Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.122 Emperor Wu sends ambassadors to try again to persuade Yelang and Dian into submission. 122 nweW
c.122 HAN expands southward until 109. 122 GHCC, ICMH 152
c.122 LIU AN, grandson of Liu Bang, prince of Huainan from 177, Marquis of Fouling from 172, (a previously trusted adviser of Emperor Wu), and his bro Liu Ci, Prince of Hengshan, are accused of plotting rebellion.  They suicide to avoid torture before execution.  The accusation alone causes execution of his Queen, his crown prince, and 30,000 men. 123/2 HFHD6 33, 35     122 B76 V-174, 17-1052, CHAC 970, 1027, CHC 158, GHCC, ICMH 152, LEWH 145, bk, nweW, wikWu     112 HFHD 93
c.122 LIU JU, son of Wu Ti and empress Wei Zifu, declared crown prince. 122 CHC 175, HFHD6 23, 93, 110, nweW, wikECJ, wikEWZ
c.122 SHIH CHING, Administrator of Pei Commandery, is made Tutor of crown prince Liu Ju. 122 HFHD6 93
c.122 ZHUANG ZHU is publicly executed. 122 HFHD6 7
c.122 JIANGXIA, west part of Hengshan from 164, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. Hengshan 122 122 bril
c.122 HENGSHAN, independent kingdom from 164, east part changed to become the kingdom of LUAN until the end of Han. 122 HFHD99c 27, bril, hfrt
121 HFHD6 43, bril
c.122 East part becomes Hengshan Commandery 122 HFHD6 35
c.122 Huainan 122HUAINAN, independent kingdom from 206, abolished.
North becomes JIUJIANG commandery until ?.
Middle, LUJIANG, part of Huainan from 153, becomes a commandery under Han until ?.
South, YUCHANG, part of Huainan from 164, becomes a commandery under Han until ?
122 CHC 156, HFHD 38, bril, hfrt
c.122 Abolition of Huainan & Hengshan seems to have been decisive in breaking the power of the kingdoms. 122 hfrt
c.122 10,000 Xiongnu briefly raid Shang Commandery and kill over 100 people. 122 ICMH 152, icX, spks
c.122 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, sent west again with hundreds of messengers to persuade the Wusan and Kuldja tribes to return home and cooperate with Han.  He is unsuccessful, then goes to Sogdiana. 122 MCAW
120 ICMH 154
119 icX     115 CHEIA 131, 157, scar
c.122 ZHAO MO, king of Nanyue from 137, dies.  ZHAO YINGQI succeeds until 113. 127 ICMH 149 122 rcC
c.122 Southern YUE, nominally a Han vassal, is suspected of intending rebellion. 122 ICMH 152
c.122 VAN VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 137, ends.  MINH VUONG TRIEU succeeds until 113. 122 rcSAM
c.121 GOHAESA ends.  King of Buyeo in west Korea from 170GOWURU succeeds until 86. 121 rcK
c.121 NANLU, Prince of the Weimo of central Korea, surrenders to Han. 121 HFHD6 24
c.121 In spring Emperor WU TI orders expeditions to Western Hexi (Gansu) Corridor. 121 GHCC 118, ICMH 152, icX, wikHD, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng
c.121 In western Xiongnu territory (Gansu corridor) appear 2 powerful Xiongnu tribes known as Hunyeh and Xiutu. 120 CHEIA 136
c.121 Ho Qubing, neph of Wei Qing, with 10,000 light cavalry from Longxi departs west for over 1,000 li, thru the Gansu Corridor, attacks the Xiongnu in and around Yanzhi (Yanqi) Mountains.  Ho then advances 1,000 km beyond Mt. Yanzhi into Mongolia, thru 5 Xiongnu kingdoms in 6 days, kills or captures over 8,000 Xiongnu, kills 2 Xiongnu kings, Zhelan and Luhou.  The prince of the Hunye (a Xiongnu subtribe) with 40,000 men, surrenders and is captured.  Ho grabs a gold statue (possibly Buddha) belonging to the king of Xiutu (Xiuzhu).  Ho takes both the Yanzhi and Qilian Mountain ranges from the Xiongnu, and expells them from a vast territory spanning the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor to Lop Nur, attacks Xiongnu in north China and Mongolia until 119. 121 CHC 390, CHEIA 129, GHCC 118, HFHD6 118, ICMH 152, SDFH 99, 106, bk, icX, spks wikHD, wikHQ, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng, wstn
CONFUSION ALERT!  Ho Qubing has at least 2 major battles against the Xiongnu in 121 in the same general area.  Sources confuse them terribly, and I have undoubtedly done the same.
c.121 CHAO YICHI follows Wei Qing and takes 660 Xiongnu heads. 121 HFHD6 44
c.121 LI TSAI is made made Lt. Chancellor. 121 HFHD6 45
c.121 Apr ZHANG TANG is promoted to Grandee Secretary until 116.  He makes Yi Kuan his assistant. 121 HFHD6 49, 95
c.121 Jun ZHAO PONU is made Marquis Who Followed the Agile General until 112. 121 HFHD6 72
c.121 Xiongnu attack Dai and Yanmen Commanderies.  Li Guang, who is in charge of defending Right Beiping (Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia), launches a not-so-successful counter-offensive supported by Chang Chien. mid 121 wikHQ, wikWu
c.121 LI GUANG, as Chief of the Gentlemen at the Palace, goes thru Yubeiping Commandery to attack the Xiongnu with Chang Chien, Marquis of Boyang Commandery, who has 10,000 cavalry.  The Xiongnu Wise King of the East has 40,000 cavalry and surrounds Li Guang.  The Xiongnu kill more than half of Li Guang's soldiers with arrows.  Chinese arrows are almost used up.  Li Guang with a large crossbow shoots their Lieutenant General, killing several men.  The next day they again fight.  Chang Chien comes to his rescue, but by that time the men of Li Guang are almost all killed. 121 HFHD6 12
c.121 LIU CHING is appointed king of Luan until 84. 121 HFHD6 43
c.121 LIU CHIEN, king of Jiangdu from 132, indicted for plotting rebellion, suicides. 121 HFHD6 41
c.121 Jiangdu 121JIANGDU kingdom, established 153, terminated.
North, GUANGLING in Xuzhou, part of Jiangdu kingdom from 153, becomes Guangling Commandery until 117.
LINHUAI, part of Jiangdu Kingdom from 153, assigned to Guangling Commandery until 117.
West, ZHANG (Danyang), part of Jiangdu Kingdom from 153, becomes Zhang commandery until 117.
Main part becomes KUAIJI Commandery until ?.
121 HFHD6 40, 41, bril
mid 121 Han general Ho Qubing returns to Chang'an. mid 121 ICMH 152
c.121 HO QUBING is made General of Agile Cavalry. 121 HFHD6 36, 122
c.121 Wu Ti orders another campaign under Ho Qubing and Gongsun Ao. 121 icX, spks, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
c. 121 Ho Qubing and Gongsun Ao [marquis of Hochi] with 10,000 men depart from northern border of Longxi & Beidi, while Li Guang and Chang Chien depart from Yubeiping Commandery for attack on Xiongnu Leftside Wise kingGongsun Ao gets lost and arrives late at rendesvous point.  Ho Qubing crosses Juyan Lake area and attacks the Xiongnu in and around Qilian Mountains.  30,000 Xiongnu are captured or killed.  But Li Guang is encircled by Xiongnu Leftside Wise King, and loses more than half of his 4,000 men before being rescued by Chang Chien, who is demoted for not sending timely relief to Li Guang. 121 HFHD6 22, 36, 39, SDFH 106, icX, spks, wikHH, wikHQ, wikHXW, wikWu     120 wikLG
c. 121 In autumn the prince of Hunye (a Xiongnu subtribe), for fear of punishment by the chanyu, contacts Ho Qubing to negotiate surrender.  Unable to persuade the Prince of Xiutu to do the same, the Hunye king kills the Prince of Xiutu and forces Xiutu's men to surrender.  When the 2 tribes go to meet Han forces, Xiutu's men riot.  Ho Qubing goes alone to the Xiongnu camp, orders the Hunye king to calm his men and stand down, before forcefully putting down 8,000 Xiongnu who refuse to disarm, effectively quelling the riot.  The Hunye king surrenders his 40,000 people to Ho Qubing. 121 CHC 391, 407, HFHD6 43, icX, nweW, wikHH, wikHQ, wikHXW, wikWu
120 CHC 392
c.121 WUWEI Commandery proposed in the home of the Xiutu Wang of the Xiongnu.  Established in 101. 121 icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
by 115 wikHXW     115 GHCC 118, spks     111 wikHD, wikHH
no date: CHEIA 130
c.121 Jiuquan, WuweiHunye territory is designated to become Jiuquan Commandery in 115.  The King of Hunye becomes Marquis of Tayin in present Shantung, with income from 10,000 households.  Of his Associate Kings, Hutuni, is made Marquis of Hsiamo in present Shansi.  Yingpi is made Marquis of Huichu in present Henan.  Chinli is made Marquis of Hochi in present Shantung.  Chouli is made Marquis of Changlo. 121 HFHD6 42, 43
ZHANGYI Commandery is also proposed or established at this time. guess
c.121 GONGSUN AO is condemned to death, ransoms himself, is stripped of rank, and lives as a commoner. 121 HFHD6 22
c.121 Emperor Wu Ti relocates the 40,000 Xiongnu to 5 Commanderies:  Longxi, Beidi, Shang, Shuofang, and Yunzhong. 121 icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
c.121 A fangshi (magician) from Qi named Shaoweng summons the spirit of one of Wu Ti's recently deceased favorite consorts, as well as the kitchen god.  Emperor Wu, who is separated from them only by a curtain, is impressed.  He makes Shaoweng an honorary general and a rich man. 121 IUG 4.8
c.121 Surrender of the Xiutu and Hunye tribes to Han strips the Xiongnu of control over the Western Regions, depriving them a large grazing area. 121 HFHD6 42
no date: wikHQ, wikWu
Silk Road
c.121 SILK ROAD, completed 190, auxiliary Northern routes are established, allowing direct trade access to Central Asia.  This provides new high-quality horse breeds from Central Asia, including the Ferghana horse. no date: wikWu
c.121 After the Hunye surrender, the Han court moves 725,000 disaster victims of Guanzhong to populate the Xiongnu territory of Xinqinzhong region south of the bend of the Yellow River, and reduces the garrison to the west of Beidi by half. 121 icX
120 GHCC, bk
no date: wikHQ, wikHH
c.121 After defeats by Wei Qing and Ho Qubing, Yizhixie chanyu takes Zhao Xin's advice and retreats to north of the Gobi Desert. no date: wikWu
c.121 Han Empire sends a delegation to Mithridates-II king of Parthia 124-88. 121 wikPE
c.121 MAGIC LANTERN (camera obscura), a technique of projecting a painting on glass using an oil lamp, invented by Chinese. 470-390 wikCO
121 scar
c.121 Apr 7 GONGSUN HONG (Kung-sun Hung), Confucian schollar, Marquis Hsien of Pingchin from 126, Wu Ti's chancellor from 124, age 80, dies. 121 B76 V-942, HFHD6 15, 16, frie 118 CHC 109
c.120 In spring, the Xiongnu raid Yubeiping Commandery and Dingxiang with tens of thousands of cavalry, inflict thousands of casualties on the Chinese and carry off 1,000, then withdraw beyond the Gobi. 120 HFHD6 37, ICMH 154, icX
c.120 CHAO YICHI is made a Kuan-nei Marquis and given 100 catties of real gold.  He is again made Chief Commander in Charge of Aristocratic Ranks. 120 HFHD6 44
c.120 Ho Qubing passes thru Pingyang in western Shansi to take command of his army.  He never meets his father Ho Chungju, so his father is brought to the hostel.  Then Ho Qubing liberally gives his father fields, houses, and male and female slaves, and hurries on to the wars.  This quick transfer of land, houses, and slaves, may have been handled by agents who knew of real estate for sale and could speedily assemble a group of slaves. 120 SDFH 123
c.120 LIU JI, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, prince KANG of Jiaodong from 148, dies of illness without appointing an heir.  Emperor Wu Ti makes his son XIEN prince of Jiaodong until ?. 121 HFHD 125
120 wikEJ, wikJg
c.120 Han general LI XI is stationed at Hoshang and is in charge of building the city of Hoshang. 120 HFHD6 17
c.120 Office of the Superintendent of Agriculture takes responsibility for operating state monopolies on salt and iron, and controlling or balancing prices and transport. 120 CHC 469
119 TTT
c.120 mid Emperor Wu Ti orders the Grandee Secretary to appoint XIAO CHING Marquis of Tsan in Nanyang Commandery with income of 2400 families, to let the world know that his great-grandfather is still honored.  Xiao Ching remains until 81. 120 HFHD6 43
c.120 Emperor Wu Ti receives 2 golden statues of the Buddha, according to inscriptions in the Mogao Caves in Dunhuang. 120 wikTB
c.120 MINES, until now privately owned, begin coming under state control. 120 CHC 161
c.120 As Han expansion into Xiongnu land continues, more kingdoms need to be created to incorporate newly annexed territories. 120 CHEIA 136
c.120 COMET. 120 HFHD 34
c.120 Han expedition against KUNMING tribes in west Yunnan. 120 GHCC 118, spks
c.120 SANFENG is built as headquarters of Shuofang. 120 HFHD6 24
c.120  Zixu Fu  "Sir Fantasy Rhapsody" poem written by Sima Xiangru. 100 bk
c.119 Xiongnu threats from 135 end.  Han enjoys a time of refreshing and regrouping until 112. 119 CHC 164
c.119 YIZHIXIE, chanyu of the Xiongnu 126-14, sends an envoy, hoping to achieve peaceful relations with Han.  The Han court disregards his terms and suggests he become an outer vassal. 119 icX, wikHXW 118 ICMH 156
by c.119 Han forces establish first garrison outposts in the Juyan Lake Basin of Inner Mongolia.  Roughly 40% of the settlers at Juyan come from the Guandong region, western Shandong, southern Shanxi, southern Hebei, northwest Jiangsu, and northwest Anhui. by 119 wikHH, wikHXW
Hexi Corridor
c.119 In spring WU TI orders another campaign against the Xiongnu north of the Gobi Desert. 119 HFHD6 37, icX, wikHQ, wikWQ, wikHXW, wikWu
c.119 LI GUANG asks to be sent with the Xiongnu campaign.  Emperor Wu refuses because of his age, then relents and makes him General of the Van. 119 HFHD6 13
c.119 Jul 15 LU BODE is made Marquis of Peili until 104, with income of 1600 families. 119 HFHD6 59
c.119 WEI QING is made Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief.  Ho Qubing is made Commander-in-chief and General of Light Cavalry. 119 HFHD6 22
c.119 YANG PU is made Chief Commander in Charge of Aristocratic Ranks. 119 HFHD6 60
c.119 General-in-chief, Wei Qing, unites troops of Li Guang with those of General of the Right, Chao Yichi, and orders Li Guang to go east.  Li Guang objects, saying he wants to go in the van and capture the Chanyu.  But Wei Qing had received orders from Emperor Wu that Li Guang's intentions were evil.  Wei Qing himself wants Gongsun Ao to oppose the Chanyu, so he refuses Li Guang's request. 119 HFHD6 13, 44
c.119 GONGSUN AO, now a colonel, is with General-in-chief Wei Qing but does not distinguish himself. 119 HFHD6 22
c. 119

c. 119
Han forces are deployed in 2 separate columns, each with 50,000 cav and over 100,000 inf, with Wei Qing and Ho Qubing as commanders, and auxiliary and logistic horses numbering 140,000.  Wei Qing departs in winter at dusk from Dai, while Ho Qubing departs from Dingxiang for a union north of Gobi.  After one day of fighting, chanyu Yizhixie flees with hundreds of cavalryNorth AsiaHan armies chase them all the way to Zhao Xing fort in the Tienyen Mountains (southeast of the larger Khangai Mountains), capturing or killing 190,000 Xiongnu before turning back.  Ho Qubing, after traveling 2,000 li from Dai area, fights Leftside Wise King Tuqi, and captures or kills 70,000 Xiongnu including TuqiHo Qubing reaches Langjuxu Mountain and Lake Baikal in Outer Mongolia.  This operation is called the Battle of MOBEILi Guang and Chao Yichi get lost, arrive late at their rendezvous with Wei Qing, miss the battle.  Li Guang admits fault and suicides.  The battle stalemates until dusk, when a sandstorm obscures the field.  Xiongnu casualties: 80-90,000 troops; Han casualties 20-30,000 plus 100,000 horses.  With the Xiongnu gone, the Han establish military farming from Shuofang to Lingju in the west and assigns 50-60,000 soldiers. 119 CHC 390, CHEIA 129, GHCC 118, HFHD6 13, 38, 44, ICMH 154, SDFH 107, icX, nweW, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikHQ, wikHXW, wikWQ, wikT, wikWu, wikXng, yutH
c.119 YIZHIXIE, chanyu of the Xiongnu 126-14, is chased as far as Lake Baikal, and is missing for over 10 days, resulting in his tribe presuming him dead.  The Rightside Wise King, assumes the post of chanyu but gives it up after the return of Yizhixie. 119 wikHXW, wikWu no date: wikHQ
Hexi Corridor
c.119 XIONGNU driven north of Gobi Desert by Ho Qubing.  North provinces are now free of Xiongnu.  This includes the Qilian and Yanzhi Mountains, which for many years had been favorite pastures of the Xiongnu, and the lands stretching west from the Gansu corridor to Lop Nor.  No more Xiongnu invasion of Han land until 103. 119
B76 4-313, CHC 164, CHEIA 130, LEWH 145
c.119 Until now, business men made large fortunes in iron and salt.  Han government confiscates these industries, then sells monopolies in them to boost finances.  Wu Ti sets up agencies to supervise mining, manufacturing, distribution.  Currency is devalued. 119 CHC 234, 582, GHCC 118, LEWH 146, SDFH 25, 217, TTS, TTT, wikHH
c.119 CHAO YICHI is condemned for getting lost, sentenced to death, allowed to ransom his life, becomes a commoner. 119 HFHD6 45
c.119 Grand Administrator of Henei Commandery, WANG WENSHU is promoted to Palace Military Commander until 114. 119 HFHD6 71
c.119 SALT industry of China, made state monopoly by Han Wu Ti until ?. 119 CHC 234, GHCC 118, bk     118 ICMH 156
c.119 IRON industry of China from 550, made state monopoly by Han Wu Ti until 50CE.  48 foundries established by govt. 119 CHC 234, GHCC 140, PW 17, TTS, TTT, bk     117 spks, wikHD, wikSTH     110 wikWu
c.119 BAN LIANG 2.6g COINS, used by Qin since Waring States period, are abandoned in favor of WUSHU (5 shu) coins weighing 5 shu (3.2 g = 0.11 oz)-replacing the 4 shu coin is issued by the government (remaining the standard coin of China until the Tang dynasty). 120 CHC 587, wikHD
119 CHC 161, wikHD, wikHH
c.119 New taxes are levied on market transactions, vehicles, and property to supplement regular revenue collected from the produce tax in kind, and the poll tax in money.  The new taxes are for military expenses.  The poll tax on minors age 3 to 14, is raised from 20 to 23 coins.  The standard rate of 120 coins for adults remains unchanged. 119
CHC 160, 234, GHCC 145
c.119 Some messengers of explorer Chang Chien return to Han capital Chang'an and calculate 36 statelets across the west of China. 119 icX
c.119 Emperor Wu Ti begins to trust tyrannical governing officials.  One of those officials, Yi Zong, governor of Dingxiang Commandery, executes 200 prisoners though they had not committed capital crimes - and then executes their friends who happened to be visiting.  Emperor Wu believes these officials would maintain social order. 119 wikWu
c.119 ALASHEN HILLS and ELEUTH country (west of Yellow River and north of Gansu) annexed by Han, which tries unsuccessfully to colonize it. 119
ICMH 156
c.119 In a period of flood and starvation east of the mountains, the Han government tries to feed the people from public granaries.  When this and private relief measures fail, more than 700,000 people, mostly peasant flood victims, are removed to the Ordos to colonize Shuofang Commandery.  Colonization unsuccessful. 119 ICMH 156, SDFH 208, 235
c.119 High ministers recommend to Emperor Wu that any merchant who owns private fields should have his land and slaves confiscated.  Their recommendation is phrased as though it were an administrative order:  "[If anyone] dares to violate this order, confiscate his fields and youths [probably slaves]."  Between 119 and 113 the government acquires thousands of slaves, with fields, houses, and money, by confiscating fortunes of business men and merchants.  The slaves are distributed to various parks to care for dogs, horses, birds and wild beasts. 119 SDFH 168, 198, 232
c.119 Ministers propose special taxes on instruments of trade, and a prohibition against merchants or their relatives owning agricultural land.  This prohibition is made to benefit the agricultural class. 119 SDFH 207
c.119 SIMA XIANGJU (Xiangru), director of Han funerary park from 120, resigns his position due to illness (likely diabetes), and retires to Maoling. 119 wikSX
c.119 Inflation in China.  Sima Qian blames it on debased coinage, but the flood and the 119 campaign are more likely.  The government issues money made of deerhide. 119
ICMH 156
118 BCE
c.118 Central AsiaChinese advance beyond Lingju into Gansu and build forts to defend the route west into Tarim Basin.  This will become Jiuquan Commandery in 115.  It prevents Xiongnu from allying with the Qiang in Tibet. 118 ICMH 156
c.118 From 118 to 5CE, the Han government mints 28 billion coins, an average of 220 million a year. 118 wikHD, wikHH
c.118 JICHUAN, a commandery from 138, becomes CHENLIU Commandery until 41. 122 bril 118 bril
c.118 CHUANG CHINGTI is made Lt. Chancellor until 116. 118 HFHD6 51
c.118 Apr LI TSAI, charged with misapropriating land, suicides. 118 HFHD6 45
c.118 Emperor Wu Ti gets sick, calls shamans to attend to him.  He asks the latter of 2 female shamans for her diagnosis.  She says he should not be concerned about his illness, but that when he felt up to it, he should visit her.  The emperor improves soon, and goes to see her.  He is soon completely cured.  The shamaness gains his favor, and occasionally summons ghosts to talk with Wu Ti. 118 IUG 4.8
c.118 WU ZHU COINS issued.  3.25g.  Inscription used on coins of many regimes over the next 700 years.  Some can be dated specifically from dated moulds that have been discovered, or from their find spots, but the majority cannot. Those of the Western Han have a square top; on later coins, this is rounded. 118 wikACC
c.118 JUN GO WU ZHU COINS issued until 115.  A large heavy coin, with edges not filed.  Some have a rimless reverse.  Commanderies and Principalities are ordered to cast 5 zhu coins with a circular rim so that it would be impossible to clip them to glean a bit of copper. 118 wikACC
c.117 Han commander HO QUBING, age 24, dies of plague. 117 HFHD6 22, 39, 122, ICMH 157, LEWH 145, wikHD, wikHH, wikHQ, wikWQ     116 CHC 108
c.117 YEN, split into commanderies of Yanjun and Zhuojun from 127, refounded as a kingdom comprising Yanjun, Zhuojun, and Bohai until 80. 120 or 117 bril
c.117 LIU DAN, son of Wu Ti and consort Li, made king of Yen until 80. 117 CHC 180, HFHD6 45
c.117 Kuo Puchih, Marquis of Ikuan, is tried for inflating the head count he had taken in a fight with the Xiongnu.  He should be executed but is allowed to pay redemption and is dismissed from his marquisate. 117 SDFH 101
c.117 HSU TZUWEI becomes Chief of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace until 105. 117 HFHD6 96
c.117 State monopoly of SALT (119) is extended to whole empire until 88CE. 117 GHCC 140, spks, wikHD     110 wikWu
c.117 GUANGLING, a commandery from 121, established as a kingdom until 54.  LIU XU is made king until ?. Jiangdu 121 117 bril
LINHUAI, part of Guangling Commandery from 121, remains part of Guangling Kingdom until 54. 117 HFHD6 46, bril
ZHANG, independent commandery from 121, assigned to Guangling until ?.  Name will be changed in 109. 117 bril
c.117 QI, a commandery from 126, restored as a kingdom until 110.  LIU HUNG is king of Qi until 110. 117 HFHD6 45, bril
c.117 Han imperial government sets up agencies to supervise mining, manufacturing, distribution, and raise revenue.  Policy lasts until 44. 117 B76 4-313, wnck
c.117 YAN YI, minister of agriculture, had previously offended Emperor Wu Ti by opposing a plan to extort double tributes out of princes and Marquises - by requiring them to place their tributes on white deer skin, which the central government would sell them at a high price.  Later, Yan Yi is falsely accused of a crime.  During the investigation, it becomes known that once, when a friend of Yan Yi's criticized a law promulgated by Emperor Wu Ti, Yan Yi, while not saying anything, moved his lips.  Yan Yi is executed for "internal defamation" of the emperor.  This causes the officials to be fearful and willing to flatter the emperor. 117 nweW, wikWu
c.117 SIMA XIANGJU (Xiangru), poet, writer, musician, and official, writer of FU (a form of descriptive poetry), dies. 117 B76 IX-508,
CHC 171, GHCC, wikSX, yutH
c.116 Dau of Grand Empress Dowager Dou, Princess GUANTAO Liu Piao, dies, leaving behind a will to be buried with her lover/godson Dong Yan instead of her late husband Chen Wu.  During her mourning period, her 2 sons (Empress Chen's bros) dispute over inheritance.  Each committed adultery and incest, and are prosecuted.  Both suicide the same year and have their marquisates removed. 116 wikECJ
c.116 Xiongnu raid as far as Yong Commandery in upper Wei valley. 116 ICMH 157
c.116 LIU PENGLI, king of Jidong from 144, dismissed, made a commoner, and exiled to Shangyung.  JIDONG kingdom is disolved and becomes DAHE Commandery. 116 HFHD6 48
c.116 DONGPING, formed into Jidong kingdom from 144, becomes Dahe commandery until 52. 116 HFHD 208, bril
c.116 CHEN CHISHU, marquis of Tangyi from 129, condemned to death and suicides.  Marquisate is disolved. 116 HFHD6 19
c.116 ZHANG TANG, Grandee Secretary from 121, suicides. 116 HFHD6 51, wikZT
c.116/5 CHUANG CHINGTI, Lt. Chancellor from 118, is imprisoned until death 115. 116/5 HFHD6 51
c.115 JIUQUAN (Chiuchuan) Commandery established in the land from the Gansu corridor west to Lob Nor, thus separating the Xiongnu from the Qiang to the south, who had been their allies since Baghur's time.  Jiuquan in the old territories of the prince of Hunye.  With the establishment of this, Zhangyi, and Wuwei commanderies Han gains access to the Western Regions for the first time.  The age of the Xiongnu's sole domination of the Western Regions is over. 121 icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
by 115 wikHXW     115 GHCC 118, spks
111 wikHD, wikHH
104 CHC 165, HFHD6 73
no date: CHEIA 130
c.115 The old Qin fortifications are extended from Lingju to the west. by 115 wikHXW
115 GHCC 118, spks
c.115 Central AsiaFrom now to 60BCE the Xiongnu and Han struggle for mastery over the Western Regions including Tarim Basin urban centers.  The Western Regions provide an important military, political, and economic base for the XiongnuHan therefore use all possible means to wrest the Western Regions from Xiongnu hands. 115 MRDK 450, wikHH, wikHXW
c.115 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti, again sent to secure alliances against the Xiongnu, to central Asia, and to land of Wusun, the Ili river valley southeast of Lake Balkhash.  According to the agreement the Wusun would jointly attack the Xiongnu with the Han, while they were offered a Han princess in marriage and the return of their original Gansu homeland.  Chien fails to persuade the Wusun to relocate. 115 CHC 164, CHEIA 157, GHCC, wikHXW, wikWsn
c.115 CHANG CHIEN returns. 115 HFHD6 40
c.115 Apr SHIH CHING is promoted to Grandee Secretary. 115 HFHD6 93
c.115 CHUANG CHINGTI, Marquis of Wu-Qiang from 162, imprisoned from 116/5, dies. 115 HFHD6 51
c.115 Poliang Terrace in Weiyang Palace begun.  It lasts only until 104. 115 HFHD6 88
c.115 Xia-hou Po is tried and deposed for having had sex with his father's personal female slave.  But his father had been dead 18 years at the time of the trial.  Xia-hou Po had inherited the bondswoman, but since she had been his father's mistress his relations with her are incestuous.  Chinese customary morality intervenes to limit his rights of possession by inheritance. 115 SDFH 128
c.115 ZHAO ZHOU, Grand Tutor to the Heir-apparent, is made Lt. Chancellor until 112. 115 HFHD6 64
c.115 Kung Chin is appointed Superintendent of Agriculture until 113. 115 CHC 163, 604
c.115 Erudit CHUNG is sent by Emperor Wu to travel around the empire for famine relief. 115 HFHD6 51
c.115 Office the Superintendent of Waterways, Forests, and Parks established to put this official in charge of the salt and iron monopoly and later to administer Shang-lin Park. 115 CHC 582, HFHD7 09
c.115 The COIN MINT, overseen by the Minister Steward from ?, is transferred to the Superintendent of Waterways and Parks. 115 CHAC 1024, wikGHd
c.115 CHI ZE WU ZHU COINS issued until 113.  a lighter coin, with filed edges.  The mints in the capital are asked to cast Chi Ze coins, with one being worth 5 local coins.  Chi Ze means Red (or Shining) Edge, referring to the red copper showing when the edges are filed smooth. 115 wikACC
c.115 SISHUI, part of Donghai (Tan) Commandery from 155, becomes a separate kingdom until the time of Wang Mang. 115 bril
c.115/4 The barrier at HANGU PASS is moved 270 li east to Xinan, and the former Hangu Pass prefecture is renamed Hungnung. 115/4 HFHD 71, HFHD6 51

East Asia 114-112