Han commanderies and kingdoms
c.111 Pu Shih appointed imperial counsellor until 110. 111 CHC 163
c.111 WANG WENSHU, Palace Military Commander from 113, is made a general and sent against Dongyue. 111 HFHD6 71
c.111 Emperor Wu Ti sends 6 generals and armies against Nanyue. 111 HFHD6 58
c.111 Han general YANG PU with 20-30,000 troops advances ahead of the main army, takes border town of Xunxia, drives back Yue troops, takes their grain boats. 111 ICMH 159
c.111 Han general YANG PU advances to the Hui River, waits for Lu Bode. 111 ICMH 159
c.111 LUO YUSHAN, king of Minyue (Eastern Yue), is permitted by Han generals to invade Nanyue (Southern Yue).  Luo Yushan holds back to see who wins. 110
ICMH 160
c.111 Han general LU BODE, having lost most of his men crossing mountains, now has only 1,000, joins Han general Yang Pu. 111
ICMH 159
c.111 WuduWUDU made a commandery from parts of Guanghan. 111 HFHD6 67, bril
c.111 Dunhuang DUNHUANG, a Han military commandery west of Jiuquan Commandery is ordered, but not established until 88/7. 117 GHCC 118, HFHD6 73, spks
111 ICMH 159
c.111 HainanHan general LU BODE attacks island of Hainan off the south coast.  After a successful assault, he divides it into commanderies of Zhua and Daner, thus making Hainan island part of China.  Daner lasts until 82, Zhua until 46. 111 bril, wikLB
c.111 6 Han generals and armies meet at Panyu, capture and burn the city. 111 HFHD6 58
c.111 PANYU, capital of Nanyue, falls to Han generals Lu Bode and Yang Pu.  NANYUE, including Guangdong (Kwangtung, Canton), Guangsi, and North Vietnam, under Zhao dynasty from 207, conquered by Emperor Wu Ti's military and naval forces.  ZHAO JIANDE, king from 112, flees, until he and Lu Jia are captured.  Nanyue is annexed to the Han empire, under China until 544CEHan domination extends to include all of present Guangdong, including Hainan island. 111 B76 10-554, 19-122, MCAW, nweW, rcC, rcSAM, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikWu
110 GHCC 118, ICMH 159, LEWH 145
c.111 YUE kingdom in Guangdong and North Vietnam, divided into 9 commanderies. 111 GHCC 118, spks 110 ICMH 160
c.111 Han general YANG PU asks permission to punish Luo Yushan king of Minyue (Eastern Yue).  Emperor Wu Ti denies it, orders armies to return. 110
ICMH 160
c.111 GONGSUN HE is sent by way of Wuyuan Commandery on a campaign against the Xiongnu, goes more than 2000 li to Fouchu Well.  He is unsuccessful. 111 HFHD6 17
c.111 GONGSUN HE is entitled General of Fouchu Well. 111 HFHD6 17
c.111 JIUQUAN fortress on Silk Road founded by Han. 111 B76 II-870
c.111 Han troops return from the Nanyue War.  Han government debates military action against Dongyue. 111 wikWu
c.111 A local chieftain of Yelang, whose loyalty to Han is trusted, is declared king of Yelang. 110
CHC 458
c.111 The WUSUN of central Asia ask Han for a princess.  Han court complies, thus gaining Wusun as an ally. 110 CHC 197, ICMH 160
c.111 Guizhou region incorporated into Han empire. 110 CHC 235
c.111 MINSHAN, home of the Nan and Mang peoples, established as a commandery until 67. 110 ICMH 160
c.111 Xiongnu invade dependent states of Han.  Cavalry from Anding and Tianshui is mustered to fight them. 111
SDFH 109
Hexi Corridor
c.111 Han forces repel a joint Xiongnu / Qiang (Tibetan) invasion of a vast territory spanning the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor to Lop Nur. 111 wikHD, wikHXW
c.111 Han court forcibly moves peasant farmers to the northwest settlements of Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangyi, and Wuwei, along with government-owned slaves and convicts to perform hard labor.  The court also encourages commoners, such as farmers, merchants, landowners, and hired workers, to voluntarily migrate to the frontier. 111 wikHD, wikHH
c.111 SIMA CHIEN (Sima Qian) accompanies a military expedition to southwest China. 111 B76 17-525
c. 111

c. 111
Gongsun Ao, with 15,000 cavalry, is dispatched north from Jiuquan commandery.  After marching 2,000 li distance, Gongsun Ao fails to locate the Xiongnu.  Meanwhile, Zhao Ponu, with 10,000 cavalry, departs from Lingju, and fails to locate the Xiongnu after reaching Xiongnu RiverEmperor Wu Ti personally descends on Shuofang commandery and is welcomed by 180,000 cavalry.  Wu Ti dispatches emissary Guo Ji to chanyu Wu Wei for informing about the decapitated head of Southern Yue KingNorth AsiaChanyu Wu Wei executes his minister who advocate a meeting with Guo Ji and retains Guo Ji as a hostage at Lake BaikalHan emissary, Wang Wu, goes to see chanyu Wu Wei by blackening his face via Xiongnu customs and pursuades Wu Wei to send over a prince to Han court as a hostage.  Another Han emissary, Yang Xin, also visits Wu Wei. 111 HFHD6 72, icX
c.111 WANG WENSHU, general in Dongyue 111, returns to Chang'an, makes recommendations which Emperor Wu dislikes, so Wang Wenshu is dismissed. 111 HFHD6 71
c.111 Son of Liu Shun, LIU PO becomes prince of Changshan, but is dismissed some months after for disrespecting his dead father and exiled to Fangling.  CHANGSHAN becomes a commandery soon divided among his bros. 111 HFHD6 51
c.111 LUO YUSHAN, co-king king of Minyue (Eastern Yue) with Luo Jugu, learns of Yang Pu's request to attack him, but not Emperor Wu Ti's denial.  Fearing attack, Luo Yushan closes the roads to the Chinese, and and sends General Zou Li and others to attack, siezing Beisha, Wulin, and Mailing in former Nanyue and in other border commanderies, exterminating their Han garrisons.  They kill 3 Han Colonels. 111 HFHD6 69, nweW, wikWu
110 ICMH 160
c.111 AI WANG, son of Ming Wang, ruler of Cao at Nanyue from 112, ends.  Bro WEI YANG WANG succeeds until ?. 111
MRDK 469
c.111 Southern Yue statelets pacified by Han. 111 icX, scar
c.111 JANMANG becomes WENSHAN commandery, separate until 66. 111 HFHD6 68
c.111 CHENLI, former habitat of the Zuo, becomes a commandery, separate until 97. 111 HFHD6 68, bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  Chenliu Commandery is not Chenli Commandery.
c.111 YUEHSUI commandery established. 111 HFHD6 68
c.111 CHIENWI commandery established. 111 guess
111 BCE
c.111 TSANGKO commandery established. 111 HFHD6 68
c.111 YULIN commandery established. 111 HFHD6 66
c.111 LINGLING, part of Changsha from ?, becomes a separate commandery. 111 bril
c.111 HOPU commandery established on the south coast.  It is used as a place of exile. 111 HFHD6 66
c.111 JIAOCHI becomes a commandery. gulf 111 HFHD6 66, bril
c.111 JIUCHEN commandery established from part of Nanyue on coast of Gulf. 111 HFHD6 66
c.111 JIHNAN commandery established on coast of southeast Asia. 111 HFHD6 66
c.111 NAN CHAO (present Yunnan) in southern China, under Nanyue from 204, comes under China until 220CE. 111 CHC 235, rcC
c.111 DUONG VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 112, ends. 111 rcSAM
c.111 Han general WEI GUANG is sent against the southwest barbarian states in present Yunnan. 111 HFHD6 79
c.111 Han general HAN YUE is sent to Kuaiji Commandery, then from Chuchang in Kuaiji with riverboats to attack Minyue (Eastern Yue) from east.  General Yang Pu marches thru Wulin to attack Minyue.  General Wang Wenshu is sent to recover Mailing.  2 Yue defectors are sent to recover Ruye and Beisha. 110 HFHD6 70, ICMH 160
c.111 Emperor Wu Ti commissions Er to create extensions to the Zhengguo Canal that could irrigate nearby terrain elevated above the main canal. 111 wikSTH
c.111 Han general YANG PU returns north with troops after the Han-Nanyue War.  He requests Emperor Wu Ti's permission to annex Dongyue.  The emperor refuses after he considers the morale of the troops. 111 wikSeHd
c.111 Han general YANG PU made Marquis of Qiangliang. 111 HFHD6 61
c.111 ZhangyiZHANGYI commandery founded on land gained in 121 in western and central Gansu province. 117 GHCC 118, spks
111 wikHD, wikHH
111 or 104 bril
104 CHC 165, HFHD6 73
CONFUSION ALERT!  ZHANGYI is a commandery in northwestZHANGYE is a kingdom made from Shanyang Commandery.
c.111 DONGYUE (Eastern Ou), under Minyue from ?, annexed by Han. Dec. 111 wikSeHd
c.111 Commanderies of Zhua and Daner are established in Hainan Island.  Daner until 82.  Zhua until 46. 111 HFHD6 66, bril
c.111 Han court establishes the office of colonel-protector of the Qiang. 111 CHC 427
110 BCE
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, assembles 180,000 cavalry in Shuofang, and sends Go Gi to notify chanyu Wu Wei about the mobilization. 110 wikUC
c. 110 When Go Gi arrives, chanyu Wu Wei's master of ceremony asks him about the purpose his arrival.  Go Gi, with polite evasion, says that he wants to disclose it personally to the Chanyu.  Chanyu Wu Wei admits him.  Go Gi tells him:  "If the Chanyu is in a position to mount a campaign and fight with the Chinese state, the Son of Heaven himself, he is waiting for you at the border with an army; and if he is not in a position to fight, he should turn his face to the south and recognize himself a vassal of the House of Han."  Chanyu Wu Wei is so enraged by this ultimatum that he beheads his master of ceremony and arrests Go Gi, sending him off to Baikal in exile.  In spite of that, Wu Wei is not inclined to attack the borders of China.  Instead he rests his troops and horses, and goes hunting. 110 wikUC
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, guided by Sang Hungyang, enters grain business.  He eliminates speculation by selling government-stored grain at a lower price than demanded by merchants.  He buys cheap and sells high until corruption by officials leads to repeal. 110
LEWH 146 by 110 wikHD
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, makes marriage alliance with the Wusun. 110 CHC 197
c.110 Chu Ta is summoned from Liang to the capital to be made an Erudit.  When he arrives, his former pupil Yi Kuan had been given that post, as well as Grandee Secretary until 102.  Chu Ta retires and says Yi Kuan suited Emperor Wu much better than he did. 110 HFHD6 47, 96
c.110 Sang Hung-yang becomes Superintendent of Agriculture until ?. 110 CHC 604
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, at great expense, ascends Mt. Tai to sacrifice and worship heaven and earth, and to offer a secret petition, presumably seeking immortality.  Much attention is paid to huang-ti, the power of yellow.  Sima Qian is with him.  Wu Ti says that he would return to Mount Tai every 5 years to repeat the ceremony, and does so in 106 and 98.  Wu Ti returns to Chang'an and introduces sacrifices to heaven. 110 B76 IX-770, 4-315, 17-525, CHC 172, 664, HFHD6 74, IUG 4.8, LEWH 146, nweW, wikWu
c.110 SIMA TAN, father of Sima Qian, grand historian at Han court from 140, dies.  After mandatory mourning period, his son Sima Qian succeeds in 108 until 90. 110 B76 17-525, CHAC 823, 971, CHC 90, spks, wikHD
c.110 Pu Shih, imperial counsellor from 111, criticizes the wisdom of state-controlled mines, and is therefore dismissed. 110 CHC 163
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, breaks with Confucians over sacrifices. 110 bk
c.110 Liu Lung, Marquis of Fu, is tried for causing a male slave to kill a man.  The marquisate is abolished and Liu Lung is imprisoned, and dies. 110
SDFH 188
c.110 Sang Hungyang begins Bureau of Equalization (standards bureau). 110 HFHD99c 71, bk
c.110 Price stabilization program, codified.  Lasts until end of Former Han. 110 CHC 234
c.110 Jun 10 General HAN YUE is made Marquis of Antao until 91. 110 HFHD6 70, 107
c.110 LIU HUNG, king of Qi from 117, dies without heir.
QI, a kingdom from 117, reverts to a commandery until ?.
110 HFHD6 45, bril
c.110 LUO JUGU, co-king of Minyue (Fujian) with Luo Yushan, under Han military pressure, assassinates Luo Yushan and surrenders the kingdom to Han.  Emperor Wu Ti does not establish commanderies in Minyue's former territory, but moves its people to the region between Yangtze and Huai Rivers. 110 HFHD6 69, nweW, spks, wikWu
c.110 Parthia (in Asia & Persia)establishes relations with Han China.
Chang Chien says, "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom...  When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them ...  The emperor was delighted at this."
110 wikSPR
c.110 Dau of Chen Wu Marquess of Tangyi & Princess Guantao, CHEN JIAO, 1st wife of Emperor Wu Ti 141-130, X-empress deposed 130, dies alone. 110 wikECJ
c.110 COLLAR HARNESS for horses invented by Han Chinese.  The most efficient form of horse harness to this day.  The west won't figure it out until the Middle Ages. 110 TTT
c.109 Central Asian statelets Loulan and Jushi (Turfan) hassle Han envoys. 109 icX
c.109 Breaches of Yellow River finally closed, and an embankment project begun. 109 CHC 61, 243, 554
c.109 Search for Isles of the Immortals. 109 GHCC
c.109 Chanyu Wu Wei sends Wang Woo back with false assurance that if they would consent to a treaty the chanyu would send his eldest son to the Chinese court as a hostage.  Emperor Wu Ti sends Yang Sin to accept the Chanyu's proposal and make arrangements. 109 wstn
c.109 Han expeditions into north and central Korea.  Most of Korea is conquered by 106. 109 CHC 448, GHCC 118, spks
c.109 LAOJIN and MIMO, tribes in Yunan are overrun by Chinese on their way to Dian. 109 ICMH 161
c.109 Lotung marqiusate disolved back into Kaoping. 109 HFHD6 55
c.109 Han general WEI GUANG is again sent against the southwest barbarian states in present Yunnan. 109 HFHD6 79
c.109 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends General GUO CHANG against the Kingdom of Dian (east Yunnan), planning to conquer it, but when the King of Dian surrenders, Dian is incorporated into Han territory with the King of Dian allowed to keep his authority and title as a vassal.  Emperor Wu establishes 5 commanderies over Dian and other nearby kingdoms. 109 GHCC 118, HFHD6 79, ICMH 161, nweW, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikSeHd, wikWu, wikYn
c.109 Yichou YICHOU commandery and 24 subordinate counties established by General Guo Chang. 109 CHC 458, HFHD6 79, spks, wikYn
108 CHC 169
c.109 ZHANG, part of Guangling from 117, name changed to DANYANG. 109 bril
c.109 Wei Min's grandson King Wei Ugeo of Joseon refuses to permit Jin Korea's ambassadors to reach China thru his territory.  When Emperor Wei sends ambassador She He to Wangxian to negotiate the right of passage with King Ugeo, King Ugeo refuses and has a general escort She He back to Han territory - but when they get close to Han borders, She He assassinates the general and tells Emperor Wu that he had defeated Joseon in battle.  Emperor Wu, unaware of She He's deception, makes him military commander of Liaodong Commandery (central Liaoning).  King Ugeo, offended, raids Liaodong and kills She He. 109 ICMH 161, nweW, wikJsn, wikWu
c.109 In response, WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, commissions a land and sea attack, against Joseon.  Han general of the left Xun Zhi marches from Liaodong into Zhenpan, while Yang Pu with 50,000 men crosses Gulf of BohaiXun Zhi with 50,000 tries to march thru the mountains, but the passes are fortified, and he is stopped.  Yang Pu with a vangard of 7,000 pushes to Wangxian, where he is annihilated.  Yang Pu retreats to mountains and regroups. 109 CHC 448, HFHD6 61, 79, nweW, wikWJ, wikWu
108 ICMH 161
c.109 Initially, Wei Ugeo king of Joseon offers to surrender to Yang Pu but refuses to surrender to Xun Zhi.  Negotiations brake down by the Chinese forces' refusal to let a Joseon force escort its crown prince to Chang'an to pay tribute to Emperor Wu. 109 HFHD6 61, 79, wikWu
108 ICMH 161
c.109 Xun Zhi suspects Yang Pu of surrendering to the Koreans, because he had committed a capital crime in losing his army, and reported him to Emperor Wu.  Yang Pu is summoned to the camp of Xun Zhi on the pretext of discussing matters, and is arrested and imprisoned. 109 HFHD6 61, 79
c.109 There are 2,000,000 vagrants east of Guanjung, 400,000 of whom are not registered.  The ministers beg Emperor Wu to exile them to the borders for punishment. 109 HFHD6 94
c.109 WANG WENSHU is made Privy Treasurer until 107. 109 HFHD6 71
c.109 Tungtien Terrace built by Emperor Wu in Kanchuan Palace, Chang'an. 109 HFHD6 76
c.109 Feilien Lodge built by Emperor Wu in Shanglin Park in Chang'an. 109 HFHD6 77
c.109 Chinese invade south to Vietnam. 111 B76 17-248     109 bk
c.109 Historian SIMA QIAN (145-86) begins compiling  Shiji  "Records of the Grand Historian" until 91. 109 wikCC
 Shiji  is finished in 109. wikRGH
c.109 Chao Sin, Marquis of Heih, dies. 109 wstn
c.109/8 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends General Zhao Ponu against central Asian statelets Loulan and Jushi (Turfan). 109 icX     108 ckZP, wikHXW, wikYz
c.109/8 Han general ZHAO PONU captures the King of Loulan and conquers Jushi.  Both become tributaries to Han. 110 HFHD6 72     109 icX
108 wikHXW, wikLln, wikYz 108 wikLK
c.108 Han begins campaigns in west. 108 CHC 409
c.108 Han general ZHAO PONU with 25,000 men defeats Loulan (Cherchen) on northeast border of the Taklamakan Desert, which surrenders to Han.  When the Xiongnu hear of this they attack Loulan.  Zhao Ponu fails to force the Xiongnu to fight.  The king of Loulan is forced to send one son as hostage to the Han, and another son as hostage to the Xiongnu.  The king of Loulan is captured, taken to the Han court, and interrogated about his association with the Xiongnu. 108 CHC 409, CHEIA 132, ICMH 162, ckZP, nweW, wikLln, wikT, wikWu
c.108 Immediately after Han general Zhao Ponu occupies Loulan, he advances north to defeat the Jushi.  Loulan remains subserviant until 107, but Jushi hostile. 108 CHEIA 132ICMH 162, wikWu
c.108 General ZHAO PONU invades central Asia, conquers the Wusun and Dayuan (Dawan). 108 GHCC, wikHXW
c.108 General ZHAO PONU becomes marquis of Zhoye. 108 HFHD6 72, ckZP, wstn
c.108 CHI CHIA, Baronet, Baron Descendant of the Zhou Dynasty from 114, dies. 108 HFHD6 53
c.108 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, invades south Manchuria and North Korea. 108 scar
c.108 Manchuria comes under China until 220CE. 108 rcC
c.108 Han general XUN ZHI defeats Koreans in Zhenpan, advances to besiege Wangxian (Pyongyang).  General Yang Pu joins him there. 108
ICMH 161
c.108 Besieging Wangxian, Han general Xun Zhi wants to storm Wangxian, General Yang Pu wants to negotiate their surrender.  An imperial envoy arrives to see what's preventing victory.  Xun Zhi persuades him to arrest Yang Pu, then with a united army, presses the attack.  Inside Wangxian factions arise. 108 ICMH 161
c.108 WEI UGEO king of Wiman dynasty of Joseon Korea from ?, murdered by his own people.  Wangxian fights on, then surrenders.  KOREA occupied by Chinese military, comes under control of China until ?. 108 B76 10-58, 11-435, CHC 170, 448, HFHD6 79, 80, ICMH 161, PW 17, otw, rcK, wikHD, wikJsn, wikP3K, wikT, wikWJ, wikWu, yutH,
c.108 4 commanderies:  NANGNANG, CHINBON, IMDUN, and HYONTO established by Wu Ti in Korean state of Joseon.  Though there is some violent resistance in 108 and irregular raids by Goguryeo and Buyeo afterwards, Chinese settlers conduct peaceful trade with native Koreans who live largely independent of (but culturally influenced by) the sparse Han settlements.  Chinbon and Imdun will be abandoned in 82, Hyonto in 75.  Nangnang lasts until 313CE. 108 B76 VII-181, GHCC, HFHD6 80, bk, spks, wikHH, wikP3K
c.108 LOLANG trading colony founded on the Tadong river in Nangnang province of Korea. 108 B76 15-313, HFHD6 80
c.108 In Korea Xuantu, Lintun, Zhenphan, and Lolang Commanderies are established by Han.  Lintun and Zhenphan last until 82.  Xuantu last until 300CE, Lolang lasts until 313CE. 108 B76 10-58, HFHD6 80, 81, MCAW, bril, spks, ct, wikHD
c.108 Manchuria is occupied by the states of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other minor statelets. 108 wikP3K
c.108 fall General XUN ZHI is sentenced for having unlawfully striven for distinction, for jealousy of his colleague, and for use of crooked tricks.  Publicly executed. 108 HFHD6 79
c.108 DROUGHT in China. 108 ICMH 162
c.108 GRAIN markets taken over by Han government, in attempt to control prices. 108 ICMH 162
c.108 LIU DUAN, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince YU of Jiaoxi from 154, dies without heir.  JIAOXI reverts to a commandery until 73. 108 HFHD 139, 205, bril, wikEJ, wikJg
c.108 HAN EMPIRE extends from Kunming in Yunnan to Korea and Sea of Japan.  The central government assumes to rule commanderies scattered thruout China, enclosing a larger number of small kingdoms as enclaves. 108
CHC 140, GHCC 120
c.107 YANG PU returns from Korea to Chang'an.  He is sentenced for not having waited for Xun Zhi, and having separately attacked first, so that many men were lost.  He is condemned to death, but ransoms his life, becomes a commoner, and is sent into penal servitude to build walls and mount guard from dawn. 107 HFHD6 61
c.107 WANG WENSHU, Privy Treasurer from 109, is transferred to be Western Prefect of the Capital, until 106. 107 HFHD6 71
c.107 Yellow River changeYellow River breaks dikes and floods again, flows into the Si River.  2,000,000 people are displaced. 107 ICMH 162
c.107 East of the pass are 2,000,000 refugees and about 400,000 unregistered people.  Officials recommend transfering them to the frontiers. 107
SDFH 208
c.107 Han general GUO CHANG, encamped in Shuofang Commandery, returns, and is sent against Kunming (Yunan) until 106.  General WEI GUANG is sent on the same campaign.  They kill or capture 20-30,000, but can't control Yunan because it has no formal government. 107 HFHD6 79, ICMH 162
c.107 Central AsiaGeneral ZHAO PONU has to reconquer Loulan.  Han controls area to Lop Nor.  Defense stations are built in Gansu 107 ICMH 162
c.107 WU WEI, chanyu 114-105, tries to negotiate peaceful relations with Han, and even halts border raids.  The Han disregard his terms and demand that the chanyu send his heir-apparent as a hostage to Chang'an.  Peace negotiations collapse. 107 CHC 394, ICMH 162, wikHXW
Silk Road
c.106 Silk Road, finished 121, is inaugurated (a treaty between Emperor Wu Ti and Parthian king Mithridates-II). 106 scar
c.106 1st SILK CARAVAN goes from China thru Kushan and Parthian Asia to Persia. 106 B76 3-1136
c.106 In order to better organize the territories, including both the previously-existing empire and the newly conquered territories, Emperor Wu divides the empire into 13 prefectures (called bu, later zhou), and assigns 13 regular regional Inspectors.  The bu have no governors or prefectural governments at this time - that will come later. 106 HFHD6 85, nweW, wikWu
c.106 YANG PROVINCE becomes an administrative division of the empire, comprising commanderies of Lujiang, Jiujiang, Kuaiji, Danyang, Yuchang, and the kingdom of Luan. 106 nweW, wikWu
c.106 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, again ascends Mt. Tai to sacrifice and worship heaven and earth. 106 B76 IX-770, CHC 664
c.106 Intensive measures are taken to strengthen central supervisory powers.  13 CIRCUIT INSPECTORS (cishi) first appointed to inspect provincial administrations, investigate corruption or oppression, and supervise provincial officials. 106 B76 4-312, CHC 157, 475, 530, bril, wikGHd
c.106 WANG WENSHU, Western Prefect of the Capital from 107, commits a crime and is dismissed. 106 HFHD6 71
c.106 Son of Zheng Ji, WEI QING, Han General-in-chief from ?, dies. 106 HFHD6 22, nweW, wikHD, wikHH, wikWQ, wikWu
104 CHC 108
c.105 Central AsiaHAN ARMY marches west, briefly invades Fergana Valley (Dayuan).  Fails. 105 B76 8-630 104 scar
c.105 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends a "princess" to marry the aged kunmo (king of Wusun).  Wusun is a state which had been the Xiongnu's ally since Baghur's days.  The Xiongnu quickly see the significance of this marriage, so the chanyu also sends one of his daughters to marry the kunmo.  The kunmo makes the Han princess the Bride of the Right, and the Xiongnu princess the Bride of the Left.  The Han princess later marries his grandson and successor Qinqu, creating a strong alliance between Han and Wusun. 105 CHC 410, CHEIA 131-2, nweW, wikWu
c.105 WANG WENSHU becomes Senior Assistant Chief Commandant acting as Palace Military Commander until 104. 105 HFHD6 71
c.105 HSU TZUWEI, Chief of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace from 117, ends. 105 HFHD6 96
c.105 Mt. Shou Palace is built by Emperor Wu near Mt. Shou in Pufan prefecture, in Hedong Commandery. 105 HFHD6 86
c.105 Competitive games held at Pinglo Lodge in Shanglin Park west of Chang'an. 105 HFHD6 88
c.105 Chinese envoys using the new Silk Road reach Seleucia. 105 bk
c.105 PAPER making improved by inventor Cai Lun. 105 hceisH, wikHH
c.105 COLLAR HARNESS, the most efficient harness for horses, invented in China.  It will not be used in the west until the Middle Ages. 110 TTT
110-101 TTS
c.105 fall Son of Yizhixie, WU WEI dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 114 dies.  Young son USHIHLU succeeds until 102. 105 CHC 393, CHEIA 136, ICMH 163, icX, spks, rcN, wikCny, wikUC, wnck, wstn     104 MRDK 450
CONFUSION ALERT!  Wuwei is a commandery.   Wu Wei is chanyu 114-05..
c.105 Xiongnu in Manchuria are expelled by locals, and no longer control eastern Mongolia. 105 ICMH 163
c.105 Vines and alfalfa brought from central Asia to China. 105 GHCC
c.104 Jan Poliang Terrace in Weiyang Palace, begun 115, burns. 104 HFHD6 88
c.104 Mr/Ap Chienchang Palace is begun by Emperor Wu to be more magnificent than Poliang Terrace.  It lasts until 20CE. 104 HFHD6 89
c.104 DAYUAN (Dawan) refuses to give in to Emperor Wu's commands to surrender its best horses, Emperor Wu's ambassadors are then executed when they insult the king of Dayuan after his refusal. 104 ICMH 163, nweW, wikWu
c.104 Central AsiaLI GUANGLI, bro of Lady Li, Wu Ti's favorite concubine, is made a general and sent with an army of 20,000 merchants shopkeepers and convicts, plus 6,000 nomad allies to central Asia and the Pamirs and to attack Ferghana (Dayuan) until 101.  He is to steal the prize horses of Dayuan.  Han diplomats come into contact with the kingdoms of the Tarim Basin. 104
CHC 168, GHCC 118, icX, spks, wikWu
c.104 LI GUANGLI fails to capture a city called Yuecheng. 104 icX, wikWu
c.104 LU BODE, Marquis of Peili 119-104, sees that his son committed treason and an inhuman crime.  Doesn't tell. 104 HFHD6 59
c.104 LU BODE, Marquis of Peili from 119, dismissed. 104 HFHD6 59
c.104 Son of Liu Shun, LIU SHANG, King Ssu of Sushui from 114/3, dies.  Son succeeds. 104 HFHD6 56
c.104 FEATHERED FOREST, a corps of elite troops serving as an imperial guard in the imperial cortege and guarding palaces, established by Emperor Wu. 104 HFHD8 52
c.104 GuanzhongThe Guanzhong Metropolitan area, divided into 2 from 135, under Superintendent of the Left and the commandery of Hongnong from 113, now divided into 3.  The 3 posts of Jingzhao Yin, You Fufeng, and Zuo Pingyi are established.  You Fufeng replaces the suppressed post of Commandant.  These 3 senior officials are known collectively as the San fu.  That term is also used for the 3 areas they control. 104 CHC 472, bril
c.104 WANG WENSHU, Senior Assistant Chief Commandant acting as Palace Military Commander from 105, accused of bribery and other crimes, sentenced to death with his family, so he suicides.  His 2 bros' families and 2 families related by marriage are also exterminated for other crimes.  After he is dead, it is found that his family had the equivalent of 1,000 catties of gold. 104 HFHD6 71, SDFH 74
c.104 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, builds luxurious Jianzhang Palace - a massive structure intended to make him closer to the gods.  He would later reside at that palace exclusively rather than the traditional Weiyang Palace. 104 nweW, wikWu
c.104 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, on advice of Dong Zhongshu, officially endorses earth, rather than water or fire, as patron element of Han. 104
CHC 738
c.104 Chinese  CALENDAR  reformed by Sima Qian and others.  The ancient Sifen calendar, which measured the tropical year at 365/4 days, is replaced with the Taichu calendar that measured the tropical year at 365 and 385/1539 days and the lunar month at 29 and 43/81 days. 104 B76 17-525, CHC 172, 686, GHCC, IUG 4.6, wikHD, wikSTH
c.104 Years begin to be enumerated according to a new reign title, tai-chu, "Grand Beginning".  Updated 5BC. 104 CHC 172, 222
c.104 Office of Commander in Charge of Aristocratic Ranks changed by Emperor Wu to Western Sustainer and given charge of the territory of the Western Prefect of the Capital, putting the marquises in charge of the Grand Herald. 104 HFHD8 23
c.104 HSU TZUWEI is made Superintendant of the Imperial House until ?. 104 HFHD6 96
c.104 Han general GONGSUN AO is sent to build a fortress called Shouxiangcheng "City for Receiving Surrender" north of the Yin Mountains (north of the northern segment of the Big Bend of the Yellow River in the Gobi as a supply base. 104 HFHD6 89, ICMH 163, spks
c.104 Han general GONGSUN AO is entitled General of Yinyu (a Xiongnu place which he had captured) and is ordered to build Shouchiang City, where the Xiongnu Commander of the East is expected to surrender. 104
HFHD6 22
c.104 TUNG SHUNG SHU (Dong Zhongshu), commentator on the classics, greatest Confucian of his time, dies.  A minor official who aggregated the ethical Confucian ideas of ritual, filial piety, and harmonious relationships with five phases and yin-yang cosmologies.  Much to the interest of the ruler, Tung's synthesis justified the imperial system of government within the natural order of the universe. 105 GHCC
104 B76 4-1094, CHAC 611, 973, CHC 109, 163, 809, EoΦ 2-90, 8-164, IUG 4.9, wikDZ, wikHD, wikHH
c.104/3 A severe winter costs the Xiongnu many animals.  Chanyu Ushihlu is under pressure to start a war. 104/3 ICMH 163
c.104/3 A line of forts and stations is built from Jiuquan commandery to future Dunhuang commandery, and from there to Yumen Pass, northwest of Dunhuang.  A line several thousand li long of walled outposts and watch stations is built from the frontier post of Wuyuan Commandery, north of the northern segement of the Big Bend, to the northern extension of the Lang Mountains in Inner Mongolia. 104/3 spks
c.103 China war with Xiongnu begins until 90. 103 bk
c.103 Han general ZHAO PONU with 20,000 cavalry is sent sent out of Shuofang Commandery north to help conspirators against chanyu Ushihlu.  The scheme fails.  Zhao Ponu takes some prisoners and retreats, but is surrounded by 80,000 XiongnuHe escapes by night, but is caught and imprisoned until 100.  His troops surrender. 103 CHC 109, HFHD6 72, ICMH 163-4, ckZP, wikWu
no date: icX
c.103 After defeating Zhao Ponu, chanyu Ushihlu attacks Shouxiangcheng unsuccessfully.  The Xiongnu begin raiding south. 103 ICMH 164
c.103 Central AsiaHan general LI GUANGLI, with a depleted army of 26,000 men (20,000 Chinese & 6,000 steppe cavalry), without adequate supplies, crosses mountains into Ferghana/Dayuan, tries to storm Yuchen, repulsed.  His subordinates agree to retreat back to China.  With only 4,000 men they reach DunhuangLi writes to emperor Wu Ti trying to excuse his failure.  Wu Ti writes back and says any of his men who cross Jade Gate Pass will be executed.  Li stays at Dunhuang. 104 HFHD6 90, icX
103 ICMH 164, nweW, wikWu
c.103 Mar SHIH CHING, former Lt. Chancellor, dies. 103 HFHD6 94
c.103 SHANGCHIU CHENG is made Grand Herald. 103 HFHD6 116
c.103 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, relents and decides to send Li Guangli another army.  He sends him 60,000, convicts, 100,000 oxen, 30,000+ horses, and tens of thousands of donkeys, mules, and camels. 103
ICMH 164
c.103 TAICHU ERA begins until 101.  The definition of the Chinese New Year, the second New Moon after the winter solstice, could be dated from the Taichu Era. 103 icH, wikWu
c.103 GONGSUN HE becomes Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Koyi.  His son Gongsun Chingsheng takes his place as Chief of the Stud. 103 HFHD6 17
c.102 Jan YI KUAN, Grandee Secretary from 110, dies. 102 HFHD6 96
c.102 Fortified posts created in Mongolia. 103 GHCC
c.102 Han general LI GUANGLI, marches west again north of the Tarim desert.  WANG SHENSHENG with 1,000 goes by southern route.  LI LING follows as far as Dunhuang.  Cities of Tarim surrender except Luntou, which is besieged, then stormed.  Inhabitants massacred. 102 ICMH 164, LEWH 146, wikT
c.102 Han general WANG SHENSHENG with 1,000 men arrives at Yucheng.  They are attacked and wiped out. 102
ICMH 165
c.102 Li Guangli sends general WANG SHENSHENG to storm Yucheng, whose king flees to the Kangjiu.  Wang pursues.  The Kangjiu surrender their king to Wang. 102
ICMH 165
c.102 JIUQUAN and ZHANGYI commanderies in western and central Gansu invaded by Xiongnu Wise King of the Right. 102 spks
c.102 180,000 soldier/farmers transplanted to JIUQUAN and ZHANGYI commanderies in western and central Gansu. 103
GHCC 121
c.102 CHUYEN city built by Lu Bode. 102 HFHD6 39
c.102 HAN YUE, Marquis of Antao 111-91, is sent to encamp at the cities and fortifications north of Wuyuan Commandery. 102 HFHD6 70
c.102 HSU TZUWEI, Superintendant of the Imperial House 104-?, is sent to build several walled cities and fortifications for several hundred li north of Wuyuan Commandery. 102 HFHD6 96, 97
c.102 Shangguan Chieh is made Privy Treasurer. 102 HFHD6 121
c.102 Banditry increases in China.  Provinces of Nanyang, Chu, Qi, Zhao, and Yen are all overrun by bandit groups. 102
ICMH 165
c.102 Son of Wu Wei, USHIHLU dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 105, personally leading an attack at "surrender castle" again, dies.  Uncle, rightside wise king GUILIHU succeeds until 101. 103 CHEIA 136
102 MRDK 450, icX, rcN, wnck
102/1 spks, wikCny
c.102 Central AsiaHan general LI GUANGLI, loses half his 60,000 men to death or desertion, but has enough to cross the mountains again.  They bypass Yucheng, advance on Ferghana/Dayuan capital Sutrishna, and defeat a Dayuan army. 102
ICMH 165, LEWH 146, icX, wikT, wikWu
c.102 SUTRISHNA capital of Ferghana/Dayuan, besieged 40 days with water supplies cutt off, kills its king, throws his head to Li Guangli, and offers to give him the desired horses if they withdraw.  Li Guangli accepts.  Sutrishnans give him 12 1st class horses and 3,000 2nd class horses, and he withdraws.  This Han victory further intimidates the Xiyu kingdoms into submission. 102 ICMH 165, LEWH 146, icX, nweW, wikT, wikWu
c.102 Following Han's victory over Ferghana/Dayuan in 102, the Xiongnu fear that Han could then concentrate against it, and make peace overtures. 102 wikWu
c.102 BAN CHAO, Marquis of Dingyuan, age 70, dies at Loyang.  Following his death, Xiongnu power in the west increases again. 102 wikXng
c.102 Han general LU BODE becomes Chief Commandant of Strong Cross Bowmen stationed at Juyan. 102
HFHD6 59
c.102 GREAT WALLS extended by soldiers and convicts from northeast of Lan-chou to Yunmen Pass at west end of Gansu. 102 GHCC 114 101 tcg
c.101 2nd expedition against Ferghana. General Li Guangli succeeds against Ferghana/Dayuan kingdom. 101 GHCC
c.101 Han establishes hundreds of garrison troops south of the Tianshan Mountains in today's Luntai & Quli and assign an official entitled "emissarial colonel" there. 101 icX, chem
c.101 FERGHANA (Dayuan, Kokand) conquered by Han general Li Guangli, on 2nd expedition to Fergana, submits to Han forces.  A pro-Chinese king is installed.  This secures fine horses for Emperor Wu. 101 B76 8-630, CHC 197, 410, CHEIA 132, HFHD6 93, wikHXW
c.101 Han general LI GUANGLI sets up a puppet ruler at Ferghana/Dayuan capital Sutrishna until 100, and starts home. 101 CHC 197, ICMH 165
c.101 WuweiWUWEI Commandery, proposed 121, established in territory gained in 121. 101 HFHD6 42
c.101 Mingkuang Palace is built by Emperor Wu behind Changlo Palace and connected to the south with Changlo Palace. 101 HFHD6 97
c.101 In autumn Chanyu Guilihu raids Yunzhong, Dingxiang, Wuyuan and Shuofang commanderies, kills a few thousand ChineseXiongnu Rightside Wise King raids Jiuquan and Zhangyi commanderies to the west and captures a few thousand people. 101 ICMH 166, icX
c.101 Hearing that General Li Guangli is returning from Central Asia, the Xiongnu plan an ambush on the road but change their mind later. 101 icX
c.101 Son of Ichih Xieh, GUILIHU dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 102 dies of illness in winter.  Bro, Rightside Wise King, QUTIHOU succeeds until 96. 101 CHC 395, CHEIA 136-7, HFHD7 18, ICMH 166, MRDK 450, icX, rcN, wnck 101/0 spks, wikCny
c.101 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, proposes a general attack on the Xiongnu for avenging on first Han emperor's defeat by the Xiongnu as well as first Han empress's humiliation of being asked for marriage by Baghur. 101 icX
c.101 Chanyu QUTIHOU, to appease the Chinese, releases all envoys and hostages who refused to surrender to Xiongnu, including Lu Chongguo. 101 HFHD7 18, icX
c.101 Han general LI GUANGLI, in west from ?, returns with 10,000 of his 60,000 men to Chang'an with horses and the head of the ruler of Fergana. 101 B76 8-630, CHEIA 132, wikHXW
c.101 Han general XU ZUWEI advances the line of supply forts across the Gobi for 666 miles. 101 ICMH 166
c.101 Han general LU BODE builds forts along the swamps of Juyan in the Alashan to cover approaches to Gansu. 101
ICMH 166
c.101 BAO SHENGZHI, FAN KUN, and ZHANG DE are sent by emperor Wu Ti to suppress bandits.  They execute tens of thousands, but banditry persists. 101
ICMH 166
c.101 Han general LI GUANGLI is made Marquis of Haihsi, with income of 8000 families. 101 HFHD6 92
c.101 fall KUEI PALACE built north of Weiyang Palace by Emperor Wu. 101 HFHDX 03

East Asia 100-81