Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
China 163BCE
c.163 Central AsiaXiongnu under Lo Shang overrun Gansu and the Tarim Basin to pacify the Yuezhi.  The Greater Yuezhi flee north to Zungari, where they drive out the Sakas.  The Lesser Yuezhi flee south into Aza (Tibetan foothills), and merge with the Qiang in Tibet. 163 ICMH 141
c.163 An edict of Emperor Wen states that the amount of farm land per person is greater than in ancient times, suggesting that even after 40 years of peace the population has not grown to pre-Han figures, also that over-crowding of land is not yet the problem it will later become. 163 SDFH 22, 204
c.163 ZHANG YAN, dau of Zhang Ao and princess Yuan Lu, widow of Emperor Hui, known formally as Empress Xiaohui, living in seclusion since death of Lu Zhi, age 38-9, dies. 163 HFHD 7, wikEZY
c.163 Han general CHEN WU (Chai Wu) dies. 163 HFHD 5
c.163 CHOU TSAO, Marquis Ko of Lung-lu from 201, dies. 163 HFHD 41
c.163 LO SHANG, chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu 174-60, jointly with the Wusun (a state northeast of the Tien Shan Mountains, which had just been conquered by the Xiongnu), attacks the Great Yuezhi again, kills the king of the Great Yuezhi and makes his skull into a drinking cup.  The Wusun then move into the Ili River Valley themselves, while the Great Yuezhi go west to the Ili River Valley near mountain lake, Issyk Kul north of Kang-chu (Sogdiana).  Great Yuezhi drive out the Sakas and remain there until 132. 165 CHI 565, wikYz
163 ICMH 141
162 CHEIA 127, 155, spks, wikHXW 160 ICNH 141
by 162 The Xiongnu had pacified Loulan, Wusun, Hu-chien, and 26 adjoining countries and all these had become part of the Xiongnu. by 162 CHEIA 155
c.162 SAI people of the Ili River Valley driven south by Yuezhi. 162 spks
c.162 SHENTU CHIA, governor of Huaiyang Commandery from 178, is made Lieutenant Chancellor until 155. 162
HFHD 171
c.162 ZHOU YAFU, governor of Henei Commandery from ?, ends. 162 bril
c.162 1st son of Zhou Bo, Marquis of Jiang (in Shanxi Province) from 169, commits a crime and is dismissed. 162
c.162 Chang Tsang, imperial Lieutenant Chancellor from 176, conflicts with Kung-sun Chen about the 5 elements from 166.  It is settled by appearance of a yellow dragon at Cheng-chi, in accordance with Kung-sun Chen's prophesy.  Emperor Wen thereupon makes Kung-sun Chen an Erudit, and changes the beginning of the count of years in his reign, whereupon Chang Tsang resigns on account of illness and age. 162
no date: HFHD 112
c.162 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, makes peace with Xiongnu king Lo Shang.  Wen Ti replies to Lo Shang, acknowledges gifts sent by Xiongnu Juqu and Danghu emissaries and emphasizing the need to maintain the peace.  Establishes the Great Wall as the border between Han and Xiongnu.  Lo Shang says he had decreed that whoever invades Han border would be executed. 162 CHC 1-152, ICMH 141, bk, wikHH 161 icX
c.162 LIU CAN, 3rd son of Emperor Wen Ti, prince XIAO of Dai from 176, dies.  Son LIU DENG succeeds until 133. 162 HFHD 137, wikPD     161 wikWn
c.162/1 ZHOU YAFU, 2nd son of Zhou Bo, made Marquis of Tiao. 162/1 HFHD 42
c.161 SHENTU CHIA, Lieutenant Chancellor of Huaiyang Commandery 162-55, is made Marquis of Kuan until ?. 161 HFHD 171
c.161 CAO CHO, Marquis Ching of Pingyang from 190, dies 161 HFHD 199
c.160 Son of Baghur, LO SHANG (Kayuk) dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 174 dies.  Son CHUN CHEN succeeds until 126. 161 rcN, wikCny     160 CHC 1-152, 388, CHEIA 124, GHCC 119, ICMH 141, MRDK 450, spks, wikHD, wikHH     159 icX
c.160 LIU XIAN, heir apparent to Liu Pi prince of Wu 195-54, on an official visit to Chang'an, plays the board game liubo (heavily tied to divination and predictions of the future) with crown prince Liu Qi.  An argument errupts.  Liu Qi throws the wooden board at Liu Xian, killing him.  Liu Pi thus hates Liu Qi, the future emperor.  Liu Pi starts building up wealth and military in his territory.  Emperor Wen believes his son was at fault and does not forbid Liu Pi's expansion. no date: wikJg, wikLPPW
c.160 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, proclaims general amnesty and frees government male and female slaves, who thereupon become commoners.  This is the only general amnesty, and comes at a time when government slaves are fewer. 160 SDFH 130, 238
c.160 The King of Jibei explains his lavish payment for 4 girls by calling attention to their skill at doing tricks. 160
SDFH 123
c.159 CHANG WU, General of Chariots and Cavalry, is stationed in Beidi to guard against the Xiongnu. 159 HFHD 12
c.158 CHUN CHEN, chanyu of Xiongnu 160-26 sends 30,000 cavalry to invade Shang Commandery, and another 30,000 to attack Yunzhong Commandery.  They kill Chinese at the borderline.  Mountain-top warning beacons burn as far back as Han capital Chang'an. 158 CHEIA 124, HFHD 42, ICMH 141, spks, wikWn, wikXng 157 icX
c.158 WEN TI, Han emperor 180-57, visits camps of armies preparing to defend Chang'an against a Xiongnu attack.  On this occasion he is impressed with Zhou Bo's son Zhou Yafu as a military commander. 158 wikWn
c.158 WEN TI, Han emperor 180-57, frequently dispatches 3 columns of armies against Xiongnu invasions by stationing them in Beidi Commandery, Juzhu Pass in Dai, and Feihukou as well as reinforcing capital defence at Xiliu, Jimen and Bashang.  This protects central China, but leaves most of Dai and Yanmen exposed.  Months later, the Xiongnu retreat from Juzhu after a Han army approaches. 158
ICMH 141, icX, spks
c.158 Xiongnu attacks force Han emperor Wen Ti to revise the ho-chin treaty.  Historian Pan Ku says, Emperor Wen opened border trade with the Xiongnu, sent a Han daughter to marry chanyu Chun Chen, and increased gifts to the Xiongnu to 1,000 pieces of gold per year. 158 CHEIA 124
c.158 KOGEN TENO, son of Korei, legendary 8th emperor of Japan from 214, ends.  2nd son KAIKA succeeds 157-98. 158 wikLEJ
157 JBE 2178
c.158/7 XU LI, marquis of Chu-tzu from 184, dies.  Son XU TAO succeeds until 129. 158/7 HFHD 91
c.157 GIKAM, king of Jin Korea from 189, ends.  GISIK succeeds until 144. 157 rcK
c.157 WU ZHU (Wu Chan) great-grandson of Wu Rui, king of Changsha, dies heirless. 157 CHC 1-124, HFHD 221, wikHH, wikKHD
c.157 CHANGSHA, a kingdom from 202, is again made a commandery until 155. 157 bril
by 157 The Han court has replaced all of the Gaozu-created kings with royal Liu family members, since the loyalty of non-relatives is questioned. by 157 wikHD
c.157 Son of Liu Bang by consort Bo, Liu Heng, Emperor WEN TI dies.  4th Han emperor from 180, dies.  Son Liu Qi succeeds as Emperor JING TI until 141.  Wen Ti's widow Empress Dou becomes empress dowager until 135.  Liu Qi's wife, Princess Bo (a member of his grandmother's clan) becomes empress until 151, but she is not favored and has no son. 157 B76 IV-882, 896, 4-310, CHAC 970, 987, GHCC 116, 160, ICMH 142, IUG 4.4, MRDK 456, bk, frie, hceisH, icH, rcC, tcgHn, wikCM, wikED, wikEJ, wikHD, wikJg, wikT, wikWn
156 icX, spks, wikWu
c.157 An edict of Emperor Jing discusses the problem of successive bad harvests in unfavored and crowded regions, and grants people permission to migrate to fertile and undeveloped regions. 157 SDFH 208
c.157 LU CHIA, Taoist scholar and author of  XIN-YU  196,dies. 157 GHCC
c.156 Xiongnu invade Dai, but are persuaded to make peace. 156 ICHM 142
c.156 LIU YI, son of Liu Jiao, is made Marquis of Yuan-chi until 154. 156 HFHD 140
c.156 The WUSUN break away from the Xiongnu. 156 ICHM 142
c.156 Xiongnu stop their large-scale inroads into China until 135. 156 CHEIA 124
c.156 CHAO CUO made imperial Counsellor above all other counsellors but less than chancellor by Emperor Jing Ti until 154. 156 HFHD 18 155 CHC 1-149
c.156 Whipping, increased in the Chinese penal code in 167, having caused an unacceptable number of deaths, number of lashes is reduced by Emperor Jing Ti.  Again 144. 156 wikEJ, wikJg, wikWn
c.156 Han agriculture tax, abolished altogether from 167 reinstated at 1/30 (half of the earlier rate). 156 CHC 1-150, SDFH 22, wikHH
c.155 HUAIYANG, a commandery from 184, is briefly an independent kingdom, then back to a commandery until 63. 155 bril
c.155 RUNAN, part of Huaiyang from 196, becomes an independent kingdom until 153. 155 bril
c.155 RunanLIU FEI, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, created prince of Runan until 154. 155 bril, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 LIU YU, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, created prince of Huaiyang until 154. 155 HFHD 141, wikEJ, wikJg, wikLYPL
c.155 SHENTU CHIA, Lieutenant Chancellor of Huaiyang Commandery from 162, dies of illness. 155 HFHD 171
c.155 XIAO XI becomes Marquis of Wuyang (an unknown office from 180) until 149. 155 HFHD 88
c.155 Empress Dowager BO (Xiaowen), former concubine of Liu Bang, mother of Liu Heng (Emperor Wen), Empress Dowager from 180, dies.  Empress Bo loses her source of support in the palace. 155 HFHD 164, wikEB, wikEDB
The Guanzhong Metropolitan area, under a single Superintendent from 198, split between Metropolitan Superintendents of the Right and Left (You, Zuo Neishi) until 113.
155 or 135 bril
c.155 Counsellor CHAO CUO persuades Emperor Jing Ti to take provinces from kingdoms of Zhao and Chu. 155
ICMH 142
c.155 CHU kingdom is deprived of Donghai (Tan) Commandery (including the later Sishui guo) and Lu guo.  Kingdom survives until 69. 155 bril
c.155 TANJUN, part of Chu from 206, removed to become DONGHAI (Tan) commandery.  It remains intact until 115. 155 bril
c.155 LU, part of Chu from 210, detached to form the kingdom of LU until 9CE. 155 bril
c.155 CHANGSHA, a commandery from 157, is again made a kingdom until the end of Former Han. 155 CHC 1-142, bril
c.155 14 of Jing Ti's sons are enthroned as kings between 155 and 145. 155 CHC 1-144
c.155 LIU FA, son of Jing Ti and consort Tang, created prince DING of Changsha until 128. 155 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 NANJUN, a Han commandery from ?, becomes LINJIANG Kingdom until 152. 155 bril
c.155 LIU E, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, created prince AI of Linjiang until 153. 155 HFHD 134, wikJg
c.155 TAO CHINGTI, marquis YI of Kaifeng from 195, becomes Lieutenant Chancellor until 150. 155 HFHD 186
c.155 Conscription minimum age for Han army, 23 from ?, lowered to 20. 155 ICMH 142
c.155 Coin minting by Liu Pi prince of Wu, angers the Han court. 155 ICMH 142
c.155 XINDU Commandery of Zhao becomes GUANGCHUAN kingdom until 70. 155 bril
c.155 LIU PENGZU, son of Jing Ti and consort Qi Jia, created prince of Guangchuan until 152. 155 HFHD 134, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 HejianHEJIAN (Ho Chien) in Jizhou, a commandery from 165, again made a separate kingdom until 38. 155 HFHD 73, bril
c.155 LIU DE, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, created prince XIAN of Hejian Commandery until 130. 155 HFHD 137, LEWH 145, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 JINAN, independent kingdom, from 164, becomes a commandery under the central government until ?. 155 bril
c.155 JiaodongJIAODONG, a separate kingdom under Liu Xiangchu from 164, becomes a commandery until 153.  Liu Xiangchu does nothing until 154. 155 bril
c.155 JiaoxiJIAOXI, separate kingdom from 164, becomes a commandery until 154. 155 bril
c.155 ZICHUAN, a separate kingdom under Liu Xian from 164, becomes a commandery until 153.  Liu Xian does nothing until 154. 155 bril
154 HFHD 209
c.155 SISHUI, part of Chu from 206, transferred to Donghai commandery until 115. 155 bril
c.155 ChangshanCHANGSHAN, part of Zhao from 180, becomes a commandery under Han until 145. 155 HFHD 14, bril
c.154 Chi Kuei-yueh, son of Chi Tung, is charged with planning rebellion and says that his father knew of his plans.  Chi Kuei-yueh is executed.  Emperor Jing says his father did not know of his plans and restores him to honor. 154 early HFHD 26
c.154 WU, a vassal kingdom from 195, divided into commanderies. 154 HFHD 220
c.154 LIU YU, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince of Huaiyang from 155, is made Prince GONG of Lu until 127. 154 HFHD 141, wikEJ, wikJg, wikLYPL
c.154 JiaoxiJIAOXI, a commandery from 155, becomes a kingdom until 108. 154 bril
c.154 LIU DUAN, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, is created prince YU of Jiaoxi until 108. 154 HFHD 138, wikEJ, wikJg
c.154 LIU SHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Jia, is created prince JING of Zhongshan until 114. 154 wikEJ, wikJg
c.154 Emperor JING TI carves out one commandery each from the states of Chu and Zhao, and 6 counties from the state of Jiaoxi, before carving 2 commanderies out of Wu.
He removes Donghai from Chu, based on Liu Wu, Prince of Chu, having sex during the mourning period for Empress Dowager Bo.
He removes Changshan from Zhao, based on an unspecified offence.
He removes 6 counties from Jiaoxi, based on Liu Ang, Prince of Jiaoxi, embezzling funds from sales of titles intended for paying border patrol costs.
He removes Huiji and Yuzhang from the state of Wu, based on various offences by Liu Pi, Prince of Wu.
155 bril 154 wikEJ, wikJg, wikR7S
c.154 ZHONGSHAN, part of Zhao from 210, becomes separate kingdom until 114. 154 bril
c.154 LIU PI, prince of Wu 195-54, is ordered by Han govermnent to give up 2 provinces. 154
ICMH 142
c.154 LIU PI, prince of Wu 195-54, whose son was accidentally killed by crown prince Liu Qi before he became Emperor Jing Ti, leads a revolt against Jing Ti.  Wu allies with Liu Wu, Prince of Chu, Liu Ang, Prince of Jiaoxi, Liu Sui, Prince of Zhao, Liu Xiangchu, Prince of Jiaodong, Liu Xian, Prince of Zichuan, and Liu Piguang Prince of Jinan.  Qi and Jibei originally agree to join, but reneg.  Wu also seeks help from Donghai and Minyue, and both kingdoms contribute forces.  3 other princes agree to join but either reneg or don't show up:  Liu An Prince of Huainan, Liu Ci Prince of Lujiang, Liu Bo, Prince of ChangshanZhao seeks help from the Xiongnu, who initially agree, but do not actually contribute.  Liu Pi recruits 200,000 men.  Rebellion of the Seven States begins until later 154. 154
B76 IV-882, CHC 1-141, HFHD 106, 132, 133, ICMH 142, IUG 4.4, wikEJ, wikHD, wikHH, wikJg, wikR7S
China 154BCE
c.154 The 7 rebel princes originally claim that counsellor Chao Cuo is aiming to wipe out the principalities, and that they would be satisfied if Chao Cuo were executed. 154 wikR7S
c.154 Emperor Jing studies the Dou family, and finds none as capable as Dou Ying, so he summons Dou Ying to court.  Dou Ying feins illness and says he is not capable of holding office.  Empress Dowager Dou is embarrassed and regrets treating Dou Ying as she had.  Emperor Jing says that when the empire was in such urgent need, Dou Ying must not withdraw from the court, so he makes Dou Ying General-in-chief and gives him the equivalent of 1000 catties of gold.  Dou Ying recommends Yuan Ang, Luan Pu and others who had retired, and presents them to the court.  The money which he had received, he puts on the veranda of his house.  Any military official who passes by is ordered to take some money for their use, so that Dou Ying did not take any of the money himself.  Dou Ying holds Xingyang, watching the troops of Qi and Zhao. 154 HFHD 196
c.154 LIU WU, son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress Bo (Xiaowen), king of Liang 168-44, are besieged at the Liang capital Suiyang by rebel armies of Wu and ChuHis mother urges emperor Jing Ti to send the imperial army to relieve him.  Jing Ti makes general Zhou Yafu minister of war and sends him.  His plan is to let Liang bear the brunt of the attack and for imperial troops to avoid battle until the rebels are worn out. 154
no date: wikLW
c.154 LIU PIGUANG, 9th son of Liu Fei, Prince of Jinan (part of former Qi land) from 164, defeated and killed by general Dou Ying and Zhou Yafu.  Title vacant until ? 154 HFHD 135, wikLP
c.154 CHAO CUO, imperial counsellor 156-54, investigates Yuan Ang to determine if he had received bribes from Liu Pi King of Wu. 154
HFHD 232
c.154 YUAN ANG, enemy of counsellor Chao Cuo at Chang'an, suggests to Jing Ti that executing Chao Cuo might appease the 7 rebel princes. 154 wikJg
c.154 CHAO CUO, imperial counsellor from 156, secretary from 155, cut in 2 at the waist for advising Emperor Jing Ti to seize territory from his kingdoms.  His immediate family is also executed.  Emperor Jing sends Yuan and Liu Pi's nephew Liu Tong, minister for clan affairs, to try to persuade Liu Pi to end the rebellion.  Liu Pi does not call off the rebellion but imprisons Liu Tong and Yuan. 155 CHAC 984 154 CHC 1-108, HFHD 18, GHCC 116, ICMH 142, bk, wikCC, wikHH, wikJg, wikR7S
c.154 ZUO ZHENFU king of Dongyue first sides with the king of Wu against Han. 154 CHC 1-455
c.154 Rebel forces of Chu and Wu march west against Liu Wu, prince of Liang.  They are opposed by Liang and Liu Zhi king of Jibei. 154 ICMH 142, wikR7S
c.154 General KUAN FU, son of Kuan Meng, made Han Minister of War to deal with Chu / Wu rebellion.  He makes Kuan Meng a Colonel. 154
HFHD 106
c.154 In Zhao, rebel Liu Sui advances to the west frontier to cut off Liang from Han aid.  Liu Sui allies with the Xiongnu. 154
ICMH 142
c.154 LI JI, son of Li Shang, is made a general and sent against rebel Liu Sui of Zhao, and drives him back to Handan, where they face off.  For 7 months Li Ji could not take Handan, until Luan Pu, who had subjugated the states of Qi, helps him. 154 HFHD 114-5, ICMH 142
c.154 GUANGLING in Xuzhou, part of Wu kingdom from 195, becomes a commandery until 153. 154 bril
c.154 LIU ANG, king of Jiaoxi, leads troops of 3 other rebel kings to besiege Linzi, because Liu Jianglu king of Qi had reneged on promise to join the rebels. 154 ICMH 143, wikR7S
c.154 LIU WU, king of Liang 168-44, is forced to retreat to his capital Suiyang (now Shangqiu). 154 wikR7S
c.154 Han commander LUAN PU and CAO QI, Marquis of Pingyang, arrive in Qi and defeat the 4 besiegers, but they also discover that Qi had initially been part of the conspiracy.  Unable to explain himself, Prince Liu Jianglu suicides, but Emperor Jing Ti, having compassion on him, permits his son Liu Shou to inherit Qi. 154 wikR7S
c.154 JibeiJIBEI captured by rebel Wu/Chu armies. 154 ICMH 143
c.154 JULU, a commandery (including Bohai, Qinghe, Hejian, and Guangping) under Zhao from 179, comes under Han until 153. 154 bril
c.154 Rebel Wu/Chu armies move from Jibei south to attack Suiyang, capital of Liang. 154 ICMH 143, wikR7S
c.154 Liang generals Han Anguo and Zhang Yu man a line of walled towns, preventing the rebel Wu/Chu armies from advancing farther west. 154
ICMH 143
c.154 Han commandant ZHOU YAFU and general Dou Ying are sent against the rebel Wu/Chu armies. 154 ICMH 143, wikR7S
c.154 Han general Dou Ying establishes a strong fort at Xingyang, securing the Ao granary.  He patrols the north bank of the Yellow River, blocking contact with rebels in Zhao. 154
ICMH 143
c.154 XIAPEI on lower Si River is tricked into joining the rebels by king of Wu. 154 ICMH 143
c.154 LIU YI, son of Liu Jiao, Marquis of Yuan-chi from 156, executed. 154 HFHD 140
c.154 CHANGYI siezed by Han general Zhou Yafu.  This cuts the supply line via the Si River and prevents contact with rebels in QiZhou Yafu then moves to Xiayi. 154
ICMH 143
c.154 Han general ZHOU YAFU takes advantage of disorder among the rebels to establish a strong camp at Xiayi, cutting their line of supply and communication along the Si River.  Ignoring Liu Wu's pleas for help and imperial orders to advance to Suiyang, Zhou Yafu sends Han Tuidang's light cavalry to disrupt what little overland supply the rebels could manage from Chu. 154
ICMH 143, wikJg
no date: wikLW
c.154 Rebels besieging Suiyang capital of Liang run out of supplies, and withdraw south. 154 ICMH 144, wikJg
no date: wikLW
c.154 Han forces commanded by Zhou Yafu defeats 7 rebel kings.  Several kingdoms are abolished (though later reinstated) and others reduced in size. 154 scar, wikHH, wikJg
c.154 LIU WU, son of Liu Yingke, prince of Chu from 174, suicides.  A son of Liu Jiao, LIU LI succeeds until 152. 154 HFHD 134 ICMH 144, wikJg, wikLWPC
no date: wikLW
c.154 WU, a kingdom from 195, closed. 154 HFHD 128, bril
c.154 LIU FEI, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince of Runan from 155, made prince YI of Jiangdu ruling over the late kingdom of Wu until 128. 154 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.154 LIU XIANGCHU, son of Liu Fei, former king of Jiaodong 164-55, rebel from 155, suicides. 154 HFHD 133
c.154 LIU PI, son of Liu Chung, prince of Wu from 195, flees to Donghai and is killed by Yue natives seeking peace with HanHis head is sent to the imperial court.  His title is abolished. 154 HFHD 135, ICMH 144, wikJg, wikLPPW
no date: wikLW, wikPW
c.154 JiaoxiHAN TUIDANG, Marquis of Gonggao, writes to Liu Ang, Prince of Jiaoxi, threatening him with destruction if he does not surrender.  Liu Ang surrenders and is allowed to suicide.  The other 3 princes in Qi are captured and executed. 154 HFHD 123, ICMH 144, wikR7S
c.154 Han commander Luan Pu and Cao Ji, besieging Linzi for 3 months, abandon siege.  Luan Pu marches to join Li Ji at Handan. 154
ICMH 144
c.154 Han commander Luan Pu defeats the other rebel princes, who choose either suicide or execution. no date: wikLW
c.154 The final state to be destroyed is Zhao.  Li Ji is initially unable to prevail in besieging the Zhao capital Handan, but Xiongnu forces, realizing Zhao is about to be defeated, choose not to join in battle.  When Han commander Luan Pu returns from Qi he attacks Handan with Li Ji and captures it by breaking a levee to flood the walls, which then collapse. 154
ICMH 144, wikR7S
c.154 ZHAO kingdom becomes HANDAN Commandery until 152. 154 bril
c.154 LIU SUI, son of Liu You, prince of Zhao from 180, conquered in Handan, suicides. 154 HFHD 137, ICMH 144, wikPZ
c.154 LIU ZHI Prince of Jibei, who initially wished to join the rebellion, escapes death.  His official Gongsun Huo persuades Liu Wu, king of Liang, that Liu Zhi had only pretended to join the rebels and had in fact contributed to their defeat.  With Liu Wu's intercession, Liu Zhi is spared and given Zichuan commandery. 154 wikR7S
c.154 LIU XIAN, son of Liu Fei, former King of Zichuan 164-55, rebel 154, suicides. 154
HFHD 132
c.154 LIU BO, prince of Changshan, having rebelled, ends.  A son of Emperor Jing by Lady Qi Jia, LIU SHENG succeeds until 145. 154
HFHD 136
c.154 After the rebellion, princes are denied the right to appoint ministers for their fiefs.  Their fiefs are henceforth hardly distinguishable from commanderies, and are administered by government-appointed officials. 154 CHC 1-510, wikJg
c.154 Families of rebel leaders are all enslaved. 154 SDFH 75
c.154 LIU TUAN becomes King of Qiao-hsi until 108. 154 HFHD 205
c.154 LIU FEI becomes king YI of Chiangtu until 134. 154 HFHD 205
c.154 Emperor JING TI gives another princess to the Xiongnu. 154 ICMH 144
c.154 DOU YING, son of an elder cousin of Empress Dou, made Marquis of Wei-chi, with income of 3,350 families. 154
HFHD 196
c.153 JiaodongJIAODONG, a Qi commandery from 155, becomes a separate kingdom until 150.  LIU CHE, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, age 3, is made Prince of Jiaodong until 150. 153 CHC 1-144, HFHD 211, bril, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWu
c.153 ZICHUAN, a commandery from 155, reverts to a kingdom until the end of Han. 153 bril
c.153 JULU, a commandery (including Bohai, Qinghe, Hejian, and Guangping) under Han from 154, briefly reverts to Zhao, then back to Han. 153 bril
c.153 RUNAN, an independent kingdom from 155, becomes part of Huaiyang until ?. 153 bril
c.153 ZHANG, part of Wu Kingdom from 195, assigned to Jiangdu kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 JIANGDU established as a kingdom until 121.  It includes Zhang and the later units of Linhuai and possibly Kuaiji. 153 bril
c.153 LINHUAI, part of Wu Kingdom from 195, assigned to Jiangdu kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 KUAIJI, part of Wu kingdom from 195, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 153 bril
c.153 GUANGLING in Xuzhou, a commandery from 154, is assigned to Jiangdu kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 LIU E, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, prince AI of Linjiang from 155, dies without heir.  Linjiang becomes a commandery. 153 HFHD 134, wikEJ, wikJg
c.153 LUJIANG, a kingdom from 164, absorbed back into Huainan until 122. 153 bril
c.153 JIUJIANG is restored to Huainan kingdom until 122. 153 bril
c.153 TAISHAN COMMANDERY, part of Jibei from 164, again made separate until ?. 153 HFHD 184
c.153 LUAN, part of Huainan from 206, assigned to Hengshan kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 Because Empress Bo does not have a son, Emperor Jing Ti makes his oldest son Liu Rong crown prince (now called crown prince Li) until 150.  This makes Liu Rong's mother, Consort Li, one of Emperor Jing's favorite concubines, think she will be created empress.  She starts behaving arrogantly.  Dou Ying becomes Liu Rong's tutor. 153 HFHD 115, 133, 196, 211, wikEJ, wikJg
c.152 LIU PENGZU, son of Jing Ti and consort Qi Jia, prince of Guangchuan from 155, made prince JINGXU of Zhao until 92. 152 wikEJ, wikJg
c.152 LIU LI, son of Liu Jiao, prince of Chu from 154, dies. 152 HFHD 134
c.152 ZHAO, technically HANDAN Commandery from 154, restored as a kingdom. 152 or 148 bril
c.152 LINJIANG, a kingdom from 155, becomes a commandery until 150. 152 bril
c.152 CHANG TSANG, scholar, former Chancellor 176-62, age 100+, dies. 152 HFHD 11
c.151 LUAN PU, for his achievements in defeating Zhao, is made Marquis of Yu until 145. 151 HFHD 146
c.151 DONG CHI, Marquis of Cheng from 194, is dismissed for crime.  He is without title until 145. 151 HFHD 204
c.151 Empress BO, 1st wife of Jing Ti, but sonless, empress from 157, is deposed.  Consort Li, now more certain of being created empress, starts behaving more arrogantly. 151 HFHD 163, 211, wikEJ, wikJg
c.151 WEI WAN, accomplished general, is made Marquis Ai of Chienling until 150. 151 HFHD 217
c.151 Because of jealousy for the eldest sister of Emperor Jing, who managed his harem, Consort Li refuses to marry her son Liu Rong to the daughter of that oldest sister. no date: HFHD 115
c.150 Consort Wang Zhi hints to a minister to officially advise Emperor Jing Ti to make Consort Li empress, as Liu Rong is already crown prince.  Jing Ti, having already decided that consort Li must not be empress, is enraged and thinks consort Li had conspired with government officials.  Jing Ti executes the clan of that minister who forwarded that proposal, and deposes Liu Rong.  His tutor Dou Ying is unable to save him. 151/0
HFHD 133 150
HFHD 196, wikEJ, wikWu
c.150 LIU RONG, son of Emperor Jing Ti and consort Li, crown prince from 153, is demoted to Prince of Linjiang until 148, and exiled from Chang'an.  His tutor Dou Ying resigns on account of illness and retires to Lantien, until persuaded to return to court. 150 HFHD 196, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWu
c.150 Consort LI, mother of Liu Rong, is stripped off her titles, placed under house arrest, and dies. 150 HFHD 133, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWu
c.150 Empress Dowager Dou at an imperial feast demands that Emperor Jing Ti name her favorite son Liu Wu as crown prince.  Jing Ti immediately agrees, but is talked out of it by advisors.  Elderly minister Yuan Ang counsels strongly against breaking the laws of succession, as this would set a destabilizing precedent.  Acting in support of their patron, Gongsun Gui and Yang Sheng conspire to have Yuan Ang stabbed to death outside the walls of the imperial suburb of Anling.  They were responsible for 9 related murders as well.  Upon Emperor Jing's discovering their involvement, Liu Wu orders them to suicide and presents their bodies to the emperor, but Liu Wu never regains his brother's favor and is seldom received at court. 150 wikLW
c.150 TAO CHINGTI, Lieutenant Chancellor from 155, dismissed. 150 HFHD 186
c.150 ZHOU YAFU is made chancellor until 147.  He continues Chao Cuo's policy of weakening the client kingdoms, but less harshly. 150 CHC 1-108, HFHD 42, ICMH 144
c.150 LIU CHE, 10th son of Jing Ti (by Wang Zhi), age 6, prince of Jiaodong from 153, is made crown prince until 141.  Jiaodong kingdom survives until the time of Wang Mang.  Mother Wang Zhi is made empress dowager until 126. 150 CHC 1-144, bril, wikEJ, wikEWZ, wikJg, wikLW, wikWu
149 wikWu
c.150 Consort Wang Zhi, mother of Liu Che, is created empress. 150 wikJg, wikLW, wikWu
c.150 WEI WAN, Marquis Ai of Chienling from 151, made tutor of the heir apparent Liu Che until 147. 150 HFHD 217
c.150 LIU WU, King of Liang and bro of Emperor Jing, sends assassins to kill Yuan Ang and other advisors of the throne.  YUAN ANG is murdered outside of the outer gate of Anling.  Emperor Jing orders Tien Shu to investigate. 150 HFHD 193
148 HFHD 233
c.150 LINJIANG, a commandery from 152, becomes a kingdom under Liu Rong until 148. 150 bril
c.150 Paper manufactured in China, but not for writing.  It is used for packing material, clothing, and personal hygiene. 150 bk
140-131 TTS, TTT
c.150 Steel manufactured in China. 150 bk    100 wikT
c.150 Books found in house of Confucius. 150 bk
c.150 Han physician CHUNYU YI dies. 150 CHAC 875
c.150 Bronze "FLYING HORSE" manufactured in China.  Introduction of the "celestial" breed has made horses a status symbol and favored subject of Chinese art. 150 MCAW
c.150 MALAYA peninsula, occupied from 4000, receives influx of Indian adventurers. 150 B76 11-365
c.149 The Xiongnu raid Yen. 149 ICMH 144
c.149 XIAO XI Marquis of Wuyang from 155, dies. 149 HFHD 88
c.149 CHOU TSO CHE, grandson of Cao Shen, appointed Marquis of Anyang until 140. 149 HFHD 41
c.149 Hu Shin produces  CHIN , a dictionary of 10,000 characters. 149 TToH
c.148 LIU RONG, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, Prince Min of Linjiang from 150, is accused of intruding onto the grounds of his grandfather Emperor Wen's temple when building the walls to his palace.  Liu Rong is imprisoned and not permitted to write to his father.  His granduncle Dou Ying (Empress Dowager Dou's bro or cousin) slips in a knife and a pen, and Prince Rong writes an apology to the emperor and then suicides. 148 wikED, wikEJ, wikJg
HFHD 133
c.148 Liu Wu assassinates several court officials for opposing the proposal to have him appointed heir apparent. 148 wikEWZ
c.148 LINJIANG, a kingdom under Liu Rong from 150, becomes NANJUN (Nan commandery) until ?. 148 HFHD 133, bril
c.148 LI JI, son of Li Shang, Marquis of Chu-chou, wants to marry Tsang Erh, Lady of Pingyuan, mother-in-law of Emperor Jing.  Emperor Jing is angry and dismissed Li Ji from his marquisate.  Another son of Li Shang is appointed Marquis of Chu-chou. 148 HFHD 115
c.148 LIU WU, king of Liang 168-44, because of his contributions during the Rebellion of Seven States, is further privileged to use imperial ceremonies and colors.  Family members encourage him to seek to become crown prince.  This is favored by Empress Dowager Dou, but opposed by minister Yang Ang, who believes such a move would destabilize dynastic succession.  When Prince Liu Wu seeks permission to build a highway directly from his capital Suiyang to Chang'an, Yang Ang, fearing that the highway might be used for military purposes if Liang rebels, opposes it.  Prince Liu Wu has Yang Ang murdered.  Emperor Jing Ti is angry and sends many investigators to Liang to track down the conspirators, whom Liu Wu eventually surrenders.  Jing Ti, afraid of offending his mother and still affectionate for his brother, pardons Liu Wu but no longer considers him a possible heir. 148 wikEJ, wikJg
c.148 ZICHUAN kingdom is diminished by detachment of BEIHAI Commandery. 148 bril
c.148 TAO CHINGTI, former marquis Yi of Kaifeng 195-55, Lieutenant Chancellor 155-50, dies. 148 HFHD 186
c.148 LIU YUE, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince HUI of Guangchuan until 136. 148 wikEJ, wikJg
c.148 LIU FANG CHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince of Qinghe until 136. 148 wikEJ, wikJg 147 HFHD 128
c.148 LIU JI, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince KANG of Jiaodong until 120. 148 HFHD 125, wikEJ, wikJg
c.147 QINGHE, part of Zhao from ?, made a separate kingdom until 135. 147 bril
c.147 Empress BO, 1st wife of Jing Ti, Empress 157-51, dies sonless. 147 HFHD 163, wikEB
c.147 WEI WAN, tutor of heir apparent Liu Che from 150, promoted to be Grandee Secretary until 145. 147 HFHD 217
c.147 ZHOU YAFU, chancellor from 150, dismissed. 147 CHC 1-108, HFHD 42
c.147 2 Xiongnu chiefs flee to the Han and are made marquises. 147 ICMH 144, SDFH 102
c.146 Evidence that criminals worked on tombs is revealed by an amnesty which pardons them.  This will be repeated in 57 and 20BCE. 146
SDFH 224
c.146 SUNG CHANG, marquis of Chuangwu from 197, for some crime, is demoted to Kuan-nei Marquis. 146
HFHD 181
c.145 ChangshanCHANGSHAN, a commandery under Han from 155, becomes a kingdom until 114. 145 HFHD 14, bril
c.145 LIU SHUN, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince XIAN of Changshan until 114. 145 HFHD 136, wikEJ, wikJg
c.145 DONG CHI, former Marquis of Cheng 194-51, is appointed Marquis of Chieh-shih until 138. 145 HFHD 204
c.145 LUAN PU, Marquis of Yu from 151, dies. 145 HFHD 146, ckLB
c.145 Sima Qian begins writing biographies and history of China until 90. 145 bk
c.145 Emperor JING TI enacts a series of reforms beginning in 145 limiting the size and power of the kingdoms and dividing their former territories into new centrally controlled commanderies.  The kings are denied the right to appoint officials with salaries higher than 400-dan.  All their senior offices are abolished except for the chancellor, who is henceforth reduced in status and appointed directly by the central government. 145 CHC 1-473, 510, wikHD, wikHH
c.145 MAO CHANG, Confucian schollar, flourishes.  Writes Confucian classic  Shih Ching  "Classic of Poetry". 145
B76 VI-588
c.144 GISIK, king of Jin Korea from 157, ends.  GIMU succeeds until 113. 144 rcK
c.144 Emperor JING TI pays respects at religious sites of Yong. 144 CHC 1-151
c.144 Xiongnu in the Ordos region penetrate well into Shang Commandery, and take horses from imperial stables. 144 CHEIA 125, GHCC, ICMH 144, bk
c.144 YUYANG, part of Yen from ?, becomes a separate commandery. 144 bril
c.144 SHANGGU, part of Yen from ?, becomes a commandery until ?. 144 bril
c.144 YUBEIPING, part of Yen from ?, detached to be a separate commandery. 144 bril
c.144 YEN is reduced by separation of Liaoxi, and Liaodong commanderies. 144 bril
c.144 LIU WU, 3rd son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress dowager Bo, king XIAO of Liang from 168, after a trip to Chang'an, dies of illness at his home.  His mother Empress dowager Dou is inconsolable, but Emperor Jing Ti placates her by dividing Liang into 5 pieces and giving them to Liu Wu's sons.  1st son LIU MAI becomes prince GONG of Liang until 137. 144 CHC 1-142, HFHD 139, wikED, wikLng, wikLW, wikPL, wikWn
c.144 LIANG kingdom again reduced in size by loss of Jiyin guo, Jidong guo and Shanyang guo. 151 or 144 bril 144 bril
c.144 DONGPING in Yanzhou, part of Liang and under Han from 205, incorporated into Jidong kingdom until 116. 144 HFHD 208, bril
c.144 JIDONG, part of Liang from 202, made a separate kingdom until 141 or 138. 144 bril
c.144 SHANYANG, part of Liang from 202, made a separate kingdom until 136. 144 bril
c.144 CHENLIU Commandery in Liang becomes part of JICHUAN kingdom until 138 under Liu Ming. 144 bril
c.144 QI is further reduced by separation of Langye, Qiancheng, Pingyuan, and Donglai commanderies. 144 bril
c.144 LangyeLANGYE, part of Qi from 179, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 144 bril
c.144 Whipping, in the Chinese penal code, having the number of lashes reduced in 156 by Emperor Jing Ti, the number is reduced again. 144 wikEJ, wikJg
c.144 Chinese Imperial Edict establishes death penalty for private coin minting or making counterfeit gold.  Commanderies are allowed to mint coins until 113.  A new coin is introduced.  The private coin minting ban fails. 144 wikGHd, wikHD, wikHH
c.144 GUANGPING, part of Julu Commandery from ?, detached to form Guangping commandery until 91. 144 bril
c.144 ZHAO reduced by separation of commanderies of Shangdang, Bohai and Guangping. 144 bril
c.144/3 DINGXIANG and YANMEN, part of Dai from ?, detached to form commanderies. 144 or 3 bril
c.143 ZHOU YAFU, former chancellor 150-47, is now retired.  His son in anticipation of his death, buys armor and weapons from the imperial armory to serve as burial decorations.  This son refuses to pay the delivery workers, and the delivery workers, in retaliation, accuse the Zhous of treason.  Emperor Jing Ti has Zhou Yafu arrested and interrogated.  The interrogator, when told by Zhou Yafu that the armor and weapons were for burial purposes, accuses him of 'underground treason'.  i.e., intent to commit treason against the spirits of the emperors after Zhou Yafu himself dies. 143 wikEJ, wikJg
c.143 LIU SHE, Marquis of Tao, chancellor from ?, dismissed as chancellor.  Empress Dowager Dou recommends Dou Ying.  But the Emperor says Dou Ying is too proud.  So WEI WAN is appointed until 140. 143 HFHD 196, 217
c.143 The empire comprises the metropolitan area, 40 commanderies and 25 kingdoms.  The central government assumes to rule commanderies scattered thruout China, enclosing a larger number of small kingdoms as enclaves. 147 CHC 1-139-40
c.143 ZHOU YAFU, 2nd son of Zhou Bo, imprisoned on ridiculous charges of treason, suicides. 147 HFHD 42, ICMH 144     143 wikED, wikEWZ, wikJg
c.142 Han general ZHI attacks the Xiongnu. 142 Jan ICMH 144
c.142 Xiongnu attack the Great Wall, invade Yanmen near Datong and fight with commandant Feng Ching, who dies in battle. 142 CHEIA 125, ICMH 144, bk, spks
c.142 Drought in China and plague in and Yunzhong. 142 ICMH 144
c.141 WU TI, son of Han emperor Jing Ti, expands into Asia. 141 TAWH 18, 81
c.141 Son of Wen Ti, LIU QI, Emperor JING TI dies.  6th Han emperor from 157, by Empress Dou.  Son age 15, Liu Che succeeds as Emperor WU TI until 87.  Mother Wang Zhi becomes Empress Dowager, but Grandmother, Empress Dowager Dou continues to dominate the court. 141 CHAC 970, CHC 1-108, GHCC 116, HFHD 87, 107, ICMH 145, IUG 4.4, 4.8, MRDK 456, bk, frie, hceisH, icH, rcC, scar, spks, tcgHn, wikCM, wikEJ, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikJg, wikT, wikWu
140 B76 IV-882, 4-310, CHEIA 131, MCAW, TTPC, chc3, icX
c.141 CHEN JIAO is made Wu Ti's first empress until 130.  She will not produce a male heir. 141 CHC 1-174
c.141 Effective tax collection probably leaves the empire with greater material resources than ever before. 141 CHC 1-129
c.141 Kuan Fu made Grand Administrator of Huaiyang Commandery until 140 by Emperor Wu. 141 HFHD 107
c.141 TIAN FEN is made Marquis of Wu'an until ?.  His younger bro, TIAN SHENG is made Marquis of Chou-yang, because they are uncles of the Emperor. 141 HFHD 189, 220
c.141 JIANYUAN REFORMS:  Under advice from Confucian scholars, Emperor WU TI launches an ambitious reform program.  This threatens the noble class, and is swiftly defeated by Grand Empress Dowager Dou, who holds real political power.  Wu Ti's 2 noble supporters, Dou Ying and Tian Fen (Empress Dowager Wang's half-bro), both had their positions stripped. Wu Ti's 2 mentors, Wang Zang and Zhao Wan, are impeached, arrested, imprisoned, and forced to suicide.  Wu Ti, now without allies, is subjected to conspiracies to have him removed from the throne. 141 wikWu
c.140 Empress Chen, married to Wu Ti for years but childless, forbids Wu to keep other concubines.  Conspirators think to replace him with his distant uncle Liu An, King of Huainan, a renowned Taoist.  Emperor Wu's survival now depends on his aunt/mother-in-law Princess Guantao, who serves as a mediator with his powerful grandmother.  Princess Guantao exploits this leverage, to make excessive demands from her son-in-law.  Emperor Wu, unhappy with Empress Chen's infertility (for which he is blamed) and her spoiled behavior, is further enraged by her mother's greed.  His mother Empress Dowager Wang Zhi tells him to tolerate it, and wait for his aging grandmother to die.  Emperor Wu takes his mother's advice, then spends the next few years pretending to be docile, hedonistic, and without political ambition, often sneaking out of Chang'an for hunting and sightseeing posed as a Marquis. 140 wikWu
c.140 The conservative noble class occupies every level of Han court.  Emperor Wu secretly recruits a circle of young loyal supporters from ordinary upbringings, and promotes them to mid-level positions in order to infiltrate the executive ranks.  These new officials, known as the "insider court", take orders and report directly to Emperor Wu.  They become his potent countermeasure against the "outsider court" made up of the Three Lords and Nine Ministers that are mostly monopolized by anti-reformists.  Emperor Wu appeals to grassroots scholars to enroll in government services. 140 CHC 1-770
no date: wikWu
c.140 The Southern Army, at the Imperial Palace, in charge of the Commandant of the Palace Guards, numbering 20,000 from ?, reduced to 10,000. 140
HFHD 179
c.140 KUAN FU, Grand Administrator of Huaiyang Commandery from 141, recalled by Emperor Wu to become Master of the Stud. 140
HFHD 107
c.140 CHOU TSO CHE, Marquis of Anyang from 149, condemned for a crime and dismissed. 140
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, conducts campaigns against Xiongnu. 140 scar
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, orders local governors to send in learned persons to the capital.  Over 100 intelligentsia, including Dong Zhongshu of Guangchuan, Gongsun Hong of Zichuan, and Yan Zhu of Kuaiji, come to the capital. 140 IUG 4.9, icH
c.140 Persuaded by Dong Zhongshu's essay in a literary competition, Emperor Wu, or his chancellor Wei Wan, adopts Confucianism at court.  Confucianism now replaces Taoism as the state ideology.  Grand Empress Dowager Dou despises Confucians, and resists.  Taoism is favored by the court until she dies in 136. 140 wikED, wikT
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, dismisses a select group of candidates for office who were adepts of the Legalist or eclectic teachings of Shen Buhai, Han Fei, Su Chin, and Chang I.  The effect of this decree is limited to the particular group it specifies.  This attempt of Wu Ti to promote Confucianism at the expense of other schools will be abandoned in 139 by the Taoist-inclined grand empress dowager. 140 CHC 1-770
c.140 WEI WAN, Lieutenant Chancellor from 143, dismissed.  Emperor Wu deliberates over appointment of a new Lieutenant Chancellor and Grand Commandant.  Chi Fu tries to convince Tian Fen that the Marquis of Wei-chi, Dou Ying, had been honored for a long time and all the outstanding men in the empire were under his patronage, so that Tian Fen could not compete with him.  Wei Wan lives until 129. 140 HFHD 189, 217
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, begins building bridges, canals, and irrigation channels.  Social reforms include curbing speculators and middlemen, creates state monopolies, socializes industries, regulates prices and incomes.  Enlarges currency minting coins of silver alloyed with tin. 140 MCAW
c.140 UNIVERSAL JOINT invented by Fang Feng.  A text describes an incense burner suspended in a system of concentric rings so that it remains horizontal. 140 TTT
c.140 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, makes DOU YING Lieutenant Chancellor, and TIAN FEN Grand Commandant, both until 139.  Both like Confucianism, so Empress Dowager Dou, a Taoist, is displeased with them. 140 HFHD 190, 197
c.140 Emperor Wu pardons enslaved families of leaders of the Seven States Rebellion. 160 SDFH 140
c.140 1st Chinese book on alchemy. 140 GHCC
c.140 TUNG CHUNG SHU (Dong Zhongshu), greatest Confucian scholar of his day, urges Confucian training for civil service, and limitation of private land holding or slave holding. 140 LEWH 145 136 B76 4-1095
c.140/39 Under patronage of LIU AN, prince of Huainan, scholars known as the Eight Immortals of Huainan publish the  Huainan-tzu  "Master of Huainan", a philosophical text that also covers subjects of military strategy, geography and cartography. 140
B76 10-1053 139 CHC 1-811, wikT
c.139 DOU YING Lieutenant Chancellor, and TIAN FEN Grand Commandant, both from 140, are both dismissed.  Tian Fen stays at home, but, because of Empress Dowager Wang, he is still in favor.  For that reason, most who had been under the patronage of Dou Ying come over to Tian Fen, who becomes more domineering and haughty, and becomes chancellor in 135. 140
HFHD 197 139
HFHD 190
c.139 Liu An's book  Huainan-tzu  completed and presented to Emperor Wu Ti.  Being compiled by many people, it is not uniform concerning its theme - a systematic explanation of the universe, its wonders and mode of operation.  It invokes the myths of China in connection with subjects such as geography and shape of the universe, the abode of holy beings (shen), and shamanism.  It discriminates between different zones of heaven and earth and their relationship.  It includes much mythology and pays much attention to religious devotions, particularly those practiced in central or southern China. 139 CHC 1-659, 696, bk
c.139 Kuan Fu and Tou Fu, Commandant of the Palace Guard of Changlo Palace, get drunk together and disagree over rites.  Kuan Fu attacks Tou Fu, who is a cousin of Empress Dowager Dou.  Emperor Wu fears that Empress Dowager Dou might kill Kuan Fu, so he transfers Kuan Fu to be Chancellor of Yen. 139 HFHD 107
c.138 Han palace official CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), dispatched by emperor Wu Ti to ally with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.  Tangyifu, a Xiongnu guide, and 100 assistants accompany.  But traveling west he has to pass thru Xiongnu territory.  Chanyu Chun Chen refuses to let him proceed.  Chang Chien is accordingly detained by the Xiongnu until 129, during which time, he marries and has 2 kids. 139 CHC 1-164, 407, GHCC 120, IUG 4.8, scar, wikHD, wikWu     138 B76 II-731, LEWH 145, MCAW, TAWH 18, chc3, hceisH, icX, spks, wikHXW, wikWu
136 ICMH 145
130 B76 4-314, CHC 1-579, CHEIA 156
c.138 DONG CHI, Marquis of Chieh-shih from 145, dies. 138 HFHD 204
c.138 The southern autonomous state of MINYUE invades the weaker state of Dongyue (Eastern Ou) in Zheliang, which requests Han military assistance. 139 ICMH 145 138 wikSeHd, wikWu
c.138 ZUO ZHENFU, king of Dongyue (Eastern Ou), killed in battle against Minyue.  ZOU WANG succeeds until ?, and appeals to Han for help. 139 ICMH 145 138 wikWu
c.138 Heated debate over whether to offer military intervention for such a distant vassal state as Dongyue.  Military commander Tian Fen opposes intervention.  Zhuang Zhu favors intervention.  Emperor Wu dispatches a newly promoted official Yan Zhu to Kuaiji (then still in Suzhou rather than Shaoxing) to mobilize the local garrison.  However the Tiger Tally, which is needed to authorize use of armed forces, is under Grand Empress Dowager Dou.  Yan Zhu, as appointed imperial ambassador, circumvents this problem by executing a local army commander who refused to obey the order without seeing the Tiger Tally, and coerces the Chief of Kuaiji to mobilize a large naval fleet to Dongyue's rescue. 138 wikSeHd, wikWu
c.138 Emperor Wu's new concubine Wei Zifu becomes pregnant, effectively silencing political enemies who would have used his alleged sterility to have him removed. 138 wikWu
c.138 Seeing superior Han forces approach, Minyue retreats south.  This is a political victory for Emperor Wu, and sets the precedent of using Emperor Gaozu's decrees to bypass the Tiger Tally, hence removing the need for approval from his grandmother.  With the military firmly in his control, Emperor Wu's political survival is assured. 138 wikWu
c.138 People of Dongyue are resettled north of the Yangzi River.  Much of their land is absorbed by Minyue. 139
ICMH 145
c.138 JIDONG, a separate kingdom in Liang from 144, becomes a commandery until 52. 141 or 138 bril
c.138 JICHUAN kingdom in Liang under Liu Ming from 144 becomes a commandery.  It is still called Jichuan until 118. 138 bril
c.137 LIU MAI, son of Liu Wu, prince GONG of Liang from 144, dies.  Son LIU XIANG succeeds until 97. 137 wikLng, wikPL
c.137 WU ZHU COINS weighing 3g are cast.  They are continuously used until the Sui Dynasty. 140-135 ctACC
c.137 ZHAO TUO, king of Nanyue, ruler, in southern China from 204, Han vassal from 179, age 103, dies.  Grandson ZHAO MO succeeds until 122. 137 HFHD 17, ICMH 145, rcC, wikWu, wikZT
c.137 VO VUONG TRIEU, king of Nam Viet from 207, ends.  VAN VUONG TRIEU succeeds until 122. 137 rcSAM
c.137 MUNDZAYABA, king of Arkan (west coast of Burma) from 171, ends.  KUMMARAWITHUDDHI succeeds until 50. 137 rcSAM
c.136 WU TI, ruler of Cao at Nanyue from 207, ends.  WEN WANG succeeds until 124. 136 MRDK 469
c.136 LIU YUE, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, prince HUI of Guangchuan from 148, dies. 137 HFHD 141 136 wikEJ, wikJg
c.136 LIU FANG CHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, prince of Qinghe from 148, dies without heir. 136 wikEJ, wikJg 135 HFHD 128
c.136 SHANYANG, a separate kingdom from 144, becomes a commandery until 97. 136 bril
c.136 Han general TANG MENG initiates exploration of roads from Shu thru Yunnan and Guizhou to Burma and India. 136 GHCC
c.136 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, decrees that the Five Classics are to be the orthodox program of study for the academicians, abolishes academic chairs other than those focused on the Confucian Five Classics: (Changes, Songs, Documents, Ritual, and Spring and autumn annals) . 136 CHC 1-756, 769, wikHH
c.136  WU CHING  "The Five Classics":  divination manual.
I Ching = changes.
Shih Ching = Odes.
Shu Ching = history compiled in 6th cent.
Chun Chiu = annals of Confucius.
Shih Li = rituals.
136 B76 10-1052, CHC 1-154, LEWH 145, wikHD
c.136 ERUDITS, official experts in each of the Five Classics, are appointed at court.  At this time, there may be only 5 erudits. 136 CHC 1-74, 154, GHCC 159, HFHD 51, frie
c.136 Dong Zhongshu persuades emperor Wu Ti to make CONFUCIANISM the official ideology of China. 135 IUG 4.6
no date: B76 4-1104
c.136 CONFUCIANISM replaces Taoism as state ideology of Han China. 136 B76 IV-896, CDΦ 117, EoΦ 2-90     124 wikHH
c.135 QINGHE, a separate kingdom from 147, reincorporated back into Zhao until 114. 135 bril
c.135 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, stops tribute to Xiongnu, takes offensive against Xiongnu. 135 B76 4-313
c.135 Gaozu's, shrine in Liaodong burns. 135 HFHD 205
c.135 Empress Dowager DOU dies.  (Doutaihou), wife of Wu Ti, mother of prince Liu Qi, Empress 179, dowager from 157, anti-Confucian, finally dies, leaving estate to dau, princess Liu Piao.  This is the last obstacle to Emperor Wu's ambition.  Empress Dowager Wang Zhi becomes dominant at court. 136 HFHD 195
135 CHAC 984, CHC 1-139, 173, HFHD 190, ICMH 145, IUG 4.8, bk, wikED, wikEWZ, wikHH, wikWu
c.135 After death of Empress Dou, Lieutenant Chancellor Xu Chang and Grandee Secretary Chuang Ching-ti are accused of not arranging the funeral correctly.  TIAN FEN, out of power from 139, is made Lieutenant Chancellor.  Dong Zhongshu, who was made chancellor for Liu Fei king of Jiangdu, is impeached by an official called Zhufu Yan.  Han General Guan Fu tries to mediate the relationship of Tian Fen and Dou Ying. 135 HFHD 190, 197, icH
c.135 TIAN FEN Lieutenant Chancellor 135-31, promotes Confucians until 131. 135 bk
c.135 CHUN CHEN, chanyu 160-26, requests renewal of ho-chin treaty. 135 CHC 1-389
c.135 Han metropolitan area is divided into 2 until 104. 136 CHC 1-472
c.135 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, calls a court conference where 2 factions of leading ministers debate the Xiongnu threat and renewal of the ho-chin (heqin) agreement.  Emperor Wu follows the majority consensus of his ministers led by Han Anguo that peace should be maintained.  General Wang Hui opposes.  Treaty is renewed with Xiongnu. 136 wikHXW     135 CHC 1-389, ICMH 145, spks, wikHD, wikHH
c.135 NANYUE ruled by Zhao Mo in Fukein, Han vassal from 180, attacked by Luo Ying (Zuo Ying, Zou Ying), king of Minyue.  Zhao Mo asks Han for help. 137 ICMH 145 135 GHCC 118, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.135 Emperor Wu assists King Zhao Mo of Nanyue in fending off an attack by Luo Ying, king of Minyue (in modern Fujian).  Han generals Han Anguo and Wang Hui are sent against Luo Ying, king of Minyue. 137 ICMH 145 135 CHC 1-456, spks, wikHH, wikSeHd
c.135 Han general TANG MENG mission to Guangdong (Kwangtung, Canton). 135 GHCC 130
c.135 Han official TANG MENG reports to Chang'an, that goods from Shu - mainly citrus fruit products - were being brought down the Tsang-ko River to Nanyue by way of Yelang.  Tang Meng successfully persuades the government to let him make an exploratory expedition. 135 CHC 1-457
c.135 Han general TANG MENG leads the earliest Han expedition against Dian. 135 wikSeHd
c.135 From now to 119 Han's main effort is directed against Xiongnu threats. 135 CHC 1-164
c.135  HAN-SHIH WAI-CHUAN , first book to mention 6 pointed shape of snow flakes. 135 GHCC
c.135 COMET noted in China is same comet seen in Persia at the birth of Mithridates-II of Parthia. 135 wikSTH 134 HFHD 34
c.135 LUO YING (Zuo Ying, Zou Ying), king of Minyue from ?, killed by bro Luo Yushan, because they fear a Han invasion.  Severed head is sent to Han general Wang Hui.  Emperor Wu imposes a dual-monarchy on Minyue by creating kings out of Luo Ying's bro Luo Yushan and nobleman Zou Chou, thus ensuring internal discord in Minyue.  LUO YUSHAN succeeds until 110, with LUO CHOU until ?. 137
ICMH 145 135 rcC, wikSeHd, wikWu
c.134 Han general TANG MENG with a small force, penetrates mountains of Yunan as far as Yelang (an alliance of tribes in west Guizhou, Shu, and Yunnan), and persuades the ruler to pretend to be a Han vassal. 134
ICMH 146
c.134 YELANG, an alliance of tribes in west Guizhou, Shu, and Yunnan, made JIANWEI Commandery by general Tang Meng. 135 bril
c.134 Frontier merchant Nieh Weng-i of Mayi city in Yanmen commandery proposes to the Han court a plot to lure Xiongnu forces into a Han ambush in Mayi.  After heated debate in a court conference, the majority agrees that a limited engagement at Mayi involving the assassination of chanyu Chun Chen would throw the Xiongnu into chaos and benefit Han.  The plot is adopted by Emperor Wu Ti. 134
CHC 1-389, CHEIA 128, wikHD, wikXng
c.134 ZHUFU YAN, writes a long memorial in which he advises Han Wu Ti to refrain from attacking the Xiongnu. 134 CHAC 976
c.134 Dong Zhongshu drafts a memorial to Emperor Wu Ti about visitations to some of the temples.  Zhufu Yan steals it and memorialzes Emperor Wu Ti about it.  Emperor Wu summons scholars to consider it.  A disciple of Dong Zhongshu, Lu Pu-shu, does not know that it was his teacher's writing, and denounces it as foolish.  Dong Zhongshu is imprisoned and condemned to death, but pardoned by imperial edict.  After that, he dares not discuss visitations and morals. 134 HFHD 205
c.134 LIU FEI, king YI of Chiangtu from 154, ends. 134 HFHD 205
c.134 A road is begun from Ba to Yelang (an alliance of tribes in west Guizhou, Shu, and Yunnan).  Finished 128. 134 ICMH 146
c.134 Tribes west of Shu Province are incorporated into Shu. 134 ICMH 146
c.133 Frontier merchant Nieh Weng-i of Mayi city goes to Xiongnu chanyu Chun Chen and offers to kill the magistrate and military officer of Mayi and surrender Mayi to the Xiongnu.  The chanyu believes Nieh Weng-i, and the plot is enacted. 134 spks
133 CHEIA 128, wikWu
c.133 Chun Chen with 100,000 cavalry enters Dai.  Meanwhile, more than 300,000 Han troops are waiting in the valleys around Mayi.  Before the Xiongnu had come within 30 miles of Mayi, the chanyu notices that the fields are full of animals but there isn't a person in sight.  He becomes suspicious and attacks a beacon tower containing one Chinese official.  Under the threat of death, this official tells the chanyu about the Han ambushChun Chen turns back.  General Wang Hui declines to pursue.  This ends the ho-chin treaties between Han and Xiongnu, which had kept peace since 198. 134 ICMH 146, spks
133 CHEIA 128, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWu, wikXng
c.133 Han general Han Anguo with 300,000 men, chariots and cavalry, pursues the Xiongnu, who retreat over the Wall, before Anguo can overtake them.  Wars begin until 119. 134 ICMH 146
133 B76 8-630, CHC 1-164, GHCC 118, bk, wikHD, wikHXW
c.133 LIU DENG, son of Liu Can, prince of Dai from 161, ends.  LIU LANG succeeds until 114. 133 wikPD
c.133 Han general WANG HUI has displeased Emperor Wu Ti, and suicides. 134 ICMH 146
c.133 Fangshi (magicians) are sent to search for Isles of the Immortals. 133 GHCC
c.133 Emperor Wu Ti sacrifices to kitchen god TSAO CHUN, after being duped by Li Chao Chi into thinking this god could make him eternally young. 133
B76 X-156
c.133 145 km CANAL begun to connect Chang'an along the Southern Mountains to the Yellow River.  Finished 129. 133 TTT
c.132 The WUSUN under Liejiaomi, out of revenge from a conflict in 173, and backed by Xiongnu, attack the Yuezhi. 132 wikYz 130 wikWs
c.132 The YUEZHI, in the Ili River Valley near mountain lake Issyk Kul north of Kang-chu (Sogdiana) from 163, driven out by the Wusun, move south across the urban civilization of Dayuan in Ferghana and settle on the north bank of the Oxus, in Transoxiana until 131. 132 spks, wikYz     130 wikWs
c.132 Yellow River changeYELLOW RIVER overflows near Puyang, changes course, flows southeast into the the Huai until 112, leaving farms along the previous course dry.  Causes famine. 132
CHC 1-243, HFHD 165, ICMH 147
c.132 100,000 soldiers drafted to repair a breach in the dykes on Yellow River. 132
GHCC 114
c.132 In spring Chancellor Tian Fen tells Emperor Wu that the Kuan family in Yingchuan Commandery is powerful and oppressive.  He begs Emperor Wu to punish Kuan Fu.  The Emperor says this is Tian Fen's duty and he need not beg for permission.  At the same time, Kuan Fu reports that Tian Fen had received bribes from the King of Huainan.  The guests of both houses come and arrange a reconciliation. 132 HFHD 190
c.132 Han General GUAN FU offends Chancellor Tian Fen in a marriage banquet.  With help of Empress Dowager Wang Zhi, Chancellor Tian Fen makes Wu Ti order that both Guan Fu and Dou Ying be executed. 132 HFHD 191 131 icH, wikEWZ
c.131 GUAN FU is executed, his whole family is exterminated. 131 HFHD 108, 191, 197, icH
c.131 DOU YING hears of accusations against him, becomes sick and does not eat.  The decision had been made that he should not die, but there is more slander against him, which reaches the Emperor, so Dou Ying is sentenced and publicly executed in Wei-cheng. 131 HFHD 191, 197, icH
c.131 TIAN FEN, marquis of Wu'an from 141, Lieutenant Chancellor from 135, dies.  He seems to have been implicated rebellion of the king Huainan.  Son TIAN TIEN succeeds as marquis of Wu'an until ?. 131
HFHD 191
c.131 Gongsun Hong, age 80, claims illness after returning from the Xiongnu as an emissary.  He is recommended to the court again.  Yuan Gu is over age 90.  Gongsun Hong is made yushi dafu (censor-in-chief). 131 icH
c.131 Attempt to advance along roads from Shu into YUNNAN and GUIZHOU. 131 GHCC

East Asia 130-100