c.190 So long as the Romans are at war with Antiochus-III, and need support of Philip-V, he is allowed to retain the conquests he had made during that war.  Though Athamania had been again wrested from him by Amynander and the Aetolians, Philip-V still holds many towns in Perraebia and Thessaly, which he had captured from the Aetolians, with the permission of Glabrio. no date: DGRBM 3-284
c.190 LAMIA thessaly, under Aetolians from ?, taken by Glabrio. 190 GHH, atl2
c.190 ELAEUS in Thracian Chereonese, under Philip-V from 200, makes overtures to Romans. 190 DGRG 1-809
c.190 TIMOUCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 191, ends.  DEMETRIOS succeeds until 189. 190 wikEA
c.190 Truce is agreed between Romans and Aetolians. 190 atl2
c.190 Manius Acilius GLABRIO gives offerings to temple at Delphi. 190 atl2
c.190 Aetolian NICANDER is appointed praetor of the Aetolians by the Romans, and tries in vain to force consul, M, Fulvius Nobilior, to raise the siege of Ambracia. 190 DGRBM 2-1174
c.190 LYSIMACHIA Thrace, headquarters of Antiochus-III from 192, abandoned by him. 190 atl2
c.190 Roman army advances to Hellespont, with active assistance of Philip-V. 190 atl2
c.190 AMPHISSA Phocis, under Aetolians, besieged by Glabrio.  Inhabitants take refuge in its citadel. 190 DGRG 1-127
c.190 PLEVRAT is the 1st Illyrian king to gain a crown directly from Romans. 190 vrb
c.190 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS in Greece from 192, returns to Rome. 190 DGRBM 2-166
c.190 L. and P. SCIPIO sail from Italy to Aetolia, find Glabrio besieging Aetolians at Amphissa. 190 Apr B76 8-384,
CAH 8-219, LdHR 2-42, SORH
c.190 Manius Acilius GLABRIO commander in Greece from 191, is relieved by consul Lucius Scipio.  Glabrio returns to Rome without his army. 190 LdHR 2-42, OCD 214, 467
c.190 L. and P. SCIPIO at Amphissa, realizes that the real enemy is Antiochus-III, arrange a truce with Aetolians. 190 B76 8-384, CAH 8-219, GHH
c.190 Aetolian embassy including Damoteles goes to Rome until 189, finds the senate just as intractable as they had been in 191, which means a new war in spring 189. 190
CAH 8-226
c.190 P. SCIPIO AFRICANUS, asks senate for permission to chase Antiochus-III into Anatolia. 191 MCAW
c.190 Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS is sent by L. Scipio from Amphissa to Pella to sound Philip's disposition towards the Romans.  Gracchus is treated well. 190 DGRBM 2-288
c.190 L. and P. SCIPIO, joined by troops of Glabrio, march thru Macedonia (courteously treated by Philip-V) to Thrace, where they are joined by 2,000 volunteers. 190
B76 8-384, CAH 8-219
c.190 SESTOS in Chersonnese, independent from 197, threatened by Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II with a siege, surrenders. 190 CAH 8-220, DGRG 2-970
c.190 P. SCIPIO AFRICANUS, the real power behind incompetent commander L. Scipio, gets sick in Thrace, leaving effective leadership to Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS. 190 CAH 8-224, OCD 361
c.190 L. and P. SCIPIO with 30,000 men cross Hellespont, enter Bithynia. 190 B76 1-994, 15-1093, 16-397, CAH 8-222
c.190 ARISTO of Ceos, head of Lyceum from 225, ends.  CRITOLAOS succeeds to 150. 190 wikPS
no date: OCD 299
c.189 AMYNANDER, former king of Athamania, sends ambassadors to Rome and Scipios in Anatolia to get reinstated. 189 DGRBM 1-154
c.189 AMYNANDER, out of power from 191, regains control of Athamania.  Induces Athamanians to side with Romans. 189 DGRBM 1-154, atl2
c.189 Athamania, under Philip-V from ?, rebels. 189 DGRG 1-1004
c.189 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 marches into Athamania by the pass of Partes, but is obliged to retire with heavy loss. 189 DGRG 1-1004
c.189 PERSEUS son of Philip-V leads an army into Epirus, where he besieges Amphilochia, but is compelled by the Aetolians to retire. 189 DGRBM 3-206
c.189 Consul M. FULVIUS NOBILIOR, is sent against CEPHALLENIA island with a sufficient force. 189 DGRG 1-589
c.189 PLEURATOS-III, king of the Illyrian Ardiae 206-181, with 60 ships, helps Romans by devastating the coasts of Aetolia. 189 DGRBM 3-413, DGRG 2-38
c.189 Consul M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR is sent to Greece to finish off the Aetolians.  Bro C. Valerius Laevinus accompanies. 189 spring CAH 8-226, DGRBM 2-711, 1206, LdHR 2-45
c.189 Consul M. FULVIUS NOBILIOR, (with poet Ennius in his retinue) besieges Ambracia, which is defended by Aetolian general Eupolemos. 189 DGRBM 2-101, atl2
c.189 During the siege of Ambracia, the Aetolians send Phaeneas and Damoteles to Nobilior, with powers to conclude peace on almost any terms.  This they ultimately get, thru intercession of Athenians and Rhodians, and favor of C. Valerius Laevinus, upon more moderate conditions than they could have dared to hope for.  Phaeneas now hastens to Rome to get ratification of this treaty, which is, after hesitation, granted by the senate on nearly the same terms as those dictated by Fulvius. 189 DGRBM 3-232
c.189 DEMETRIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 190, ends.  EUTHYKRITOS succeeds until 188. 189 wikEA
c.189 The free Greek cities that had joined the Romans have their freedom confirmed, and are relieved of tribute, except those under Eumenes-II. 189 SORH
c.189 EVANDER of Phocea, head of Platonic Academy at Athens from ?, ends.  Pupil HEGESINUS of Pergamum succeeds until 173. 189 atl2
c.189 Consul M. Fulvius NOBILIOR lands at Apollonia to finish off the AetoliansBro C. Valerius Laevinus accompanies. 189 spring CAH 8-226, DGRBM 2-711, 1206
c.189 AETOLIANS send envoys to Athens and Rhodes for help against M. Fulvius Nobilior.  Alexander Isius, Damoteles, Phaneas, and Lycopos are sent for Rome to sue for peace, but they are captured on Cephallenia island by Epirotes and compelled to pay a heavy ransom. 190 DGRBM 3-232 189 DGRBM 1-937, DGRG 1-117
c.189 CEPHALLENIA island, which had been excluded from the terms of the peace, subdued by M. Fulvius Nobilior. 189 DGRG 1-672, DGRBM 2-1206, SORH
c.189 AMBRACIA, stronghold of Aetolian League, besieged by M. Fulvius NobiliorAetolians learn of defeat of Antiochus-III at Magnesia, and surrender in summer.  Ambracia is sacked and destroyed by Nobilior.  Soon becomes a free city. 189 B76 I-548, mid CAH 8-226-7, 441, DGRBM 2-711, 1206, DGRG 1-66, OCD 51, SORH
c.189 AETOLIANS defeated by M. Fulvius Nobilior. 189 HRR, SORH
c.189 Peace terms are agreed between M. Fulvius Nobilior and Aetolians. 189 CDCC 906, HRR, atl2
c.189 AETOLIA subdued by M. Fulvius Nobilior, becomes a vassal state to Rome 189 DGRG 1-66, SORH
c.189 Rome / Aetolia War from 192 ends.  Aetolian League surrenders to M. Fulvius Nobilior.  League is restricted to Aetolia proper.  Aetolians become subject allies, pay 500 talents, required to "preserve the majesty of Rome". (1st time this appears in a treaty) 189 B76 I-117, 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-227, CDCC 31, DGRA 28, DGRBM 2-1206, MCAW
c.189 PERSEUS, 1st son of Philip-V, commands Macedonian troops in Aetolia. 189 B76 VII-889
c.189 DOLOPIA, mountainous region north of Aetolia, independent from ?, reconquered for Macedonia by PERSEUS son of Philip-V, who then invades Amphilochia in Acarnania. 189 CAH 8-226, 256
c.189 Border city of OENIADE, under Aetolians from ?, restored to Acarnania. 189 DGRG 2-467
c.189 GREECE:  Coastal towns entrusted to Achaea by Flamininus are crowded with returned exiles who irritate Sparta (already enraged by exclusion from the sea).  Spartans try to storm Las and fail.  This is a breach of the treaty of 192. 189
B76 VII-889, mid
CAH 8-236
c.189 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League 193-83, without notifying M. Fulvius Nobilior now on Cephallenia, demands that Sparta surrender those who stormed Las, on threat of war. 189 CAH 8-236
c.189 SPARTA, in Achaean League from 192, riots, secedes from League until 188.  30 pro-Achaeans are murdered.  Sparta sends envoys to M. Fulvius Nobilior to make formal surrender to Rome. 189 CAH 8-236, 291
c.189 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League 193-83, lands army unopposed into Laconia with large crowds of exiles. 189 CAH 8-236
c.189 CHERSONESE (most of it), under Macedonia from 200, comes under Pergamum until 133. 189 OCD 229, SORH 185 rcT
c.188 M. Fulvius Nobilior captures Same (Samos) capital of Cephallenia. 188 atl2
c.188 M. Fulvius Nobilior tries to stop war breaking out between Achaean League and Sparta. 188 atl2
c.188 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League 193-83, marches into Laconia again. 188 Dur 2-570
c.188 SPARTA taken by Achaean League led by Philopoemen, who massacres Spartan leaders of secession, and banishes many others. 188 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-679, 3-320, DGRG 2-112, MCAW, atl2, bk
c.188 WALLS of SPARTA pulled down by Philopoemen.  Spartan communism (Lycurgean constitution) abolished.  Helots enslaved or sold. 188 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-236, DGRG 1-16, Dur 2-556, MCAW
c.188 SPARTA, out of Achaean League from 189, pulled back in by Philopoemen until ?.  This displeases the Romans, who then encourage the Spartans to resist the Achaeans. 188 B76 8-385, CAH 8-291, DGRG 2-112
c.188 EUTHYKRITOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 189, ends.  SYMMARCHOS succeeds until 187. 188 wikEA
c.188 Roman senate censures Achaean League for treatment of Sparta, making it clear who is in charge. 188 DGRG 1-16
c.188 Gn. Manlius VULSO, commander of Anatolia from 189 and his army loaded with loot, leaves Anatolia, and while returning thru Thrace is ambushed by the Thrausi at Tempyra. 188 CAH 8-233, DGRBM 3-1286, DGRG 2-1125, Dur 2-570, GHH, HRR
c.188 Gn. Manlius Vulso visits Neapolis Thrace. 188 IDB 3-527
c.188 Q. Minucius THERMUS is killed while fighting under Gn. Manlius Vulso against Thracians. 188 DGRBM 1-640, 3-1097
c.188/7 Romans evaccuate Greece. 188/7 CAH 8-235
c.187 Consul M. Aemilius Lepidus writes a letter to the Achaeans criticizing them for their treatment of Sparta. 187 CAH 8-291, atl2
c.187 SYMMARCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 188, ends.  THEOXENOS succeeds until 186. 187 wikEA
c.187 NICODEMOS of Elis heads an embassy sent by Philopoemen to Rome. 187 DGRBM 2-1188
c.187 THEODORIDAS of Sicyon sent by Achaea to renew alliance between Achaean League and Ptolemy-V Epiphanes.  He succeeds. 187 DGRBM 3-1045, atl2
c.187 M. Fulvius Nobilior in Greece from 189, returns to Rome. 187 DGRBM 2-1206
c.187 Boeotians send Theban Callicritos as envoy to Rome to persuade senate not to require Boeotia to recall Zeuxippus and other exiles. 187 DGRBM 1-570
c.186 CONGRESS at MEGALOPOLIS:  Eumenes-II offers 120 talents to buy alliance with Achaeans.  Apollonides of Sicyon and Achaean aristocrats persuade Achaeans to refuse it. 186 DGRBM 1-237
c.186 Embassy of Seleucus-IV Philopator king of Syria 187-75, arrives at Athens, to renew their previous alliance with Antiochus-III.  They are well received. 186 CAH 8-339
c.186 Boeotians refuse to restore Zeuxippus and other exiles, despite pressure from Romans. 186 atl2
c.186 THEOXENOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 187, ends.  ZOPYROS succeeds until 185. 186 wikEA
c.186 Nicostratus of Larissa is sent as Thessalian representative to Pythian games, and gives support to Amphictyonic Council. 186 atl2
c.186 Envoys from towns in Thessaly, Perhaebia, Athamania, which had been taken by Philip-V, visit Rome, request independence, complain that Philip-V is violating treaty of 196.  Senate sends 3 commissioners to investigate.  They include M. Baebius Tamphilus. 186 CAH 8-247, DGRBM 1-452, 3-974       185 DGRBM 3-284
c.186 Philip-V at Tempe, is visited by 3 Roman envoys, who decide that Macedonian garrisons should be withdrawn from disputed territories. 186 CAH 8-247
c.186 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 begins campaigning and intriguing in Thrace.  Plans unsuccessfully to raise the Bastarni against the Dardanians. 186 B76 8-384
c.185 Embassies from Eumenes-II and Greek states complain to senate about Philip-V's seizure of extra territory - Maroneia and Aenus in Thrace, which Eumenes wanted for himselfPhilip also sends envoys to Senate. 185 CAH 8-293, DGRBM 3-284, DGRG 2-1188, atl2
c.185 Q. Caecilius METELLUS leads an embassy sent to investigate Thracian factional strife between Philip and Eumenes' partisans, and to provide safe conduct to those who wish to state their case in person and to accuse Philip. 185 CAH 8-293
c.185 Q. Caecilius METELLUS is among the envoys sent to Philip-V. 185 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1057
c.185 3 Roman commissioners at Tempe order Philip-V to withdraw his garrisons from Perraebia and Thessaly; Philip-V begins to plan another war with Rome. 185 CAH 8-293, atl2 184 DGRG 2-1188
c.185 ARISTAENOS, strategos of Achaean League, attacks Philopoemen and Lycortas for their conduct against the Roman embassy that had been sent to Ptolemy. 185 DGRBM 1-288
c.185 Achaean assembly discusses relations with Eumenes-II and Ptolemy. 185 atl2
c.185 Spartan envoys go to Rome to accuse Achaeans. 185 DGRBM 1-237
c.185 Achaean envoys including Apollonides of Sicyon go to Rome to accuse Spartans and vindicate Philopoemen. 185 DGRBM 1-237
c.185 Metellus and other commissioners go to Thessalonica Macedonia where the question of the Thracian cities, mainly Aenos and Maronea, is considered.  Eumenes-II's envoys say the Thracian cities should either be free or his.  Philip-V says the Thracian cities belonged to him as prizes of an ally in the war.  The Roman envoys can not decide.  If the 10 commissioners settling Anatolia had assigned them to Eumenes, then that would hold.  If Philip had captured them in war then he should hold them.  If neither, then the Senate should decide, Philip meanwhile withdrawing his garrisons.
Everyone sends embasies to Rome.
185 CAH 8-293-4, atl2
c.185 After Metellus' non-solution, envoys from Philip-V, Eumenes-II, and exiles from Aenos and Maronea, go to Rome and offer the same arguments they had put before Caecilius.  This time the Senate orders Philip to also withdraw from Aenos and Maronea and in general to quit all forts, territories, and cities on the coast of Thrace. 185 CAH 8-294
c.185 ZOPYROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 186, ends.  EUPOLEMOS succeeds until 184. 185 wikEA
c.185 Q. Caecilius METELLUS, returning from his mission to Philip-V, meets magistrates of Achaean League at Argos where the Nemean festival is being celebrated.  Aristaenos, Achaean general, calls the magistrates of the League together.  Metellus castigates the Achaeans for their harsh treatment of Spartans.  Philopoemen, Lycortas, and Archon of Aegira successfully defends Achaean treatment of the Spartans.  Diophanes suggests to Metellus that the Achaeans mismanaged Sparta and also Messene.  Lycortas and Archon defend the status quo, and their view is adopted by the magistrates and communicated to Metellus, who is miffed, and refuses to receive formally the reply of the magistrates and returns to Rome without a reply. 185 CAH 8-296, DGRBM 1-273, 2-849, 1057, atl2
c.185 Q. Caecilius METELLUS is followed to Rome by envoys from the Spartan dissidents, led by Areus and Alcibiades (former exiles who had been restored to Sparta by the Achaeans), and by envoys from the Achaean League to defend against Metellus' hostile report. 185 CAH 8-296
c.185 When Aristaenos is Achaean strategos, neither Lycortas of Megalopolis and his colleagues nor the Egyptian envoys, who had accompanied them from Ptolemy's court, could specify which of the several treaties made in former times with Egypt had now been renewed.  Lycortas accordingly incurred much blame and furnished a triumph to the party of Aristaenos. 185 DGRBM 2-849
c.185 Embassy of Seleucus-IV Philopator king of Syria 187-75, arrives at Achaean Assembly, to renew their previous alliance with Antiochus-III.  Achaeans accept, but they politely decline "for the moment" S-IV's offer of 10 warships. 187 CAH 8-339
c.184 While on campaign in Thrace Philip-V sends agents to stir up the barbarians along the Danube, that they might invade Italy. 184 wikMn2
c.184 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, in Macedonia from 190, is sent back to Rome to until 183 defend Philip-VOfficers Philocles and Apelles accompany him.  Senate accepts his defense. 186 GHH
184 B76 15-1094, CAH 8, atl2
no date: DGRBM 3-284, 300
c.184 Appius CLAUDIUS PULCHER heads an embassy from senate to Macedonia and Greece to check up on Philip-V's compliance with Metellus' 185 directive and and to convey the new orders formally. 184
CAH 8-294, DGRBM 1-769
c.184 Philip-V evacuates Aenus and Maronea Thrace as directed, but massacres his opponents at Maronea. 184 CAH 8-294, atl2
c.184 Appius CLAUDIUS PULCHER goes to Cleitor in Arcadia to judge between the Achaean League and dissident Spartans.  Lycortas, now general of the league, again contends that the Achaeans were justified in their treatment of Sparta: but he does not convince Appius Claudius, who forces Achaean assembly to accept a settlement with Sparta.  Outstanding questions are referred to the Senate. 184
CAH 8-297, DGRBM 2-849, atl2
c.184 Philip-V marches into central Thrace, defeats Thracians, takes king Amadocos-III, son of Seuthes-IV prisoner. 184 DGRG 2-1188, wikLRTD
c.184 Spartan exiles Areos and Alcibiades restored by Achaeans. 184 DGRBM 1-279
c.184 EUPOLEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 185, ends.  CHARICLES succeeds until 183. 184 wikEA
c.184 MOSCHION, Academic philosopher, dies. 185/4 CHHΦ     184 atl2
c.183 THRACE, under Macedonia (theoretically) from 208, comes under Pergamum until 180.  SEUTHES-IV is king of Odrysians 213-175.  TERES-V rules part until 148. 183 frH
c.183 Philip-V attacks the Thracian Odrysians, Dentheletae, and Bessi. 183 DGRG 2-464, 1188
c.183 Dispute between Philopoemen and Achaean general Archon. 183 atl2
c.183 Magistrates of Achaean League refuse to hold an assembly for Flamininus. 183 atl2
c.183 MESSENE, in 2nd Achaean League from ?, under influence of Deinocrates, secedes and rebels until 183. 184 B76 8-385
183 B76 15-1094, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-849, GHH     182 bk
c.183 Achaean League declares war on Messene. 182 atl2
c.183 LYCORTAS of Megalopolis is sent against Messene by the aged Philopoemen, but is unable to force his way thru the passes into Messenia. 183 DGRBM 2-849
c.183 DEINOCRATES, envoy from Messene Peloponnese goes to Rome to justify Messenian rebellion from Achaeans, learns that his friend Flamininus is about to pass thru Greece on his way to AnatoliaDeinocrates seeks to gain support of Flamininus, who promises to help Messene. winter 184/3 CAH 8-297
183 DGRBM 1-951, atl2
c.183 CHARICLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 184, ends.  HERMOGENES succeeds until 182. 183 wikEA
c.183 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS sent by senate to negotiate with Prusias-I of Bithynia, goes to Greece, stops at Naupactus and writes to the Achaean magistrates, ordering them to summon a meeting of the assembly.  They ask what his instructions are on the matter.  He declines to press the attempt any further, and Deinocrates' hopes are dashed. 183 CAH 8-298, DGRBM 2-166, OCD 441, wikTQF
c.183 Philopoemen, tries to recover Messene, but is captured by Messenians. 182 atl2
c.183 Philip-V sends colonists from central Macedonia to Emathia (Bottiae) region adjacent to Thessaly. 183 atl2
c.183 AGESIPOLIS, son of A-II, former king A-III of Sparta 219-15, leads an embassy of Spartan exiles bound for Rome.  Attacked by pirates and killed.  Some of them under Chaeron make it to Rome. 183 DGRBM 1-71, 679
c.183 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS sent by senate as ambassador to Macedonia, with orders to watch Roman interests in south Greece, checks up on 2nd Achaean League. 183 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-286, OCD 816
c.183 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS' embassy in Peloponnese, checks up on Philip's withdrawal from all his Thracian holdings. 183 CAH 8-295
c.183 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, in Rome from 184, having accomplished his mission, returns to Macedonia. 183 CAH 8-295, atl2
c.183 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League from 193, age 70, taken prisoner and killed by Messenians.  LYCORTAS of Megalopolis succeeds until ?. 183 B76 15-1094, CAH 8,
late DGRBM 2-849, 3-318, LEWH 92 182 B76 VII-951, DGRBM 3-443, DGRG 2-345, atl2
c.183 Boeotian envoys Apollodoros and Epaenetos sent to Messenia to get them to make peace with Achaeans.  The Messenians, terrified by Achaeans, are about to sue for peace anyway. 183 DGRBM 1-233
c.183 LYCORTAS of Megalopolis invades Messenia. 183/2 DGRBM 2-849
c.183 MESSENE surrenders to Lycortas strategos of Achaeans.  Lycortas kills all who had contributed to the murder of Philopoemen.  Messene is forced back into Achaean League. 184 B76 8-385     183 DGRG 2-345 182 CAH 8-299, DGRG 2-588, atl2
c.183 Lycortas, at the same time, urges successfully against Diophanes the re-admission of Sparta also into Achaean League. 183/2
DGRBM 2-849
c.183 THURIA, under Messene from ?, taken by Achaean League. 183 DGRG 2-345
182 DGRG 2-588, 1191
c.183 Alba, Thuria, and Pharae, under Messene from ?, detached.  Each is incorporated into Achaean League separately. 183 DGRG 2-345
182 DGRG 2-588, 1191
c.182 BASTARNAE ally with Philip-V and offer a princess in marriage to his son Perseus. 182 wikMn2
c.182 HERMOGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 183, ends.  TIMESIANAX succeeds until 181. 182 wikEA
c.182 Philip-V moves inhabitants from coastal Macedonia into the interior.  He replaces them with Thracians and other barbarians whom he can better trust in a war with Romans 182
DGRG 2-1188
c.182 Rivalry between Perseus and Demetrius, after Perseus accuses Demetrius of plotting to become king of Macedonia. 186 GHH 182 atl2
c.182 Onomastus as one of the two assessors of Philip at the private trial of Demetrius, for the alleged attempt on the life of his brother Perseus. 182 DGRBM 3-31
c.182 Messenia overrun by Achaean League. 182 GHH
c.182 Sparta rejoins Achaean League. 182 atl2
c.182 Envoys from Eumenes-II, Ariarathes, Pharnaces, and Philip, and from Spartans and Achaeans, appear before senate. 182 atl2
c.181 PLEURATOS-III ends.  king of Ardiae Illyrians from 206,.  Son GENTIUS succeeds until 168. 181 wikLRI
c.181 TEUTA, queen of Ardiae Illyrians from 229 at Rhizon, ends.  A son of Pleuratos-III, GENTIUS succeeds until 168. 181 wikGn, wikTt
c.181 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 expedition to Balkans to investigate rumor that the Alps and the Black Sea can be seen from one place. 181 B76 8-384
c.181 PHILIP-V leads an expedition to top of Mt. Haemus in Thrace.  On the top he builds altars to Jupiter and the sun. 181 DGRG 2-1188, atl2
c.181 PHILIP-V, returning from Mt. Haemus, plunders Dentheletae.  In Maedica, he takes town of Petra. 181 DGRG 2-1188
c.181 Senate orders Achaean League to recal all the Spartan exiles without distinction. no date:
DGRBM 2-537
c.181 TIMESIANAX, eponymous archon of Athens from 182, ends.  HIPPIAS succeeds until 180. 181 wikEA
c.181 Assembly of Achaean League reacts cautiously to decisions of Roman senate about Messene and Sparta.  Hyperbatas, general of League, holds an assembly, in which he urges, in opposition to Lycortas, the necessity of compliance with Roman request. 181 atl2
no date: DGRBM 2-537
c.181 Assembly of Achaean League decrees Sparta received into their league, and restoration of all Spartan exiles except those who proved ungrateful for the previous restoration.  Rome had urged the recall of these men. 181 DGRBM 1-569
c.181 CHAERON and other Spartan envoys go to Rome and inform senate of reincorporation of Sparta into Achaean League. 181 DGRBM 1-679
c.181 Spartan treasurers including Apollonides are appointed to check Chaeron's squandering of money.  Chaeron sends agents who murder Apollonides. 181 DGRBM 1-237
c.181 PHILOCLES and Apelles, officers of Philip-V, are again sent to Rome, to inquire into the truth of an accusation brought by Perseus against Demetrius, of having formed a design for changing the succession to the throne in his own favor, and of having communicated it to T. Quintius Flamininus and other Romans. 181 DGRBM 3-301
c.181 Macedonian envoys to Rome return to Macedonia with letters (possibly forged) from Flamininus suggesting that Demetrius, 2nd son of Philip-V conspired against Philip-V.  This is a plot forged by Perseus, 1st son of Philip-V. 181 B76 15-1094
c.181 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, suspected of treachery with Rome, poisoned by Didas, governor of Paeonia (north of Macedonia), on order of Philip-V. 186 GHH     181 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-496, DGRBM 1-1004, bk     180 CAH 8-295, atl2
c.181 BIPPOS of Argos sent by Achaean League as ambassador to Rome. 181 DGRBM 1-490
c.181 CALLICRATES, head of 2nd Achaean League 183-49 goes to Rome until 180, announces subservience to Rome. 181 B76 15-1094, OCD 194
c.180 THRACE, under Pergamum from 183, independent until ?.  SEUTHES-IV is king of Odrysians 213-175.  TERES-V remains ruler 183-48.  And now COTYS-IV rules some Odrysians until 168. 180 frH
c.180 ARISTOPHANES of Byzantium, chief librarian of Byzantium from 195, dies.  Important philologist.  Edited Iliad & Odyssey. 180 B76 I-515, MTNT 150
c.180 Ptolemy-V gives a squadron of ships as a gift to Achaean League. 180 atl2
c.180 Chaeron of Sparta is imprisoned for murder of Apollonides. 180 atl2
c.180 ZENO of Tarsus head of Stoics in Athens from 204, ends.  DIOGENES of Babylon succeeds until 152.  (often confused with Diogenes of Seleucia) 180 no date: OCD 348, 1015
c.180 HIPPIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 181, ends.  DIONYSIOS succeeds until 179. 180 wikEA
c.180 Sculptor ANTHEOS flourishes.  Popular, but not great. 180 DGRBM 1-184
c.180 ZENODOROS writes  On Isometric Figures , now lost.  Asserts that of all solid figures the surfaces of which are equal, the sphere has the greatest volume.  But he fails to prove it. 180 BHM 187 no date: wikZn
c.180 In the reign of Gentius-III, last king of lllyria, a separation takes place among his subjects.  They obeyed Pleuratus as long as he lived, but on the accession of Gentius 180 DGRG 1-747, 2-38, wikGn
the DALMATAE declare independence.  They assume that name from their capital Delminium.
c.180 The city of Rhizon abandons Gentius-III prior to his defeat, receiving immunity from the Romans.  Gentius marries Etuta, dau of Dardanian King Monunius. 180 wikGn
c.180 Daorson, capital of the illyrian Daorsi tribe, declares independence from Gentius. 180 wikGn
c.180 L. Duronius accuses Illyrian king Gentius of encouraging piracy. 180 DGRBM 2-244, atl2
c.180 Assembly of Achaean League sends embassy to Rome about Spartan exiles. 180 atl2
c.180 LYCORTAS of Megalopolis, his son Polybius, and Aratus, are again appointed envoys to Ptolemy-V Epiphanes, who had made friendly advances to the Achaeans.  But news of P-V's death prevents the embassy from being sent. 181 DGRBM 3-443
180 DGRBM 2-849
c.180 CALLICRATES, head of 2nd Achaean League 183-49, in Rome from 181, returns, becomes strategos until 179. 180 OCD 194, atl2
c.180/79 CALLICRATES, head of 2nd Achaean League 183-49, in compliance with Roman request 181, repatriates Spartan and Messenian exiles, restores local rights to Sparta. 180/79 OCD 194
c.179 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 procures murder of two Athenians, Eurycleides and Micon. 179 atl2
c.179 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 180, ends.  MENEDEMOS succeeds until 178. 179 wikEA
c.179 Assembly of Achaean League under general Hyperbatas debates question of 181.  Callicrates contends in opposition to Lycortas, that the Roman requisition for recal of all Lacedaemonian exiles should be complied with, and that nothing is more important than the will of Rome.  Hyperbatas supports Callicrates.  Lycortas speaks strongly against compliance. 179 DGRBM 1-569, 2-849
c.179 ANTIGONUS, son of Echecrates, shows Philip-V that his 1st son Perseus had falsely accused his 2nd son Demetrius, for which Perseus murdered Demetrius 181. 179 DGRBM 1-189
c.179 PHILOCLES, officer of Philip-V, arrested by him and executed. 179 DGRBM 3-301
c.179 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 dedicates to Heracles a bull which he killed while hunting. 179 atl2
c.179 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 produces a much shorter version of Theopompus'  History , by removing digressions. 179 atl2
c.179 PHILIP-V, son of Demetrius-II, king of Macedonia from 221, age 58, dies of illness at Amphipolis.  Physician Calligenes sends word to his son Perseus and conceals Philip's death until Perseus arrives.  1st son PERSEUS succeeds until 168. 179 B76 VII-889, 8-383-4, 15-1094, CAH 8-301, CDCC 541, 674, DGRBM 1-571, 3-206, 285, DGRG 2-1188, Dur 2-664, GHH, IDB 3-784, OHG, LEWH 92, MCAW, MRDK, SORH, atl2, bk, frH
c.179 PERSEUS' first act is to kill Antigonus, to whose counsels he ascribed the hostile intentions of his father. 179 DGRBM 3-206
c.179 Thracians prevent the Bastarnae from migrating. 179 atl2
c.179 Thracian king Abrupolis invades Macedonia. 179 atl2
c.179 Perseus renews alliance between Macedonia and Rome, and is officially recognized as king by Romans. 179 atl2
c.178 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75 allies with Perseus, whose opposition to Rome could no longer be a secret.  S-IV offers Perseus his daughter Laodice in marriage.  Perseus accepts.  Since the treaty of Apamea forbade Seleucid ships to sail west of Cilicia, S-IV asks the Rhodians to escort the bride to Macedonia.  Rhodians agree to parade their naval strength. 178
CAH 8, DGRBM 3-775
c.179 Epirus comes under Macedonia. 179 GHH
c.178 MENEDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 179, ends.  PHILON succeeds until 177. 178 wikEA
c.178 ANTIOCHUS, 3rd son of A-III, hostage in Rome from 188, goes to Athens until 175. 180 GHH     178 B76 1-994, CAH 8-340, DGRBM 1-198 175 1&2BM 93, B76 1-994
c.178 Decree of the Delphic amphictyony lists among the hieromnemones two "from King Perseus".  This means the good repute and influence of Macedon is being resuscitated. 178 mid CAH 8-302
c.177 PHILON, eponymous archon of Athens from 178, ends.  [?]PPOS succeeds until 176. 177 wikEA
c.177 Achaeans attach themselves to Romans. 177 GHH
c.177 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, marries LAODICE-V, dau of Seleucus-IV. 178/7 wikL5     177 CAH 8-255, 339, DGRBM 2-719
c.176 BATO chief of Dalmatians and/or Dardanians from 206, ends.  Bro MONUNIUS-II, son of Longaros, rules Dardanians until 167. 176 wikBt, wikMn2
c.176 MONUNIUS-II, chief of Dardanians 176-67, sends envoys to Rome with news of an invasion by the Bastarnae.  Envoys say that the Bastarnae are giant warriors and allege that they are in league with Perseus and the Gauls. 177 atl2
176 CAH 8-303, wikMn2
c.176 [?]PPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 177, ends.  HIPPACOS succeeds until 175. 176 wikEA
c.176 Embassy including Appius Claudius Pulcher is sent to Aetolia to halt their internal hostilities and oppose Perseus. 176 DGRBM 1-769
c.175 SEUTHES-IV, son of Rascouporis, king of Odrysians in Thrace from 213, independent from 183, ends.  Son COTYS-IV continues 180-68. 190 wikLRTD 175 rcSB2
c.175 Bastarnae invade Dardania, but are defeated by Monunius-II and suffer heavy losses while crossing Danube.  Dardanians appeal to Rome 175 atl2, wikLRI, wikMn2
c.175 Aulus Postumius ALBINUS is sent to Dardania and Thessaly to investigate their allegations against the Bastarnae and PerseusHe returns to Rome same year, along with envoys from Perseus to rebut the charge of inciting the Bastarnae. 175 DGRBM 1-91
no date: CAH 8-303
c.175 HIPPACOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 176, ends.  SONICOS succeeds until 174. 175 wikEA
c.175 ANTIOCHUS(-IV), living in Athens, learns of murder of Seleucus-IV.  Antiochus has no army, but Eumenes-II of Pergamum thinks it's to his advantage to help this "friend of Rome" gain the throne of Syria. 175
CAH 8-497, DGRBM 1-198
c.175 BASILIDES, head of Epicurean Kepos (Garden) in Athens from 205, dies.  Possibly THESPIS succeeds until ?. 175 CHHΦ, wikBE
c.175 ANTIOCHUS(-IV), promises Megalopolis to Build it a city wall and gives it most of the necessary money. 175 DGRG 2-308
c.175 ANTIOCHUS(-IV) builds a marble theater at Tegea. 175 DGRG 2-1119
c.175/4 Civil war breaks out in Aetolia.  The root of the conflict is debt, but little more is known. by 174 CAH 8-305
c.174 OLYMPIEUM, temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens, construction suspended from 510, resumed in the Corinthian style by Antiochus-IV, who employs Roman architect Cossutius.  At Antiochus' death 164, work is interrupted.  It will not be completed until Hadrian's time. 174 DGRG 1-258, Dur 2-556
170 CDGRA 451 168 DGRBM 1-866
c.174 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, marches to Dolopia to re-establish Macedonian control. 174 CAH 8-304
c.174 SONICOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 175, ends.  ALEXANDROS succeeds until 173. 174 wikEA
c.174 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, marches from Dolopia to Delphi, and tries to maintain friendly relations with countries thru which he passes. 174 CAH 8-304, atl2
c.174 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, tries to establish friendly relations with Achaean League.  Xenarchos, strategos of Achaean League wants alliance with Perseus.  Callicrates opposes this for fear of Rome, and convinces the Achaean assembly to reject the offer. 174
CAH 8-304, DGRBM 1-569, atl2
c.174 Roman envoys C. Laelius, M. Valerius Messalla, and Sextus Digitius are sent to Macedonia to counteract their negotiations with Carthage.  They are not allowed to see Perseus, but are told he is ill or away (both versions they reckon to be lies).  They return to Rome early in 173. 174
CAH 8-304, DGRBM 1-1009, 2-706, 1050
c.174 5 Roman commissioners are sent to Delphi to mediate in civil war in Aetolia.  They include L. Canuleius, Ap. Claudius Pulcher, C. Valerius Laevinus, M. Popillius. 174 DGRBM 1-596, 2-711, 3-497, atl2
no date: CAH 8-305
c.173 Appius CLAUDIUS CENTO is sent to Thessaly to investigate social unrest.  He calms the situation by abolition of illegal interest and imposing a schedule for repayment of just debts. 173 CAH 8-305, DGRBM 1-769, SORH, atl2
c.173 ALEXANDROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 174, ends.  ALEXIS succeeds until 172. 173 wikEA
c.173 Envoys led by M. Claudius Marcellus arrive in Greece, get cessation of open hostilities in Aetolian civil war. 173 CAH 8-305
c.173 Envoy M. Claudius Marcellus addresses assembly of Achaean League, praise Achaeans for rejecting Perseus' overtures. 173 CAH 8-305, atl2
c.173 C. Valerius LAEVINUS comes from Alexandria to the Macedonian court to watch Perseus, then return to Rome in 172. 173 DGRBM 2-711
c.173 CARNEADES of Cyrene, extreme skeptic, in Athens from 193, becomes head of New Platonic Academy until 137/6. 188 GHH     173 Dur 2-556
pre-155 OCD 206, atl2
c.173 5 Roman envoys, led by consular C. Valerius Laevinus, including Gn. Lutatius Cerco, M. Caecilius Denter, M. Cornelius Mammula, Q. Baebius Sulca are sent to Alexandria to renew alliance with Ptolemy-VI, then to the Macedonian court to watch Perseus, then return to Rome in 172. 173 CAH 8-306, DGRBM 1-672, 993, 2-711, 913, 3-933
c.173 Envoys C.(1) Laelius, M. Valerius Messalla, and Sextus Digitius in Macedonia from 174, return to Rome.  They report that they were not allowed to see Perseus, but were told he is ill or away (which they reckon to be lies).  They assume that Perseus is preparing for war.  They also report civil war in Aetolia. 173 early CAH 8-304
c.172 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, sends envoy HARPALUS to Rome to answer charges of Eumenes of Pergamum 197-60. 172 DGRBM 2-346
c.172 ALEXIS, eponymous archon of Athens from 173, ends.  SOSIGENES succeeds until 171. 172 wikEA
c.172 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-160, in Rome 172, sails for home, lands in Cirra Greece to visit Delphi. 172 DGRBM 2-90, LdHR 2-82, MCAW
c.172 EUMENES-II, visits Delphi.  While ascending a steep narrow road, he is hit by a rock fall caused by agents of Perseus including Cretan EvanderEumenes is nearly killed and taken to Aegina island to recover.  He suspects Perseus of trying to kill him.  Event causes a rumor of his death, which spreads to Pergamum. 172 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-90, 3-521, LdHR 2-82, MCAW, atl2   171 GHH
c.172 Thespian ambassadors including Callias, go to Chaclis, appear before Roman commissioners Marcius and Atilius, surrender Thespis, renounce alliance with Perseus. 172 DGRBM 1-568
c.172 Roman envoys tour Greek states, seeking support for a war against Perseus. 172 atl2
c.172 Theban NEON is one of the principal authors of the alliance of Boeotia with Perseus, on which account Neon is exiled, when the cities of Boeotia submit to Roman deputies Marcius and Atilius.  Neon flees to Perseus. 172 DGRBM 2-1154
c.172 More envoys of Perseus sent to Italy. 171 DGRBM 1-617, atl2
c.172 ISSA (Vis) city and island in mid Adriatic, accuses Illyrian king Gentius of joining with Perseus against Romans.  This appears to be a fabrication. 172
DGRBM 2-244 171 CAH 8-307
c.172 Rome declares war on Perseus. 172 atl2, bk
c.172 Rome makes alliances with envoys of various Thracian tribes against Perseus. 172 DGRG 2-1188
c.172 After senate declares war, Roman envoys including Q. Marcius Philippus, T. Annius Luscus, and A. Atilius Serranus arrive at Corcyra.  A letter arrives from Perseus asking why Roman troops are in Greece and garrisoning citiesPerseus' messenger is told that the Romans are protecting the cities themselves. 172 CAH 8-308, DGRBM 1-707, 2-842, 3-286, 381, 1222, OCD 143     171 DGRBM 2-632, 3-286, 788
c.172 2 of the legates go to Cephallenia and western PeloponneseC. Cicereius, C. Plaetorius, L. Decimus, and A Terentius Varro go to Lissus on coast of Illyria to intimidate king GentiusQ. Marcius Philippus and A. Atilius Serranus set off on the most important part first thru Epirus, Aetolia, and Acarnania, to Thessaly. 172 CAH 8-308, DGRBM 1-707, 2-842, 3-286, 381, 1222, OCD 143
171 DGRBM 1-947, 2-632, 732, 845, 3-286, 788, LdHR 2-83
c.172 Neighboring kings and states decide where to stand in imminent war between Rome and Macedonia. 172 atl2
c.172 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, sends envoy ANTIGONUS to Boeotia.  He gets loyalty of Coronea, Thebes, and Haliartos. 172 DGRBM 1-187
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, seeks allies among Greek states. 171 atl2
c.171 After senate declares war, 5 Roman envoys are sent to Corcyra.  They include Q. Marcius, A. Atilius, P.(4) and Servius(2) Cornelius Lentulus. 171 DGRBM 2-732, 845, LdHR 2-83
c.171 54 light ships at Dyrrhachium belonging to Gentius-III king of Illyrians are siezed by praetor C. Lucretius on pretense that they were sent there to help the Romans. 171 DGRBM 2-244
c.171 Envoys sent to Gentius-III, king of Illyrians 172, to try to get alliance, fail, and return to Rome. 171 DGRBM 1-947
c.171 SOSIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 172, ends.  ANTIGENES succeeds until 170. 171 wikEA
c.171 Q. Marcius Philippus and A. Atilius Serranus pass thru Aetolia, where they secure the election of pro-Roman LYCISCUS as general of the Aetolians for campaign in Thessaly. 171 DGRBM 2-845, LdHR 2-83
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 now at Dium (Dion), invites Philippus and Atilius to conference. 172 DGRBM 3-286, OCD 143, atl2 171 DGRBM 2-632, 3-286, 788, LdHR 2-83
c.171 Q. Marcius Philippus and A. Atilius Serranus in Thessaly.  Philippus receives an envoy from Perseus, asking for a conference.  Philippus complies. 172 DGRBM 3-286, OCD 143, atl2 171 DGRBM 2-632, 3-286, 788, LdHR 2-83
c.171 Q. Marcius Philippus meets Perseus on banks of Peneus RiverQ. Marcius Philippus persuades Perseus not to start fighting until Perseus has sent one more delegation to Rome. 172 DGRBM 3-286, OCD 143, atl2 171 DGRBM 2-632, 3-286, 788, LdHR 2-83
c.171 Consul P. Licinius Crassus crosses to GreeceL. Pompeius is military tribune under him. 171 DGRBM 3-474, atl2
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 sends envoys to Rome.  Gn. Sicinus sends Sp. Carvilius to Rome. 171 DGRBM 1-617
c.171 PANTAUCHUS son of Balacrus, one of the chief friends and counsellors of Perseus, is one of the hostages given by Perseus during his conference with envoy Q. Marcius Philippus, and subsequently one of the ambassadors sent to P. Licinius Crassus with proposals for peace. 171 DGRBM 3-114
c.171 Envoys P. and Servius Cornelius Lentulus arrive in Peloponnese. 171 DGRBM 2-732, 845, LdHR 2-83
c.171 Consul C. CASSIUS LONGINUS, disappointed at receiving Cisalpine Gaul as his province, marches for Macedonia with no authority from senate and 30 days grain supply. 171 CAH 8-264
c.171 LYCORTAS of Megalopolis advises Achaeans to remain neutral in war between Rome and Perseus. no date:
DGRBM 2-849
c.171 Consul C. CASSIUS LONGINUS marches thru Illyria, tries to march on Macedonia. 171 atl2
c.171 GENTIUS-III, king of Illyrians, allies with Romans against Macedonia until 169. 171 wikGn, wikTt
c.171 3 envoys from senate (including P. Marcius Rex) visit consul C. Cassius Longinus in Illyria. 171 DGRBM 3-646
c.171 Envoys, Q. Marcius Philippus and A. Atilius Serranus go from Thessaly to Boeotia, where Philippus is successful in selling Roman views.  100 Achaean boys are deposited at Chalcis as guarantee of Boeotian fidelity.  Philippus then returns to Rome, reports to senate, boasts of his successful fraud to gain time in front of the embassy of Perseus, which is now dismissed.  Philippus is sent back to Greece with unlimited power to do whatever he thinks in the best interest of Rome.. 171 DGRBM 3-286, LdHR 2-83
c.171 Q. Marcius Philippus and A. Atilius Serranus go from Boeotia to Euboea. 171 DGRBM 3-286
c.171 Q. Marcius Philippus and other Roman envoys, arrive at Chalcis and bring about break-up of Boeotian League. 171 atl2
c.171 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE dissolved by Q. Marcius Philippus. 172 CAH 8, GHH 171 CDGRA 117
c.171 Roman envoys, Q. Marcius Philippus and A. Atilius Serranus go from Euboea to Peloponnese, where they join their colleagues P. and Servius Cornelius Lentulus. 171 DGRBM 3-286
c.171 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS with 28,000 inf, 2,000 cav, mostly untrained, arrives in Epirus to command against Perseus until 170.  His bro Caius is his legate.  L. Pompeius and Q. Mucius Scaevola are his tribunes.  They are up against Perseus with 40,000 inf and 4,000 cav plus Cotys and other Thracian allies. 171 DGRBM 1-873, 3-474, 732, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-84, SORH, bk
c.171 C. CLAUDIUS PULCHER is military tribune under Crassus against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-769, OCD 247
c.171 C. Cassius makes a private visit to the war. 171 CAH 8-312
c.171 Thebes sends envoy DICETAS to Chalcis to talk to Q. Marcius Philippus and other Roman envoys, to apologize for Boeotia having allied with Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-1002
c.171 MISAGENES, son of Masinissa, commands forces sent to Greece to help the Romans against Perseus.  He remains until 168. 171 DGRBM 2-1092
c.171 Thebans Dicetas, Neon, and Ismenias are accused of favoring Macedonia by pro-Roman Theban exiles at Chalcis.  Dicetas and Neon put the whole blame on Ismenias.  Dicetas and Ismenias are imprisoned and all allegedly suicide.  Neon survives until 167. 171 DGRBM 1-1002, 2-632
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 holds a council at Pella and decides to fight Romans rather than make any further concessions. 171 atl2
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, calls on Greek states to rise with him against Romans. 171 Dur 3-86
c.171 POLYAENUS, an Achaean, belonging to the party of Archon, Polybius, and more moderate patriots, think the Achaeans should not oppose the Romans. 171 DGRBM 3-442
c.171 3rd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 168.  Praetor C. Lucretius GALLUS arrives in Balkan Peninsula until 170.  He blockades the Macedonian coast. 172 B76 8-384, TTPC     171 B76 VI-442, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-828, DGRG 2-1188, Dur 2-556, 3-20, GHH, LdHR 2-84, LEWH 92, OCD 456, OHG, frH, wikTAR
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, marches into Thessaly, camps at Sycurium on west slope of Ossa. 171
LdHR 2-84
c.171 PERSEUS captures Azoros, Pythion (Pythium, Pythoum, Pythous), Doliche, Cyretiae, Mylae, Elatea, Gonnus, and other cities in Thessaly. 171 DGRG 2-385, atl2
c.171 After outbreak of war, 54 light ships of Gentius-III at Dyrrhachium are siezed by praetor, C. Lucretius Gallus under pretence that they were sent there to assist the Romans. 171 DGRBM 2-244
c.171 Gn. SICINIUS, praetor from 172, continued in office until ?, sent to fight Macedonians. 171 DGRBM 3-816
c.171 Roman army reaches Thessaly without meeting opposition. 171 atl2
c.171 LARISSA Thessaly, under Philip-V from ? , taken by P. Licinius Crassus.  Comes under Romans until ?. 171 DGRG 2-127
c.171 ATTALUS and Athenaeus, bros of Eumenes-II of Pergamum with 4,000 inf and 1,000 cav, sail to Greece, join P. Licinius Crassus at Larissa. 171 B76 I-634, DGRBM 1-411, LdHR 2-84
c.171 Ion of Thessalonica and Timanor command light-armed troops of Perseus in battle at Callinicus Thessaly. 171 DGRBM 2-606
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, defeats consul P. Licinius Crassus in a cavalry engagement at Callinicus on Peneus River near Larissa in Thessaly, drives Crassus back to his camp.  Blame is laid on the Aetolians. 171 B76 15-1094, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1005, LdHR 2-84, OCD 816, SORH, atl2
c.171 5 Aetolian chiefs are blamed for the Crassus defeat at Callinicus, and sent to Rome for trial. 171
LdHR 2-84
c.171 EPIRUS joins Perseus against Romans. 171 DGRG 2-127, MCAW, SORH
c.171 PTELEUM on coast of Phthiotis Thessaly, deserted from ?, destroyed by consul P. Licinius Crassus. 171 B76 15-1094, DGRG 2-677, OCD 816, atl2
c.171 CYRETIAE Perrhaebia occupied by Perseus. 171 DGRG 1-736
c.171 GONNUS Perrhaebia is strongly fortified by Perseus. 171 DGRG 1-1005
c.171 After Callinicus PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, offers peace.  P. Licinius Crassus refuses, saying that Romans never grant peace but after a victoryPerseus accepts truce offered by Q. Marcius Philippus. 171 B76 15-1094, DGRBM 2-1005, OCD 816, atl2
c.171 Romans defeat Perseus at Phalanna Thessaly. 171 atl2
c.171 MILON Of Beroea, an officer in the army of Perseus, opposes consul P. Licinius Crassus. 171 DGRBM 2-1087
c.171 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68 strongly fortifies the pass at Tempe (a gorge between Mts. Olympos & Ossa), and retires with his army from Thessaly to winter quarters in Macedonia. 171 LdHR 2-85, atl2
c.171 Consul P. Licinius Crassus withdraws to Boeotia for winter.  Crassus and Lucretius with the fleet at Chalcis keep Boeotia subdued. 171 LdHR 2-84-5
c.171 Boeotia ravaged by Licinius Crassus and Lucretius Gallus. 171 SORH
c.171 HALIARTOS Boeotia taken by storm and destroyed by praetor C. Lucretius Gallus.  All inhabitants killed or enslaved, all art siezed. 171 LdHR 2-85, OCD 456, atl2
c.171 THISBE Boeotia taken by Lucretius Gallus. 171 OCD 456
c.171 Towns in Boeotia surrender to praetor C. Lucretius Gallus. 171 atl2
c.171 Ceronea Boeotia surrenders to praetor C. Lucretius Gallus, but is sacked and destroyed anyway. 171 LdHR 2-85
c.171 COTYS-IV, ruler of some Odrysians in Thrace 180-68, returns to Thrace, and rules as king until 168. 171 atl2, wikLRTD

Balkan Peninsula 170-151