Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.130 LIU DE, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, prince of Hejian (Ho Chien, Heidan) from 155, dies. 130 CHC 1-811, HFHD 137, LEWH 145, wikEJ, wikJg     129 CHAC 985
c.130  Luxuriant Gems of the Annals  written by Dong Zhongshu. 130 bk
c.130 Emperor Wu's 1st wife from 141, Empress CHEN JIAO, is accused of attempting witchcraft to help produce a male heir, and/or to try to regain Emperor Wu's affections, and is therefore deposed and the witches executed.  No less than 300 persons involved in the case are executed. 130 CHC 1-174, wikHH, wikWu
c.130 The Marquis of Chu-ni kidnaps a man's wife.  When this is discovered he is executed and his marquisate abolished. 130
SDFH 92
c.130 Han armies begin driving the Xiongnu back across the Great Wall until 121. 130 bk
c.130 Sino-Roman relations 130 wikT
c.129 145 km CANAL begun 133 by conscript labor between Shensi and Honan was intended to link Chang'an with the Yellow River in place of the sluggish Wei River, finished. 129 GHCC 129/8 CHC 1-487
c.129 1,000 eminent citizens arrested for debt and convicted at command of WANG WEN-SHU. 129 GHCC 143
c.129 WEI WAN, former chancellor 143-40, dies. 129 HFHD 217
c.129 XU TAO, marquis of Chu-tzu from 158/7, dies. 129 HFHD 91
c.129 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer, detained by the Xiongnu from 138, released or escapes, continues west toward the Yuezhi. 129 CHEIA 156, wikWu
c.129 Xiongnu attack Shang Commandery. 130 SDFH 104
129 icX, spks, wikWu
c.129 Emperor Wu plans for Li Guang, Han Anguo, Gongsun He, and Gongsun Ao to lead 4 separate columns against Xiongnu.  However, Han Anguo (who is against war with Xiongnu) falls from his carriage and injures his leg, so Emperor Wu promotes Wei Qing in his place. 130 SDFH 104
129 icX, spks, wikWu
c.129 Han court dispatches 4 generals - Wei Qing, Gongsun He, Gongsun Ao, and Li Guang - each with 10,000 cavalry, to surprise attack the Xiongnu by different routes at the border markets. 129 CHC 1-390, CHEIA 129, ICMH 147, SDFH 104, icX, spks, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng
c.129 Li Guang marches north from Yanmen, Gongsun Ao from Dai Commandery, Gongsun He with light chariots from Yunzhong, and Wei Qing with light cavalry from Shang CommanderyGongsun Ao is defeated and loses 7,000 cavalry.  Gongsun He fails to encounter the enemy.  Wei Qing penetrates deep into Mongolia, raids Xiongnu's holy site Longcheng, killing over 700 Xiongnu. 129
ICMH 147, SDFH 104, icX, spks, wikWu
c.129 LI GUANG with Imperial Cavalry, marches from Longmin, encounters a larger Xiongnu force, and his army is annihilated.  Li Guang is wounded and captured by Xiongnu, and taken to chanyu Chun ChenLi Guang pretends his wounds are more serious than they are, overcomes his guards, and escapes. 129
ICMH 147, SDFH 104, icX, spks, wikLG
c.129 Han generals LI GUANG and GONGSUN AO, having failed, are condemned to death by Emperor Wu Ti, but allowed to buy their lives and live as commoners. 129 ICMH 147, spks, wikLG
Li Guang suicides. 129 CHC 1-109
c.129 YUYANG Commandery of east Yen raided by Xiongnu. late 129 ICMH 147
c.129/8 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer, reaches kingdom of Tayuan (Dayuan) in Ferghana valley in Central Asia.  The king of Tayuan gives him guides to take him to the state of Kang-chu. 129/8 CHEIA 156
CONFUSION ALERT!  TAYUAN (Dayuan) is a kingdom or region in Ferghana valley in Central AsiaTAIYUAN is Jinyang capital of Dai.
c.128 ROAD from Ba to Yelang, begun 134, and under constant attack by locals, is finished, but at a great drain to the treasury.  It will be resumed in 126 128
ICMH 147
c.128 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer, gets to the land of the Ta Yuezhi, then bordered on the east by Dayuan, on the west by An-hsi, on the north by Kang-chu and on the south by Ta Hsia.  He he finds them "still a nation of nomads, moving from place to place with their herds." They have "some 100-200,000 archer warriors." 128 CHEIA 156
c.128 KOREA:  North and central parts, under China from ?, becomes independent until 108. 128 LEWH 145
c.128 Han general WEI QING, now a trusted member of Emperor Wu's extended family, leads 30,000 cavalry north from Yanmen Commandery, defeats Xiongnu at Yuyang and Liaoxi Commanderies of Yen, and Yanmen, killing or capturing more than 3,000. 128 ICMH 147, SDFH 104, spks, wikHXW, wikWu
c.128 Han army invades Manchuria and north Korea.  The expedition is abandoned in 126. 128 GHCC, bk, wikHH
c.128 North Koreans surrender to Han army.  CANGHAI commandery is founded, to be abandoned in 126. 128 bril     128/7 CHC 1-170
c.128 Han army defeats the TUNG-HU (Donghu) north of Korea. 128 GHCC 121
c.128 Consort Wei Zifu, sis of Wei Qing, bears Emperor Wu's first son, Liu Ju, and is created Empress Wei soon after. 128 CHC 1-174, ICMH 147, wikWu
c.128 LIU FEI, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince YI of Jiangdu from 154, dies. 128 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.128 LIU FA, son of Jing Ti and consort Tang, prince DING of Changsha from 155, dies.  Son Liu Yung succeeds until ?. 128 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.128 XUYI in Linhuai Commandery becomes the seat of a marquisate held by Lin Mang-chih until 112. 128 HFHD 91
c.128 XIONGNU invade Liaoxi commandery of Yen, kill the governor. 128 SDFH 104, spks
c.128 XIONGNU invade Yanmen commandery, kill or capture several thousand Chinese before returning. 128 SDFH 104, spks
c.128/7 A month later the Xiongnu attack Shang Commandery and Yuyang Commandery of east Yen. 128 SDFH 104, spks 127 icX
c.127 Han general Han Anguo mobilizes 700 men to defend Yuyang Commandery, but is defeated by Xiongnu and withdraws to Yuyang. 127 ICMH 148, wikHXW
c.127 Han general Li XI, leads an unknown number north from Dai Province across the frontier and also captures some Xiongnu troops. 128 SDFH 104
127 ICMH 148, SDFH 105, wikHXW
c.127 Han general WEI QING with 30,000 and Li Xi with 10,000 cavalry from Yunzhong Commandery, west from Gaoque Pass to Longxi region, and outflanks and surrounds the Princes of Loufan and Baiyang, who are vassals of the Xiongnu, killing 2,300 and capturing 3,017 and over a million cattle, plus the Ordos Desert land south of the Yellow River, causing the main Xiongnu force to withdraw. 127 CHC 1-390, CHEIA 129, ICMH 148-9, SDFH 105, icH, icX, spks, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
c.127 Han general WEI QING builds a bridge over the Great Bend of the Yellow river, advances farther west to defeat local chieftain Puni near Fuli, killing Puni's elite warriors and capturing 3,000, 75 Xiongnu scouts, millions of horses, cattle, and sheep. 127 ICMH 149, spks
c.127 The first 3 campaigns against the Xiongnu empty Han treasuries and arsenals. 127 SDFH 112
c.127 Shuofang and WuyuanSHUOFANG, part of Qin commandery of Jiuyuan from ?, made a commandery northwest of the Ordos bend in Mongolia.  Shang and Beidi commanderies are extended west to the western bend of the Yellow River, sending in 100,000 Chinese peasants to populate the area.  From this time on the Ordos is permanently under China. 127 CHC 1-164, 390, CHEIA 129, SDFH 105, icX, spks, wikHXW, wikXng
c.127 SHUOFANG city built in Shuofang Commandery by Wei Qing as a commandery headquarters.  It later becomes a key stronghold for campaigns against Xiongnu. 127 GHCC 121, wikHXW, wikWu
c.127 The Han abandon their claim to beyond the north Wall. 127 ICMH 149
c.127 WUYUAN commandery is established north of the Ordos bend. 127 CHC 1-164, 390,
CHEIA 129, bril, icX, wikHXW
c.127 LIU DINGGUO, king of Yen from ?, siucides.  Yen is split into commanderies of Yanjun and Zhuojun until 117. 127 bril
c.127 With the old Qin walled fortifications in their control, Emperor Wu Ti orders to repair and extend the walls. 127 SDFH 105, tcg, wikHXW
c.127 LIU YU, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince GONG of Lu from 154, dies. 129 HFHD 141     128 wikLYPL
127 wikEJ, wikJg
c.127 CHU FU YEN suggests that younger sons should inherit half their father's feif.  A law ends the rule by which title and possessions are passed to a single son.  Fiefs are now divided equally between sons, leads to the final break up of fiefs and downfall of imperial nobility. 127
GHCC 116, LEWH 145
c.127 From now on, sons of all kings, whatever their degree of descent from an emperor, are granted marquisates, except for those who inherit kingdoms. 127 CHC 1-509
c.126 Empress WANG ZHI, dau of Wang Zhong and Zang Er, widow of Emperor Jing, mother of Liu Che, dies and is buried with Emperor Jing. 126 wikEWZ
c.126 In summer, the Xiongnu send out 3 forces of 30,000 troops each to raid Dai, Dinxiang, and Shang.  They capture over 1,000 people. 126 ICMH 149, icX, wikHXW     125 spks
c.126 King of Qi dies without heir.  Qi becomes a commandery until 117. 126 bril
c.126 the Xiongnu raid Dai Commandery, kill magistrate Gong You of Dai. 126 ICMH 149, icX, spks, wikHXW
c.126 In fall, the Xiongnu attack Yanmen Pass and kill over 1,000 people. 126 ICMH 149, icX, spks, wikHXW
c.126 ROAD from Ba to Yelang, finished 128, is resumed into Yunan until 124. 126 ICMH 149
c.126 CANGHAI PROVINCE created in Liao Peninsula Manchuria, at the expense of the Korean kingdom of Joseon (Old Choson). 126 ICMH 149
c.126 Son of Lo Shang, CHUN CHEN dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 160.  His son Yutan is displaced by his younger bro, Leftside king.  YIZHIXIE usurps throne until 114.  Yutan flees to the Han court, is conferred the title of Marquis Shean, and dies in a few months. 127 MRDK 450
126 CHC 1-389, 394, CHEIA 137, ICMH 149, icX, rcN, spks, wikCny, wikHH, wikIC
c.126 General Zhang Qian dispatched by Han emperor Wu Ti, heads to the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor.  He is captured by the Xiongnu, only to escape a year later and return to China in 125. 126 ICMH 149, wikHXW
c.126 In fall, the Xiongnu raid Dai again, take some prisoners, and kill a Han military commander. 126 wikHXW
c.125 Xiongnu repeatedly attack Dai, Dingxiang, and Shang Commanderies.  Xiongnu Youxianwang (Rightside Wise King) tries to retake Shuofang Commandery, and raids south of the Yellow River repeatedly. 125 icX
c.125 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, returns to Chang'an empty handed with new knowledge of central Asia and India, with its trade opportunities.  He reports the level of sophistication of the urban civilizations of Ferghana, Bactria and Parthia, who are interested in commercial relations. 126 CHC 1-407, GHCC, LEWH 145, chc3, spks, wikGB, wikWu
125 ICMH 149, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikT
no date: B76 II-731, CHEIA 131
c.125 XIHE, northwest of northwrd bend of the Yellow River, part of Shang Commandery from ?, detached as a separate commandery. 125 HFHD 75, bril
c.125 GRAPES (wine), POMEGRANITES, WALNUTS introduced to China by Chang Chien. 126 TTS
no date: TTPC
c.125 YUEH FU (Music Bureau), defunct from ?, reactivated to collect popular and foreign songs.  Lasts until 7. 125 B76 10-1053 120 GHCC
by 124 The Han army has grown to 600-700,000 troops, including 200-250,000 cavalry. by 124 wikHXW
c.124 XUE ZE, Han chancellor from ?, fired by Wu Ti.  Gongsun Hong succeeds until 118.  He is the first Confucian scholar to rise from commoner status to chancellor. 124
CHC 1-109, 769, icH
c.124 Xiongnu Rightside Wise King makes harassing raids into Shuofang Commandery in attempt to recapture the Hetao area.  He kills or kidnaps many colonists.  Other Xiongnu raiding parties invade the central northern frontier at Dai, Yanmen, and Ting-Xiang, and penetrate to Shang Commandery.  At this time the frontiers are loosely defined and held. 124 SDFH 105, wikWu
c.124 In spring WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, orders Wei Qing to lead 100,000 men under 6 generals against Xiongnu Youxianwang in Gaoque, in attempt to quell Xiongnu opposition in the northwest. 124 SDFH 105, icX
c.124 Han general WEI QING with 30,000 men marches from Gaoque Shuofang.  Generals Su Chien, Li Chu, Gongsun Hong, and Li Tsai march jointly from Shuofang.  Far to the east Li Xi and Chang Tzu-kung march from Yubeiping Commandery of Yen.  Nothing more is said about them.  Wei Qing surprises and surrounds the Tuqi Rightside Wise King at night and captures his main camp and 15,000 Xiongnu, including 10 chiefs, 15,000 persons, and millions of cattle.  Drunken Youxianwang escapes, but the threat of invasion on Chang'an is permanently removed. 126 wikHXW     124 ICMH 151, SDFH 105, icH, icX, wikWu
c.124 WEI QING leads his troops back to the wall, and is conferred the post of Da Jiangjun (Grand General) for defeating the Xiongnu Rightside Wise King. 124 SDFH 105, icH, wikWu
c.124 WEI QING returns to Chang'an, where the Emperor gives him an additional fief of 8,700 households.  His young sons Wei Kang, Wei Buyi, and Wei Deng and 7 of his generals are made Marquises.  Wei Qing marries 40 year old widow, Princess Pingyang.  Though, Ji An still disrespects Wei Qing. 124 SDFH 106, icH, wikWu
c.124 LIU AN Prince of Huainan 177-22, tries to rebel from Emperor Wu Ti. 124 GHCC
c.124 In autumn Xiongnu raid Dai, kill captain Zhu Yang [Du-wei, Zhu Ying?] and capture 1,000 Chinese. 124 ICMH 151, icX
c.124 Over 100,000 man Han army campaigns in Mongolia. 124 GHCC 120, wikHXW
c.124 ROAD from Ba to Yelang, resumed into Yunan 126, abandoned by Emperor Wu Ti to concentrate resources against the Xiongnu. 124
ICMH 151
c.124 The official experts in each of the Five Classics, who were appointed 136, now take on 50 students.  Office of 50 specialists in the Five Classics is created. 124 CHC 1-154, 769, GHCC, frie
c.124 WEN WANG, ruler of Cao at Nanyueh from 136, ends.  Son MING WANG succeeds until 112. 124 MRDK 469
c.124 GRAND COLLEGE (Academy, Imperial University) created by influence of Dong Zhongshu and Gongsun Hong on Han emperor Wu Ti to train and test 50 officials in Confucian government thru study of Confucianism, which is developing its own orthodoxy.  Each teacher specializes in one of the Five Classics. 136 bk     124 B76 II-958, V-942, 4-1095, 1104, CHC 1-541, 756, 809, LEWH 145, icH, wikHD, wikHH
c.123 In spring, WEI QING is made Grand General, and obtains auxiliary support from General Su Jian on the right, Gongsun Ao in the center, Gongsun He on the left, Li Ju commanding the bowmen, Zhao Xin in the vangard, and Li Cai.  Wu Ti meanwhile orders General Li Xi to attack the Xiongnu from the east.  Wei Qing commanding 6 generals and 100,000 men is ordered to counter-attack the Xiongnu. 123 icH, icX, spks, wikWu
c.123 In spring, WEI QING brings his 18 year old nephew, Huo Qubing.  Wei Qing departs Dingxiang area, marches 100 li north, captures and kills 19,000 XiongnuHuo Qubing leads 800 light cavalry, captures many Xiongnu nobles and kills 2,023Army returns to rest at Dingxiang, Yunzhong, and Yanmen. 123 SDFH 106, icH, icX, spks, wikWu
c.123 Han general WEI QING with over 100,000 men campaigns in Mongolia. 123 GHCC 118, ICMH 151, wikHXW
c.123 2 months after the Mongolia campaign, WEI QING advances toward the Xiongnu again, but this time the Xiongnu are preparedGenerals Su Jian and Zhao Xin with 3,000 cavalry advance too far forward of the main army.  They are surrounded by Xiongnu, and wiped out.  Zhao Xin (a defector Xiongnu chief who was made a Han marquis) with 800 defected Xiongnu subordinates, surrenders to the XiongnuSu Jian escapes during Zhao Xin's surrender, while Huo Qubing captures the chancellor and uncle of the chanyu.  Hereafter, the Xiongnu move their capital and retreat to the far north of the Gobi Desert. 123 SDFH 106, ICMH 152, wikHXW
c.123 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, serves as guide to General Wei Qing's army and helps the general win a brilliant battle over the Xiongnu Wise King of the Right. 123
CHEIA 131
c.123 Wu Ti personally stands to toast Wei Qing.  Ministers go to the capital's gate to greet Wei Qing's victorious return.  Huo Qubing is made Marquis Guanjun-hou. 123 icX
c.123 Zhang Qian is made Marquis Bowang-hou  [i.e. marquis who looked beyond] for his western tour. 123 icX
c.123 Chanyu YIZHIYE is delighted at capturing Zhao Xin, marries his sister to him, and builds a castle called "Zhao Xin City" for him.  Zhao Xin somehow pursuades chanyu Yizhiye to stop harassing Han for some time. 123 icX
c.123 Wu Ti, to offset the depleted royal savings spent on campaigns against the Xiongnu, sells military titles. 123 LEWH 146, icH
c.123 Han expeditions into Tibet and Yunan to discover a trade route to India are turned back by the mountain people.  But they take back rumor of an advanced kingdom called Dianyue (possibly Burma). 123
ICMH 152
c.122 HAN expands southward until 109. 122 GHCC, ICMH 152
c.122 LIU AN, grandson of Liu Bang, prince of Huainan from 177, (a previously trusted adviser of Emperor Wu), and his bro Liu Ci, Prince of Hengshan, are accused of plotting rebellion.  They suicide to avoid torture before execution.  The accusation alone causes execution of 30,000 men. 122 B76 V-174, 17-1052, CHAC 970, 1027, CHC 1-158, GHCC, ICMH 152, LEWH 145, bk, wikWu 112 HFHD 93
c.122 LIU CHU, son of Wu Ti and empress Wei, had been declared heir apparent. 122 CHC 1-175
c.122 HENGSHAN, independent kingdom from 164, changed to become the kingdom of Luan until the end of Han. 122 bril, hfrt 121 bril
c.122 JIANGXIA, part of Hengshan from 164, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 122 bril
c.122 HUAINAN, independent kingdom from 206, becomes JIUJIANG commandery until ?. 122 CHC 1-156, HFHD 38, bril, hfrt
c.122 Abolition of Huainan & Hengshan seems to have been decisive in breaking the power of the kingdoms. 122 hfrt
c.122 YUZHANG, part of Huainan from 164, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 122 bril
c.122 LUJIANG, part of Huainan from 153, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 122 bril
c.122 10,000 Xiongnu briefly raid Shang Commandery and kill over 100 people. 122 ICMH 152, icX, spks
c.122 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, in central Asia from ?, returns to Chang'an.  He says he had observed goods on sale in Bactria which had been taken there by merchants from Shu.  His story prompts the government to send explorers southwest to pioneer a route to Shen-tu (India). 122 CHC 1-458
c.122 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, sent west again with hundreds of messengers to persuade the Wusan and Kuldja tribes to return home and cooperate with Han.  He is unsuccessful, then goes to Sogdiana. 122 MCAW
120 ICMH 154
119 icX     115 CHEIA 131, 157, scar
c.122 ZHAO MO, king of Nanyue from 137, dies.  ZHAO YINGQI succeeds until 113. 127 ICMH 149 122 rcC
c.122 Southern YUE, nominally a Han vassal, is suspected of intending rebellion. 122 ICMH 152
c.122 VAN VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 137, ends.  MINH VUONG TRIEU succeeds until 113. 122 rcSAM
c.121 GOHAESA, king of Buyeo in west Korea from 170, ends.  GOWURU succeeds until 86. 121 rcK
c.121 In spring Emperor WU TI orders expeditions to Western Hexi (Gansu) Corridor. 121 GHCC 118, ICMH 152, icX, wikHD, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng
c.121 HUO QUBING, neph of Wei Qing, with 10,000 light cavalry departs west from Longxi for over 1,000 li, thru the Gansu Corridor, attacks the Xiongnu in and around Yanzhi (Yanqi) Mountains.  Huo then advances 1,000 km beyond Mt. Yanzhi into Mongolia, thru 5 Xiongnu kingdoms in 6 days, kills or captures over 8,000 Xiongnu, kills 2 Xiongnu kings, Zhelan and Luhou.  The prince of the Hunye (a Xiongnu subtribe) with 40,000 men, surrenders and is captured.  Huo grabs a gold statue (possibly Buddha) belonging to the king of Xiutu (Xiuzhu).  Huo takes both the Yanzhi and Qilian Mountain ranges from the Xiongnu, and expells them from a vast territory spanning the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor to Lop Nur, attacks Xiongnu in north China and Mongolia until 119. 121
CHC 1-390, CHEIA 129, GHCC 118, ICMH 152, SDFH 99, 106, bk, icX, spks wikHD, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng
CONFUSION ALERT!  Huo Qubing has at least 2 major battles against the Xiongnu in 121 in the same general area.  Sources confuse them terribly, and I have undoubtedly done the same.
c.121 Xiongnu attack Dai and Yanmen Commanderies.  Li Guang, who is in charge of defending Right Beiping (Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia), launches a not-so-successful counter-offensive supported by Zhang Qian. mid 121 wikWu
c.121 GUANGLING in Xuzhou, part of Jiangdu kingdom from 153, becomes Guangling Commandery until 117. 121 bril
c.121 LINHUAI, part of Jiangdu Kingdom from 153, assigned to Guangling Commandery until 117. 121 bril
c.121 JIANGDU kingdom, established 153, including Zhang and the later units of Linhuai, and possibly Kuaiji, terminated. 121 bril
c.121 ZHANG, part of Jiangdu Kingdom from 153, becomes an independent commandery until 117. 121 bril
mid 121 Han general HUO QUBING returns to Chang'an. mid 121 ICMH 152
c.121 Wu Ti orders another campaign under Huo Qubing and Gongsun Ao. 121 icX, spks, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
c.121 Huo Qubing and Gongsun Ao [marquis of Heqi] depart from northern border of Longxi & Beidi, while Li Guang and Zhang Qian depart from Yubeiping Commandery of Yen for attack on Xiongnu Leftside Wise kingGongsun Ao gets lost.  Huo Qubing crosses Juyan Lake area and attacks the Xiongnu in and around Qilian Mountains.  30,000 Xiongnu are captured or killed.  But Li Guang is encircled by Xiongnu Leftside Wise King, and loses more than half of his 4,000 men before being rescued by Zhang Qian, who is demoted for not sending timely relief to Li Guang. 121 SDFH 106, icX, spks, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu     120 wikLG
c.121 In autumn the prince of Hunye (a Xiongnu subtribe), for fear of punishment by Xiongnu chanyu, contacts Huo Qubing to negotiate surrender.  Unable to persuade the Prince of Xiutu to do the same, the Hunye king kills the Prince of Xiutu and forces Xiutu's men to surrender.  When the two tribes go to meet the Han forces, Xiutu's men riot.  Huo Qubing goes to the Xiongnu camp by himself, orders the Hunye king to calm his men and stand down, before forcefully putting down 8,000 Xiongnu who refused to disarm, effectively quelling the riot.  The Hunye king surrenders his 40,000 people to Huo Qubing. 121 CHC 1-391, 407, icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
120 CHC 1-392
c.121 Emperor Wu Ti relocates the 40,000 Xiongnu to 5 Commanderies:  Longxi, Beidi, Shang, Shuofang, and Yunzhong. 121 icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
c.121 WUWEI Commandery established in the home of the Xiuchu Wang of the Xiongnu. 121 icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
by 115 wikHXW     115 GHCC 118, spks     111 wikHD, wikHH
no date: CHEIA 130
c.121 A fangshi (magician) from Qi named Shaoweng summons the spirit of one of Wu Ti's recently deceased favorite consorts, as well as the kitchen god.  The emperor, who is separated from them only by a curtain, is impressed.  He makes Shaoweng an honorary general and a rich man. 121 IUG 4.8
c.121 Surrender of the Xiutu and Hunye tribes to Han strips the Xiongnu of control over the Western Regions, depriving them a large grazing area. no date: wikWu
Silk Road
c.121 SILK ROAD, completed 190, auxiliary Northern routes are established, allowing direct trade access to Central Asia.  This provides new high-quality horse breeds from Central Asia, including the Ferghana horse. no date: wikWu
c.121 After the Hunye surrender, the Han court moves 725,000 disaster victims of Guanzhong to populate the Xiongnu territory of Xinqinzhong region south of the bend of the Yellow River, and reduces the garrison to the west of Beidi by half. 121 icX
120 GHCC, bk
no date: wikHH
c.121 After defeats by Wei Qing and Huo Qubing, Yizhixie chanyu takes Zhao Xin's advice and retreats to the north of the Gobi Desert. no date: wikWu
c.121 MAGIC LANTERN (camera obscura), a technique of projecting a painting on glass using an oil lamp, invented by Chinese. 470-390 wikCO
121 scar
c.121 GONGSUN HONG (Kung-sun Hung, Hung Kung-sun), Confucian schollar, Wu Ti's chancellor from 124, age 80, dies. 121 B76 V-942, frie 118 CHC 1-109
c.120 In spring, the Xiongnu raid Yubeiping Commandery of Yen and Dingxiang with tens of thousands of cavalry, inflict thousands of casualties on the Chinese and carry off 1,000, then withdraw beyond the Gobi. 120 ICMH 154, icX
c.120 Huo Qubing passes thru Pingyang in western Shansi to take command of his army.  He never meets his father Huo Chungju, so his father is brought to the hostel.  Then Huo Qubing liberally gives his father fields, houses, and male and female slaves, and hurries on to the wars.  This quick transfer of land, houses, and slaves, may have been handled by agents who knew of real estate for sale and could speedily assemble a group of slaves. 120 SDFH 123
c.120 LIU JI, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, prince KANG of Jiaodong from 148, dies of illness without appointing an heir.  Emperor Wu Ti makes his son XIEN prince of Jiaodong until ?. 121 HFHD 125
120 wikEJ, wikJg
c.120 Office of the Superintendent of Agriculture takes responsibility for operating state monopolies on salt and iron, and controlling or balancing prices and transport. 120 CHC 1-469
c.120 Emperor Wu Ti receives 2 golden statues of the Buddha, according to inscriptions in the Mogao Caves, Dunhuang. 120 wikTB
c.120 MINES, until now privately owned, begin coming under state control. 120 CHC 1-161
c.120 As Han expansion into Xiongnu land continues, more kingdoms need to be created to incorporate newly annexed territories. 120 CHEIA 136
c.120 COMET. 120 HFHD 34
c.120 Han expedition against KUNMING tribes in west Yunnan. 120 GHCC 118, spks
c.119 Xiongnu threats from 135 end.  Han enjoys a time of refreshing and regrouping until 112. 119 CHC 1-164
c.119 YIZHIXIE, chanyu of the Xiongnu 126-14, sends an envoy, hoping to achieve peaceful relations with Han.  The Han court disregards his terms and suggests he become an outer vassal. 119 icX, wikHXW 118 ICMH 156
by c.119 Han forces establish first garrison outposts in the Juyan Lake Basin of Inner Mongolia.  Roughly 40% of the settlers at Juyan come from the Guandong region, western Shandong, southern Shanxi, southern Hebei, northwest Jiangsu, and northwest Anhui. by 119 wikHH, wikHXW
c.119 In spring WU TI orders another campaign against the Xiongnu in the north of Gobi Desert. 119 icX, wikHXW, wikWu
c.119 Han forces are deployed in 2 separate columns, each with 50,000 cav and over 100,000 inf, with Wei Qing and Huo Qubing as commanders, and auxiliary and logistic horses numbering 140,000.  Wei Qing departs in winter at dusk from Dai, while Huo Qubing departs from Dingxiang for a union north of Gobi.  After one day of fighting, chanyu Yizhixie flees with hundreds of cavalryHan armies chase them all the way to Zhao Xing fort in the Tien-yen Mountains, capturing or killing 190,000 Xiongnu before turning back.  Huo Qubing, after traveling 2,000 li from Dai area, fights Leftside Wise King Tuqi, and captures or kills 70,000 Xiongnu including TuqiHuo Qubing reaches Langjuxu-shan Mountain and Lake Baikal in Outer Mongolia.  This operation is called the Battle of MOBEILi Guang gets lost, misses the battle, and suicides.  The battle stalemates until dusk, when a sandstorm obscures the field.  Xiongnu casualties: 80-90,000 troops; Han casualties 20-30,000 plus 100,000 horses.  With the Xiongnu gone, the Han Dynasty establishes military farming from Shuofang to Lingju in the west and assigns 50-60,000 soldiers. 119 CHC 1-390, CHEIA 129, GHCC 118, ICMH 154, SDFH 107, icX, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikT, wikWu, wikXng
c.119 YIZHIXIE, chanyu of the Xiongnu 126-14, is chased as far as Lake Baikal, and is missing for over 10 days, resulting in his tribe presuming him dead.  The Rightside Wise King, assumes the post of chanyu but gives it up after the return of Yizhixie. 119 wikHXW, wikWu
c.119 XIONGNU driven north of Gobi Desert by Huo Qubing.  North provinces are now free of Xiongnu.  This includes the Qilian and Yanzhi Mountains, which for many years had been favorite pastures of the Xiongnu, and the lands stretching west from the Gansu corridor to Lob Nor.  No more Xiongnu invasion of Han land until 103. 119
B76 4-313, CHC 1-164, CHEIA 130, LEWH 145
c.119 Until now, business men made large fortunes in iron and salt.  Han government confiscates these industries, then sells monopolies in them to boost finances.  Wu Ti sets up agencies to supervise mining, manufacturing, distribution.  Currency is devalued. 119 CHC 1-234, 582, GHCC 118, LEWH 146, SDFH 25, 217, TTS, TTT, wikHH
c.119 SALT industry of China, made state monopoly by Han Wu Ti until ?. 119 GHCC 118, bk 118 ICMH 156
c.119 IRON industry of China from 550, made state monopoly by Han Wu Ti until 50CE.  48 foundries established by govt. 119 GHCC 140, PW 17, TTS, TTT, bk     117 spks, wikHD, wikSTH     110 wikWu
c.119 BAN LIANG 2.6g COINS, used by Qin since Waring States period, are abandoned in favor of WUSHU (5 shu) coins weighing 5 shu (3.2 g = 0.11 oz)—replacing the 4 shu coin is issued by the government (remaining the standard coin of China until the Tang dynasty). 120 CHC 1-587, wikHD
119 CHC 1-161, wikHD, wikHH
c.119 New taxes are levied on market transactions, vehicles, and property to supplement regular revenue collected from the produce tax in kind, and the poll tax in money.  The new taxes are for military expenses.  The poll tax on minors age 3 to 14, is raised from 20 to 23 coins.  The standard rate of 120 coins for adults remains unchanged. 119
CHC 1-160, 234, GHCC 145
c.119 Some messengers of explorer Chang Chien return to Han capital Chang'an and calculate 36 statelets across the west of China. 119 icX
c.119 Emperor Wu Ti begins to trust tyrannical governing officials.  One of those officials, Yi Zong, governor of Dingxiang Commandery, executes 200 prisoners though they had not committed capital crimes — and then executes their friends who happened to be visiting.  Emperor Wu believes these officials would maintain social order. 119 wikWu
c.119 ALASHEN HILLS and ELEUTH country (west of Yellow River and north of Gansu) annexed by Han, which tries unsuccessfully to colonize it. 119
ICMH 156
c.119 In a period of flood and starvation east of the mountains, the Han government tries to feed the people from public granaries.  When this and private relief measures fail, more than 700,000 people, mostly peasant flood victims, are removed to the Ordos to colonize Shuofang Commandery.  Colonization unsuccessful. 119 ICMH 156, SDFH 208, 235
c.119 High ministers recommend to Emperor Wu that any merchant who owns private fields should have his land and slaves confiscated.  Their recommendation is phrased as though it were an administrative order:  "[If anyone] dares to violate this order, confiscate his fields and youths [probably slaves]."  Between 119 and 113 the government acquires thousands of slaves, with fields, houses, and money, by confiscating fortunes of business men and merchants.  The slaves are distributed to various parks to care for dogs, horses, birds and wild beasts. 119 SDFH 168, 198, 232
c.119 Ministers propose special taxes on instruments of trade, and a prohibition against merchants or their relatives owning agricultural land.  This prohibition is made to benefit the agricultural class. 119 SDFH 207
c.119 Inflation in China.  Sima Qian blames it on debased coinage, but the flood and the 119 campaign are more likely.  The government issues money made of deerhide. 119
ICMH 156
118 BCE
c.118 Central AsiaChinese advance beyond Lingju into Gansu and build forts to defend the route west into Tarim Basin.  This will become Jiuquan Province.  It prevents Xiongnu from allying with the Qiang in Tibet. 118 ICMH 156
c.118 From 118 to 5CE, the Han government mints 28 billion coins, an average of 220 million a year. 118 wikHD, wikHH
c.118 JICHUAN, a commandery from 138, becomes CHENLIU Commandery until 41. 122 bril 118 bril
c.118 Emperor Wu Ti gets sick, calls shamans to attend to him.  He asks the latter of 2 female shamans for her diagnosis.  She says he should not be concerned about his illness, but that when he felt up to it, he should visit her.  The emperor improves soon, and goes to see her.  He is soon completely cured.  The shamaness gains his favor, and occasionally summons ghosts to talk with Wu Ti. 118 IUG 4.8
c.117 Han commander HUO QUBING, age 24, dies of plague. 117 ICMH 157, LEWH 145, wikHD, wikHH     116 CHC 1-108
c.117 YEN, split into commanderies of Yanjun and Zhuojun from 127, refounded as a kingdom comprising Yanjun, Zhuojun, and Bohai until 80. 120 or 117 bril
c.117 QI, a commandery from 126, restored as a kingdom until 110. 117 bril
c.117 Kuo Pu-chih, Marquis of I-kuan, is tried for inflating the head count of he had taken in a fight with the Xiongnu.  He should be executed but is allowed to pay redemption and is merely dismissed from his marquisate. 117 SDFH 101
c.117 ZHANGYI commandery founded in western and central Gansu province. 117 GHCC 118, spks
111 wikHD, wikHH
c.117 ZHANG, independent commandery from 121, assigned to Guangling until 117.  Name will be changed in 109. 117 bril
c.117 State monopoly of SALT (119) is extended to whole empire until 88CE. 117 GHCC 140, spks, wikHD     110 wikWu
c.117 GUANGLING in Xuzhou, commandery from 121, established as a kingdom until 54. 117 bril
c.117 LINHUAI, part of Guangling Commandery from 121, remains part of Guangling Kingdom until 54. 117 bril
c.117 Han imperial government sets up agencies to supervise mining, manufacturing, distribution, and raise revenue. 117 B76 4-313
c.117 YAN YI, minister of agriculture, had previously offended Emperor Wu Ti by opposing a plan to extort double tributes out of princes and Marquises — by requiring them to place their tributes on white deer skin, which the central government would sell them at a high price.  Later, Yan Yi is falsely accused of a crime.  During the investigation, it becomes known that once, when a friend of Yan Yi's criticized a law promulgated by Emperor Wu Ti, Yan Yi, while not saying anything, moved his lips.  Yan Yi is executed for "internal defamation" of the emperor.  This causes the officials to be fearful and willing to flatter the emperor. 117 wikWu
c.117 SIMA XIANGJU, writer of FU (a form of descriptive poetry), dies. 117 B76 IX-508,
CHC 1-171, GHCC
c.116 Xiongnu raid as far as Yong Commandery in upper Wei valley. 116 ICMH 157
c.116 DONGPING formed into Jidong kingdom from 144, becomes Dahe commandery until 52. 116 HFHD 208, bril
c.115 JIUQUAN (Chiu-chuan) Commandery established in the land from the Gansu corridor west to Lob Nor, thus separating the Xiongnu from the Qiang to the south, who had been their allies since Baghur's time.  JiuQuan in the old territories of the prince of Hunye.  With the establishment of this, Zhangyi, and Wuwei commanderies Han gains access to the Western Regions for the first time.  The age of the Xiongnu's sole domination of the Western Regions is over. 121 icX, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu
by 115 wikHXW     115 GHCC 118, spks
111 wikHD, wikHH
no date: CHEIA 130
c.115 The old Qin fortifications are extended from Lingju to the west. by 115 wikHXW
115 GHCC 118, spks
c.115 Central AsiaFrom now to 60BCE the Xiongnu and Han struggle for mastery over the Western Regions including Tarim Basin urban centers.  The Western Regions provide an important military, political, and economic base for the XiongnuHan therefore use all possible means to wrest the Western Regions from Xiongnu hands. 115 MRDK 450, wikHH, wikHXW
c.115 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti, again sent to secure alliances against the Xiongnu, to central Asia, and to land of Wusun, valley of the Ili river valley southeast of Lake Balkhash.  He tries and fails to persuade the Wusun to relocate. 115 CHC 1-164, GHCC, wikHXW
c.115 Xia-hou Po is tried and deposed for having had sex with his father's personal female slave.  But his father had been dead 18 years at the time of the trial.  Xia-hou Po had inherited the bondswoman, but since she had been his father's mistress his relations with her are incestuous.  Chinese customary morality intervenes to limit his rights of possession by inheritance. 115 SDFH 128
c.115 Kung Chin is appointed superintendent of agriculture until 113. 115 CHC 1-163, 604
c.115 Office the Superintendent of Waterways and Parks established to administer Shang-lin Park. 115 CHC 1-582
c.115 The COIN MINT, overseen by the Minister Steward from ?, is transferred to the Superintendent of Waterways and Parks. 115 CHAC 1024, wikGHd
c.115 SISHUI, part of Donghai (Tan) Commandery from 155, becomes a separate kingdom until the time of Wang Mang. 115 bril
c.115/4 The barrier at HANGU PASS is moved 270 li east to Xinan, and the former Hangu Pass prefecture is renamed Hung-Hung. 115/4 HFHD 71
c.114 Son of Lo Shang, YIZHIXIE dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 126.  Son WU WEI succeeds until 105.  A leadership crisis among the Xiongnu begins to 60. 114 CHC 1-394, CHEIA 136, ICMH 157, MRDK 450, icX, rcN, spks, wikCny, wikIC, wikUC
c.114 Han Dynasty is busy fighting 2 Yue statelets in the south, while Xiongnu refrain from attacking the border in the north. 114 icX
c.114 Wu Ti's travel causes 2 governors' suicides. 114 bk
c.114 ANDING, part of Longxi from ?, established as a commandery. 114 bril
c.114 TIANSHUI, part of Longxi from ?, established as a commandery. 114 bril
c.114 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, dies. 114 B76 II-731
c.114 Han government robs the rich to finance building projects. 114 ICMH 157
c.114 LIU SHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Jia, prince JING of Zhongshan from 154, dies.  His tomb in Hebei has a front hall with window drapes and grave goods, carriages and horses in the southern separate side chamber, and storage goods in the northern side chamber, the remains of real timber houses with tiled roofs erected within (along with a house made of stone slabs and 2 stone doors in the rear chamber).  Gold acupuncture needles are buried with him. 114 wikEJ, wikJg 113 wikSTH
c.114 QINGHE, part of Zhao from 135, revived as a separate kingdom until 66. 114 bril
c.114 LIU SHUN, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, prince XIAN of Changshan from 145, dies. 114 HFHD 136, wikEJ, wikJg
c.114 ChangshanCHANGSHAN, a kingdom from 145, becomes a Zhao commandery until ?. 114 bril
c.114 DAI, a separate kingdom from 206, made into 2 commanderies: Dai and Taiyuan. 114 bril
c.114 LIU LANG, prince of Dai from 133, ends.  No rulers of Dai until 315CE. 114 wikPD
c.114 HOU TU (Earth Queen) cult established by emperor Wu Ti at Fen-yin. 114 CHC 1-171
c.114/3 ZHENDING, part of Zhao from 133, becomes a separate kingdom until the time of Wang Mang. 114/3 bril
c.114/3 OFFICE of MUSIC founded to provide correct musical accompaniment for religious observances. 114/3 CHC 1-196, 708
c.113 GIMU, king of Jin Korea from 144, ends.  GIHYUNG succeeds until 73. 113 rcK
c.113 HOU TU, Lord of Earth, first worshipped by emperor Wu Ti. 113 B76 4-312
c.113 GuanzhongThe Guanzhong Metropolitan area, under Superintendents of the Right and Left (You, Zuo Neishi) from 155, reorganized.  Part of the land under control of the Right is detached to become the commandery of Hongnong until 104. 113 bril
c.113 A queen of one of the feudal kingdoms recommends to the emperor a magician named Luan Da.  Luan had studied with the same teacher as had Shaoweng, but because the emperor now regrets having killed Shaoweng without first learning all his arts, he greets Luan Da with enthusiasm.  Apart from being able to turn cinnabar to gold and commune with the immortals (who he says had specifically declined to give him their secrets until he was in the service of the emperor), he also claims the power to repair a break in the Yellow River dikes. 113 IUG 4.8
c.113 Emperor Wu Ti begins to incessantly tour the commanderies, initially nearby Chang'an, but later extending to farther places, worshipping the various gods on the way, perhaps again in search of immortality.  Wu has a succession of magicians whom he honors, making one a Marquis and marrying a daughter to him.  (That magician, Luan Da, after he is exposed as a fraud, is executed.) 113 wikWu
c.113 Kung Chin, Superintendent of Agriculture from 115, ends. 113 CHC 1-163
c.113 ZHAO YINGQI, king of Nanyue from 122, dies.  Son ZHAO XING succeeds until 112. 113 ICMH 157, rcC
c.113 Han envoy visits Southern Yue to persuade king Zhao Xing to come to court and perform the expected vassal sycophancies.  Zhao Xing chooses to send troops under Lu Bode to the border at Guiyang.  Zhao Xing later relents, but is talked out of it by his chancellor Lu Jia.  Emperor Wu Ti sends a new envoy under general Han Quianqui with secret instructions to kill Lu Jia.  Lu Jia kills the envoy.  Zhao Xing's mom Queen Dowager Jiu sets up his bro as king. 113 ICMH 157
c.113 Lu Jia, chancellor under the last 3 kings of Yue, accuses Dowager Queen Jiu, who is Chinese, of scheming to surrender the kingdom to China.  He asserts that she plans to take many attendants to Chang'an, and sell them as slaves. 113
SDFH 94
c.113 Han general HAN QUIANQUI with only 2,000 men, invades Yue, and takes several towns.  The locals deceive him and kill him along with all his men. 113
ICMH 157
c.113 HAN expeditionary forces advance into Guangdong (Kwangtung, Canton) area and delta of Red River. 113
GHCC 126
c.113 MINH VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 122, ends.  AP VUONG TRIEU succeeds until 112. 113 rcSAM
c.113 COINAGE in China from 500, minting becomes state monopoly.  Commandery minted coins, allowed from 144, are banned.  All previous coins are declared worthless.  Wu Ti's copper coin of one denomination remains standard until ?. 113 CHC 1-161, 587, MCAW, wikGHd, wikHD, wikHH
112 B76 4-313, CHC 1-234, 489
c.113 DAI Yi (the Grand Unity) cult established at the winter solstice by Wu Ti at his summer palace of Kanchuan. 113 CHC 1-171
c.112 Han chancellor ZHAO ZHOU is fired and replaced by SHI QING, who is made marquis of Muqiu. 112 ICMH 158
c.112 Almost all surviving holders of Gaozu's marquisates are purged.  A technical failing in their conduct at an annual ceremony is sufficient for ending their nobilities.  106 marquises are deprived of honors and demoted to commoners.  After this, no more than 7 of the original marquisates remain. 112 CHC 1-159, 592
c.112 Han envoy is sent to the Xiongnu, challenges chanyu Wu Wei to come south and fight.  Wu Wei chooses to remain north of the Gobi. 112
ICMH 158
c.112 Yellow River changeYELLOW RIVER, having flooded in 132 and moved south to the Huai River, is changed back to its original course - north of Shandong Peninsula. 112
ICMH 158
c.112 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends Gongsun He with 15,000 cavalry and Zhao Ponu with 10,000 cavalry into central Asia against the Xiongnu.  Both campaigns end without battles. 112 B76 4-314, wikUC
111 ICMH 159
c.112 Han finances, drained by war, are boosted by forced contributions from nobility. 112 LEWH 146
c.112 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, abolishes hereditary privileges of aristocrats.  Rank can only be gotten thru government service - theoretically 112
ICMH 158
c.112 Han government uses criminals in army and construction. 112 bk
c.112 People of Dongyue attack and kill some isolated Han officials. 112 CHC 1-456
c.112 MING WANG, son of Wen Wang, ruler of Cao at Nanyue from 124, ends.  Son AI WANG succeeds until 111. 112
MRDK 469
c.112 ZHAO XING, King of Nanyue, and his mother Queen Dowager Jiu — a Chinese woman whom Zhao Xing's father Zhao Yingqi had married while an ambassador to Han — are both in favor of incorporating into Han.  This is opposed by chancellor Lu Jia, who wants to maintain Nanyue's independence.  Queen Dowager Jiu tries to goad the Han ambassadors into killing Lu Jia, but the ambassadors refuse. 112 wikWu
c.112 Emperor Wu Ti sends 2,000 men, led by Han Qianqiu and Jiu Le (bro of Queen Dowager Jiu), to try to assist king Zhao Xing of Nanyue and queen dowager Jiu, chancellor Lu Jia stages a coup. 112 GHCC 118, wikWu
c.112 Amphibious (including riverboats) Han expedition against YUE kingdom in Guangdong and north Vietnam begins until 111.  Han general LU BODE sails down the Bei River into the Pearl River to invade Southern Yue.  Han general YANG PU sails up the Gan River.  X-convicts march from Shu to Guangxi.  All columns are to converge on Nanyue capital Panyu. 112
GHCC 118, ICMH 158
c.112 ZHAO XING, king of Nanyue from 113, and Queen Dowager Jiu, are killed in a coup by chancellor Lu Jia.  The coup fails because of Han troops.  Emperor Wu makes another son of Zhao Yingqi, ZHAO JIANDE king of Nanyue with Lu Jia as prime minister until 111. 112 CHC 1-453, rcC, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.112 Han general YANG PU wins merit as a general against southern Yue.  He is then made Marquis of Chiang-liang. 112
SDFH 101
c.112 Han general LU BODE tries to force a Yunan chief of Julan to join him.  The chief rebels.  Han forces are diverted to Julan.  They kill the chief and form Julan into Yangge province. 112 ICMH 159
c.112 TIBET is invaded by 20-30,000 Han cavalry because of raids by Qiang tribes. 112 ICMH 158
c.112 AP VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 113, ends.  DUONG VUONG TRIEU succeeds until 111. 112 rcSAM
c.111 Pu Shih appointed imperial counsellor until 110. 111 CHC 1-163
c.111 Han general YANG PU with 20-30,000 troops advances ahead of the main army, takes border town of XunXia, drives back Yue troops, takes their grain boats. 111
ICMH 159
c.111 Han general YANG PU advances to the Hui River, waits for Lu Bode. 111 ICMH 159
c.111 ZOU YUSHAN, king of Minyue (Eastern Yue), is permitted by Han generals to invade Southern Yue.  Zou Yushan holds back to see who wins. 110
ICMH 160
c.111 Han general LU BODE, having lost most of his men crossing mountains, now has only 1,000, joins Han general Yang Pu. 111
ICMH 159
c.111 WUDU made a commandery from parts of Guanghan. 111 bril
c.111 JIAOZHI (Jiuzhen) becomes a commandery. 111 bril
c.111 DUNHUANG becomes Han military commandery west of Jiuquan Commandery. 117 GHCC 118, spks 111 ICMH 159
c.111 HainanHan general LU BODE attacks island of Hainan off the south coast.  After a successful assault, he divides it into commanderies of Zhuya and Daner, thus making Hainan island part of China.  Daner lasts until 82, Zhua until 46. 111 bril, wikLB
c.111 PANYU, capital of Nanyue, falls to Han generals Lu Bode and Yang Pu.  NANYUE, including Guangdong (Kwangtung, Canton), Guangsi, and North Vietnam, under Zhao dynasty from 207, conquered by Emperor Wu Ti's military and naval forces.  ZHAO JIANDE, king from 112, flees, until he and Lu Jia are captured.  Nanyue is annexed to the Han empire, under China until 544CEHan domination extends to include all of present Guangdong, including Hainan island. 111 B76 10-554, 19-122, MCAW, rcC, rcSAM, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikWu
110 GHCC 118, ICMH 159, LEWH 145
c.111 YUE kingdom in Guangdong and North Vietnam, divided into 9 commanderies. 111 GHCC 118, spks 110 ICMH 160
c.111 Han general YANG PU asks permission to punish Zou Yushan king of Minyue (Eastern Yue).  Emperor Wu Ti denies it, orders armies to return. 110
ICMH 160
c.111 Han troops return from the Nanyue War.  Han government debates military action against Dongyue. 111 wikWu
c.111 A local chieftain of Yelang, whose loyalty to the throne was thought to be beyond question, is declared king of Yelang. 110 CHC 1-458
c.111 The WUSUN of central Asia ask Han for a princess.  Han court complies, thus gaining Wusun as an ally. 110 CHC 1-197, ICMH 160
c.111 Guizhou region incorporated into Han empire. 110 CHC 1-235
c.111 MINSHAN, home of the Nan and Mang peoples, established as a commandery until 67. 110 ICMH 160
c.111 Xiongnu invade dependent states of Han.  Cavalry from Anding and Tianshui is mustered to fight them. 111
SDFH 109
c.111 Han forces repel a joint Xiongnu / Qiang (Tibetan) invasion of a vast territory spanning the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor to Lop Nur. 111 wikHD, wikHXW
c.111 Han court forcibly moves peasant farmers to the northwest settlements of Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangyi, and Wuwei, along with government-owned slaves and convicts to perform hard labor.  The court also encourages commoners, such as farmers, merchants, landowners, and hired workers, to voluntarily migrate to the frontier. 111 wikHD, wikHH
c.111 SIMA CHIEN (Sima Qian) accompanies a military expedition to southwest China. 111 B76 17-525
c.111 Gongsun Ao, with 15,000 cavalry, is dispatched north from Jiuquan commandery.  After marching 2,000 li distance, Gongsun Ao fails to locate the Xiongnu.  Meanwhile, Zhao Ponu, with 10,000 cavalry, departs from Lingju, and fails to locate the Xiongnu after reaching Xiongnu-he-shui [Hun Water] RiverEmperor Wu Ti personally descends on Shuofang commandery and is welcomed by 180,000 cavalry.  Wu Ti dispatches emissary Guo Ji to chanyu Wu Wei for informing about the decapitated head of Southern Yue KingChanyu Wu Wei executes his minister who advocated a meeting with Guo Ji and retains Guo Ji as a hostage at Bei-hai-shang (Lake Baikal)Han emissary, Wang Wu, goes to see chanyu Wu Wei by blackening his face via Xiongnu customs and pursuades Wu Wei to send over a prince to Han court as a hostage.  Another Han emissary, Yang Xin, also visits Wu Wei. 111 icX
c.111 LINGLING, part of Changshan from ?, becomes a separate commandery. 111 bril
c.111 ZOU YUSHAN, co-king king of Minyue (Eastern Yue) with Luo Jugu, learns of Yang Pu's request to attack him, but not Emperor Wu Ti's denial.  Fearing attack, Zou Yushan makes a preemptive attack siezing Beisha, Wulin, and Mailing in former Nanyue and in other border commanderies, exterminating their Han garrisons. 111 wikWu 110 ICMH 160
c.111 AI WANG, son of Ming Wang, ruler of Cao at Nanyue from 112, ends.  Bro WEI YANG WANG succeeds until ?. 111
MRDK 469
c.111 Southern Yue statelets pacified by Han. 111 icX, scar
c.111 DUONG VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 112, ends. 111 rcSAM
c.111 NAN CHAO (Yunnan Province) in southern China, under Nanyue from 204, comes under China until 220CE. 111 CHC 1-235, rcC
c.111 Han general HAN YUE sent with riverboats to attack Minyue (Eastern Yue) from east.  General Yang Pu marches thru Wulin to attack Minyue.  General Wang Wenshu is sent to recover Mailing.  2 Yue defectors are sent to recover Ruye and Beisha. 110
ICMH 160
c.111 Emperor Wu Ti commissions Er to create extensions to the Zhengguo Canal that could irrigate nearby terrain elevated above the main canal. 111 wikSTH
c.111 Han general Yang Pu returns north with troops after the Han–Nanyue War.  He requests Emperor Wu Ti's permission to annex Dongyue.  The emperor refuses after he considers the morale of the troops. 111 wikSeHd
c.111 DONGYUE (Eastern Ou), under Minyue from ?, annexed by Han. Dec. 111 wikSeHd
c.111 Han court establishes the office of colonel-protector of the Qiang. 111 CHC 1-427
110 BCE
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, assembles 180,000 cavalry in Shuofang, and sends Go Gi to notify chanyu Wu Wei about the mobilization. 110 wikUC
c.110 When Go Gi arrives, chanyu Wu Wei's master of ceremony asks him about the purpose his arrival.  Go Gi, with polite evasion, says that he wants to disclose it personally to the Chanyu.  Chanyu Wu Wei admits him.  Go Gi tells him:  "If the Chanyu is in a position to mount a campaign and fight with the Chinese state, the Son of Sky himself, he is waiting for you at the border with an army; and if he is not in a position to fight, he should turn his face to the south and recognize himself a vassal of the House of Han."  Chanyu Wu Wei is so enraged by this ultimatum that he beheads his master of ceremony and arrests Go Gi, sending him off to Baikal in exile.  In spite of that, Wu Wei is not inclined to attack the borders of China.  Instead he rests his troops and horses, and goes hunting. 110 wikUC
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, guided by Sang Hung Yang, enters grain business.  He eliminates speculation by selling government-stored grain at a lower price than demanded by merchants.  He buys cheap and sells high until corruption by officials leads to repeal. 110
LEWH 146 by 110 wikHD
c.110 Sang Hung-yang becomes Superintendent of Agriculture until ?. 110 CHC 1-604
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, at great expense, ascends Mt. Tai to sacrifice and worship heaven and earth, and to offer a secret petition, presumably seeking immortality.  Much attention is paid to huang-ti, the power of yellow.  Sima Qian is with him.  Wu Ti says that he would return to Mount Tai every 5 years to repeat the ceremony, and does so in 106 and 98.  Wu Ti returns to Chang'an and introduces sacrifices to heaven. 110 B76 4-315, 17-525, CHC 1-172, 664, IUG 4.8, LEWH 146, wikWu
c.110 SIMA TAN, father of Sima Qian, grand historian at Han court from 140, dies.  After mandatory mourning period, his son Sima Qian succeeds in 108 until 90. 110 B76 17-525, CHAC 823, 971, CHC 1-90, spks, wikHD
c.110 Pu Shih, imperial counsellor from 111, criticizes the wisdom of state-controlled mines, and is therefore dismissed. 110 CHC 1-163
c.110 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, breaks with Confucians over sacrifices. 110 bk
c.110 Liu Lung, Marquis of Fu, is tried for causing a male slave to kill a man.  The marquisate is abolished and Liu Lung is thrown into prison, where he dies. 110
SDFH 188
c.110 Sang Hung-yang begins Chinese standards bureau. 110 bk
c.110 Price stabilization program, codified.  Lasts until end of Former Han. 110 CHC 1-234
c.110 QI, a kingdom from 117, reverts to a commandery until ?. 110 bril
c.110 LUO JUGU, co-king of Minyue (Fujian) with Luo Yushan, under Han military pressure, assassinates Luo Yushan and surrenders the kingdom to Han.  Emperor Wu does not establish commanderies in Minyue's former territory, but moves its people to the region between Yangtze and Huai Rivers. 110 spks, wikWu
c.109 Central Asian statelets Loulan and Gushi (Turfan) hassle Han envoys. 109 icX
c.109 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends General Zhao Ponu against central Asian statelets Loulan and Gushi (Turfan). 109 icX
108 wikHXW, wikYz
c.109 Han general ZHAO PONU catches the King of Loulan and conquers Gushi.  Both become tributaries to Han. 109 icX
108 wikHXW, wikYz 108 wikLK
c.109 Breaches of Yellow River finally closed, and an embankment project begun. 109 CHC 1-1 61, 243, 554
c.109 Search for Isles of the Immortals. 109 GHCC
c.109 Han expeditions into north and central Korea.  Most of Korea is conquered by 106. 109 CHC 1-448, GHCC 118, spks
c.109 LAOJIN and MIMO, tribes in Yunan are overrun by Chinese on their way to Dian. 109 ICMH 161
c.109 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends General GUO CHANG against the Kingdom of Dian (eastern Yunnan), planning to conquer it, but when the King of Dian surrenders, Dian is incorporated into Han territory with the King of Dian allowed to keep his authority and title as a vassal.  Emperor Wu establishes 5 commanderies over Dian and other nearby kingdoms. 109 GHCC 118, ICMH 161, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikSeHd, wikWu, wikYn
c.109 Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties established by General Guo Chang. 109 spks, wikYn
c.109 ZHANG, part of Jiangdu Kingdom from 117, name changed to DANYANG. 109 bril
c.109 Wei Man's grandson King Ugeo of Joseon refuses to permit Jin Korea's ambassadors to reach China thru his territories.  When Emperor Wei sends ambassador She He to Wanggeom to negotiate the right of passage with King Ugeo, King Ugeo refuses and has a general escort She He back to Han territory — but when they get close to Han borders, She He assassinates the general and claims to Emperor Wu that he had defeated Joseon in battle.  Emperor Wu, unaware of She He's deception, make him military commander of Liaodong Commandery (central Liaoning).  King Ugeo, offended, raids Liaodong and kills She He. 109 ICMH 161, wikWu
c.109 In response, WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, commissions a 2-prong attack, by land and sea, against Joseon. Han general Xun Zhi marches from Liaodong into Zhenpan, while Yang Pu with 50,000 men crosses Gulf of Bohai.  Xun Zhi tries to march thru the mountains, but the passes are fortified, and he is stopped.  Yang Pu with a vangard of 7,000 pushes to Pyongyang, where he is defeated.  Yang Pu retreats to mountains and regroups. 109
CHC 1-448, wikWJ, wikWu
108 ICMH 161
c.109 Initially, Joseon offers to become a Han vassal, but peace negotiations brake down by the Chinese forces' refusal to let a Joseon force escort its crown prince to Chang'an to pay tribute to Emperor Wu. 109 wikWu 108 ICMH 161
c.109 Chinese invade south to Vietnam. 111 B76 17-248     109 bk
c.109 Historian SIMA QIAN (145–86) begins compiling  Shiji  "Records of the Grand Historian" until 91. 109 wikCC
 Shiji  is finished in 109. wikRGH
c.108 Han begins campaigns in west. 108 CHC 1-409
c.108 Han general ZHAO PONU defeats Loulan (Cherchen), which surrenders to Han.  When the Xiongnu hear of this they attack Loulan, so that the king of Loulan is forced to send one son as hostage to the Han, and another son as hostage to the Xiongnu. 108 CHC 1-409, CHEIA 132, wikT
c.108 Immediately after Han general Zhao Ponu occupies Loulan, he advances north to defeat Chu-shih. 108 CHEIA 132
c.108 General ZHAO PONU with 25,000 men sent north to Xiyu, and forces the Kingdoms of Loulan (Cherchen) on northeast border of the Taklamakan Desert and Cheshi (modern Turpan, Xinjiang) into submission, but fails to force the Xiongnu to fight. 108
ICMH 162, wikWu
c.108 General ZHAO PONU invades central Asia, conquers the Wusun and Dayuan (Dawan). 108 GHCC, wikHXW
c.108 General ZHAO PONU with 700 men defeats the Gushi and Loulan, captures the Loulan king.  Loulan remains subserviant until 107, but Gushi hostile. 108
ICMH 162
c.108 YIZHOU commandery established by general Guo Chang. 109 CHC 1-458, wikYn 108 CHC 1-169
c.108 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, invades south Manchuria and North Korea. 108 scar
c.108 Manchuria comes under China until 220CE. 108 rcC
c.108 Han general XUN ZHI defeats Koreans in Zhenpan, advances to besiege Pyongyang.  General Yang Pu joins him there. 108
ICMH 161
c.108 Besieging Pyongyang, Han general Xun Zhi wants to storm Pyongyang, General Yang Pu wants to negotiate their surrender.  An imperial envoy arrives to see what's preventing victory.  Xun Zhi persuades him to arrest Yang Pu, then with a united army, presses the attack.  Inside Pyongyang factions arise. 108 ICMH 161
c.108 UGEO king of Wiman dynasty of Joseon Korea from ?, murdered.  Pyongyang fights on, then surrenders.  KOREA occupied by Chinese military, comes under control of China until ?. 108 B76 10-58, 11-435, CHC 1-170, 448, ICMH 161, PW 17, otw, rcK, wikHD, wikT, wikWJ, wikWu
c.108 4 commanderies:  NANGNANG, CHINBON, IMDUN, and HYONTO established by Wu Ti in Korean state of Joseon.  Though there is some violent resistance in 108 and irregular raids by Goguryeo and Buyeo afterwards, Chinese settlers conduct peaceful trade with native Koreans who live largely independent of (but culturally influenced by) the sparse Han settlements.  Chinbon and Imdun will be abandoned in 82, Hyonto in 75.  Nangnang lasts until 313CE. 108 B76 VII-181, GHCC, bk, spks, wikHH
c.108 In Korea the Xuantu, Luntun, Zhenphan, and Lelang Commanderies are established by Han.  Lintun, Xuantu, and Zhenphan last until 300CE, Lelang lasts until 313CE. 108 B76 10-58, MCAW, bril, spks, ct, wikHD
c.108 DROUGHT in China. 108 ICMH 162
c.108 GRAIN markets taken over by Han government, in attempt to control prices. 108 ICMH 162
c.108 LIU TUAN, King of Qiao-hsi from 154, ends. 108 HFHD 205
c.108 LIU DUAN, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince YU of Jiaoxi from 154, dies without heir.  JIAOXI reverts to a commandery until 73. 108 HFHD 139, bril, wikEJ, wikJg
c.108 Han expeditions to central Asia. 108 GHCC
c.108 HAN EMPIRE extends from Kun-Ming in Yunnan to Korea and Sea of Japan.  The central government assumes to rule commanderies scattered thruout China, enclosing a larger number of small kingdoms as enclaves. 108
CHC 1-140, GHCC 120
c.107 Yellow River changeYellow River breaks dikes and floods again, flows into the Si River.  2,000,000 people are displaced. 107 ICMH 162
c.107 East of the pass are 2,000,000 refugees and an about 400,000 unregistered people.  Officials recommend to transfer them to the frontiers. 107
SDFH 208
c.107 Han generals GUO CHANG and WEI GUANG are sent against Kunming (Yunan) until 106.  They kill or capture 20-30,000, but can t control Yunan because it has no formal government. 107
ICMH 162
c.107 Central AsiaGeneral ZHAO PONU has to reconquer Loulan.  Han controls area to Lob Nor.  Defense stations are built in Gansu 107 ICMH 162
c.107 WUWEI, chanyu 114-105, tries to negotiate peaceful relations with Han, and even halts border raids.  The Han disregard his terms and demand that the chanyu send his heir apparent as a hostage to Chang'an.  Peace negotiations collapse. 107 CHC 1-394, ICMH 162, wikHXW
Silk Road
c.106 Silk Road, finished 121, is inaugurated (a treaty between Emperor Wu Ti and Parthian king Mithridates-II). 106 scar
c.106 1st SILK CARAVAN goes from China thru Kushan and Parthian land to Persia. 106 B76 3-1136
c.106 In order to better organize the territories, including both the previously-existing empire and the newly conquered territories, Emperor Wu divides the empire into 13 prefectures (called bu, later zhou), but without governors or prefectural governments at this time — that will come later. 106 wikWu
c.106 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, again ascends Mt. Tai to sacrifice and worship heaven and earth. 106
CHC 1-664
c.106 Intensive measures are taken to strengthen central supervisory powers.  13 CIRCUIT INSPECTORS (cishi) first appointed to inspect provincial administrations, investigate corruption or oppression, and supervise provincial officials. 106 B76 4-312, CHC 1-157, 475, 530, bril, wikGHd
c.106 WEI QING, son of Zheng Ji, Han commander, dies. 106 wikHD, wikHH, wikWQ 104 CHC 1-108
c.105 Central AsiaHAN ARMY marches west, briefly invades Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan).  Fails. 105 B76 8-630 104 scar
c.105 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, sends a "princess" to marry Kunmo, aged king of Wusun, another state which had been the Xiongnu's ally since Baghur's days.  The Xiongnu quickly see the significance of this marriage, so the chanyu also sends one of his daughters to marry the king.  Kunmo makes the Han princess the Bride of the Right, and the Xiongnu princess the Bride of the Left.  The Han princess later marries his grandson and successor Qinqu, creating a strong alliance between Han and Wusun. 105 CHC 1-410, CHEIA 131-2, wikWu
c.105 PAPER making improved by inventor Cai Lun. 105 hceisH, wikHH
c.105 COLLAR HARNESS, the most efficient harness for horses, invented in China.  It will not be used in the west until the Middle Ages. 110 TTT
110-101 TTS
c.105 Son of Yizhixie, WU WEI dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 114 dies.  Young son USHIHLU succeeds until 102. 105 CHC 1-393, CHEIA 136, ICMH 163, icX, spks, rcN, wikCny, wikUC 104 MRDK 450
c.105 Xiongnu in Manchuria are expelled by locals, and no longer control eastern Mongolia. 105 ICMH 163
c.105 Vines and alfalfa brought from central Asia to China. 105 GHCC
c.104 DAYUAN (Dawan) refuses to give in to Emperor Wu's commands to surrender its best horses, Emperor Wu's ambassadors are then executed when they insult the king of Dayuan after his refusal. 104 ICMH 163, wikWu
c.104 LI GUANGLI, bro of Lady Li Wu Ti's favorite concubine, is made a general and sent with an army of 20,000 merchants shopkeepers and convicts, plus 6,000 nomad allies to central Asia and the Pamirs and to attack Ferghana until 101.  He is to steal the prize horses of Dayuan.  Han diplomats come into contact with the kingdoms of the Tarim Basin. 104
CHC 1-168, GHCC 118, icX, spks, wikWu
c.104 LI GUANGLI fails to capture a city called Yuecheng. 104 icX, wikWu
c.104 Han general LI GUANGLI campaigns against Dayuan [Dawan, Kokand, Fergana Valley], loses 80% of his men. 104 icX
c.104 Wang Wen-shu tried and executed with his relatives. 104 SDFH 74
c.104 GuanzhongThe Guanzhong Metropolitan area, divided into 2 from 135, under Superintendent of the Left and the commandery of Hongnong from 113, now divided into 3.  The 3 posts of Jingzhao Yin, You Fufeng, and Zuo Pingyi are established.  You Fufeng replaces the suppressed post of Commandant.  These 3 senior officials are known collectively as the San fu.  That term is also used for the 3 areas they control. 104 CHC 1-472, bril
c.104 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, builds luxurious Jianzhang Palace — a massive structure intended to make him closer to the gods.  He would later reside at that palace exclusively rather than the traditional Weiyang Palace. 104 wikWu
c.104 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, on advice of Dong Zhongshu, officially endorses earth, rather than water or fire, as patron element of Han. 104
CHC 1-738
c.104 Chinese  CALENDAR  reformed by Sima Qian and others.  The ancient Sifen calendar, which measured the tropical year at 365/4 days, was replaced with the Taichu calendar that measured the tropical year at 365 and 385/1539 days and the lunar month at 29 and 43/81 days. 104 B76 17-525, CHC 1-172, 686, GHCC, IUG 4.6, wikHD, wikSTH
c.104 Han general GONGSUN AO is sent to build a fortress called Shouxiangcheng "City for Receiving Surrender" north of the Yin Mountains (north of the northern segment of the Big Bend of the Yellow River in the Gobi as a supply base. 104
ICMH 163, spks
c.104 JIUQUAN and ZHANGYI commanderies established in western and central Gansu. 104 CHC 1-165
c.104 TUNG SHUNG SHU (Dong Zhongshu), commentator on the classics, greatest Confucian of his time, dies.  A minor official who aggregated the ethical Confucian ideas of ritual, filial piety, and harmonious relationships with five phases and yin-yang cosmologies.  Much to the interest of the ruler, Tung's synthesis justified the imperial system of government within the natural order of the universe. 105 GHCC
104 B76 4-1094, CHAC 611, 973, CHC 1-109, 163, 809, EoΦ 2-90, 8-164, IUG 4.9, wikDZ, wikHD, wikHH
c.104/3 A severe winter costs the Xiongnu many animals.  Chanyu Ushihlu is under pressure to start a war. 104/3 ICMH 163
c.104/3 A line of forts and stations is built from Jiuquan commandery to Dunhuang commandery, and from there to Yumen Pass, northwest of Dunhuang.  A line several thousand li long of walled outposts and watch stations is built from the frontier post of Wuyuan Commandery, north of the northern segement of the Big Bend, to the northern extension of the Lang Mountains in Inner Mongolia. 104/3 spks
c.103 Li Guangli's army of 26,000 men (20,000 Chinese & 6,000 steppe cavalry), without adequate supplies, suffers a humiliating loss against Dayuan.  Li Guangli returns with less than 20% of the forces, but Emperor Wu Ti stops him from coming inside of the Yuemen (Jade Gate) Pass.  General Li Guangli stays in Dunhuang. 103 ICMH 164
c.103 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, relents an decides to send Li Guangli another army.  He sends him 60,000, convicts, 100,000 oxen, 30,000+ horses, and tens of thousands of donkeys, mules, and camels. 103
ICMH 164
c.103 China war with Xiongnu begins until 90. 103 bk
c.103 Han general ZHAO PONU with 20,000 cavalry is sent north to help conspirators against chanyu Ushihlu.  The scheme fails.  Zhao Ponu takes some prisoners and retreats, but is surrounded by XiongnuHe escapes by night, but is caught and imprisoned until 100.  His troops surrender. 103 CHC 1-109, ICMH 163-4, wikWu
no date: icX
c.103 After defeating Zhao Ponu, chanyu Ushihlu attacks Shouxiangcheng unsuccessfully.  The Xiongnu begin raiding south. 103 ICMH 164
c.103 Central AsiaHan general LI GUANGLI, with a depleted army, crosses mountains into Ferghana, tries to storm Yuchen, repulsed.  His subordinates agree to retreat back to China.  With only 4,000 men they reach Dunhuang.  Li writes to emperor Wu Ti trying to excuse his failure.  Wu Ti writes back and says any of his men who cross Jade Gate Pass will be executed.  Li stays at Dunhuang. 103 ICMH 164
c.103 TAICHU ERA begins.  The definition of the Chinese New Year, the second New Moon after the winter solstice, could be dated from the inception of the Taichu Era. 103 icH
c.102 Fortified posts created in Mongolia. 103 GHCC
c.102 Han general LI GUANGLI, marches west again north of the Tarim desert.  WANG SHENSHENG with 1,000 goes by southern route.  LI LING follows as far as Dunhuang.  Cities of Tarim surrender except Luntou, which is besieged, then stormed.  Inhabitants massacred. 102 ICMH 164, LEWH 146, wikT
c.102 Han general WANG SHENSHENG with 1,000 men arrives at Yucheng.  They are attacked and wiped out. 102
ICMH 165
c.102 Li Guangli sends general WANG SHENSHENG to storm Yucheng, whose king flees to the Kangjiu.  Wang pursues.  The Kangjiu surrender their king to Wang. 102
ICMH 165
c.102 JIUQUAN and ZHANGYI commanderies in western and central Gansu invaded by Xiongnu Wise King of the Right. 102 spks
c.102 180,000 soldier/farmers transplanted to JIUQUAN and ZHANGYI commanderies in western and central Gansu. 103
GHCC 121
c.102 Banditry increases in China.  Provinces of Nanyang, Chu, Qi, Zhao, and Yen are all overrun by bandit groups. 102
ICMH 165
c.102 Son of Wu Wei, USHIHLU dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 105, personally leading an attack at "surrender castle" again, dies.  Uncle, rightside wise king GUILIHU succeeds until 101. 103 CHEIA 136
102 MRDK 450, icX, rcN 102/1 spks, wikCny
c.102 Central AsiaHan general LI GUANGLI, loses half his 60,000 men to death or desertion, but has enough to cross the mountains again.  They bypass Yucheng, advance on Dayuan capital Sutrishna, and defeat a Dayuan army. 102
ICMH 165, LEWH 146, icX, wikT, wikWu
c.102 SUTRISHNA capital of Dayuan, besieged 40 days with water supplies cutt off, kills its king, throws his head to Li Guangli, and offers to give him the desired horses if they withdraw.  Li Guangli accepts.  Sutrishnans give him 12 1st class horses and 3,000 2nd class horses, and he withdraws.  This Han victory further intimidates the Xiyu kingdoms into submission. 102
ICMH 165, LEWH 146, icX, wikT, wikWu
c.102 Following Han's victory over Dayuan in 102, the Xiongnu fear that Han could then concentrate against it, and make peace overtures. 102 wikWu
c.102 BAN CHAO, Marquis of Dingyuan, age 70, dies at Loyang.  Following his death, Xiongnu power in the west increases again. 102 wikXng
c.102 GREAT WALLS extended by soldiers and convicts from northeast of Lan-chou to Yunmen Pass at west end of Gansu. 102 GHCC 114 101 tcg
c.101 2nd expedition against Ferghana. General Li Guangli succeeds against Dayuan kingdom. 101 GHCC
c.101 Han Dynasty establishes hundreds of garrison troops south of the Tianshan Mountains in today's Luntai & Quli and assign an official entitled "emissarial colonel" there. 101 icX, chem
c.101 FERGHANA (Dayuan, Kokand) conquered by Han general Li Guangli, on 2nd expedition to Fergana, submits to Han forces. 101 B76 8-630, CHC 1-410, CHEIA 132, wikHXW
c.101 Han general LI GUANGLI sets up a puppet ruler at Dayuan capital Sutrishna until 100, and starts home. 101 CHC 1-197, ICMH 165
c.101 In autumn Chanyu Guilihu raids Yunzhong, Dingxiang, Wuyuan and Shuofang commanderies, kills a few thousand ChineseXiongnu Rightside Wise King raids Jiuquan and Zhangyi commanderies to the west and captures a few thousand people. 101 ICMH 166, icX
c.101 Hearing that General Li Guangli is returning from Central Asia, the Xiongnu plan an ambush on the road but change their mind later. 101 icX
c.101 Son of Ichih Xieh, GUILIHU dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 102 dies of illness in winter.  Bro, Rightside Wise King, QIEDIHOU succeeds until 96. 101 CHC 1-395, CHEIA 136, ICMH 166, MRDK 450, icX, rcN,     101/0 spks, wikCny
c.101 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, proposes a general attack on the Xiongnu for avenging on first Han emperor's defeat by the Xiongnu as well as first Han empress's humiliation of being asked for marriage by Baghur. 101 icX
c.101 Chanyu QIEDIHOU, to appease the Chinese, releases all emissaries and hostages who refused to surrender to Xiongnu, including Lu Chongguo. 101 icX
c.101 Han general Li Guangli, in west from ?, returns with 10,000 of his 60,000 men to Chang'an with horses and the head of the ruler of Fergana. 101 B76 8-630, CHEIA 132, wikHXW
c.101 Han general XU ZUWEI advances the line of supply forts across the Gobi for 666 miles. 101 ICMH 166
c.101 Han general LU BODE builds forts along the swamps of Juyan in the Alashan to cover approaches to Gansu. 101
ICMH 166
c.101 BAO SHENGZHI, FAN KUN, and ZHANG DE are sent by emperor Wu Ti to suppress bandits.  They execute tens of thousands, but banditry persists. 101
ICMH 166
c.100 Jin Confederacy in Korea from ?, disintegrates and is replaced by 3 local tribal confederacies:
Mahan in southwest, comprising 54 local clans, one of which eventually emerges as Paekche.
Jinhan in southeast, comprising 12 clans, one of which emerges as Silla.
Byeohan in south, between Mahan and Jinhan, comprising 12 clans
100 rcK
by 100 Han imperial government has sapped the kingdoms of their strength.  Most of their lands have been incorporated as commanderies. 100
B76 4-312
c.100 Distinction between kingdoms and commanderies is losing practical significance.  Far more land is governed as commanderies than as kingdoms. 100
CHC 1-473
c.100 Due to heavy taxation and military burdens imposed by Emperor Wu's incessant military campaigns and luxury spending, there are many peasant revolts thruout the empire. 100 wikWu
c.100 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, issues an edict intended to suppress peasant revolts, by making officials whose commanderies saw unsuppressed peasant revolts liable with their lives — but which had the opposite effect, since it is impossible to suppress all of the revolts, and the officials would merely cover up the existence of the revolts. 100 wikWu
c.100 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, executes many people who made fake coins. 100 wikWu
c.100 Zhao Ponu, prisoner of the Xiongnu from 103, escapes and flees back to Han court. 100 ICMH 166, icX
c.100 Qiantang River suddenly disappears.  It will suddenly reappear in 97. 100 spYue
c.100 Embassy from Parthia (called Anxi in China) arrives at Han capital. 100 hceisH
c.100 Han puppet ruler at Sutrishna from 101 is overthrown by Xiongnu nobles.  A bro of the previous king, CHANFENG succeeds until ?.  Chanfeng sends his son to Chang'an as a hostage, and is accepted as a Han vassal. 100 ICMH 166
100 Emperor Wu Ti sends over 100 envoys, led by SU WU, deputy commander of imperial guards, to the Xiongnu.  Zhang Sheng is 2nd in command; Chang Hui is 3rd.  Chanyu Qiedihou is arrogant, which angers Zhang Sheng, who plots with Xiongnu officials, the prince of Gou and Yu Chang, to murder Chanyu Qiedihou's half-Chinese advisor Wei Lu and kidnap Qiedihou's mother.
The Prince of Gou and Yu Chang carry out their plot while the chanyu is hunting, but someone tells the chanyu, who quickly returns and kills the Prince of Gou in battle and captures Yu Chang.  Zhang Sheng informs Su Wu, who is unaware of the plot.  Su Wu tries to suicide with his sword.  Wei Lu, who wants Su Wu to surrender and become an advisor to the chanyu, summons doctors and barely saves Su Wu.  Chanyu Qiedihou arrests Zhang Sheng and Yu Chang.
After Su Wu recovers, Qiedihou decides to publicly execute Yu Chang to force the entire Han mission to surrender.  Zhang Sheng surrenders.  Su Wu, is not shaken even when Wei Lu puts a sword to his neck, and promises that as the chanyu's advisor, he would be greatly honored.  Su Wu refuses to surrender.  Chanyu Qiedihou puts Su Wu in a cellar without food and drink, but fears to kill him, then sends him to Lake Baykal to tend sheep for 19 years.
101 ICMH 166 100 icX, wikSW

nodate wikWu
c.100 XINJIANG, vast arid plateau in far western China, between Mongolia to the northeast, Tibet to the south, and Khazakhstan to the west, comes under China until 190CE. 100 rcCAE
c.100 GREAT WALL, completed 214, extended northwest as far as Tunhuang commandery. 100 B76 4-314
c.100 CUCUMBERS, in India from ?, introduced to China. 140-86 B76 19-43
c.100 Han China begins a great disparity of wealth, especially land ownership. 100 B76 4-313
c.100  Shiji  history of China in historical memoirs, composed by Sima Qian.  He characterizes the Chinese vs. Xiongnu as civilized people vs. barbarians. 100 LEWH 146, wikXng
c.100 Imperial Library contains 13,000 books. 100 B76 15-223
c.100 CRANK HANDLE for turning wheels invented in China. 100 TTT
c.100 Southeast Asia receives Indian religion and ideas by sea trade. 100 PW 17
c.100  Li Ji  compiled by Dai De and Dai Sheng. 100 bk
c.100  Zixu Fu  "Sir Fantasy Rhapsody" poem written by Sima Xiangru. 100 bk
c.100 JAPAN:  EARLY YAYOI period from 250 ends.  Characterized by unglazed pottery with knife-incised surface decorations.  MIDDLE YAYOI period begins until 100CE.  Comb mark decorations appear on pottery. 100
B76 X-806