds until 131. 132 wikEA
c.131 ERGOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 132, ends.  EPICLES succeeds until 130. 131 wikEA
c.131 Thracians execute their king Zibelmius. 131 atl2
Via Egnatia map map: Eric Gaba
c.130 Via EgnatiaVIA EGNATIA from Dyrrhachium and Apollonia to Byzantium, begun c.142, finished.  6m wide by 1,120km long, paved with polygonal stone slabs or covered with a hard layer of sand. photo: Marion Golsteijn

299-200 wikVE
pre-118 lvVE
130 OCD 1118
c.130 Dionysius of Thrace, pupil of Aristarchus, produces a Greek Grammar. 130 MCAW
c.130 EPICLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 131, ends.  DEMOSTRATOS succeeds until 129. 130 wikEA
c.130/29 PHILO of Larissa goes to Athens. 130/29 CHHΦ
c.129 Consul C.(3) Sempronius TUDITANUS is sent is sent by senate on a retaliatory march against the Taurisci and adjacent Iapydes and Histri of north Illyria. 129 DGRBM 1-509, 3-1182, SORH, hifiNT
c.129 C. Sempronius TUDITANUS is defeated in his first battle against the Iapydes of north Illyria. 129 DGRG 2-3, atl2
c.129 C. Sempronius TUDITANUS defeats the Iapydes of north Illyria, mainly by the skill of his legate D. Junius Brutus. 129 DGRG 2-3, atl2
c.129 ILLYRIA:  Consul C.(3) Sempronius TUDITANUS defeats many tribes including the Istri.  He is defeated by the Iapudes of Carso. 129 CAH 9-42, 107, OCD 556
defeats Iapydes: OCD 1098
c.129 Λ THRACE, diminished from 183, coastal cities annexed to Macedonia Province, but inland Thrace remains a client kingdom until 46 CE. 129 OCD 1065
c.129 ChersoneseCHERSONESE, part of Asia Province from 133, detached by Consul Manius Aquillus and annexed to Macedonia Province until ?. 129 B76 8-385
c.129 DEMOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 130, ends.  LYCISCOS succeeds until 128. 129 wikEA
c.129 Philosopher PANAETIUS of Rhodes, a regular companion of Scipio Aemilianus from 144, returns to Athens. 129 atl2, wikPn
c.129 ANTIPATER of Tarsus, head of Stoics in Athens from 152, suicides.  PANAETIUS of Rhodes succeeds until 109. 130/29 CHHΦ     129 B76 VII-707, OCD 774, 1015, atl2
no date: OCD 73
c.129 CARNEADES-II, head of New Platonic Academy from 137/6, dies.  CRATES of Tarsus succeeds until 127/6. 131/0 CHHΦ     130 atl2,     129 CDΦ 5, DGRBM 1-614, EoΦ 3-384, atl2
129/8 B76 14-540, OCD 206
128 EoΦ 2-33
129 Nov 5 LUNAR ECLIPSE near death of Carneades-II.  "At the time he died the moon is said to have been eclipsed, and one might well say that the brightest luminary in heaven next to the sun thereby gave token of her sympathy.  According to Apollodorus in his chronology he departed his life in the fourth year of the 162nd Olympiad at the age of 85 years." Diogenes Laertius-IV
Nov 5 129 nasa
129 Nov 20 SOLAR ECLIPSE seen at Hellespont.  "And at one time using the eclipse he [Hipparchus] adduced, he assumed that it had the least parallax, and at another time a greater parallax.  Hence the ratios of the Moon's distances came out different."   (Pappus: Commentary on the Almagest).
"Once the Sun was wholly eclipsed in the Hellespont, it was observed in Alexandria to be eclipsed except for the firth part of its diameter, which is, according to the sight, except for two digits and a little more... Now since it is 5,000 stades from Alexandria to Rhodes;  besides, proceeding hence to the Hellespont, this will also decrease in proportion, since when the Hellespont is reached, it will entirely vanish."   (Cleomedes: De Motu Circularis Corporum, II, 3)
129 Nov 20 mrec
129/8 CLITOMACHUS, who split off from the Platonic Academy in 140/39, rejoins, along with many followers. 129/8 OCD 253
c.128 LYCISCOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 129, ends.  DIONYSIOS succeeds until 127. 128 wikEA
c.127 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 128, ends.  THEODORIDES succeeds until 126. 127 wikEA
c. 127/6 CRATES of Tarsus, head of New Platonic Academy from 129/8, dies.  CLITOMACHUS, pupil of Carneades, succeeds until 110/9, and expounds doctrines of his teacher. 128 atl2
127 B76 II-983 127/6 CAH 8-162, CHHΦ, OCD 253
c.126 THEODORIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 127, ends.  DIOTIMOS succeeds until 125. 126 wikEA
c.125 DIOTIMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 126, ends.  JASON succeeds until 124. 125 wikEA
c.124 JASON, eponymous archon of Athens from 125, ends.  NICIAS succeeds and dies.  ISIGENES succeeds until 123. 124 wikEA
c.123 ISIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 124, ends.  DEMETRIOS succeeds until 122. 123 wikEA
c.122 DEMETRIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 123, ends.  NICODEMOS succeeds until 121. 122 wikEA
c.121 NICODEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 122, ends.  PHOCION(?) succeeds until 120. 121 wikEA
c.121 Achaean League sends troops to join Domitius Ahenobarbus' army in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.120 Son of Cotys-IV, BITIS ends.  Odrysian ruler in Thrace from 167, king from 140.  Son COTYS-V succeeds until 87. 120 wikLRTD
c.120 PHOCION(?), eponymous archon of Athens from 121, ends.  EUMACHOS succeeds until 119. 120 wikEA
c.120/19 BOETHOS of Marathon, pupil of Aristo of Ephesus, Academic philosopher, dies. 120/19 CHHΦ 34
c.119 Consul L. Caecilius METELLUS declares war on the Dalmatians, who had committed no offence against Rome.  He goes to Illyria. 119 DGRBM 2-1058
c.119 Caecilius Metellus marches against the Dalmatians, who offer no opposition.  He winters among them at Salona.  DALMATIAN campaign begins until 117. 119 DGRBM 2-1058, DGRG 1-747, IDB 1-757   118 OCD 310
c.119 EUMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 120, ends.  HIPPARCHOS succeeds until 118. 119 wikEA
c.119 The Thracian Maedi tribe 2nd attack on Macedonia. 119 hifiBst, hifiCT
While Celts in Thrace and lower Balkans remain the biggest threat to Roman expansion, native Balkan tribes frequently support them, especially the Bastarnae, Dardanii, and free Thracian tribes (the Bessoi, Denteletes, Maedi, and Triballi). hifiCT
c.119 The Celtic SCORDISCI of north Illyria defeat and kill Sextus Pompeius, governor of Macedonia Province, near Stobi, but they are held in check by his quaestor M. Annius, who protects Macedonia Province from invasion. 119 CAH 9-32, atl2, hifiCT
118 wikSc
c.119 Consuls Cotta and L.(5) Metellus defeat the Illyrian Segestani, capture SISCIA (Segestica). 119 OCD 775, atl2
119/8 Romans are now admitted to Ephebic College in Athens. 119/8 B76 6-327
c.118 L. Caecilius Metellus defeats Dalmatians. 118 atl2
c.118 HIPPARCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 119, ends.  LENAEOS succeeds until 117. 118 wikEA
c.118 Amphictyonic Council honors grammarian Apollodorus. 118 atl2
c.118 CRITOLAOS, former head of Aristotelian Lyceum 190-50, dies. 118 CHHΦ, wikPr
c.117 SALONA becomes chief city of Dalmatia, and headquarters of L. Metellus. 117 DGRG 2-884
c.117 L. Caecilius Metellus DALMATIAN campaign from 119, ends.  He is then surnamed DALMATICUS. 117 LdHR 2-222, OCD 310
c.117 DALMATIA becomes a province. 118 GHH
c.117 The Celtic SCORDISCI of north Illyria push thru Roman defenses and reach the Aegean coast. 117 hifiSc
c.117 POLYBIUS, historian, dies. 122 DGRBM 3-445     117 atl2
c.117 LENAEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 118, ends.  MENOITES succeeds until 116. 117 wikEA
c.116 MENOITES, eponymous archon of Athens from 117, ends.  SARAPION succeeds until 115. 116 wikEA
c.115 SARAPION, eponymous archon of Athens from 116, ends.  NAUSIAS succeeds until 114. 115 wikEA
c.115 DYME Achaea is torn with class conflict. 115 B76 8-390, wikDG
c.115 Former consul Q. Fabius Maximus Eburnus is sent to Macedonia.  He drafts plans for the conquest of Thrace. 115 hifiSc
c.115 SEX CHANGE OPERATION:  Callo of Epidauros changes sex as result of surgery. 115 atl2
c.114 Consul C. Porcius CATO is sent by senate to Macedonia Province. 114 DGRBM 1-645
c.114 Consul C. Porcius CATO begins conquest of Thrace, enters Rhodope Mountains via the Struma Valley. 114 hifiSc
c.114 The Celtic SCORDISCI of north Illyria invade Macedonia, surprise and destroy the army of Consul C. Porcius CATO, ravage Macedonia, and raid Greece. 114 CAH 9-32, 108, DGRBM 1-645, LdHR 2-222, SORH, atl2, hifiSc, wikSc
c.114 NAUSIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 115, ends.  [?]RATON succeeds until 113. 114 wikEA
c.114 The SCORDISCI defeat and kill Lucullus commander of garrison at Heraclea. 114 atl2
c.114 The SCORDISCI are expelled from Greece and of Macedonia by T. Didius. 114 DGRBM 1-1004 100 DGRBM 1-1005
c.113 Consul C. Caecilius Metellus CAPRARIUS sent to Macedonia Province, takes over.  He fights Thracian tribes and quickly subdues them. 113 CAH 9-108, DGRBM 2-1058, GHH
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI arrive in Illyria and defeat Gn. Carbo. 113 atl2
c.113 The SCORDISCI are attacked from the north by the Cimbri. 113 hifiSc
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI are stopped near the Celtic settlement of Singidunum (Belgrade), and turn west. 113 hifiSc
c.113 [?]RATON, eponymous archon of Athens from 114, ends.  PARAMONOS succeeds until 112. 113 wikEA
c.112 PARAMONOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 113, ends.  DIONYSIOS succeeds until 111. 112 wikEA
c.112 Consul M.(1) Livius DRUSUS joins Metellus CAPRARIUS in Macedonia Province until 110. 112 B76 III-677, CAH 9-108
c.112 The SCORDISCI are attacked in Thrace by consul M.(1) Livius DRUSUS. 112 hifiSc
c.112 Dacians clash with Romans. 112 B76 III-339
c.111 The SCORDISCI of Macedonia are driven beyond the Danube by proconsul M.(1) Livius DRUSUS, who is the 1st Roman general to reach the Danube. 112 SORH
111 CAH 9-109, atl2
c.111 Roman domain taken to Danube by proconsul M.(1) Livius DRUSUS. 111 CAH 9-109
c.111 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 112, ends.  SOSICRATES succeeds until 110. 111 wikEA
c.110 SOSICRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 111, ends.  POLYCLEITOS succeeds until 109. 110 wikEA
c.110 METHODOROS of Stratonice Caria, first a disciple of the school of Epicurus, then of Carneades, flourishes. 110 DGRBM 2-1071
110 Consul M. Minucius RUFUS is sent by senate to Macedonia Province until 109. 110 DGRBM 3-675
c.110 M.(1) Livius DRUSUS, proconsul of Macedonia from 112, returns to Rome. 110
OCD 365
c.110 MNESARCHOS, Stoic disciple of Panaetius, flourishes at Athens.  Among his pupils is Antiochus of Ascalon. 110 DGRBM 2-1106
c.110 Consul M. Minucius RUFUS, in Thrace fights the Scordici and Triballi, devastates the Hebros valley until 109. 110 DGRBM 3-675, DGRG 2-1189, GHH, SORH
by 110 CHARMADAS, Academic philosopher, is teaching in Athens.  His opinions are similar to those of Philo of Larissa. by 110 wikCr 110/09 CHHΦ
110 ANTIOCHUS of Ascalon, age c.20, joins Platonic Academy.  Becomes student of Philo of Larissa. 110 sepAA
c. 110/9 CLITOMACHOS, head of New Platonic Academy from 127/6, dies.  PHILO of Larissa succeeds until 84. 110 B76 II-983     110/9 CHHΦ, OCD 822     109 atl2     100 OHG
no date: EoΦ 382
c.109 POLYCLEITOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 110, ends.  JASON succeeds until 108. 109 wikEA
c.109 Philosopher PANAETIUS of Rhodes decides not to apply for citizenship at Athens. 109 atl2
c.109 Dacians clash with Romans. 109 B76 III-339
c.109 PANAETIUS of Rhodes, head of Stoics in Athens from 129, dies.  Stoa school fragments.  Mnesarchus is probably one of several leading Stoics teaching in this era. 112 DGRBM 3-507
110/09 CHHΦ, wikPn
109 B76 VII-707, OCD 774, OHG, atl2, wikMnA
c.109 M. MINUCIUS RUFUS defeats the Celtic SCORDISCI and Thracian Bessi.  But they do not give up their land in north Illyria, and often trouble the Roman governors of Macedonia. 109 atl2, hifiSc
107 wikSc
c.109 Quaestor L. Crassus travels to Athens and meets philosophers. 109 atl2
c.108 JASON, eponymous archon of Athens from 109, ends.  DEMOCHARES succeeds until 107. 108 wikEA
c.107 DEMOCHARES, eponymous archon of Athens from 108, ends.  ARISTARCHOS succeeds until 106. 107 wikEA
c.107 ODESSA, under Scythians from 200, comes under Pontus until 85. 107 rcU '  
c.106 ARISTARCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 107, ends.  AGATHOCLES succeeds until 105. 106 wikEA
c.105 AGATHOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 106, ends.  ANDRONIDES(?) succeeds until 104. 105 wikEA
c.105 Athenians pass a decree honoring Hyrcanus of Judaea. Antiq 14:     106/5 Jud 3-817     105 atl2
c.105 DIODOROS of Tyre, head of Aristotelian Lyceum from 150, ends.  ?? succeeds until ?. after 110 DGRBM 1-1017
c.104 CALPURNIUS PISO penetrates into Rhodope mountain district on Macedon/Thrace border. 104 DGRG 2-1189
c.104 Calpurnius Piso defeats a band of Thracians in Macedonia. 104 DGRBM 3-374, atl2
c.104 SLAVE REVOLT in Attica silver mines begins until 103. 104 B76 8-390
c.104 ANDRONIDES(?), eponymous archon of Athens from 105, ends.  HERACLEIDES succeeds until 103. 104 wikEA
c.103 HERACLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 104, ends.  THEOCLES succeeds until 102. 103 wikEA
c.102 THEOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 103, ends.  ECHECRATES succeeds until 101. 102 wikEA
c.101 ECHECRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 102, ends.  MEDEIOS succeeds until 100. 101 wikEA
c.101 Praetor, T. Didius is sent from Rome to Macedon until 100. 101 wikTD
101 /00 Roman law engraved at Delphi and KnidosThe senior consul is instructed, as part of a campaign to put down piracy, to write to kings in Syria, Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene and to give special audience to the Rhodians. 101-00 CAH 9-17
Balkan Peninsula 100-48