Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.144 GISIK, king of Jin Korea from 157, ends.  GIMU succeeds until 113. 144 rcK
c.144 Emperor JING TI pays respects at religious sites of Yong. 144 CHC 151
c.144 Xiongnu in the Ordos region penetrate well into Shang Commandery, and take horses from imperial stables. 144 CHEIA 125, GHCC, ICMH 144, bk
c.144 Yen detachmentsYEN (Yanguo) kingdom, under the Liu family from ?, reduced by establishment of commanderies of Shanggu, Yuyang, Yubeiping, Liaoxi, and Liaodong. 144 bril
c.144 SHANGGU, part of Yen from ?, becomes a commandery until ?. 144 bril
c.144 YUYANG, part of Yen from ?, becomes a separate commandery. 144 bril
c.144 YUBEIPING, part of Yen from ?, detached to be a separate commandery. 144 bril
c.144 3rd son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress dowager Bo, LIU WU, king XIAO of Liang from 168, after a trip to Chang'an, dies of illness at his home.  His mother Empress dowager Dou is inconsolable, but Emperor Jing Ti placates her by dividing Liang into 5 pieces and giving them to Liu Wu's sons.  1st son LIU MAI becomes prince GONG of Liang until 137. 144 CHC 142, HFHD 139, wikDou, wikLng, wikLWPL, wikWn
143 HFHD6 10
c.144 ChangshanLIANG kingdom reduced in size by loss of Jiyin, Jidong and Shanyang kingdoms. 151 or 144 bril 144 bril
c.144 JIDONG, part of Liang from 202, made a separate kingdom until 141 or 138.  LIU PENGLI is king until 116. 144 HFHD6 48, bril
c.144 DONGPING in Yanzhou, part of Liang and under Han from 205, incorporated into Jidong kingdom until 116. 144 HFHD 208, bril
c.144 SHANYANG, part of Liang kingdom from 202, made a separate kingdom until 136.  LIU TING is king until 136. 144 HFHDX 12, bril
c.144 Jun 6 Son of Liu Wu, King Xiao of Liang, LIU MING is made King of Jichuan until 138. 144 HFHD6 5, bril
c.144 CHENLIU Commandery in Liang becomes part of JICHUAN kingdom until 138 under king Liu Ming. 144 bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  JICHUAN is a in or near LiangZICHUAN is in or near Qi.
c.144 LangyeQI, reduced in 164, is further reduced by separation of Pingyuan, Qiancheng, Donglai, and Langye commanderies, Leaving Qi only a "C" around Zichuan. 144 bril
c.144 LANGYE, part of Qi from 179, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 144 bril
c.144 Whipping, in the Chinese penal code, having the number of lashes reduced in 156 by Emperor Jing Ti, the number is reduced again. 144 wikEJ, wikJg
c.144 Chinese Imperial Edict establishes death penalty for private coin minting or making counterfeit gold.  Commanderies are allowed to mint coins until 113.  A new coin is introduced.  The private coin minting ban fails. 144 wikGHd, wikHD, wikHH
c.144 GUANGPING, part of Julu Commandery from ?, under Zhao from 153, detached to form Guangping commandery until 91. 144 bril
c.144 ZHAO reduced by separation of commanderies of Shangtang, Bohai and Guangping. 144 bril
c.144/3 YANMEN, part of Dai from ?, detached to form a commandery. Dai losses 144/3 bril
c.144/3 DINGXIANG part of Dai from ?, detached to form a commandery. 144/3 bril
c. 143 ZHOU YAFU, former chancellor 150-47, is now retired.  His son in anticipation of his death, buys armor and weapons from the imperial armory to serve as burial decorations.  This son refuses to pay the delivery workers, and the delivery workers, in retaliation, accuse the Zhous of treason.  Emperor Jing Ti has Zhou Yafu arrested and interrogated.  The interrogator, when told by Zhou Yafu that the armor and weapons were for burial purposes, accuses him of 'underground treason'.  i.e., intent to commit treason against the spirits of the emperors after Zhou Yafu himself dies. 143 wikEJ, wikJg
c.143 LIU SHE, Marquis of Tao, chancellor from ?, dismissed as chancellor.  Empress Dowager Dou recommends Dou Ying.  But Emperor Jing says Dou Ying is too proud.  So WEI WAN is appointed until 140. 143 HFHD 196, 217
c.143 The empire comprises the metropolitan area, 40 commanderies and 25 kingdoms.  The central government assumes to rule commanderies scattered thruout China, enclosing a larger number of small kingdoms as enclaves. 147 CHC 139-40
c.143 ZHOU YAFU, 2nd son of Zhou Bo, imprisoned on ridiculous charges of treason, suicides. 147 HFHD 42, ICMH 144 143 wikDou, wikEWZ, wikJg
c.142 Han general ZHI attacks the Xiongnu. 142 Jan ICMH 144
c.142 Xiongnu attack the Great Wall, invade Yanmen near Datong and fight with commandant Feng Ching, who dies in battle. 142 CHEIA 125, ICMH 144, bk, spks
c.142 Drought in China and plague in and Yunzhong. 142 ICMH 144
c.141 WU TI, son of Han emperor Jing Ti, expands into Asia. 141 TAWH 18, 81
c.141 Son of Wen Ti, LIU QI, Emperor JING TI dies.  6th Han emperor from 157, by Empress Dou.  Son age 15, Liu Zhi succeeds as Emperor WU TI until 87.  Mom Wang Zhi becomes Empress Dowager, but Grandmother, Empress Dowager Dou becomes grand empress dowager and continues to dominate the court.  Other grandmom Tsang Erh becomes Baronetess of Pingyuan. 141 CHAC 970, CHC 108, GHCC 116, HFHD 87, 107, ICMH 145, IUG 4.4, 4.8, MRDK 456, bk, frie, hceisH, icH, nweW, rcC, scar, spks, tcgHn, wikCM, wikDou, wikECJ, wikEJ, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikJg, wikT, wikWu, wstn
140 B76 IV-882, 4-310, CHEIA 131, MCAW, TTPC, chc3, icX
c.141 Promotion of students of legalistic teachings is forbidden by Emperor Wu. 141 HFHD6 8
c.141 Emperor Wu summons all "Capable and Good" schollars to Chang'an. 141 HFHD6 15
c.141 The commanderies recommend more than 100 scholars called "Capable and Good" to go to court to take imperial examinations. 141 HFHD6 6
c.141 CHEN JIAO is made Wu Ti's first empress until 130.  She will not produce a male heir. 141 CHC 174
c.141 Effective tax collection probably leaves the empire with greater material resources than ever before. 141 CHC 129
c.141 Kuan Fu made Grand Administrator of Huaiyang Commandery until 140 by Emperor Wu. 141 HFHD 107
c.141 TIAN FEN is made Marquis of Wu'an until ?.  His younger bro, TIAN SHENG is made Marquis of Chouyang, because they are uncles of Emperor Jing. 141 HFHD 189, 220
c.141 JIYIN kingdom from 144, changed to a commandery until 52. 141 or 138 bril
c. 141 JIANYUAN REFORMS:  Under advice from Confucian scholars, Emperor WU TI launches an ambitious reform program.
  1. Officially endorsing Confucianism as the national philosophy
  2. Evicting noblemen back to their own fiefdoms
  3. Removing non-central government sanctioned checkpoints
  4. Encouraging reporting and prosecution of criminal activities by nobles
  5. Recruitment and promotion of talented commoners into government positions
141 wikWu
c. 141 JIANYUAN REFORMS threaten the noble class, and are swiftly defeated by Grand Empress Dowager Dou, who holds real political power.  Wu Ti's 2 noble supporters, Dou Ying and Tian Fen (Empress Dowager Wang's half-bro), both have their positions stripped. Wu Ti's 2 mentors, Wang Zang and Zhao Wan, are impeached, arrested, imprisoned, and forced to suicide.  Wu Ti, now without allies, is subjected to conspiracies to have him removed from the throne. 141 wikWu
c. 140 Empress Chen, married to Wu Ti for years but childless, forbids Wu to keep other concubines.  Conspirators think to replace him with his distant uncle Liu An, King of Huainan, a renowned Taoist.  Emperor Wu's survival now depends on his aunt/mother-in-law Princess Guantao, who serves as a mediator with his powerful grandmother.  Princess Guantao exploits this leverage, to make excessive demands from her son-in-law.  Emperor Wu, unhappy with Empress Chen's infertility (for which he is blamed) and her spoiled behavior, is further enraged by her mother's greed.  His mother Empress Dowager Wang Zhi tells him to tolerate it, and wait for his aging grandmother to die.  Emperor Wu takes his mother's advice, then spends the next few years pretending to be docile, hedonistic, and without political ambition, often sneaking out of Chang'an for hunting and sightseeing posed as a Marquis. 140 wikWu
c. 140 The conservative noble class occupies every level of Han court.  Emperor Wu secretly recruits a circle of young loyal supporters from ordinary upbringings, and promotes them to mid-level positions in order to infiltrate the executive ranks.  These new officials, known as the "insider court", take orders and report directly to Emperor Wu.  They become his potent countermeasure against the "outsider court" made up of the Three Lords and Nine Ministers that are mostly monopolized by anti-reformists.  Emperor Wu appeals to grassroots scholars to enroll in government services. 140 CHC 770
no date: wikWu
c.140 When Emperor Wu ascends the throne, Tian Fen is Minister of War.  Han Anguo bribes Tian Fen and is made Chief Commandant of Poti Commandery. 140 HFHD6 10
c.140 CHAO WAN of Dai becomes Grandee Secretary.  With Tou Ying and Tian Fen he advocates Confucian practices. 140 HFHD6 4, 48
c.140 WANG TSANG, Confucian tutor of Wu before he became emperor, is dismissed. 140 HFHD6 5
c.140 Chao Wan and Wang Tsang recommend Confucian teacher SHEN PEI to Emperor Wu.  So Wu summons Shen Pei (age 80+) to Chang'an.  Two of his disciples follow him. 140
HFHD 179
c.140 The Southern Army, at the Imperial Palace, in charge of the Commandant of the Palace Guards, numbering 20,000 from ?, reduced to 10,000. 140
HFHD 179
c.140 KUAN FU, Grand Administrator of Huaiyang Commandery from 141, recalled by Emperor Wu to become Master of the Stud. 140
HFHD 107
c.140 CHOU TSO CHE, Marquis of Anyang from 149, condemned for a crime and dismissed. 140
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, conducts campaigns against Xiongnu. 140 scar
c.140 ERA NAMES, used since 164, now changed by Emperor Wu to be effectively a slogan by which the emperor wants a particular time period to be remembered, possibly to prevent the populace from making up their own less flattering slogans.  The Jianyuan "establishing the Origin" Era begins until 135.  140 wikCM, wikWu
no date: wikCEN
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, orders local governors to send in learned persons to the capital.  Over 100 young scholars, including Dong Zhongshu of Guangchuan, Gongsun Hong of Zichuan, and Yan Zhu of Kuaiji, come to the capital. 140 IUG 4.9, icH, nweW, wikWu
c.141 GONGSUN HONG, age 60, is made an Erudit and sent as envoy to the Xiongnu. 141 HFHD6 15
c.140 Persuaded by Dong Zhongshu's essay in a literary competition, Emperor Wu, or his chancellor Wei Wan, adopts Confucianism at court.  Confucianism now replaces Taoism as the state ideology.  Grand Empress Dowager Dou despises Confucians, and resists.  Taoism is favored by the court until she dies in 136. 140 wikDou, wikT
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, dismisses a select group of candidates for office who were adepts of the Legalist or eclectic teachings of Shen Buhai, Han Fei, Su Chin, and Chang I.  The effect of this decree is limited to the particular group it specifies.  This attempt of Wu Ti to promote Confucianism at the expense of other schools will be abandoned in 139 by Taoist-inclined Grand Empress Dowager Dou. 140 CHC 770
c.140 WEI WAN, Lieutenant Chancellor from 143, dismissed.  Emperor Wu deliberates over appointment of a new Lt. Chancellor and Grand Commandant.  Chi Fu tries to convince Tian Fen that Marquis of Weichi, Dou Ying, had been honored for a long time and all the outstanding men in the empire were under his patronage, so that Tian Fen could not compete with him.  Wei Wan lives until 129. 140 HFHD 189, 217
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, begins building bridges, canals, and irrigation channels.  Social reforms include curbing speculators and middlemen, creates state monopolies, socializes industries, regulates prices and incomes.  Enlarges currency minting coins of silver alloyed with tin. 140 MCAW
c.140 UNIVERSAL JOINT invented by Fang Feng.  A text describes an incense burner suspended in a system of concentric rings so that it remains horizontal. 140 TTT
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, makes DOU YING Lieutenant Chancellor, and TIAN FEN Grand Commandant, both until 139.  Both like Confucianism, so Empress Dowager Dou, a Taoist, is displeased with them. 140 HFHD 190, 197
c.140 Emperor Wu pardons enslaved families of leaders of the Seven States Rebellion. 160 SDFH 140
c.140 1st Chinese book on alchemy. 140 GHCC
c.140 The GUARD, 20,000 men from ?, cut to 10,000 men. 140 HFHD6 3
c.140 Aug TUNG CHUNG SHU (Dong Zhongshu), greatest Confucian scholar of his day, urges Confucian training for civil service, and limitation of private land holding or slave holding. 140 LEWH 145 136 B76 4-1095
c.140 Nv/Dc CHAO WAN of Dai Grandee Secretary 140, asks that the Taoist Grand Empress Dowager should not be allowed to interfere in government or receive memorials.  For that he is imprisoned and forced to suicide. 140 HFHD6 4, 5
c.140 Nv/Dc WANG TSANG, Confucian tutor, imprisoned and forced to suicide. 140 HFHD6 5
c.140 /39 Under patronage of LIU AN, prince of Huainan, scholars known as the Eight Immortals of Huainan publish the  Huainan-tzu  "Master of Huainan", a philosophical text that also covers subjects of military strategy, geography and cartography. 140
B76 10-1053 139 CHC 811, wikT
c.139 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian) sent to seek out the Yuezhi, which had been expelled by Xiongnu from the Gansu region, and entice them to return to their ancestral lands.  Han exploration into XIYU begins. 139 nweW
c.139 ZHAO ZHOU, Marquis of Shangling 148-112, is made Grand Master of Ceremonies until 136. 139 HFHD6 64
c.139 Confucian officials Zhao Wan and Wang Zang, who are disliked by Taoist Grand Empress Dowager Dou, advise Emperor Wu to stop consulting her for advice.  She has them tried for corruption, and they suicide in prison.  Emperor Wu is forced to submit to his grandmother, and for years his position on the throne is maintained only by mediation of his aunt and mother-in-law, Princess Guantao Liu Piao. 139 nweW, wikDou
c.139 The Empress tries to arrest Wei Qing.  Gongsun Ao rescues him. 139 HFHD6 22
c.139 Youngest son of Shih Fen, SHIH CHING, is made Prefect of Chang'an thru favor of the Grand Empress Dowager and the Empress Dowager. 139 HFHD6 93
c.139 DOU YING Lieutenant Chancellor, and TIAN FEN Grand Commandant, both from 140, are both dismissed.  Tian Fen stays at home, but, because of Empress Dowager Wang, he is still in favor.  For that reason, most who had been under the patronage of Dou Ying come over to Tian Fen, who becomes more domineering and haughty, and becomes chancellor in 135. 140
HFHD 197 139
HFHD 190
c.139 Emperor Wu, returning from Bashang, visits older sis, Princess Pingyang, who had prepared a collection of young women to offer for her bro's concubinage.  None of them impress Emperor Wu, so she calls in her dancers.  Emperor Wu wants a beautiful young singer called Wei Zifu, bangs her in the restroom, and buys her.  Zifu and her younger half-bro Wei Qing return to Chang'an with Emperor Wu, who neglects Wei Zifu as an insignificant palace maid for over a year under pressure from Empress Chen.  Wei Qing becomes a stableboy. 139 HFHD6 20, 23, wikECJ, wikEWZ, wikWQ
c.139 Liu An's book  Huainan-tzu  completed and presented to Emperor Wu Ti.  Being compiled by many people, it is not uniform concerning its theme - a systematic explanation of the universe, its wonders and mode of operation.  It invokes the myths of China in connection with subjects such as geography and shape of the universe, the abode of holy beings (shen), and shamanism.  It discriminates between different zones of heaven and earth and their relationship.  It includes much mythology and pays much attention to religious devotions, particularly those practiced in central or south China. 139 CHC 659, 696, bk
c.139 Kuan Fu and Tou Fu, Commandant of the Palace Guard of Changlo Palace, get drunk together and disagree over rites.  Kuan Fu attacks Tou Fu, who is a cousin of Empress Dowager Dou.  Emperor Wu fears that Empress Dowager Dou might kill Kuan Fu, so he transfers Kuan Fu to be Chancellor of Yen. 139 HFHD 107
c.138 Han palace official CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), dispatched from Longxi by emperor Wu Ti to ally with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.  Tangyifu, a Xiongnu guide, and 100 assistants accompany.  But traveling west he has to pass thru Xiongnu territory.  Chanyu Chun Chen refuses to let him proceed.  Chang Chien is accordingly detained by the Xiongnu until 129, during which time, he marries and has 2 kids. 139 CHC 164, 407, GHCC 120, IUG 4.8, scar, wikHD, wikWu     139/8 CHEIA 156 138 B76 II-731, LEWH 145, MCAW, TAWH 18, chc3, hceisH, icX, spks, wikHXW, wikWu     136 ICMH 145
130 B76 4-314, CHC 579, CHEIA 156
c.138 DONG CHI, Marquis of Chieh-shih from 145, dies. 138 HFHD 204
c.138 The southern autonomous state of MINYUE invades the weaker state of Dongyue (Eastern Ou) in Zheliang, which requests Han military help. 139 ICMH 145 138 HFHD6 6, nweW, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.138 ZUO ZHENFU, king of Dongyue (Eastern Ou), killed in battle against Minyue.  ZOU WANG succeeds until ?, and appeals to Han for help. 139 ICMH 145 138 wikWu
c. 138 Heated debate over whether to offer military intervention for such a distant vassal state as Dongyue.  Military commander Tian Fen opposes intervention.  Zhuang Zhu favors intervention.  Emperor Wu dispatches a newly promoted official Yan Zhu to Kuaiji (then still in Suzhou rather than Shaoxing) to mobilize the local garrison.  However the Tiger Tally, which is needed to authorize use of armed forces, is under Grand Empress Dowager Dou.  Yan Zhu, as appointed imperial ambassador, circumvents this problem by executing a local army commander who refused to obey the order without seeing the Tiger Tally, and coerces the Chief of Kuaiji to mobilize a large naval fleet to Dongyue's rescue. 138 HFHD6 6, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.138 Seeing superior Han forces approach, Minyue retreats south.  This is a political victory for Emperor Wu, and sets the precedent of using Emperor Gaozu's decrees to bypass the Tiger Tally, hence removing the need for approval from his grandmother.  With the military firmly in his control, Emperor Wu's political survival is assured. 138 nweW, wikWu
c.138 HAN ANGUO is promoted to Grand Chief of Agriculture. 138 HFHD6 10
c.138 Shanglin Park west of Chang'an reopened by Emperor Wu.  It contains Pinglo Lodge until 20CE. 138 HFHD6 87
c.138 SHIH CHING, Prefect of Chang'an from 139, becomes Chief of the Stud. 138 HFHD6 93
c.138 HAN ANGUO and Chief Grand Messenger WANG HUI lead troops to help Dongyue. 138 HFHD6 10
c.138 People of Dongyue are resettled between the Yangtze and Huai Rivers.  Much of their land is absorbed by Minyue. 139
ICMH 145 138 nweW
c.138 Aug Son of Liu Wu, King Xiao of Liang, LIU MING, King of Jichuan from 144, is condemned for killing his Tutor and his Palace Tutor.  Dismissed from his titles, made him a commoner, and banished to Fangling. 138 HFHD6 5
c.138 JICHUAN kingdom in Liang from 144 under Liu Ming becomes a commandery.  It is still called Jichuan until 118. 138 HFHD6 5, bril
c.138 JIDONG, a separate kingdom in Liang from 144, becomes a commandery until 52. 141 or 138 bril
c.137 LIU MAI, son of Liu Wu, prince GONG of Liang from 144, dies.  Son LIU XIANG succeeds until 97. 137 wikLng, wikPL
c.137 CHUANG CHINGTI, Marquis of Wu-Qiang, becomes Grandee Secretary until 136. 137 HFHD6 51
c.137 WU ZHU COINS weighing 3g are cast.  They are continuously used until the Sui Dynasty. 140-135 ctACC
c.137 ZHAO TUO, king of Nanyue, ruler, in southern China from 204, Han vassal from 179, age 103, dies.  Grandson ZHAO MO succeeds until 122. 137 HFHD 17, ICMH 145, rcC, wikWu, wikZT
c.137 VO VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 207, ends.  VAN VUONG TRIEU succeeds until 122. 137 rcSAM
c.137 MUNDZAYABA, king of Arkan (west coast of Burma) from 171, ends.  KUMMARAWITHUDDHI succeeds until 50. 137 rcSAM
c.136 ZHAO ZHOU, Marquis of Shangling 148-112, Grand Master of Ceremonies from 139, dismissed. 136 HFHD6 64
c.136 WU TI, ruler of Cao at Nanyue from 207, ends.  WEN WANG succeeds until 124. 136 MRDK 469
c.136 Sp/Oc LIU YUE, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, king HUI of Guangchuan from 148, dies. 137 HFHD 141 136 HFHD6 2, 8wikEJ, wikJg
c.136 LIU FANG CHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, prince of Qinghe from 148, dies without heir. 136 wikEJ, wikJg 135 HFHD 128
c.136 LIU TING, king of Shanyang from 144, dies without heirs. 136 HFHDX 12
c.136 SHANYANG, a separate kingdom from 144, becomes a commandery until 97. 136 HFHDX 12, bril
c.136 Han general TANG MENG initiates exploration of roads from Shu thru Yunnan and Guizhou to Burma and India. 136 GHCC
c.136 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, decrees that the Five Classics are to be the orthodox program of study for the academicians, abolishes academic chairs other than those focused on the Confucian Five Classics: (Changes, Songs, Documents, Ritual, and Spring and autumn annals) . 136 CHC 756, 769, wikHH
c.136  WU CHING  "The Five Classics":  divination manual.
I Ching = changes.
Shih Ching = Odes.
Shu Ching = history compiled in 6th cent.
Chun Chiu = annals of Confucius.
Shih Li = rituals.
136 B76 10-1052, CHC 154, LEWH 145, wikHD
c.136 ERUDITS, official experts in each of the Five Classics, are appointed at court.  At this time, there may be only 5 erudits. 136 CHC 74, 154, GHCC 159, HFHD 51, HFHD6 7, frie
c.136 Imperial University founded by Emperor Wu to supply well-trained bureaucrats. 136 wikWu
c.136 Dong Zhongshu persuades emperor Wu Ti to make CONFUCIANISM the official ideology of China. 135 IUG 4.6
no date: B76 4-1104
c.136 CONFUCIANISM replaces Taoism as state ideology of Han China. 136 B76 IV-896, CDΦ 117, EoΦ 2-90     124 wikHH
c.136 My/Jn Granddau of Tsang Tu, TSANG ERH, dies.  She is widow of Wang Chung, grandmom of emperor Wu, mom of Wang Hsin and 2 daus, who will become Empress of Hsiaoching nee Wang, and his Lady nee Wang, Erhhsu. 136 HFHD6 8
c.136 CHUANG CHINGTI, Grandee Secretary from 137, dismissed for mismanaging the funeral of Empress Dowager nee Tou. 136 HFHD6 51
c.136 General WANG HUI is made Chief Grand Messenger. 136 HFHD6 8
c.135 QingheQINGHE, a separate kingdom from 147, reincorporated back into Zhao until 114. 135 bril
c.135 GONGSUN HE, bro-in-law of Empress nee Wei, promoted to Chief of the Stud. 135 HFHD6 16
c.135 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, stops tribute to Xiongnu, takes offensive against Xiongnu. 135 B76 4-313
c.135 Gaozu's, shrine in Liaodong burns. 135 HFHD 205
c.135 Grand Empress Dowager DOU dies.  (Doutaihou), wife of Wu Ti, mother of prince Liu Qi, Empress 179, dowager from 157, anti-Confucian, finally dies, leaving estate to dau, princess Guantao Liu Piao.  This is the last obstacle to Emperor Wu's ambition.  Empress Dowager Wang Zhi becomes dominant at court. 136 HFHD 195
135 CHAC 984, CHC 139, 173, HFHD 190, ICMH 145, IUG 4.8, bk, nweW, wikDou, wikEWZ, wikHH, wikWu
c.135 After death of Empress Dou, Lieutenant Chancellor Xu Chang and Grandee Secretary Chuang Ching-ti are accused of not arranging the funeral correctly.  TIAN FEN, out of power from 139, is made Lieutenant Chancellor.  Dong Zhongshu, who was made chancellor for Liu Fei king of Jiangdu, is impeached by an official called Zhufu Yan.  Han General Guan Fu tries to mediate the relationship of Tian Fen and Dou Ying. 135 HFHD 190, 197, HFHD6 48, icH
c.135 TIAN FEN Lieutenant Chancellor 135-31, promotes Confucians until 131. 135 bk
c.135 CHUN CHEN, chanyu 160-26, sends embassy asking for peace and marriage alliance, requests renewal of ho-chin treaty. 135 CHC 389, HFHD6 9, wstn
c.135 Wang Hui argues that when they made peace with the Xiongnu, it usually lasts only for a few years and then the Xiongnu break the agreement.  He proposes attack. 136 HFHD6 9, 10
c.135 HAN ANGUO becomes Grandee Secretary until 131. 135 HFHD6 10
c.135 Han metropolitan area is divided into 2 until 104. 136 CHC 472
c.135 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, calls a court conference where 2 factions of leading ministers debate the Xiongnu threat and renewal of the ho-chin (heqin) agreement.  Emperor Wu follows the majority consensus of his ministers led by Han Anguo that peace should be maintained.  General Wang Hui opposes.  Treaty is renewed with Xiongnu. 136 wikHXW     135 CHC 389, HFHD6 9, ICMH 145, spks, wikHD, wikHH
c.135 NANYUE ruled by Zhao Mo in Fukein, Han vassal from 180, attacked by Luo Ying (Zuo Ying, Zou Ying), king of Minyue.  Zhao Mo, though he has the means to defend Nanyue adequately, respectfully asks Han for help as a sign of submission to Han authority. 137 ICMH 145 135 GHCC 118, HFHD6 7, nweW, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.135 Emperor Wu assists King Zhao Mo of Nanyue in fending off an attack by Luo Ying, king of Minyue (in modern Fujian).  Han generals Han Anguo and Wang Hui are sent against Luo Ying, king of Minyue. 137 ICMH 145
135 CHC 456, HFHD6 7, 9, 69, spks, wikHH, wikSeHd
c.135 Han general TANG MENG mission to Guangdong (Kwangtung, Canton). 135 GHCC 130
c.135 Han official TANG MENG reports to Chang'an, that goods from Shu - mainly citrus fruit products - were being brought down the Tsangko River to Nanyue by way of Yelang.  Tang Meng persuades the government to let him make an exploratory expedition. 135 CHC 457
c.135 Han general TANG MENG leads the earliest Han expedition against Dian. 135 wikSeHd
c.135 From now to 119 Han's main effort is directed against Xiongnu threats. 135 CHC 164
c.135  Han-shih Wai-chuan , first book to mention 6 pointed shape of snow flakes. 135 GHCC
c.135 Sep COMET noted in China is same comet seen in Persia at the birth of Mithridates-II of Parthia. 135 HFHD6 29, wikSTH 134 HFHD 34
c.135 LUO YING (Zuo Ying, Zou Ying), king of Minyue from ?, killed by younger bro Luo Yushan, because they fear a Han invasion.  Severed head is sent to Han general Wang Hui.  Emperor Wu imposes a dual-monarchy on Minyue by creating kings out of Luo Ying's bro Luo Yushan and nobleman Zou Chou, thus ensuring internal discord in Minyue.  LUO YUSHAN succeeds until 110, with LUO CHOU until ?. 137 ICMH 145 135 HFHD6 8, 69, nweW, rcC, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.134 Han general TANG MENG with a small force, penetrates mountains of Yunan as far as Yelang (an alliance of tribes in west Guizhou, Shu, and Yunnan), and persuades the ruler to pretend to be a Han vassal. 134
ICMH 146
c.134 Frontier merchant Nieh Weng-i of Mayi city in Yanmen commandery proposes to the Han court a plot to lure Xiongnu forces into a Han ambush in Mayi.  After heated debate in a court conference, the majority agrees that a limited engagement at Mayi involving the assassination of chanyu Chun Chen would throw the Xiongnu into chaos and benefit Han.  The plot is adopted by Emperor Wu Ti. 134
CHC 389, CHEIA 128, wikHD, wikXng
c.134 ZHUFU YAN, writes a long memorial in which he advises Han Wu Ti to refrain from attacking the Xiongnu. 134 CHAC 976
c.134 LI GUANG becomes Commander of Palace Guards at Weiyang Palace.  At that time Cheng Pushih is Commander of Palace Guards at Changlo Palace. 134 HFHD6 12
c.134 CHENG PUSHIH, Commander of Palace Guards at Changlo Palace, is made General of Chariots and Cavalry and sent to encamp in Yanmen Commandery. 134 HFHD6 13
c.134 Dong Zhongshu drafts a memorial to Emperor Wu Ti about visitations to some of the temples.  Zhufu Yan steals it and memorialzes Emperor Wu Ti about it.  Emperor Wu summons scholars to consider it.  A disciple of Dong Zhongshu, Lu Pushu, does not know that it was his teacher's writing, and denounces it as foolish.  Dong Zhongshu is imprisoned and condemned to death, but pardoned by imperial edict.  After that, he dares not discuss visitations and morals. 134 HFHD 205
c.134 LIU FEI, king YI of Jiangdu from 154, ends. 134 HFHD 205
c.134 A road is begun from Ba to Yelang (an alliance of tribes in west Guizhou, Shu, and Yunnan).  Finished 128. 134 ICMH 146
c.134 Tribes west of Shu Province are incorporated into Shu. 134 ICMH 146
c.133 Frontier merchant Nieh Weng-i of Mayi city goes to Xiongnu chanyu Chun Chen and offers to kill the magistrate and military officer of Mayi and surrender Mayi to the Xiongnu.  The chanyu believes Nieh Weng-i, and the plot is enacted. 134 spks
133 CHEIA 128, wikWu
c.133 Emperor Wu decides that Wang Hui was right, so he adopts the plan of Nieh Yi, who is sent to the Xiongnu to stir them up to attack Mayi. 134 spks
133 HFHD6 9
c. 133 Chun Chen with 100,000 cavalry enters Dai.  Meanwhile, more than 300,000 Han troops are waiting in the valleys around Mayi.  Before the Xiongnu had come within 30 miles of Mayi, the chanyu notices that the fields are full of animals but there isn't a person in sight.  He becomes suspicious and attacks a beacon tower containing one Chinese official.  Under the threat of death, this official tells the chanyu about the Han ambushChun Chen turns back.  General Wang Hui declines to pursue.  This ends the ho-chin treaties between Han and Xiongnu, which had kept peace since 198. 134 ICMH 146, spks
133 CHEIA 128, HFHD6 9, nweW, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng
c.133 At the ambush of Mayi, LI GUANG is General of Resolute Cavalry and was under the General of the Protecting Army, Han Anguo. 133 HFHD6 12
c.133 Han general Han Anguo with 300,000 men, chariots and cavalry, pursues the Xiongnu, who retreat over the Wall, before Anguo can overtake them.  Wars begin until 119. 134 ICMH 146
133 B76 8-630, CHC 164, GHCC 118, bk, wikHD, wikHXW
c.133 LIU DENG, son of Liu Can, prince of Dai from 161, ends.  LIU LANG succeeds until 114. 133 wikPD
c.135 GONGSUN HE, Chief of the Stud, is made a General of Light Chariots and stationed at Mayi. 135 HFHD6 16
c.133 LI XI is made a General of Able-bodied Soldiers and stationed at Mayi. 133 HFHD6 17
c.133 Han general WANG HUI has displeased Emperor Wu Ti.  He is imprisoned and suicides. 134 ICMH 146 133 HFHD6 9
c.133 Taoist alchemist Li Chao Chi (Li Shao Chun) tells Wu Ti that he could become immortal by eating from a cinnabar vessel that had been transmuted into gold.  Li says the 1st step is to sacrifice and pray to kitchen god TSAO CHUN. 133
B76 VI-158, X-156
c.133 Fangshi (magicians) are sent to search for PENG-LAI (Isles of the Immortals). 133 GHCC
c.133 145 km CANAL begun to connect Chang'an along the Southern Mountains to the Yellow River.  Finished 129. 133 TTT
c.132 The WUSUN under Liejiaomi, out of revenge from a conflict in 173, and backed by Xiongnu, attack the Yuezhi in the Ili River Valley. 133/2 wikWsn 132 wikYz
130 wikWsn
c.132 The YUEZHI, in the Ili Valley near mountain lake Issyk Kul north of Kangchu (Sogdiana) from 163, driven out by the Wusun, move south across the urban civilization of Dayuan in Ferghana and settle on the north bank of the Oxus, in Transoxiana until 131. 132 spks, wikWsn, wikYz 130 wikWsn
c.132 Yellow River brakes its dikes at Puyang. 132 HFHD6 18
c.132 Yellow River changeYELLOW RIVER overflows at Hutzu near Puyang, changes course, flows southeast into the the Huai until 112, leaving farms along the previous course dry.  Causes famine.  It is not repaired until 112. 132
CHC 243, HFHD 165, HFHD6 76, ICMH 147
c.132 100,000 soldiers drafted to repair a breach in the dykes on Yellow River. 132
GHCC 114
c.132 In spring Chancellor Tian Fen tells Emperor Wu that the Kuan family in Yingchuan Commandery is powerful and oppressive.  He begs Emperor Wu to punish Kuan Fu.  The Emperor says this is Tian Fen's duty and he need not beg for permission.  At the same time, Kuan Fu reports that Tian Fen had received bribes from the King of Huainan.  The guests of both houses come and arrange a reconciliation. 132 HFHD 190
c.132 Son of Liu Fei, LIU CHIEN becomes king of Jiangdu until 121. 132 HFHD6 40
c.132 Han General GUAN FU offends Chancellor Tian Fen in a marriage banquet.  With help of Empress Dowager Wang Zhi, Chancellor Tian Fen makes Wu Ti order that both Guan Fu and Dou Ying be executed. 132 HFHD 191 131 icH, wikEWZ
c.132 Dec ZHAO XIN, a Xiongnu surrendered to Han, is made Marquis of Handan. 132 HFHD6 27
c.131 GUAN FU is executed, his whole family is exterminated. 131 HFHD 108, 191, 197, icH
c.131 DOU YING hears of accusations against him, becomes sick and does not eat.  The decision had been made that he should not die, but there is more slander against him, which reaches Emperor Wu, so Dou Ying is sentenced and publicly executed in Wei-cheng. 131 HFHD 191, 197, icH
c.131 TIAN FEN, marquis of Wu'an from 141, Lieutenant Chancellor from 135, dies.  He seems to have been implicated rebellion of the king Huainan.  Son TIAN TIEN succeeds as marquis of Wu'an until ?. 131
HFHD 191
c.131 GONGSUN HONG, age 80, returns from mission tothe Xiongnu.  His report is unsatisfactory, and he is dismissed on grounds of illness.  He goes home to Zichuan, and is recommended to the court again.  Yuan Gu is over age 90.  Gongsun Hong is made yushi dafu (censor-in-chief). 134 or 130 HFHD6 15 131 icH
c.131 Attempt to advance along roads from Shu into YUNNAN and GUIZHOU. 131 GHCC
c.131 HAN ANGUO, Grandee Secretary from 135, ends. 131 HFHD6 10
c.130 LIU DE, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, prince of Hejian (Hochien, Heidan) from 155, dies. 130 CHC 811, HFHD 137, LEWH 145, wikEJ, wikJg     129 CHAC 985
c.130  Luxuriant Gems of the Annals  written by Dong Zhongshu. 130 bk
c.130 Dau of Chen Wu, Empress CHEN JIAO, 1st wife of Emperor Wu from 141, is found to have retained witches to curse Consort Wei, to help produce a male heir, and/or to try to regain Emperor Wu's affections.  She is therefore deposed.  The witches and no less than 300 persons involved are executed. 130 CHC 174, HFHD6 19, nweW, wikECJ, wikHH, wikWu
c.130 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer sets out to explore routes into Central Asia and North China. 130 wnck
c.130 YELANG, an alliance of tribes in west Guizhou, Shu, and Yunnan, by conquered by general Tang Meng, made JIANWEI Commandery until 100. 135 bril 130 HFHD6 63
c.130 The Marquis of Chu-ni kidnaps a man's wife.  When this is discovered he is executed and his marquisate abolished. 130
c.130 Han armies begin driving the Xiongnu back across the Great Wall until 121. 130 bk
c.130 Sino-Roman relations 130 wikT
c.129 145 km CANAL begun 133 by conscript labor between Shensi and Henan is intended to link Chang'an with the Yellow River in place of the sluggish Wei River, finished. 129 GHCC 129/8
CHC 487
c.129 LIU CI, King of Hengshan, comes to court.  His usher, Wei Qing, a magician, wants to serve Emperor Wu.  King Liu Ci gets angry, accuses Wei Qing of some capital crime and beats him until he admits it.  The Prefect of the Capital of Hengshan thinks the accusation is wrong, and rejects the case.  Hence Liu Ci sends someone to petition the Emperor, accusing his Prefect.  When the Prefect is questioned, he says Liu Ci had several times seized lands of the people and destroyed tombs of the people to make fields out of them.  Liu Ci fears punishment and plots with Xi Tzu and Chang Kuangchang to rebel. 129 HFHD6 33
c.129 1,000 eminent citizens arrested for debt and convicted at command of WANG WENSHU. 129 GHCC 143
c.129 WEI WAN, former chancellor 143-40, dies. 129 HFHD 217
c.129 XU TAO, marquis of Chu-tzu (in Shandong) from 158/7, dies. 129 HFHD 91
c.129 GONGSUN HE, General of Light Chariots, is sent to Yunzhong Commandery. 129 HFHD6 16
c.129 GONGSUN AO becomes a Cavalry General. 129 HFHD6 22
c.129 CHAO YU becomes Palace Military Commander. 129 HFHD6 48
c.129 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer, detained by the Xiongnu from 138, released or escapes, continues west toward the Yuezhi, who are now in Samarkand. 129 CHEIA 156, nweW, wikWu
c.129 Xiongnu attack Shang Commandery. 130 SDFH 104     129 icX, nweW, spks, wikWQ, wikWu
c.129 Emperor Wu plans for Li Guang, Han Anguo, Gongsun He, and Gongsun Ao to lead 4 separate columns against Xiongnu.  However, Han Anguo (who is against war with Xiongnu) falls from his carriage and injures his leg, so Emperor Wu promotes Wei Qing to made General of Chariots and Cavalry and sends him instead. 130 SDFH 104
129 HFHD6 21, icX, nweW, spks, wikWu
c.129 HAN ANGUO, now lame, is transferred to be Commandant of the Palace Guard. 129 HFHD6 10
c.129 Han court dispatches 4 generals - Wei Qing, Gongsun He, Gongsun Ao, and Li Guang - each with 10,000 cavalry, to surprise attack the Xiongnu by different routes at the border markets. 129 CHC 390, CHEIA 129, ICMH 147, SDFH 104, icX, nweW, spks, wikHXW, wikWQ, wikWu, wikXng
c.129 LI GUANG, Commander of the Palace Guard, is made General and marches north from Yanmen, Gongsun Ao from Dai Commandery, Gongsun He with light chariots from Yunzhong, and Wei Qing with light cavalry from Shang CommanderyGongsun Ao is defeated and loses 7,000 cavalry.  Gongsun He fails to encounter the enemy.  Wei Qing penetrates deep into Mongolia, raids Xiongnu's holy site Longcheng, killing over 700 Xiongnu. 129 HFHD6 17, 12, 21, 22, ICMH 147, SDFH 104, icX, nweW, spks, wikWQ, wikWu
c.129 LI GUANG with Imperial Cavalry, marches from Longmin, encounters a larger Xiongnu force, and his army is annihilated.  Li Guang is wounded and captured by Xiongnu, and taken to chanyu Chun ChenLi Guang pretends his wounds are more serious than they are, overcomes his guards, and escapes. 129
HFHD6 12, ICMH 147, SDFH 104, icX, spks, wikLG
c.129 Han generals LI GUANG and GONGSUN AO, having failed, are condemned to death by Emperor Wu Ti, but allowed to buy their lives and live as commoners. 129 HFHD6 22, ICMH 147, spks, wikLG
Li Guang suicides. 129 CHC 109
c.129 YUYANG Commandery raided by Xiongnu. late 129 ICMH 147
c.129 CHEN WU, father of Empress Chen, marquis of Tangyi, dies.  Widow, Princess Guantao, who was already balling her 18-year-old godson Dong Yan, no longer cares about her dau Chen's misfortune.  Son Chen Chihsu, succeeds as marquis of Tangyi until 116. 129 HFHD6 19, wikECJ
c.129/8 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer, reaches kingdom of Dayuan in Ferghana valley in Central Asia.  The king of Dayuan gives him guides to take him to the state of Kang-chu. 129/8 CHEIA 156
CONFUSION ALERT!  DAYUAN (Tayuan) is a kingdom or region in Ferghana valley in Central AsiaTAIYUAN is Jinyang capital of Dai.
c.128 ROAD from Ba to Yelang, begun 134, and under constant attack by locals, is finished, but at a great drain to the treasury.  It will be resumed in 126 128
ICMH 147
c.128 GONGSUN HONG is promoted to Junior Prefect of the Capital. 128 HFHD6 15
c.128 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), Han explorer, gets to the land of the Ta Yuezhi, then bordered on the east by Dayuan, on the west by Anxi, on the north by Kang-chu and on the south by Taxia.  He he finds them "still a nation of nomads, moving from place to place with their herds." They have "some 100-200,000 archer warriors." 128 CHEIA 156 127 wikBk
c.128 KOREA:  North and central parts, under China from ?, becomes independent until 108. 128 LEWH 145
c.128 Han army invades Manchuria and north Korea.  The expedition is abandoned in 126. 128 GHCC, bk, wikHH
c.128 North Koreans surrender to Han army.  CANGHAI commandery is founded, to be abandoned in 126. 128 HFHD6 24, bril 128/7 CHC 170
c.128 fall Han general LI XI is sent by way of Dai Commandery. 128 HFHD6 17
c.128 fall Han general WEI QING, now a trusted member of Emperor Wu's extended family, leads 10,000 cav, 20,000 inf north from Yanmen Commandery, defeats Xiongnu at Yuyang and Liaoxi Commanderies, and Yanmen, killing or capturing more than 3,000. 128 HFHD6 21, ICMH 147, SDFH 104, spks, wikEWZ, wikHXW, wikWQ, wikWu
c.128 Han general WEI QING reaches Longxi, takes several thousand heads, captures more than a million cattle, and put to flight the King of Peiyang, Lou Fang.  Wei Qing captures land south of the Yellow River (present Ordos region). 128 HFHD6 21
c.128 Han army defeats the TUNG-HU (Donghu) north of Korea. 128 GHCC 121
c.128 Apr Consort WEI ZIFU, sis of Wei Qing, bears Emperor Wu's first son, LIU JU, and is created Empress Wei in same year. 138 wikWu     128 CHC 174, HFHD6 21, 23, ICMH 147, nweW, wikECJ, wikEWZ, wikWQ, wikWu
c.128 LIU FEI, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince YI of Jiangdu from 154, dies. 128 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.128 LIU FA, son of Jing Ti and consort Tang, prince DING of Changsha from 155, dies.  Son Liu Yung succeeds until ?. 128 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.128 XUYI in Linhuai Commandery becomes the seat of a marquisate held by Lin Mang-chih until 112. 128 HFHD 91
c.128 XIONGNU invade Liaoxi commandery, kill the governor. 128 SDFH 104, spks
c.128 XIONGNU invade Yanmen commandery, kill or capture several thousand Chinese before returning. 128 SDFH 104, spks
c.128/7 A month later the Xiongnu attack Shang Commandery and Yuyang Commandery. 128 HFHD6 10, SDFH 104, spks     127 icX
c.128/7 Because of his age, LIU AN is granted a stool and cane and the privilege of not coming to court annually. 124 HFHD6 30
c.128/7 Bros of Yingjen again sent a letter to emperor Wu informing of Liu Tingkuo, King of Yen's sexual promiscuity. 128/7 HFHD6 25
c.127 Han general Han Anguo is made General of Able-bodied Soldiers, mobilizes 700 men to defend Yuyang Commandery, but is defeated by Xiongnu and withdraws to Yuyang. 128 HFHD6 10 127 ICMH 148, wikHXW
c.127 HAN ANGUO dies of illness. 128 HFHD6 9, 10
c.127 Apr SU JIAN is made Marquis of Pingling. 127 HFHD6 27
c.127 Apr Wei Qing is made Marquis of Changping with income of 3800 families. 127 HFHD6 21
c.127 LIU YU, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince GONG of Lu from 154, dies. 129 HFHD 141     128 wikLYPL
127 wikEJ, wikJg
c.127 Han general Li XI, leads an unknown number north from Dai Commandery across the frontier and also captures some Xiongnu troops. 128 SDFH 104
127 ICMH 148, SDFH 105, wikHXW
c.127 Han general WEI QING with 30,000 and Li Xi with 10,000 cavalry from Yunzhong Commandery, west from Gaoque Pass to Longxi region, and outflanks and surrounds the Princes of Loufan and Baiyang, who are vassals of the Xiongnu, killing 2,300 and capturing 3,017 and over a million cattle, plus the Ordos Desert land south of the Yellow River, causing the main Xiongnu force to withdraw. 127 CHC 390, CHEIA 129, HFHD6 21, ICMH 148-9, SDFH 105, icH, icX, nweW, spks, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWQ, wikWu
c.127 Han general WEI QING builds a bridge over the Great Bend of the Yellow river, advances west as far as Gaoque to defeat local chieftain Puni near Fuli, killing Puni's elite warriors and capturing 3,000, 75 Xiongnu scouts, millions of horses, cattle, and sheep. 127 HFHD6 21, ICMH 149, spks
c.127 ZHAO XIN, Marquis of Handan, distinguishes himself against the Xiongnu and is made Marquis of Xi, with income of 1680 families. 127 HFHD6 27
c.127 The first 3 campaigns against the Xiongnu empty Han treasuries and arsenals. 127 SDFH 112
c.127 CHU FU YEN suggests that younger sons should inherit half their father's feif.  A law ends the rule by which title and possessions are passed to a single son.  Fiefs are now divided equally between sons, leads to the final break up of fiefs and downfall of imperial nobility. 127
GHCC 116, LEWH 145
c.127 From now on, sons of all kings, whatever their degree of descent from an emperor, are granted marquisates, except for those who inherit kingdoms. 127 CHC 509

East Asia 127-100