Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.127 Shuofang and WuyuanSHUOFANG, part of Qin commandery of Jiuyuan from ?, made a commandery northwest of the Ordos bend in Mongolia.  Shang and Beidi commanderies are extended west to the western bend of the Yellow River, sending in 100,000 Chinese peasants to populate the area.  From this time on the Ordos is permanently under China. 127 CHC 164, 390, CHEIA 129, HFHD6 24, SDFH 105, icX, spks, wikHXW, wikXng
c.127 SHUOFANG city built in Shuofang Commandery by Wei Qing as a commandery headquarters.  It later becomes a key stronghold for campaigns against Xiongnu. 127 GHCC 121, nweW, wikHXW, wikWu
c.127 WUYUAN commandery is established north of the Ordos bend.  Headquarters is Jiuyuan. 127 CHC 164, 390,
CHEIA 129, bril, icX, wikHXW
CONFUSION ALERT!  JIUYUAN is a commandery and a city in Wuyuan commandery.
c.127 The Han abandon their claim to beyond the north Wall. 127 ICMH 149
c.127 LIU DINGGUO, king of Yen from 151, sentenced to death, siucides.  YEN is split into commanderies of Yanjun and Zhuojun until 117. 127 HFHD6 25, bril
c.127 With the old Qin walled fortifications in their control, Emperor Wu Ti orders to repair and extend the walls. 127 SDFH 105, tcg, wikHXW
c.126 Empress WANG ZHI, dau of Wang Zhong and Zang Er, widow of Emperor Jing, mother of Liu Zhi, dies and is buried with Emperor Jing. 126 wikEWZ
c.126 In summer, the Xiongnu send out 3 forces of 30,000 troops each to raid Dai, Dingxiang, and Shang.  They capture over 1,000 people. 126 ICMH 149, icX, wikHXW     125 spks
c.126 The Chanyu sends a letter to Emperor Wu claiming to have conquered the Yuezhi, the Wusun, Loulan, and Hujie, "as well as the 26 states nearby".  This is the 1st mention of Loulan, described as a fortified city near Lop Nor. 126 wikLln
c.126 King of Qi dies without heir.  Qi becomes a commandery until 117. 126 bril
c.126 the Xiongnu raid Dai Commandery, kill magistrate Gong You of Dai. 126 ICMH 149, icX, spks, wikHXW
c.126 GONGSUN HONG is promoted to Grandee Secretary and repeats his suggestion that the Southwestern Barbarians be dismissed from the empire. 126 HFHD6 15
c.126 In fall, the Xiongnu attack Yanmen Pass and kill over 1,000 people. 126 ICMH 149, icX, spks, wikHXW
c.126 the Xiongnu reach Chang'an. 126 wnck
c.126 LI XI is made Palace Military Commander until 125/4. 126 HFHD6 17
c.126 ROAD from Ba to Yelang, finished 128, is resumed into Yunan until 124. 126 ICMH 149
c.126 CANGHAI PROVINCE created in Liao Peninsula Manchuria, at the expense of the Korean kingdom of Joseon (Old Choson). 126 ICMH 149, nweW
c.126 Son of Lo Shang, CHUN CHEN dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 160.  His son Yutan is displaced by his younger bro, Leftside king.  YIZHIXIE usurps throne until 114.  Yutan flees to the Han court, is conferred the title of Marquis Shean, and dies in a few months. 127 MRDK 450, wnck
126 CHC 389, 394, CHEIA 136-7, ICMH 149, icX, rcN, spks, wikCny, wikHH, wikIC
c.126 General Chang Chien dispatched by Han emperor Wu Ti to establish alliance with the Wusun against the Xiongnu, heads to the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor.  He is captured by the Xiongnu, only to escape a year later and return to China in 125.  Chang Chien estimates the Wusun to number 630,000, with 120,000 families and 188,000 men capable of bearing arms. 126 ICMH 149, wikHXW 125 wikWsn
c.126 SHUOFANG city in Shuofang Commandery is walled. 126 HFHD6 25
c.126 ZHANG TANG becomes Commandant of Justice. 126 HFHD6 25
c.126 In fall, the Xiongnu raid Dai again, take some prisoners, and kill a Han military commander. 126 wikHXW
c.126 SU JIAN, Marquis of Pingling, is made Commander of the Palace Guard. 126 HFHD6 27
c.126 Dec 22 GONGSUN HONG is made Marquis of Pingchin until 121 with income of 650 households. 126 HFHD6 15
c.125 Xiongnu repeatedly attack Dai, Dingxiang, and Shang Commanderies.  Xiongnu Youxianwang (Rightside Wise King) tries to retake Shuofang Commandery, and raids south of the Yellow River repeatedly. 125 icX 124 nweW
c.125 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, returns to Chang'an empty handed with new knowledge of central Asia and India, with its trade opportunities.  He reports the level of sophistication of the urban civilizations of Ferghana, Bactria and Parthia, who are interested in commercial relations. 126 CHC 407, GHCC, LEWH 145, wikBk, chc3, nweW, spks, wikGB, wikWu
125 ICMH 149, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikT
122 CHC 458     no date: B76 II-731, CHEIA 131
c.125 XIHE, northwest of northwrd bend of the Yellow River, part of Shang Commandery from ?, detached as a separate commandery. 125 HFHD 75, bril
c.125 GRAPES (wine), POMEGRANITES, WALNUTS introduced to China by Chang Chien. 126 TTS
no date: TTPC
c.125 YUEH FU (Music Bureau), defunct from ?, reactivated to collect popular and foreign songs.  Lasts until 7. 125 B76 10-1053 120 GHCC
by 124 The Han army has grown to 600-700,000 troops, including 200-250,000 cavalry. by 124 wikHXW
c.124 XUE ZE, Han chancellor from ?, fired by Wu Ti.  GONGSUN HONG succeeds until 121.  He is the first Confucian scholar to rise from commoner status to chancellor. 124 CHC 109, 769, HFHD6 16, icH
c.124 Xiongnu Rightside Wise King makes harassing raids into Shuofang Commandery to recapture the Hetao area.  He kills or kidnaps many colonists.  Other Xiongnu raiding parties invade the central northern frontier at Dai, Dingxiang, and Yanmen, and penetrate to Shang Commandery.  At this time the frontiers are loosely defined and held. 124 SDFH 105, nweW, wikWu
c.124 General HAN YUE, a favorite of Emperor Wu, is made Marquis of Lunglo until 112. 112 HFHD6 70
c.124 In spring WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, orders Wei Qing to lead 100,000 men under 6 generals against Xiongnu Youxianwang in Gaoque, in attempt to quell Xiongnu opposition in the northwest. 124 SDFH 105, icX
c.124 Han general WEI QING with 30,000 men marches from Gaoque Shuofang.  Generals Su Chien, Li Chu, Gongsun Hong, and Li Tsai march jointly from Shuofang.  Far to the east Li Xi and Chang Tzukung march from Yubeiping Commandery.  Nothing more is said about them.  Wei Qing surprises and surrounds the Tuqi Rightside Wise King at night and captures his main camp and 15,000 Xiongnu, including 10 chiefs, 15,000 persons, and millions of cattle.  Drunken Youxianwang escapes, but the threat of invasion on Chang'an is permanently removed. 126 wikHXW 124 HFHD6 21, ICMH 151, SDFH 105, icH, icX, nweW, wikEWZ, wikWQ, wikWu
c.124 WEI QING leads his troops back to the wall, and is conferred the post of Da Jiangjun (Grand General) for defeating the Xiongnu Rightside Wise King. 124 SDFH 105, icH, wikWQ, wikWu
c.124 SU JIAN, Marquis of Pingling, is a mobile general and goes with Wei Qing out of Shuofang Commandery. 124 HFHD6 27
c.124 WEI QING returns to Chang'an, where Emperor Wu gives him an additional fief of 8,700 households.  His young sons Wei Kang, Wei Buyi, and Wei Deng and 7 of his generals are made Marquises.  Wei Qing marries 40 year old widow, Princess Pingyang.  Though, Ji An still disrespects Wei Qing. 124 HFHD6 21, SDFH 106, icH, wikWQ, wikWu
c.124 May 22 GONGSUN HE is made Marquis of Nanxiao until 112. 124 HFHD6 17
c.124 LIU AN Prince of Huainan 177-22, tries to rebel from Emperor Wu Ti. 124 GHCC, HFHD6 7
c.124 ZHUANG ZHU, accomplice of Liu An, is accused and sentenced.  Emperor Wu likes Zhuang Zhu and does not want him executed.  Chief Justice Zhang Tang says Zhuang Zhu had committed a serious crime in trying to befriend both Emperor Wu and a rebellious noble, and that if Emperor Wu did not kill him, there would be no way of dealing with future cases. 124 HFHD6 7
c.124 In autumn Xiongnu raid Dai, kill captain Zhu Yang [Du-wei, Zhu Ying?] and capture 1,000 Chinese. 124 ICMH 151, icX
c.124 Over 100,000 man Han army campaigns in Mongolia. 124 GHCC 120, wikHXW
c.124 ROAD from Ba to Yelang, resumed into Yunan 126, abandoned by Emperor Wu Ti to concentrate resources against the Xiongnu. 124
ICMH 151
c.124 Han general LI XI, under Wei Qing is a Grand Messenger sent out by way of Shuofang Commandery. 124 HFHD6 17
c.124 LI TSAI is made Marquis of Anle with income of 2,000 families. 125/4 HFHD6 45
c.124 LI TSAI is made made Grandee Secretary. 124 HFHD6 45
c.124 The official experts in each of the Five Classics, who were appointed 136, now take on 50 students.  Office of 50 specialists in the Five Classics is created. 124 CHC 154, 769, GHCC, frie
c.124 CHAO YU becomes Privy Treasurer. 124 HFHD6 48
c.124 WEN WANG, ruler of Cao at Nanyue from 136, ends.  Son MING WANG succeeds until 112. 124 MRDK 469
c.124 GRAND COLLEGE (Academy, Imperial University) created by influence of Dong Zhongshu and Gongsun Hong on Han emperor Wu Ti to train and test 50 officials in Confucian government thru study of Confucianism, which is developing its own orthodoxy.  Each teacher specializes in one of the Five Classics. 136 bk     124 B76 II-958, V-942, 4-1095, 1104, CHC 541, 756, 809, HFHD8 32, LEWH 145, icH, wikHD, wikHH
c.123 In spring, WEI QING is made Grand General, and obtains auxiliary support from General Su Jian on the right, Gongsun Ao in the center, Gongsun He on the left, Li Ju commanding the bowmen, Zhao Xin in the vangard, and Li Cai.  They set off from Dingxiang Commandery.  Wu Ti meanwhile orders General Li Xi to attack the Xiongnu from the east.  Wei Qing commanding 6 generals and 100,000 men is ordered to counter-attack the Xiongnu. 123 HFHD6 21, 27, icH, icX, spks, wikWQ, wikWu
c.123 Fb/Mr ZHAO XIN is General of the Vanguard under Wei Qing and goes out of Dingxiang Commandery, achieving a great victory. 123 HFHD6 27
c.123 Apr 24 CHANG CHIEN is made Marquis of Bowang  for his western tour. 123 HFHD6 39, icX, wstn
c.123 Ap/My In spring, WEI QING brings his 18 year old nephew, Ho Qubing.  Wei Qing departs Dingxiang area, marches 100 li north, captures and kills 19,000 Xiongnu.  Ho Qubing leads 800 light cavalry, captures many Xiongnu nobles and kills 2,023.  Army returns to rest at Dingxiang, Yunzhong, and Yanmen. 123 HFHD6 27, SDFH 106, icH, icX, spks, wikHQ, wikWQ, wikWu
c.123 Ap/My Han generals Su Jian and General Zhao Xin are defeated by the Chanyu, and their army nearly annihilated.  Zhao Xin surrenders to the Xiongnu; Su Jian returns alone to Wei Qing. 123 HFHD6 27
c.123 Han general WEI QING with over 100,000 men campaigns in Mongolia. 123 GHCC 118, ICMH 151, wikHXW
c.123 2 months after the Mongolia campaign, WEI QING advances toward the Xiongnu again, but this time the Xiongnu are prepared.  Generals Su Jian and Zhao Xin with 3,000 cavalry advance too far forward of the main army.  They encounter a Xiongnu force led by Chanyu Yizhixie and are surrounded by Xiongnu, and wiped out.  Zhao Xin (a defector Xiongnu chief who was made a Han marquis) with 800 defected Xiongnu subordinates, surrenders to the Xiongnu.  Su Jian escapes during Zhao Xin's surrender, and returns to Wei Qing.  Ho Qubing captures the chancellor and uncle of the chanyu.  Hereafter, the Xiongnu move their capital and retreat to the far north of the Gobi Desert. 123 SDFH 106, ICMH 152, wikHXW, wikWQ
c.123 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, serves as guide to General Wei Qing's army and helps the general win a brilliant battle over the Xiongnu Wise King of the Right. 123 CHEIA 131
c.123 SHIH CHIEN, Chief of the Gentlemen at the Palace, dies.  Emperor Wu summons LI GUANG to succeed until ?. 123 HFHD6 12
c.123 CHAO YICHI becomes Chief Commander in Charge of Aristocratic Ranks. 123 HFHD6 44
c.123 SU JIAN is sentenced to death, ransoms himself, and becomes a commoner. 123 HFHD6 27
c.123 LI GUANG is made General and goes with the General-in-chief to Dingxiang, where he loses his army and returns. 123 HFHD6 12
c.123 GONGSUN AO is made Marquis of Hochi. 123 HFHD6 22
c.123 Wu Ti personally stands to toast Wei Qing.  Ministers go to the capital's gate to greet Wei Qing's victorious return. 123 icX
c.123 HO QUBING is made Marquis of Guanjun with income of 2,500 families. 123 HFHD6 36, icX
c.123 Chanyu YIZHIYE is delighted at capturing Zhao Xin, marries his sister to Zhao Xin, and builds a castle called "Zhao Xin City" for him.  Zhao Xin somehow pursuades chanyu Yizhiye to stop harassing Han for some time. 123 icX
c.123 Wu Ti, to offset the depleted royal savings spent on campaigns against the Xiongnu, sells military titles. 123 LEWH 146, icH
c.123 Han expeditions into Tibet and Yunan to discover a trade route to India are turned back by the mountain people.  But they take back rumor of an advanced kingdom called Dian (Dianyue, possibly Burma). 123
ICMH 152

East Asia 122-115
V