Epirus, Thessaly, Greece
c.170 North THESSALY reoccupied by PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68. 170 CAH 8-264
c.170 Cephalus of Epirus is forced by accusations of Charops to openly support Perseus. 170 LdHR 2-85, atl2
c.170 ANTIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 171, ends.  APHRODISIOS succeeds until 169. 170 wikEA
c.170 Consul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS is sent from Rome to command against Macedonia until 169.  Appius Claudius Cento is his legate.  He bypasses Epirus and sails directly to Anticyra (east of Cirra) in Phocis. 170 DGRBM 1-769, 2-914, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-85
c.170 Consul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS escapes a plot to capture him at Phanote in Phocis. 170 atl2
c.170 Atrocities committed by P. Licinius Crassus and Lucretius Gallus against Greek states. 170 atl2     no date: DGRBM 2-828
c.170 P. Licinius Crassus, commander in Greece from 171, is succeeded by consul A. Hostilius Mancinus, who achieves nothing. 170 CAH 8-311
c.170 Praetor C. LUCRETIUS GALLUS, fleet commander in Adriatic from 171, relieved by praetor L. HORTENSIUS. 171 DGRBM 2-525 170 CAH 8-311
c.170 Consul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS marches from Greece to Thessaly. 170 LdHR 2-85
c.170 Consul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS tries to invade Macedonia by a mountain route and is defeated. 170 GHH, SORH, atl2
c.170 MICTIO, a pro-Roman leader in Chalcis Euboea, sent to Rome to complain of cruelty and extortions of successive praetors, C. Lucretius and L. Hortensius. 70 DGRBM 2-1083
c.170 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, captures more towns in Thessaly. 170 atl2
c.170 Praetor C. Lucretius GALLUS in Balkan area from 171, now loaded with loot, returns to Rome. 170 DGRBM 2-828
c.170 Praetor L. Hortensius goes to Abdera Thrace, demands 100,000 denarii and 50,000 modii of grain.  The Abderites ask time to consult the consul and the Senate, whereupon Hortensius beheads the leading citizens and sells the rest into slavery.  Abdera is sacked.  Abderites send envoys to the Senate. 170
CAH 8-311, LdHR 2-85, atl2
c.170 ABDERA Thrace, granted independence by senate.  Envoys C. Sempronius Blaesus and Sextus Julius Caesar deliver the message, and inform the consul and Hortensius that the attack on Abdera had been unjust. 170 DGRBM 1-491, 537, atl2
c.170 Consul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS fails to make any progress in war against Perseus. 170 atl2
c.170 USCANA, chief town of the Illyrian Penestae, under Perseus attacked by Ap. Claudius Cento, legate of Hostilius, with 4,000 men unsuccessfully. 170 DGRBM 1-769, DGRG 2-1327, atl2
c.170 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, eludes battle with Romans until 168. 170 B76 15-1094
c.170 PERSEUS reviews his forces at Elymea (Elymiotis), a district southwest of Macedonia. 170 DGRG 1-815
c.170 CHAONES and THESPROTI of north Epirus ally with Romans. 170 OCD 226
c.170 M. Caninius Rebilus and M. Fulvius Flaccus are sent by the senate to investigate the lack of success against Macedonia.  They remain until 169. 170 CAH 8-312, DGRBM 3-641
c.170 Roman envoys C. Popilius LAENAS and Gn. Octavius visit Aetolians and allied Greek cities. 170 DGRBM 1-1019, 3-6, OCD 861, atl2
c.170 Acarnanian DIOGENES opposes Roman proposal to garrison Acarnania, and persuades Popilius Laenas not to do so. 170 DGRBM 1-1019
c.170 ARCESILAOS (Ariston?) of Megalopolis is among those who persuade Achaean League to side with Rome against Perseus. 170 DGRBM 1-258, 310
c.170 POLYBIUS, Achaean statesman, becomes hipparch of 2nd Achaean League until 169. 170 OCD 853
c.170 Achaean League restores honors given to Eumenes-II. 170 atl2
c.170 Epirote PHILOSTRATUS and a Molossian plot to seize consul A. Hostilius on his way thru Epirus to Thessaly, and deliver him to Perseus, a clear attempt to commit Epirus to the Macedonian cause.  The plot would probably have succeeded, had not Hostilius changed his route, and, having sailed to Anticyra (east of Cirra) Phocis, made his way thence to Thessaly. 170
CAH 8-315, DGRBM 3-323
c.170 Epirotes declare in favor of Perseus, by which his frontier becomes secured on that side.  So little do they dread the advance of the Romans, that Perseus finds leisure for an expedition against the Dardanians, by which he obtains much loot. 170 DGRBM 3-207
c.170 Consul, A. Hostilius Mancinus, after an unsuccessful attempt to penetrate into Macedonia, thru the passes of Elymea (Elymiotis), remains inactive in Thessaly. 170 DGRBM 3-207
c.170 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, attacks the Dardani, and captures (?) Chalestrum. 170 atl2
c.170/69 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 marches across mountains into Illyria to get king Gentius-III to join him against Rome.  Gentius agrees, but is unable to act without money, which Perseus is unwilling to give. 170/69 winter CAH 8-315, DGRBM 3-207 169 atl2
c.169 Roman ambassadors, C. Popillius and Octavius, come to Peloponnesus.  They complain that some of the most influential men in the Achaean league are unfavorable to Rome, and denounce by name Lycortas, Archon, and Polybius. 169 early DGRBM 3-443
c.169 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 makes 2nd expedition into Acarnania with little result. 169 DGRBM 3-207
c.169 APHRODISIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 170, ends.  EUNICOS succeeds until 168. 169 wikEA
c.169 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, at request of Epirotes, marches from Elimea Thessaly to Stratos, strongest city of Aetolia, fails to capture Stratos. 169 atl2
c.169 PLATOR, bro of Gentius king of Illyria 181-68, plans to marry Etuta, dau of Dardanian king Monunius.  Gentius thinks this would make Plator too powerful, so Gentius has Plator murdered. 179 atl2 169 wikGn
c.169 GENTIUS-III, king of Illyria 181-68, marries Etuta daughter of Monunius-II king of Dardania, securing the alliance of the Dardani. 169 wikGn, wikMn2
c.169 GENTIUS-III, king of Illyria 181-68, allied with Rome from 171, defects to Perseus against Rome until 168. 171 B76 8-385
169 CAH 8-267, 315, SORH, atl2, wikGn, wikTt
c.169 L. CAELIUS is legate in Illyria against Perseus. 169 DGRBM 1-532
c.169 PERSEUS and GENTIUS defeat Romans at Uskana in west Macedonia.  Roman garrison surrenders Uskana to Perseus 169 DGRBM 1-617, wikTt
c.169 Epirote PHILOSTRATUS co-operates successfully in Epirus with Macedonian general Clevas against Appius Claudius. 169 DGRBM 3-323
c.169 M. Caninius Rebilus and M. Fulvius Flaccus who were sent in 170 to investigate the lack of success against Macedonia return to Rome. 169 CAH 8-312
c.169 Consul Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS crosses from Rome to Greece and takes command of Mancinus' army in Thessaly.  Sp. Lucretius serves under him. 169 DGRBM 2-828, 3-207, 286, GHH, HRR, atl2
c.169 OAENEUM, a town of the Penestae on a road leading to Labeates country, overlooking a narrow pass, formed by a mountain and river Artatos in Thessaly, taken by Romans until later 169. 169 wikTtv
c.169 PERSEUS has Q. Marcius Philippus trapped near Tempe, but fails to use his tactical advantage. 169 MCAW, SORH
c.169 After the conquest of Uskana, Perseus marches toward Oaeneum.  One of Perseus' men familiar with the area says there is no point in taking Oaeneum unless he first controls Draudacum. 169 wikTt
c.169 DRAUDACUM, a fortress of the Penestae, easily taken by Perseus. 169 DGRG 1-788, wikTt
c.169 When Perseus reaches Oaeneum, it can not be taken without a full-scale assault.  Perseus besieges Oaeneum and builds a ramp. 169 wikTt
c.169 OAENEUM, a town of the Penestae on a road leading to Labeates country, overlooking a narrow pass, formed by a mountain and river Artatos in Thessaly, taken by Perseus and sacked, adult males slaughtered. 169 DGRG 2-457
c.169 Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS(2), A. Licinius Nerva, and 1 other are commissioners to Balkan area to examine the state of the Roman army there, and resources of Perseus. 169 DGRBM 1-84
c.169 Achaean STRATIUS, though hostile to Romans, dissuades the League from active opposition to Romans. 169 DGRBM 3-923
c.169 The moderate party in the Achaean League, who value national independence, but dread a fight with Romans are divided.  Lycortas recommends declared neutrality.  But Archon and Polybius say wait and see, and if necessary, help the Romans.  The majority of the party agree, and ARCHON is appointed strategos of the Achaean league, and Polybius commander of cavalry. 169 DGRBM 3-443
c.169 OAENEUM falls again to Romans. 169 wikTt
c.169 Assembly of Achaean League votes to send an army to fight against Perseus in Thessaly. 169 atl2
c.169 Aetolian Pantaleon appears as one of the deputies at Thermos Aetolia before C. Popillius, when he violently harangues against Aetolians Lyciscus and Thoas. 169 DGRBM 3-113
c.169 Aetolian THOAS is assailed with stones by the assembly of the people. 169 DGRBM 3-1104
c.169 TORONE Chalcidice attacked by a Roman fleet unsuccessfully. 169 DGRG 2-1217
c.169 ONESIMUS, son of Python, Macedonian noble, defects to Romans. 169 DGRBM 3-29
c.169 Proconsul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS on instructions from senate, sends envoys C. Popillius Laenas and Gn. Octavius to the Achaeans, Aetolians and Acarnanians to sell Roman interests. 169 CAH 8-313
c.169 Proconsul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS in Balkan area from 170, returns to Rome. 169 DGRBM 2-914
c.169 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS marches from Ambracia by the pass of Partes into Thessaly. 169 DGRG 1-1004
c.169 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS, commander of Balkan area, cross over the mountain ridge of Olympus and descends into Macedonia near Heracleium, penetrates Pieria, a region on the north coast of Thessaly. 169 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-207, 286, OCD 816, SORH, atl2
c.169 DIUM (Dion) Macedonia is occupied by Perseus, who is with the main body of his forces near Dium.  He occupies the mountain passes which lead into the plain. 169 DGRBM 3-286
c.169 Had Perseus attacked Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS, before he reached the plains he might have destroyed the whole Roman army, but as Marcius approaches, Perseus panics, abandons the strong position of Dium, and hastily retreats to Pydna. 169 DGRBM 3-207, 286, DGRG 1-779, 2-681
c.169 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS advances to Dium, damages its walls.  Livy says he marched 3 days north beyond Dium, the 1st of which terminated at the river Mitys, the 2nd at Agassa, and the 3rd at the river Ascordus, but lack of supplies forced him back. 169
CAH 8-315, DGRG 1-72, atl2, wikDP
c.169 PERSEUS, returns to Dium, repairs its walls. 169 DGRG 1-779
c.169 PERSEUS, at Pella in a moment of bewilderment, tells city commander Nicias to throw his treasures into the sea, and Andronicus to burn his fleet and dockyards at Thessalonica.  Nicias does as ordered, though much of the treasure is recovered.  Andronicus delays, either thinking Perseus would repent, or to gratify the RomansPerseus, to get rid of the witnesses of such folly, has Nicias and Andronicus executed. 169 DGRBM 1-176, 2-1188
c.169 HERACLEIUM in south Macedonia taken by Q. Marcius Philippus. 169 atl2
c.169 Achaean League sends ambassadors including Arcesilaos (Ariston?) of Megalopolis to Egypt to facilitate peace between Antiochus-III and Ptolemy-VI Philometor. 169 DGRBM 1-310
c.169 AGEPOLIS (Ariston?) of Rhodes is sent as envoy to Q. Marcius Philippus at Heracleium Macedonia to clear Rhodians of charges and renew friendship.  Philippus privately suggests that the Rhodians play mediators in Rome's war with Perseus. 169 CAH 8-314, DGRBM 1-68
c.169 CASSANDRIA, under Macedonian Philippos, besieged by praetor C. Marcius Figulus and Eumenes of Pergamum unsuccessfully.  The Romans mine an entrance thru the wall, but Philippos suddenly sallies and slaughters them.  Figulus turns the siege to a blockade.  Arrival of 10 Macedonian ships compells him to abandon the enterprize altogether. 169 DGRBM 3-271, DGRG 1-560, atl2
c.169 Molossians in Epirus join Perseus. 169 CAH 8
c.169 Aetolian Archedamos is denounced by Lyciscus to Romans as an enemy of Rome. 169 DGRBM 1-260
c.169 Aetolian Archedamos joins Perseus until his defeat. 169 DGRBM 1-260
c.169 DEMETRIAS Magnesia, under Macedonia from 191, taken by Romans. 169 DGRG 1-769 no date: OCD 325
c.169 Romans withdraw from Demetrias, after alleged contacts between Macedonians and Cydas, an officer of Eumenes-II. 169 atl2
c.169 The year ends with Philippus and Perseus separated only by the River Elpeus (Enipeus) and southern Macedonia open to the Romans by both land and sea. 169 CAH 8-315
c.169/8 Over winter Perseus strengthens his position on the Elpeus (Enipeus) and sends strong garrisons to Petra and southward to Pythion to prevent himself from being taken in the rear by a force coming around Olympos. winter 169/8 CAH 8-316
c.169/8 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 asks Antiochus-IV to help him against Romans.  No luck. winter 169/8 B76 1-994
c.168 GENTIUS-III, king of Illyrians 181-67, having mustered his 15,000 men and fleet of lembi at Lissus, Gentius besieges the Illyrian city of Bassania, a Roman ally which refuses to yield though it is only 5 miles from Lissus.  His half-bro Caravantius, detaching 1,000 infantry and 50 horsemen, attacked the Cavii, failing to capture one of their cities while ravaging the fields of the city of Caravandis.  8 lembi set off a little later to attack coastal colonial cities of Epidamnus and Appolonia.  Meanwhile Romans under Appius Claudius hear of the alliance Gentius made with Perseus and the arrest of Roman envoys. 168 early wikGn
c.168 3 Roman commissioners, including L. Baebius, P.(5) Cornelius Lentulus are dispatched to ascertain situations of Roman armies in Macedonia and Illyria.  In Macedonia they negotiate with Perseus, and evaluate affairs prior to arrival of Paulus.  They return to Rome shortly after new consuls enter office.  Arrangements for the coming campaign are decided by their report. 168 DGRBM 1-452, 730
c.168 Roman envoys including M. Perperna and L. Petillius are sent to Illyrian king Gentius, who imprisons them until Gentius is conquered. 168 DGRBM 3-202
c.168 EUNICOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 169, ends.  XENOCLES succeeds until 167. 168 wikEA
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS sails from Brundisium to Corcyra, then goes to Delphi.  In Balkan area until 167. 168 DGRBM 1-92, 178, 3-155, 751, atl2
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS reaches Roman army at river Elpeus (Enipeus). 168 atl2
c.168 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS, commander of Macedonia from 169, relieved by Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS until 167.  On his staff are Aulus and Lucius Postumius Albinus, Scipio Nasica Corculum, C. Cluvius, and Gn. Anicius, M. Sergius Silus. 168 CDCC 15, DGRBM 1-92, 178, 807, 3-155, 208, 286, 751, 827, MCAW
c.168 COTYS-IV, son of Seuthes-IV, ruler of some Odrysians in Thrace from 180, ends. 168 frH
167 wikLRTD
c.168 THRACE comes under Rome until 150. 168 frH
c.168 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 fails to win support of the Bastarnae north of the Danube on the Black Sea. 168 atl2
c.168 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 buys alliance of Ilyrian king Gentius for 300 talents. 168 DGRBM 2-245
c.168 MORCUS and PARMENIO, Illyrians, sent by king Gentius to receive the oath, hostages, and money which Perseus had engaged to give him as conditions of his aid against Romans. 168 DGRBM 2-1113, 3-127
c.168 An embassy from Ptolemies Philometor and Physcon asks Achaean assembly for armed support under Lycortas against Antiochus-IV.  Lycortas and his party are in favor.  Callicrates and Hyperbatas recommend mediating between them, and produces a letter from consul Marcius urging the same.  Assembly agrees with Callicrates.  But as Antiochus is soon compelled by the Romans to relinquish his attempts against the Ptolemies, neither of these measures was necessary, and Polybius remains at home.  Lycortas drops out of history. 168 DGRBM 1-569, 2-537, 849, 3-443-4, OCD 194
c.168 Praetor L. ANICIUS GALLUS arrives in Apollonia Illyria to fight Gentius. 168 DGRBM 2-223, DGRG 2-38, atl2
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS decides to attack Perrhaebia Thessaly. 168 atl2
c.168 PANTAUCHUS son of Balacrus, friend and counsellor of Perseus, is despatched to Gentius, king of Illyria, to secure the adherence of Gentius, at whose court he remains for some time, stimulating him to acts of open hostility against Romans, and urging him to throw his whole power into the contest in favor of Perseus. 168 DGRBM 3-114
c.168 Praetor L. ANICIUS GALLUS enters Illyria, finishes off the Dalmatae in 30 days, takes their capital Scodra, where Gentius is. 168 CAH 8-316, DGRBM 2-245, DGRG 2-38, 932, GHH, SORH, wikGn
c.168 GENTIUS-III, king of Illyria from 181, ally of Perseus from 169 defeated by L. ANICIUS GALLUS.  Surrenders, put in custody of military tribune C. Cassius. 168 B76 V-304, VII-889, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-245, DGRG 2-38, OCD 310, SORH, atl2, wikLRI
c.168 Roman envoys M. Perperna and L. Petillius, imprisoned by Gentius from 168, are freed, and sent back to Rome. 168 DGRBM 3-202, 213
c.168 GENTIUS, king of Illyria from 181, now in custody of C. Cassius, shipped along with his wife and kids to Rome to adorn triumph of Anicius Gallus. 168 DGRBM 1-625, 2-245, DGRG 2-1033
167 wikGn
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS engages in fighting by river Elpeus (Enipeus)Romans sustain heavy casualties in further fighting by the Elpeus 168 atl2
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS, finding the position of Perseus on the bank of the Elpeus (Enipeus) too strong to attack in front, he turns its flank by sending Scipio Nasica with 8,000 men across the mountain pass of Pythiura to Heracleum. 168 CAH 8-316, DGRBM 3-208
c.168 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica with 8,000 men traverses the mountain pass of Pythiura, reached Pythion, defeats Macedonian garrison, thus compelling Perseus to fall back from the Elpeus (Enipeus) towards Pydna to a position between the Aeson and Leucus rivers. 168
CAH 8-316, DGRBM 3-208, SORH, atl2
c.168 Rhodian envoys Agesilochus, chief magistrate of Rhodes, Nicostratos, and Nicagoras, visit Perseus, try to mediate.  They obviously thought that the recent alliance between Perseus and Illyrian king Gentius would have inclined the Senate towards peace. 168
CAH 8-337, DGRBM 2-1200
168 Rhodian envoys Agesilochus, chief magistrate of Rhodes, Nicostratos, and Nicagoras, go to L. Aemilius Paulus at Pydna to mediate.  They are ignored.  This is before the battle. 168 CAH 8-337, DGRBM 1-70, 2-1173, 1200
168 Jun 21 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS and the rest of the army joined Nasica's force.  The Romans fortify their camp across the Leucus from the Macedonians.  Sulpicius Gallus predicts a lunar eclipse, which occurs. 168 CAH 8-316, atl2
168 Jun 21 Just before the battle of Pydna, MILON Of Beroea, an officer in the army of Perseus, flees, with colleagues, Hippias and Pantauchus, to Beroea. 166 DGRBM 2-1087
168 Jun 21 LUNAR ECLIPSE:  Sulpicius Gallus explains lunar eclipse before battle of Pydna.  "When there was an eclipse of the moon in the time of Perseus of Macedonia, the report gained popular credence that it portented the eclipse of the king." Polibius Histories
Jun 21 168 DGRG 2-681, nasa
168 June 22 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS, commander of Macedonia, decisively defeats PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 at PYDNARoman maniple outmaneuvers rigid Macedonian phalanx, killing at least 20,000 infantry.  Macedonian cavalry flees from the field.  6,000 who flee to Pydna are captured there and another 5,000 taken prisoner along the way. 168 B76 IX-946, 1-994, 8-385, 15-1094, CDCC 15, CAH 8-316, DGRBM 3-208, DGRG 2-235, Dur 2-665, GHH, HRR, IDB 3-216, 739, LEWH 92, MCAW, TTPC, atl2, bk, wikHR
168 After Pydna, Perseus flees first to Pella, burns the royal records. 168 CAH 8-316, DGRBM 3-208
168 After Pydna Aemilius Paulus sends 3 envoys including A. Antonius to Perseus. 168 DGRBM 1-213
168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS, commander of Macedonia, reaches Pella. 168 atl2
168 After Pydna, PELLA Macedonia is taken by consul L. Aemilius Paulus. 168 CDCC 656
168 After Pella, Perseus flees with 3 foreign officers and 500 Cretan mercenaries to Amphipolis. 168 DGRBM 3-208
168 Perseus flees with whatever treasures can be be collected at Amphipolis, with 3 men, including Theban Neon to Samothrace island. 168 DGRBM 2-1154, 3-208
c.168 Important archives of Perseus are confiscated by Romans.  They reveal names of Achaeans who aided Perseus. 168 CAH 8-96
no date: MCAW 220
c.168 Romans, with a senatorial directive destroy 70 Macedonian and Epirote (mostly Molossian) towns, conquers Macedonia & Greece. 168 wikHR
167 CAH 8-317
c.168 MISAGENES, son of Masinissa, Numidian commander in Greece from 171 helping Romans sent back by Aemilius Paulus to Africa.  But his troop ships are dispersed by a storm, many of them wrecked, and Misagenes compelled to take refuge at Brundusium. 168 DGRBM 2-1093
c.168 BITIS, son of Cotys-IV, ruler of some Odrysians in Thrace, falls into Roman hands, and is shipped to Rome. 168 DGRBM 1-490, 870, DGRG 2-1188
c.168 COTYS-IV, former ruler of some Odrysians in Thrace, sends envoys to Rome, tries to ransom his son, and excuse his alliance with Perseus. 168 DGRG 2-1188
c.168 Thracian garrison is tricked into leaving Amphipolis. 168 atl2
c.168 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, prisoner of Gn. Octavius, arrives at Amphipolis, and is delivered to Consul L. Aemilius Paulus. 168 DGRBM 3-6, atl2
c.168 3rd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 171 ends.  C. Lucretius GALLUS sails for Greece. 168 B76 VI-442, Dur 2-556, 3-20, LEWH 92     167 frH
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS punishes deserters by throwing them under his elephants. 168 atl2
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS rewards Q. Tubero with some silver from Macedonian spoils. 168 atl2
c.168 L. Anicius GALLUS subdues Illyria and organizes its administration, then turns attention to Epirus. 168 atl2
c.168 ILLYRIA, kingdom under local rulers from 410, capital Scodra, conquered by Rome, annexed until ?.  But hostilities continue until 9CE. 168 B76 2-615, CAH 8, HRR
c.168 The area of Oaeneum becomes apart of the Roman province of Illyria. 168 CAH 8, wikTt
c.168 LEUCAS island, under Acarnania from ?, detached by Aemilius Paulus. 168 DGRG 1-10 167 SORH
c.168 ANTINOUS, a chief in Molosia, ally of Perseus, killed in battle against Romans. 168 DGRBM 1-191
c.168 L. Anicius GALLUS subdues Epirus, and organizes its administration. 168 atl2
c.168 C. Popilius LAENUS, envoy to Greece from 170, returns to Rome loaded with loot. 168 mrt
c.168 Consul L. Aemilius PAULUS asks the Athenians to send him their most approved philosopher, to educate his children, and their best painter, to paint pictures for his triumph at Rome.  They select Metrodorus of Athens for both offices. 168 B76 19-301, DGRA 913, DGRBM 2-1071
c.168 PERSEUS, last Antigonid king of Macedonia from 179 taken captive to Rome, in Italy until death 166.  Wife from 177 Laodice-V, dau of Seleucus-IV, returns to court of Syria. 168 B76 VII-889, CDCC 541, Dur 2-556, HRR, IDB 3-739 , MRDK, frH 167 DGRBM 3-208, bk
c.168 CALLICRATES, pro-Roman head of 2nd Achaean League 183-49, despite unpopularity, maintains position by Roman support until death. 168 OCD 194
c.168 CALLICRATES drafts a list of 1,000 prominent Achaeans, who allegedly helped Perseus, and presents it to Romans. 168 DGRBM 1-569, DGRG 1-16, HRR
c.168/7 DELMATAE, Illyrian tribe beyond Salonae, asserts independence from Illyria. no date: OCD 310
c.168/7 An embassy from Delphi visits court of Antiochus-IV in Syria. 168/7 CAH 8-342
c.168/7 L. Aemilius PAULUS, accompanied by young Scipio, his 2nd son, and Athenaeus, bro of Eumenes-II tours Greece, makes a thank offering to Apollo at Delphi, another to Athene Polias at Athens. 168 atl2
167 DGRBM 3-155
c.168/7 Roman army in Greece from 171, leaves. 168 bk     167 CAH 8-317
c.167 MONUNIUS-II, son of Longaros, chief of Dardanians from 176, ends. 167 wikMn2
c.167 XENOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 168, ends.  NICOSTHENES succeeds until 166. 167 wikEA
c.167 Aetolians complain to Aemilius Paulus, then touring Greece, that Lyciscus and Tisippus had caused 550 of their senators to be killed by Roman soldiers, lent them by L. Baebius for that purpose, while they had banished other senators and seized their property.  But the murder and violence had been perpetrated against partisans of Perseus and opponents of Rome.  The Roman commissioners at Amphipolis decide that Lyciscus and Tisippus were justified.  Baebius alone is condemned for having supplied Roman soldiers as instruments of murder. 167 DGRBM 2-845
c.167 After Paulus' tour, senate sends 10 commissioners east to settle affairs, 5 for Illyria and 5 for MacedoniaThey include Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus(2),  Aulus Postumius Albinus,  C. Claudius Pulcher,  P. Manilius,  Ser. Cornelius Sulla,  A. Terentius Varro. 168 DGRBM 1-91 167 DGRBM 1-84, 769, 917, 3-1222, LdHR 2-90, SORH, atl2
c.167 L. Aemilius PAULUS and 10 envoys announce division of Macedonia into 4 independent states. 167 atl2
c.167 A. GABINIUS is placed by L. Anicius in command of a garrison at Scodra in Illyria, after subjugation of king Gentius. 167 DGRBM 2-192
c.167 550 leading anti-Roman Aetolians are executed.  The rest are sent as prisoners to Rome. 167 DGRA 28
c.167 3 Roman envoys, including T. Quinctius Flamininus, M. Caninius Rebilus, with BITIS son of Cotys-IV arrive in Thrace to set Bitis in power until 120. 167 DGRBM 2-166, 3-641, DGRG 2-1188 166 CAH 8-319
c.167 Reps of Greek states flock to Amphipolis to congratulate L. Aemilius Paulus for Pydna.  Charops(2) of Epirus is among them. 167 DGRBM 1-691
c.167 L. Aemilius PAULUS holds magnificent victory games at Amphipolis, similar to a triumph. 167 CAH 8-345, atl2
c.167 ILLYRIA, under Rome 168, divided into 3 separate republics, which pay tribute to Rome, except for the towns which had been loyal to Rome.
1.  the region of Pista
2.  all the Labeatae
3.  the Agravonitae and areas round Rhizon and Olcinium.
167 CAH 8-317, SORH
166 DGRG 1-880
c.167 DODONA Epirus, location of the temple of Zeus Naos, destroyed by Aemilius Paulus. 167 wikDd
c.167 L. Aemilius PAULUS visits Epidauros in Peloponnese. 167 DGRG 1-841
c.167 Theban NEON, partisan of Perseus, executed by Romans. 167 DGRBM 2-1154
c.167 Scipio Aemilianus proves his courage while hunting in royal parks of Macedonia. 167 atl2
c.167 PASSARON, capital of Molossia, taken by praetor L. Anicius GALLUS. 167 DGRG 2-555
c.167 TECMON Epirus taken by L. Anicius Gallus.  Molossian chief CEPHALOS is killed in battle. 167 DGRBM 1-668, DGRG 2-1118
c.167 EPIRUS and Molossia plundered and enslaved by L. Aemilius PAULUS.  70 cities sacked.  150,000 slaves taken to Rome. 168/7 CAH 9-55     167 B76 III-926, CAH 8, Dur 3-112, GHH, MCAW, OCD 358, SORH, atl2
c.167 EPIRUS is made a province. 167 DGRG 1-880
c.167 C. Cicereius and P. Terentius Tuscivanus are sent as envoys to Gentius king of Illyrians. 167 DGRBM 1-707, 3-996
c.167 Athenians send METRODORUS to serve L. Aemilius Paulus as a painter and philosopher. 167 atl2
c.167 MONUNIUS-II king of Dardania 176-67 asks Aemilius Paulus control of Paeonia.  He refuses, giving them only the right to trade in salt there. 167 wikMn2
Macedonia 167-148
c.167 MACEDONIA Roman possession from 168, becomes province, partitioned by senate until 148, into 4 separate republics, each governed by an oligarchic council.
1.  at Heraclea Lyncestis, includes the wilder region across Mt. Bora (good luck finding it) to the borders of Epirus and Illyria.
2.  at Pella, from the Axius to the Peneus, incorporating Edessa, Beroea and western Paeonia.
3.  at Thessalonica, from the Strymon to the Axius (excluding Heraclea Sintice and Basaltia), taking in eastern Paeonia and all Chalcidice.
4.  at Amphipolis, mainly the areas between Rivers Strymon and Nessus, with more east of the Nessus (excluding Aenus, Maronea and Abdera) plus Heraclea Sintice and Basaltia west of the Strymon.
They all pay moderate annual tribute.  Intermarriage across boundaries is forbidden.  Owning land and buildings in more than one of the parts is forbidden.  Only the Dardanians are allowed to import salt.  The 3rd district is disarmed, but the other 3 may maintain armed garrisons on their barbarian frontiers.  No Macedonian timber is to be cut by anyone for ships.  While the iron and copper mines continue in operation, those of gold and silver are closed.  The 4 republics each has its own body of elected representatives.  Their constitutional arrangements are laid down by Aemilius Paulus.
168 GHH IDB 1-638 167 CAH 8-318, 9-31, DGRG 1-880,
IDB 3-216, 4-629, LEWH 92, OHG, SORH
c.167 MINES in Macedonia closed by senate until 158. 167 B76 15-1098
c.167 THRACE west of Hebrus River incorporated into Macedonia. 167 OCD 1065
c.167 ACARNANIA loses federal capital of Leucas, and is forced to send hostages to Rome.  But the confederacy with capital at Thyrrhaeum survives until ?. 167
B76 I-48
c.167 AETOLIA:  The pro-Roman party, supported by Roman troops under A. Baebius, massacres 500 anti-Romans.  All survivors suspected of anti-Roman sympathy are deported to Italy.   AETOLIAN LEAGUE is formally dissolved. 167 DGRBM 1-452, DGRG 1-66, LEWH 92
c.167 L. Aemilius PAULUS, commander in Macedonia and Greece from 168, sails from Oricos Epirus for Italy. 167 late DGRBM 3-155, DGRG 2-492, LdHR 2-93
c.167 1,000 ACHAEANS, including POLYBIUS and all leading citizens, taken to Italy for political investigation, and remain in Italy until 151. 167 CAH 8, CDCC 703, DGRG 1-16, Dur 2-556, GHH, LEWH 92, MCAW, OCD 853, OHG, atl2 , bk     165 SORH no date: B76 14-762, DGRBM 1-569
c.167 AETOLIA is incorporated into province of Achaia. 167 DGRG 1-66
c.167 Senate agrees to Athenian control of Haliartos, Lemnos, and Delos, which becomes a free port. 167 atl2
c.167 AGAMESTOR of Arcadia, an Academic philosopher, dies. 168 atl2     168/7 CHHΦ     167 atl2
c.166 NICOSTHENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 167, ends.  ACHAIOS succeeds until 165. 166 wikEA
c.165 ACHAIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 166, ends.  PELOPS succeeds until 164. 165 wikEA
c.165 ACHAEA occupied by Romans. 165 GHH
c.165 Popular resentment in Achaea against pro-Roman policies of Callicrates.  Boys in the street call him traitor. 165 atl2
c.165 Athena ParthenosATHENA PARTHENOS statue in the Parthenon from 438 is damaged by fire, but repaired.  It continues to stand until 5th cen. 165
wikAθP

Drawing pub dom
c.165 1st known illustrated document is a papyrus copy of an astronomical work by Eudoxos of Knidos.  It contains some crude diagrams. 165 CGS 609
c.164 PELOPS, eponymous archon of Athens from 165, ends.  EUERGETES succeeds until 163. 164 wikEA
c.164 Achaean ambassadors ANAXIDAMOS and SATYRUS are sent to Rome to intercede for liberation of 1,000 Achaean citizens who had been sent to Rome in 167 at instigation of Callicrates. 164 DGRBM 1-164, 3-727
c.164 C. Sulpicius GALLUS from Rome enroute to Pergamum, stops in Greece to arbitrate in disputes between Sparta and Argos, Sparta and Megalopolis, and between Achaeans and Aetolians.  He invites accusations against Eumenes-II.  In the territorial disputes Gallus declines to decide and entrusts the decision to Callicrates. 164 CAH 8-318, 320, OCD 456     163 atl2
c.164 Territorial dispute arises between Sparta and Megalopolis.  Decision is referred to the Roman senate. 164 CAH 8-320
c.164 C. Sulpicius GALLUS is approached by some Aetolians from Pleuron who wish to detach Pleuron from the Achaean League.  Gallus allows them to send an embassy to Rome.  The Senate authorizes Pleuron to secede and bids Gallus to sever as many cities from the League as he might be able. 164 CAH 8-320
c.163 EUERGETES, eponymous archon of Athens from 164, ends.  ERASTOS succeeds until 162. 163 wikEA
c.163 TELECLES, a head of Platonic Academy from ?, dies.  CARNEADES the Elder continues 173-137/6. 167/6 CHHΦ 163 atl2
c.162 ERASTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 163, ends.  POSIDONIOS succeeds until 161. 162 wikEA
c.162 Carthaginian Hasdrubal moves to Athens, changes name to Clitomachus. 163/2 CAH 8-162, CHHΦ 162 OCD 253, atl2
c.161 POSIDONIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 162, ends.  ARISTOLAS succeeds until 160. 161 wikEA
c.160 ARISTOLAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 161, ends.  TYCHANDROS succeeds until 159. 160 wikEA
c.160 Antipater of Tarsus sails to Athens and joins Stoics. pre-155 OCD 206, atl2
c.160 Achaeans send Telecles and Xenon to Rome to try to get Stratius and Polybius, 2 of their exiles, released.  Unsuccessful. 160 DGRBM 3-923, 988
c.160 PANAETIUS, Stoic of Rhodes, in Athens from ?, returns to Rhodes until 139. 170-50 OCD 774
c.160 ALCAEUS, author of epigrams, ridicules grammarian Isocrates. 160 DGRBM 1-95
c.160 TERENCE (P. Terentius Afer) sails from Rome to Greece. 160 atl2
c.160  Bockh Attic inscription #123  mentions the commercial mina as weighing 138 drachmas of the silver (or Solonian) standard. 160 DGRA 933
c.159 CHAROPS(2), ruler of Epirus, executes all who had been opposed to Romans.  This is ignored by Rome. 159 atl2
c.159 TYCHANDROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 160, ends.  ARISTAIMOS succeeds until 158. 159 wikEA
c.159 Civil strife in Aetolia ends with death of Lyciscus. 159 atl2
c.159 TERENCE (P. Terentius Afer), Roman comic dramatist dies in Greece. 159 CDCC 285, TTPC, atl2
c.158 ARISTAIMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 159, ends.  ARISTAECHMOS succeeds until 157. 158 wikEA
c.158 Carthaginian CLITOMACHUS, age 28, in Athens from 162, joins New Platonic Academy until 140. 158 OCD 253, atl2
c.158 MINES in Macedonia, closed by senate from 167, are reopened. 158 atl2
c.157 CHAROPS(2) of Epirus dies at Brundisium after appearing before Roman senate. 159 atl2
157 DGRBM 1-691, wikCE
c.157 ARISTAECHMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 158, ends.  ANTHESTERIOS succeeds until 156. 157 wikEA
c.157 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, in Rome from 158, returning home, now in Peloponese,escapes a plot against his life. 157 atl2
c.157 Senate sends a commission under C. Fannius to Dalmatia. 157 atl2
c.157 Embassy under C. Fannius to Dalmatia is not properly received, and reports that violence would have been done to them had they not made an early and quiet departure. Polybius 32:13
157/6 IDB 1-757 156 CAH 8-320
c.157 Romans declare war on Dalmatians.  DALMATIAN WAR begins until 155. 157 CAH 8-277, atl2
156 CAH 8-320, GHH, HRR
c.156 Roman senate appoints Sicyonians to arbitrate between Oropos and Athens, both in Attica. 156 atl2
c.156 The DAORSI, lllyrians, on the banks of the Naro River, who are allied with Romans, have a quarrel with the Dalmatians, which gives pretext to Rome to invade Dalmatia. 156 DGRG 1-751
c.156 Dalmatians make inroads into Illyria near Scodra. 156 LdHR 2-101
c.156 Dalmatians, having attacked the Illyrians, are invaded by consul C. Marcius FIGULUS.  While Figulus is laying out his camp, the Dalmatians overpower his guard, defeat him, and drive him to the plain as far as the Naro River. 157 CAH 8-277
156 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-150, DGRG 1-747, atl2
c.156 Consul, C. Marcius FIGULUS besieges Dalmatian strongly fortified capital Delminium. 157 CAH 8-277
156 DGRG 1-747, atl2
c.156 DELMINIUM, capital of Dalmatia, taken by consul Figulus.  Dalmatians are obliged to sue for peace. 156 DGRG 1-747-8
c.156 ANTHESTERIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 157, ends.  CALLISTRATOS succeeds until 155. 156 wikEA
c.156 Sicyonians fine Athenians 500 talents for sack of Oropos Attica. 156 atl2
c.156 Apollonius, Academic philosopher, dies. 166/5 CHHΦ     156 atl2
c.155 CALLISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 156, ends.  MNESTHEOS succeeds until 154. 155 wikEA
c.155 Achaeans send another embassy, led by Telecles and Anaxidamos, to Rome. 155 DGRBM 1-164, atl2
c.155 Pythocles of Athens and others revive the art of sculpture. 155 atl2
c.155 DELMINIUM, capital of Dalmatia, burnt by Scipio Nasica.  Dalmatia is subdued. 155 B76 III-356, DGRG 1-747, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-101, SORH, atl2,
M. Figulus burnt it: IDB 1-757
c.155 DALMATIAN WAR from 157, ends.  Terminated by consul Scipio NASICA CORCULUM. 155 DGRBM 3-751,
OCD 310, 928, 963, atl2
c.155 Adriatic coast is now under Romans. 155 LdHR 2-101
c.155 CARNEADES, head of New Platonic Academy 173-37/6, CRITOLAOS, head of Aristotelian Lyceum, DIOGENES, Stoic of Seleucia, with other Athenian biggies, go to Rome to ask for depreciation of the 500 talent fine imposed on Athens for destruction of Oropos, and to appeal against decision of Sicyonians. 156 B76 III-558, 15-1099, EoΦ 2-33     155 BNTH 49, CDCC 42, CHHΦ, DGRBM 1-614, 894, 1020, Dur 2-556, 3-20, 95-6, GHH, OCD 206, OHG, atl2
c.154 MNESTHEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 155, ends.  Successor unknown until 153. 154 wikEA
c.154/3 Carthaginian CLITOMACHUS, age 28, in New Platonic Academy from 158, begins studies with Carneades the Elder. 154/3 CHHΦ
c.153 ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, pupil of Aristophanes of Byzantium, becomes chief librarian of Byzantium. 153 B76 I-514
c.153 PHAIDRIAS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 152. 153 wikEA
c.153 Rhodians appeal to Achaean assembly for help against Cretans.  CALLICRATES, pro-Roman leader of 2nd Achaean League 183-49, disuades the League from siding with the Rhodians. 153 DGRBM 1-569, atl2
c.152 PHAIDRIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 153, ends.  ANDREAS succeeds until 151. 152 wikEA
c.152 DIOGENES of Babylon, head of Stoics in Athens 180-52, lectures on anger.  A young man spits in his face.  Diogenes says, "I am not angry, but I am not sure that I ought not to be angry." 152 atl2
c.152 DIOGENES of Babylon, head of Stoics in Athens from 180, dies.  (often confused with Diogenes of Seleucia d.142)   ANTIPATER of Tarsus succeeds until 129. 152 OCD 348
150-40 CHHΦ
144 DGRBM 1-203
c.151 MACEDONIA, 4 separate republics 167-48, is so distressed that it sends envoys to Rome asking for Scipio Aemilianus to return and straighten things out. 151 LdHR 2-110
c.151 ANDREAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 152, ends.  ZELEUCOS succeeds until 150. 151 wikEA
c.151 300 surviving ACHAEAN EXILES out of the original 1,000, in Rome from 167, return to Greece.  They include Diaeos, and join the anti-Roman party. 151 CAH 8, GHH, LEWH 92 151/50 B76 8-385
150 CAH 8-3, CDCC 703, Dur 2-665, OCD 853     149 atl2
c.151 An Athenian garrison occupies Oropos Attica.  In an attempt to remove this garrison, Oropos appeals to Achaean strategos Menalcidas in 151/0. 151 atl2

Balkan Peninsula 150-100
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