Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.164 LIU ZE, king of Qi from ?, dies without heir.  Emperor Wen divides Qi territory among 7 living sons of Liu Fei.  Qi is reconstituted, losing kingdoms of Jinan, Jiaoxi, Jiaodong, and Zichuan.  Zichuan includes later commandery of Peihai. 165 wikLP
164 CHC 141, HFHD8 32, SDFH 21, bril
c.164 Taishan/JibeiTAISHAN COMMANDERY, separate from 176, again made part of Jibei until 153. 164 HFHD 184
c.164 May 11 Emperor Wen makes the 3 sons of King Li the kings of Huainan, dividing their father's territory into 3 portions.  Liu An is made King of Huainan;  Liu Po, Marquis of Anyang, is made King of Hengshan;  Liu Ci, Marquis of Yangchou, is made King of Lujiang. 164
HFHD6 29
c.164 Han kingdoms are reduced in 178, 164, 155, 144 and 122, by splitting some into smaller kingdoms or taking territories as commanderies under direct Han control. 164 bril
c.164 HUAINAN GUO, a former kingdom comprising later Han units of Jiangxia, Jiujiang, Lujiang, Yuchang, and Luan, terminated 174, is re-established, but no longer includes the now separate kingdoms of Lujiang and Hengshan (which comprises Luan and Jiangxia until 122). 164 bril
c.164 LUJIANG, part of Huainan from 201, established as a kingdom under Liu Ci until 153. 164 HFHD6 29, bril
c.164 ZICHUAN, part of Qi from 203, becomes a separate kingdom until 155. 164 HFHD 209, bril
c.164 Son of Liu Fei, LIU XIAN, Marquis of Wucheng from 176, becomes King of Zichuan until 154. 164
HFHD 132
c.164 Qi divisionsJIAOXI, a commandery under Qi from 203, becomes separate kingdom until 155.  LIU ANG, son of Liu Fei of Qi, Marquis of Pingchang from 187, is made King of Jiaoxi until 154. 164
HFHD 29, 123, bril
c.164 Xiongnu under Lo Shang raid King River valley, and penetrate almost to Chang'an, then withdraw. 164
ICMH 140
c.164 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, attends services held at newly erected shrines at Weiyang. 164
CHC 151
c.164 Sorcerer XINYUAN PING has an associate put a jade cup with mysterious writings on it outside the imperial palace, and predicts a regression in the path of the sun.  In response, Emperor Wen joyously proclaims an empire-wide festival and restarts the calendaring for his reign.  (Therefore, years 163 and on, for the rest of his reign, is known as the later era of his reign, called the Houyuan Era until 157.) 164 wikWn
c.164 HENGSHAN, part of Huainan kingdom from 196, is established as Hengshan kingdom until 122, but reduced in size. 164 CHC 141, HFHD99c 27, 43, bril
c.164 JINAN, a commandery of Qi from 179, established as Jinan kingdom until 155. 164 bril
c.164 LIU PIGUANG, 9th son of Liu Fei, Marquis of Qi, created Prince of Jinan until 154. 164 HFHD 135, wikLP
c.164 JiaodongJIAODONG, commandery in Qi from 206, re-established as a separate kingdom of Qi until 155.  Liu Xianglu, son of Liu Fei, Marquis of Po-shih from 176 is king until 154, capital Linzi. 164 HFHD 30, 133, HFHD7 10, bril
c.164 Sorcerer XINYUAN PING is exposed as a fraud.  He and his clan are executed.  This ends Emperor Wen's period of supernatural fascination. 164 HFHD 90, SDFH 74, wikWn
c.164 YUCHANG, a commandery under Han from 174, restored to Huainan kingdom until 122. 164 bril
China 163BCE
c.163 Central AsiaXiongnu under Lo Shang overrun Gansu and the Tarim Basin to pacify the Yuezhi.  The Greater Yuezhi flee north to Zungari, where they drive out the Sakas.  The Lesser Yuezhi flee south into Aza (Tibetan foothills), and merge with the Qiang in Tibet. 163 ICMH 141
c.163 An edict of Emperor Wen states that the amount of farm land per person is greater than in ancient times, suggesting that even after 40 years of peace the population has not grown to pre-Han figures, also that over-crowding of land is not yet the problem it will later become. 163 SDFH 22, 204
c.163 ZHANG YAN, dau of Zhang Ao and princess Yuan Lu, widow of Emperor Hui, known formally as Empress Xiaohui, living in seclusion since death of Lu Zhi, age 38-9, dies. 163 HFHD 7, wikEZY
c.163 Han general CHEN WU (Chai Wu) dies. 163 HFHD 5
c.163 CHOU TSAO, Marquis Ko of Lunglu from 201, dies. 163 HFHD 41
c.163 LO SHANG, chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu 174-60, jointly with the Wusun (northeast of the Tien Shan Mountains, which had just been conquered by the Xiongnu), attacks the Great Yuezhi again, kills the king of the Great Yuezhi and makes his skull into a drinking cup.  The Wusun then move into the Ili River Valley themselves, while the Great Yuezhi go west to the Ili River Valley near mountain lake, Issyk Kul north of Kangchu (Sogdiana).  Great Yuezhi drive out the Sakas and remain there until 132. 165 CHI 565, wikYz
163 ICMH 141
162 CHEIA 127, 155, spks, wikHXW, wikWsn 160 ICNH 141
by 162 The Xiongnu had pacified Loulan, Wusun, Hejian, and 26 adjoining countries and all these had become part of the Xiongnu. by 162 CHEIA 155
c.162 The WUSUN are driven by the Xiongnu unto Gansu and settle as Xiongnu vassals. 162 wikWsn
c.162 The SAI (Scythians) of the Ili River Valley are driven south by Yuezhi. 162 spks
c.162 SHENTU CHIA, governor of Huaiyang Commandery from 168, is made Lieutenant Chancellor of Huaiyang until 155. 162
HFHD 171
c.162 ZHOU YAFU, governor of Henei Commandery from ?, ends. 162 bril
c.162 1st son of Zhou Bo, Marquis of Jiang from 169, commits a crime and is dismissed. 162
HFHD 41
c.162 CHUANG YING, Marquis of Wu-Qiang from ?, ends.  Son CHUANG CHINGTI succeeds until 115. 162 HFHD6 51
c.162 Chang Tsang, imperial Lieutenant Chancellor from 176, conflicts with Gongsun Chen about the 5 elements from 166.  It is settled by appearance of a yellow dragon at Cheng-chi, in accordance with Gongsun Chen's prophesy.  Emperor Wen thereupon makes Gongsun Chen an Erudit, and changes the beginning of the count of years in his reign, whereupon Chang Tsang resigns because of illness and age. 162
HFHD 11
no date: HFHD 112
c.162 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, makes peace with Xiongnu chanyu (king) Lo Shang.  Wen Ti replies to Lo Shang, acknowledges gifts sent by Xiongnu Juqu and Danghu emissaries and emphasizing the need to maintain the peace.  Establishes the Great Wall as the border between Han and Xiongnu.  Lo Shang says he had decreed that whoever invades Han border would be executed. 162 CHC 152, ICMH 141, bk, wikHH 161 icX
c.162 LIU CAN, 3rd son of Emperor Wen Ti, prince XIAO of Dai from 176, dies.  Son LIU DENG succeeds until 133. 162 HFHD 137, wikPD     161 wikWn
c.162/1 ZHOU YAFU, 2nd son of Zhou Bo, made Marquis of Tiao. 162/1 HFHD 42
c.161 SHENTU CHIA, Lieutenant Chancellor of Huaiyang Commandery 162-55, is made Marquis of Kuan until ?. 161 HFHD 171
c.161 CAO CHO, Marquis Ching of Pingyang from 190, dies 161 HFHD 199
c.160 Son of Baghur, LO SHANG (Kayuk) dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 174 dies.  Son CHUN CHEN succeeds until 126. 161 rcN, wikCny     160 CHC 152, 388, CHEIA 124, 136, GHCC 119, ICMH 141, MRDK 450, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wnck, wstn     159 icX
c.160 LIU XIAN, heir apparent to Liu Pi prince of Wu 195-54, on an official visit to Chang'an, plays the board game liubo (heavily tied to divination and predictions of the future) with crown prince Liu Qi.  An argument errupts.  Liu Qi throws the wooden board at Liu Xian, killing him.  Liu Pi thus hates Liu Qi, the future emperor.  Liu Pi starts building up wealth and military in his territory.  Emperor Wen believes his son was at fault and does not forbid Liu Pi's expansion. no date: wikJg, wikLPPW
c.160 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, proclaims general amnesty and frees government male and female slaves, who thereupon become commoners.  This is the only general amnesty, and comes at a time when government slaves are fewer. 160 SDFH 130, 238
c.160 The King of Jibei (Chipo) explains his lavish payment for 4 girls by calling attention to their skill at doing tricks. 160
SDFH 123
c.159 CHANG WU, General of Chariots and Cavalry, is stationed in Beidi to guard against the Xiongnu. 159 HFHD 12
c.158 CHUN CHEN, chanyu of Xiongnu 160-26 sends 30,000 cavalry to invade Shang Commandery, and another 30,000 to attack Yunzhong Commandery.  They kill Chinese at the borderline.  Mountain-top warning fires are seen as far back as Han capital Chang'an. 158 CHEIA 124, HFHD 42, ICMH 141, spks, wikWn, wikXng 157 icX
c.158 WEN TI, Han emperor 180-57, visits camps of armies preparing to defend Chang'an against a Xiongnu attack.  On this occasion he is impressed with Zhou Bo's son Zhou Yafu as a military commander. 158 wikWn
c.158 WEN TI, Han emperor 180-57, frequently dispatches 3 columns of armies against Xiongnu invasions by stationing them in Beidi Commandery, Juzhu Pass in Dai, and Feihukou as well as reinforcing capital defence at Xiliu, Jimen and Bashang.  This protects central China, but leaves most of Dai and Yanmen exposed.  Months later, the Xiongnu retreat from Juzhu after a Han army approaches. 158
ICMH 141, icX, spks
c.158 Xiongnu attacks force Han emperor Wen Ti to revise the ho-chin treaty.  Historian Pan Ku says, Emperor Wen opens border trade with the Xiongnu, sends a Han daughter to marry chanyu Chun Chen, and increased gifts to the Xiongnu to 1,000 pieces of gold per year. 158 CHEIA 124
c.158 KOGEN TENO, son of Korei, legendary 8th emperor of Japan from 214, ends.  2nd son KAIKA succeeds 157-98. 158 wikLEJ
157 JBE 2178
c.158/7 XU LI, marquis of Chu-tzu (city in Shandong) from 184, dies.  Son XU TAO succeeds until 129. 158/7 HFHD 91
c.157 GIKAM ends.  King of Jin Korea from 189GISIK succeeds until 144. 157 rcK
c.157 WU ZHU (Wu Chan) great-grandson of Wu Rui, king of Changsha, dies heirless. 157 CHC 124, HFHD 221, wikHH, wikKHD
c.157 CHANGSHA, a kingdom from 202, is again made a commandery until 155. 157 bril
by 157 The Han court has replaced all of the Gaozu-created kings with royal Liu family members, since the loyalty of non-relatives is questioned. by 157 wikHD
c.157 Jul 6 Son of Liu Bang by consort Bo, Liu Heng, Emperor WEN TI dies.  4th Han emperor from 180, dies.  Son Liu Qi succeeds as Emperor JING TI until 141.  Wen Ti's widow Empress Dou becomes empress dowager until 135.  Liu Qi's wife, Princess Bo (a member of his grandmother's clan) becomes empress until 151, but she is not favored and has no son. 157 B76 IV-882, 896, 4-310, CHAC 970, 987, GHCC 116, 160, HFHD6 2, ICMH 142, IUG 4.4, MRDK 456, bk, frie, hceisH, icH, rcC, tcgHn, wikCM, wikDou, wikEDBo, wikEJ, wikHD, wikJg, wikT, wikWn, wstn
156 icX, spks, wikWu
c.157 Empress Dowager Bo becomes Grand Empress Dowager until death 155. 157 wikEDBo
c.157 An edict of Emperor Jing discusses the problem of successive bad harvests in unfavored and crowded regions, and grants people permission to migrate to fertile and undeveloped regions. 157 SDFH 208
c.157 LU CHIA, Taoist scholar and author of  XIN-YU  196,dies. 157 GHCC
c.157 late Future emperor WU born to Emperor JING TI and Wang Zhi. 157 HFHD6 2
c.156 Xiongnu invade Dai, but are persuaded to make peace. 156 ICHM 142
c.156 LIU YI, son of Liu Jiao, is made Marquis of Yuan-chi until 154. 156 HFHD 140
c.156 The WUSUN break away from the Xiongnu. 156 ICHM 142
c.156 Xiongnu stop their large-scale inroads into China until 135. 156 CHEIA 124
c.156 Whipping, increased in the Chinese penal code in 167, having caused an unacceptable number of deaths, number of lashes is reduced by Emperor Jing Ti.  Again 144. 156 wikEJ, wikJg, wikWn
c.156 Han agriculture tax, abolished altogether from 167 reinstated at 1/30 (half of the earlier rate). 156 CHC 150, SDFH 22, wikHH
c.156 LI GUANG becomes General of Cavalry of the Gentlemen. 156 HFHD6 11
c.155 Han kingdoms are reduced in 178, 164, 155, 144 and 122, by splitting some into smaller kingdoms or taking territories as commanderies under direct Han control. 155 bril
c.155 HUAIYANG, a commandery from 168, becomes a kingdom, independent until 63.  Emperor Jing made his son Yu King of Huaiyang until 154. 155 HFHD8 46, bril
c.155 RunanRUNAN, part of Huaiyang from 196, becomes an independent kingdom until 153.  LIU FEI, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, created prince of Runan until 154. 155 bril, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 LIU YU, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, created prince of Huaiyang until 154. 155 HFHD 141, wikEJ, wikJg, wikLYPL
c.155 SHENTU CHIA, Lieutenant Chancellor of Huaiyang Commandery from 162, dies of illness. 155 HFHD 171
c.155 XIAO XI becomes Marquis of Wuyang (an unknown office from 180) until 149. 155 HFHD 88
c.155 May 12 Six sons of Emperor Jing are made kings. 155 HFHD6 2
c.155 CHAO CUO made imperial Counsellor above all other counsellors but less than chancellor by Emperor Jing Ti until 154. 156 HFHD 18 155 CHC 149, wikCC
c.155 Empress Dowager BO (Xiaowen) dies.  Former concubine of Liu Bang, mother of Liu Heng (Emperor Wen), Empress Dowager 180, Grand Empress Dowager from 157.  Empress Bo loses her source of support in the palace. 155 HFHD 164, wikEB, wikEDBo
c.155 GuanzhongThe Guanzhong Metropolitan area, under a single Superintendent from 198, split between Metropolitan Superintendents of the Right and Left (You, Zuo Neishi) until 113. 155 or 135 bril
c.155 Counsellor CHAO CUO persuades Emperor Jing Ti to take provinces from kingdoms of Zhao and Chu. 155
ICMH 142
c.155 DonghaiTANJUN, part of Chu from 206, removed to become DONGHAI (Tan) commandery, including the later Sishui guo) and Lu guo.  It remains intact until 115.  Chu kingdom survives until 69. 155 bril
c.155 SISHUI, part of Chu from 206, transferred to Donghai commandery until 115. 155 bril
c.155 LU, part of Chu from 210, detached to form the kingdom of LU until 9CE. 155 bril
c.155 CHANGSHA, a commandery from 157, is again made a kingdom until the end of Former Han. 155 CHC 142, bril
c.155 14 of Jing Ti's sons are enthroned as kings between 155 and 145. 155 CHC 144
c.155 LIU FA, son of Jing Ti and consort Tang, created prince DING of Changsha until 128. 155 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 NANJUN, a Han commandery from 202, again becomes LINJIANG Kingdom until 152. 155 HFHD8 51, bril
c.155 LIU E (Liu O), son of Jing Ti and consort Li, created prince AI of Linjiang until 153. 155 HFHD 134, wikJg
c.155 TAO CHINGTI, marquis YI of Kaifeng from 195, becomes Lieutenant Chancellor until 150. 155 HFHD 186
c.155 Conscription minimum age for Han army, 23 from ?, lowered to 20. 155 ICMH 142
c.155 Coin minting by Liu Pi prince of Wu, angers the Han court. 155 ICMH 142
c.155 XINDU Commandery of Zhao becomes GUANGCHUAN kingdom until 70. 155 bril
c.155 LIU PENGZU, son of Jing Ti and consort Qi Jia, created prince of Guangchuan until 152. 155 HFHD 134, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 HejianHEJIAN (Hochien, Heidan) in Jizhou, a commandery from 165, again made a separate kingdom until 38. 155 HFHD 73, bril
c.155 LIU DE, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, created prince XIAN of Hejian Commandery until 130. 155 HFHD 137, LEWH 145, wikEJ, wikJg
c.155 JINAN, independent kingdom, from 164, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 155 bril
c.155 JiaodongJIAODONG, a kingdom within Qi from 164, under king Liu Xianglu from 164, becomes is made a commandery until 153.  Liu Xianglu does nothing. 155 bril
c.155 Qi divisionsJIAOXI, separate kingdom from 164, becomes a commandery until 154. 155 bril
c.155 ZICHUAN, a separate kingdom under Liu Xian from 164, becomes a commandery until 153.  Liu Xian does nothing until 154. 155 bril
154 HFHD 209
c.155 ChangshanCHANGSHAN, part of Zhao from 180, becomes a commandery under Han until 145. 155 HFHD 14, bril
c.154 Chi Kuei-yueh, son of Chi Tung, is charged with planning rebellion and says that his father knew of his plans.  Chi Kuei-yueh is executed.  Emperor Jing says his father did not know of his plans and restores him to honor. 154 early HFHD 26
c.154 WU, a vassal kingdom from 195, divided into commanderies. 154 HFHD 220
c.154 Jul 2 more sons of Emperor Jing are made kings. 155 HFHD6 2
c.154 LIU YU, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince of Huaiyang from 155, is made Prince GONG of Lu until 127. 154 HFHD 141, wikEJ, wikJg, wikLYPL
c.154 HUAIYANG, a kingdom from 155, becomes a commandery until 63. 154 HFHD8 46
c.154 Qi divisionsJIAOXI, a commandery from 155, becomes a kingdom until 108.  LIU DUAN, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, is created prince YU of Jiaoxi until 108. 154 HFHD 138, 205, bril, wikEJ, wikJg
c.154 Emperor JING TI carves out one commandery each from the states of Chu and Zhao, and 6 counties from the state of Jiaoxi, before carving 2 commanderies out of Wu.
He removes Donghai from Chu, based on Liu Wu, Prince of Chu, having sex during the mourning period for Empress Dowager Bo.
He removes Changshan from Zhao, based on an unspecified offence.
He removes 6 counties from Jiaoxi, based on Liu Ang, Prince of Jiaoxi, embezzling funds from sales of titles intended for paying border patrol costs.
He removes Huiji and Yuchang from the state of Wu, based on various offences by Liu Pi, Prince of Wu.
155 bril 154 wikEJ, wikJg, wikR7S
c.154 ZhongshanZHONGSHAN (Chungshan), part of Zhao from 210, becomes separate kingdom until 55LIU SHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Jia, is created prince JING of Zhongshan until 114. 154 bril, wikEJ, wikJg
c.154 LIU PI, prince of Wu 195-54, is ordered by Han govermnent to give up 2 provinces. 154
ICMH 142
c.154 LIU PI, prince of Wu 195-54, whose son was accidentally killed by crown prince Liu Qi before he became Emperor Jing Ti, leads a revolt against Jing Ti.  Wu allies with Liu Wu, Prince of Chu, Liu Ang, Prince of Jiaoxi, Liu Sui, Prince of Zhao, Liu Xianglu, Prince of Jiaodong, Liu Xian, Prince of Zichuan, and Liu Piguang Prince of Jinan.  Qi and Jibei originally agree to join, but reneg.  Wu also seeks help from Donghai and Minyue, and both kingdoms contribute forces.  3 other princes agree to join but either reneg or don't show up:  Liu An Prince of Huainan, Liu Ci Prince of Lujiang, Liu Bo, Prince of ChangshanZhao seeks help from the Xiongnu, who initially agree, but do not actually contribute.  Liu Pi recruits 200,000 men.  Rebellion of the Seven States begins until later 154. 154
B76 IV-882, CHC 141, HFHD 106, 132, 133, ICMH 142, IUG 4.4, wikEJ, wikHD, wikHH, wikJg, wikR7S
China 154BCE
c.154 An envoy of Wu comes to Huainan to inform of rebellion.  King Liu An wants to send out his troops in rebellion.  His Chancellor wants to be his general, so Liu An gives him charge of the army.  But when the Chancellor had taken over the troops, he holds the city and does not obey the commands of king Liu An, but supports the Emperor.  Hence Huainan is kept from being destroyed in the rebellion. 154 HFHD6 29
c.154 When Wu and Chu rebel, Li Guang is with Zhou Yafu and becomes famous in the battle of Changyi city. 154 HFHD6 11
c.154 The 7 rebel princes originally claim that counsellor Chao Cuo is aiming to wipe out the principalities, and that they would be satisfied if Chao Cuo were executed. 154 wikR7S
c. 154 Emperor Jing studies the Dou family, and finds none as capable as Dou Ying, so he summons Dou Ying to court.  Dou Ying feins illness and says he is not capable of holding office.  Empress Dowager Dou is embarrassed and regrets treating Dou Ying as she had.  Emperor Jing says that when the empire was in such urgent need, Dou Ying must not withdraw from the court, so he makes Dou Ying General-in-chief and gives him the equivalent of 1000 catties of gold.  Dou Ying recommends Yuan Ang, Luan Pu and others who had retired, and presents them to the court.  The money which he had received, he puts on the veranda of his house.  Any military official who passes by is ordered to take some money for their use, so that Dou Ying did not take any of the money himself.  Dou Ying holds Xingyang, watching the troops of Qi and Zhao. 154 HFHD 196
c.154 LIU WU, son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress Bo (Xiaowen), king of Liang 168-44, are besieged at the Liang capital Suiyang by rebel armies of Wu and ChuHis mother urges emperor Jing Ti to send the imperial army to relieve him.  Jing Ti makes general Zhou Yafu minister of war and sends him.  His plan is to let Liang bear the brunt of the attack and for imperial troops to avoid battle until the rebels are worn out. 154
HFHD 42
no date: wikLW
c.154 LIU PIGUANG, 9th son of Liu Fei, Prince of Jinan (part of former Qi land) from 164, defeated and killed by general Dou Ying and Zhou Yafu.  Title vacant until ? 154 HFHD 135, wikLP
c.154 CHAO CUO, imperial counsellor 156-54, investigates Yuan Ang to determine if he had received bribes from Liu Pi King of Wu. 154
HFHD 232
c.154 YUAN ANG, enemy of counsellor Chao Cuo at Chang'an, suggests to Jing Ti that executing Chao Cuo might appease the 7 rebel princes. 154 wikJg
c.154 CHAO CUO, imperial counsellor from 156, secretary from 155, cut in 2 at the waist for advising Emperor Jing Ti to seize territory from his kingdoms.  His immediate family is also executed.  Emperor Jing sends Yuan and Liu Pi's nephew Liu Tong, minister for clan affairs, to try to persuade Liu Pi to end the rebellion.  Liu Pi does not call off the rebellion but imprisons Liu Tong and Yuan. 155 CHAC 984 154 CHC 108, HFHD 18, GHCC 116, ICMH 142, bk, wikCC, wikHH, wikJg, wikR7S
c.154 ZUO ZHENFU king of Dongyue first sides with the king of Wu against Han. 154 CHC 455
c.154 Qi divisionsWhen Wu and Chu revolt, 4 of Liu Xianglu's bros, who are kings of Jinan, Zichuan, Jiaoxi, and Jiaodong, mobilize troops to rebel at the same time, and want Qi to rebel with them; but Liu Xianglu, king of Qi, refuses and guards his capital. 154 HFHD7 11
c.154 Rebel forces of Chu and Wu march west against Liu Wu, prince of Liang.  They are opposed by Liang and Liu Zhi king of Jibei. 154 ICMH 142, wikR7S
c.154 General KUAN FU, son of Kuan Meng, made Han Minister of War to deal with Chu / Wu rebellion.  He makes Kuan Meng a Colonel. 154
HFHD 106
c.154 In Zhao, rebel Liu Sui advances to the west frontier to cut off Liang from Han aid.  Liu Sui allies with the Xiongnu. 154
ICMH 142
c.154 LI JI, son of Li Shang, is made a general and sent against rebel Liu Sui of Zhao, and drives him back to Handan, where they face off.  For 7 months Li Ji cannot take Handan, until Luan Pu, who had subjugated the states of Qi, helps him. 154 HFHD 114-5, ICMH 142
c.154 GUANGLING in Xuzhou, part of Wu kingdom from 195, becomes a commandery until 153. 154 bril
c.154 LIU ANG, king of Jiaoxi, leads troops of 3 other rebel kings to besiege Linzi, because Liu Xianglu king of Qi had reneged on promise to join the rebels. 154 HFHD7 11, ICMH 143, wikR7S
c.154 LIU WU, king of Liang 168-44, is forced to retreat to his capital Suiyang (now Shangqiu). 154 wikR7S
c.154 Han commander LUAN PU and CAO QI, Marquis of Pingyang, arrive in Qi and defeat the 4 besiegers, but they also discover that Qi had initially been part of the conspiracy.  Unable to explain himself, Prince Liu Xianglu suicides, but Emperor Jing Ti, having compassion on him, permits his son Liu Shou to inherit Qi. 154 wikR7S
c.154 Qi divisionsJIBEI captured by rebel Wu/Chu armies. 154 ICMH 143
c.154 juluJULU, a commandery (including Guangping, Qinghe, Bohai, and Hejian) under Zhao from 179, comes back under Han until 153. 154 bril
c.154 Rebel Wu/Chu armies move from Jibei south to attack Suiyang, capital of Liang. 154 ICMH 143, wikR7S
c.154 King Xiao of Liang orders Han Anguo and Chang Yu to be generals to defend the kingdom. 154 HFHD6 9
c.154 Liang generals Han Anguo and Zhang Yu man a line of walled towns, preventing the rebel Wu/Chu armies from advancing farther west. 154
ICMH 143
c.154 Han commandant ZHOU YAFU and general Dou Ying are sent against the rebel Wu/Chu armies. 154 ICMH 143, wikR7S
c.154 Han general Dou Ying establishes a strong fort at Xingyang, securing the Ao granary.  He patrols the north bank of the Yellow River, blocking contact with rebels in Zhao. 154
ICMH 143
c.154 XIAPEI on lower Si River is tricked into joining the rebels by king of Wu. 154 ICMH 143
c.154 LIU YI, son of Liu Jiao, Marquis of Yuan-chi from 156, executed. 154 HFHD 140
c.154 CHANGYI city siezed by Han general Zhou Yafu.  This cuts the supply line via the Si River and prevents contact with rebels in QiZhou Yafu then moves to Xiayi. 154
ICMH 143
c.154 Han general ZHOU YAFU takes advantage of disorder among the rebels to establish a strong camp at Xiayi, cutting their line of supply and communication along the Si River.  Ignoring Liu Wu's pleas for help and imperial orders to advance to Suiyang, Zhou Yafu sends Han Tuidang's light cavalry to disrupt what little overland supply the rebels could manage from Chu. 154
ICMH 143, wikJg
no date: wikLWPL
c.154 Rebels besieging Suiyang capital of Liang run out of supplies, and withdraw south. 154 ICMH 144, wikJg
no date: wikLW
c.154 Han forces commanded by Zhou Yafu defeats 7 rebel kings.  Several kingdoms are abolished (though later reinstated) and others reduced in size. 154 scar, wikHH, wikJg
c.154 LIU WU, son of Liu Yingke, prince of Chu from 174, suicides.  A son of Liu Jiao, LIU LI succeeds until 152. 154 HFHD 134, ICMH 144, wikJg, wikLWPC
no date: wikLW
c.154 WU, a kingdom from 195, closed. 154 HFHD 128, bril
c.154 LIU FEI, son of Jing Ti and consort Cheng, prince of Runan from 155, made prince YI of Jiangdu ruling over the late kingdom of Wu until 128. 154 HFHD 128, wikEJ, wikJg
c.154 LIU XIANGLU, son of Liu Fei, former king of Jiaodong 164-55, rebel from 155, suicides by poison.  His son is appointed successor until 153. 154 HFHD 133, HFHD7 11
c.154 LIU PI, son of Liu Chung, prince of Wu from 195, flees to Donghai and is killed by Yue natives seeking peace with HanHis head is sent to the imperial court.  His title is abolished. 154 HFHD 135, ICMH 144, wikJg, wikLPPW
no date: wikLW, wikPW
c.154 Qi divisionsHAN TUIDANG, Marquis of Gonggao, writes to Liu Ang, Prince of Jiaoxi, threatening him with destruction if he does not surrender.  Liu Ang surrenders and is allowed to suicide.  The other 3 princes in Qi are captured and executed. 154 HFHD 123, ICMH 144, wikR7S
c.154 Han commander Luan Pu and Cao Ji, besieging Linzi for 3 months, abandon siege.  Luan Pu marches to join Li Ji at Handan. 154
ICMH 144
c.154 Han commander Luan Pu defeats the other rebel princes, who choose either suicide or execution. no date: wikLW
c.154 The final state to be destroyed is Zhao.  Li Ji is initially unable to prevail in besieging the Zhao capital Handan, but Xiongnu forces, realizing Zhao is about to be defeated, choose not to join in battle.  When Han commander Luan Pu returns from Qi he attacks Handan with Li Ji and captures it by breaking a levee to flood the walls, which then collapse. 154
ICMH 144, wikR7S
c.154 ZHAO kingdom becomes HANDAN Commandery until 152. 154 bril
c.154 LIU SUI, son of Liu You, prince of Zhao from 180, conquered in Handan, suicides. 154 HFHD 137, ICMH 144, wikPZ
c.154 10th child of Emperor Jing by Consort Wang Zhi, LIU ZHI, Prince of Jibei, who initially wished to join the rebellion, escapes death.  His official Gongsun Huo persuades Liu Wu, king of Liang, that Liu Zhi had only pretended to join the rebels and had in fact contributed to their defeat.  With Liu Wu's intercession, Liu Zhi is spared and given Zichuan commandery. 154 wikR7S
c.154 LIU XIAN, son of Liu Fei, former King of Zichuan 164-55, rebel 154, suicides. 154
HFHD 132
c.154 LIU BO, prince of Changshan, having rebelled, ends.  A son of Emperor Jing by Lady Qi Jia, LIU SHENG succeeds until 145. 154
HFHD 136
c.154 After the rebellion, princes are denied the right to appoint ministers for their fiefs.  Their fiefs are henceforth hardly distinguishable from commanderies, and are administered by government-appointed officials. 154 CHC 510, wikJg
c.154 Families of rebel leaders are all enslaved. 154 SDFH 75
c.154 Emperor JING TI gives another princess to the Xiongnu. 154 ICMH 144
c.154 DOU YING, son of an elder cousin of Empress Dou, made Marquis of Wei-chi, with income of 3,350 families. 154
HFHD 196
c.153 JiaodongJIAODONG, a Qi commandery from 155, becomes a separate kingdom until 150.  LIU ZHI, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, age 3, is made Prince of Jiaodong until 150. 153 CHC 144, HFHD 211, HFHD6 2, bril, nweW, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWu
c.153 ZICHUAN, a commandery from 155, reverts to a kingdom until the end of Han. 153 bril
c.153 juluJULU, a commandery (including Guangping, Qinghe, Bohai, and Hejian) under Han from 154, briefly reverts to Zhao, then back to HanQinghe under Zhao until 147Guangping under Zhao until 144. 153 bril
c.153 RunanRUNAN, an independent kingdom from 155, becomes part of Huaiyang commandery until ?. 153 bril
c.153 JIANGDU established as a kingdom until 121.  It includes Zhang and the later units of Linhuai and possibly Kuaiji.  LIU FEI becomes king YI of Jiangdu until 134. 155 HFHD6 40 154 HFHD 205 153 bril
c.153 ZHANG, part of Wu Kingdom from 195, assigned to Jiangdu kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 LINHUAI, part of Wu Kingdom from 195, assigned to Jiangdu kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 KUAIJI, part of Wu kingdom from 195, becomes a commandery under Han until ?. 153 bril
c.153 GUANGLING in Xuzhou, a commandery from 154, is assigned to Jiangdu kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 LIU E, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, prince AI of Linjiang from 155, dies without heir.  Full bro LIU RONG, Crown Prince Li, succeeds until 150. 153 HFHD 134, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWu     152 bril 148 HFHD8 51,
c.153 LUJIANG, a kingdom from 164, absorbed back into Huainan until 122. 153 bril
c.153 JIUJIANG is restored to Huainan kingdom until 122. 153 bril
c.153 Taishan/JibeiTAISHAN COMMANDERY, part of Jibei from 164, again made separate until ?. 153 HFHD 184
c.153 On promotion of his bro from Hengshan to Jibei, LIU CI is made King of Hengshan. 153 HFHD6 33
c.153 LUAN, part of Huainan from 206, assigned to Hengshan kingdom until 121. 153 bril
c.153 Because Empress Bo does not have a son, Emperor Jing Ti makes his oldest son Liu Rong crown prince (now called crown prince Li) until 150.  This makes Liu Rong's mother, Consort Li, one of Emperor Jing's favorite concubines, think she will be created empress.  She starts behaving arrogantly.  Dou Ying becomes Liu Rong's tutor. 153 HFHD 115, 133, 196, 211, HFHD6 2, nweW, wikEJ, wikJg
c.152 ZHAO, technically HANDAN Commandery from 154, restored as a kingdom.  LIU PENGZU, son of Jing Ti and consort Qi Jia, prince of Guangchuan from 155, made prince JINGXU of Zhao until 92. 152 wikEJ, wikJg
152 or 148 bril
c.152 LIU LI, son of Liu Jiao, prince of Chu from 154, dies. 152 HFHD 134
c.152 CHANG TSANG, scholar, former Chancellor 176-62, age 100+, dies. 152 HFHD 11
c.151 ???? Prince of Yen from ?, dies.  Son LIU DINGGUO succeeds until 127. 151 HFHD6 25
c.151 JIBEI (Chipo), defunct from 153, again becomes a kingdom until 87. 151 bril '  
c.151 LUAN PU, for his achievements in defeating Zhao, is made Marquis of Yu until 145. 151 HFHD 146
c.151 DONG CHI, Marquis of Cheng from 194, is dismissed for a crime.  He is without title until 145. 151 HFHD 204
c.151 Empress BO, 1st wife of Jing Ti, but sonless, empress from 157, is deposed.  Consort Li, now more certain of being created empress, starts behaving more arrogantly. 151 HFHD 163, 211, nweW, wikEB, wikEJ, wikJg
c.151 WEI WAN, accomplished general, is made Marquis Ai of Chienling until 150. 151 HFHD 217
c.151 Because of jealousy of Princess Guantao Liu Piao, eldest sis of Emperor Jing, who managed his harem, Consort Li refuses to marry her son Liu Rong to Princess Piao's dau Chen Jiao.  Consort Wang Zhi uses the opportunity and had Chen Jiao betrothed to her son, Prince Liu Zhi. 151 nweW, no date: HFHD 115
c.150 Consort Wang Zhi hints to a minister to officially advise Emperor Jing Ti to make Consort Li empress, as Liu Rong is already crown prince.  Jing Ti, having already decided that consort Li must not be empress, is enraged and thinks consort Li had conspired with government officials.  Jing Ti executes the clan of that minister who forwarded that proposal, and deposes Liu Rong.  His tutor Dou Ying is unable to save him. 151/0
HFHD 133 150
HFHD 196, wikEJ, wikWu
c.150 LIU RONG, son of Emperor Jing Ti and consort Li, Crown Prince LI from 153, is demoted to Prince of Linjiang until 148, and exiled from Chang'an.  His tutor Dou Ying resigns because of illness and retires to Lantien, until persuaded to return to court. 150 HFHD 196, nweW, wikECJ, wikEJ, wikJg, wikLWPL, wikWu
c.150 Consort LI, mother of Liu Rong, is stripped off her titles, placed under house arrest, and dies. 150 HFHD 133, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWu
c. 150 Empress Dowager Dou at an imperial feast demands that Emperor Jing Ti name her favorite son Liu Wu crown prince.  Jing Ti immediately agrees, but is talked out of it by advisors.  Elderly minister Yuan Ang counsels strongly against breaking the laws of succession, as this would set a destabilizing precedent.  Acting in support of their patron, Gongsun Gui and Yang Sheng conspire to have Yuan Ang stabbed to death outside the walls of the imperial suburb of Anling.  They were responsible for 9 related murders as well.  Upon Emperor Jing's discovering their involvement, Liu Wu orders them to suicide and presents their bodies to the emperor, but Liu Wu never regains his bro's favor and is seldom received at court. 150 wikLWPL,
c.150 TAO CHINGTI, Lieutenant Chancellor from 155, dismissed. 150 HFHD 186
c.150 ZHOU YAFU is made chancellor until 147.  He continues Chao Cuo's policy of weakening the client kingdoms, but less harshly. 150 CHC 108, HFHD 42, ICMH 144
c.150 LIU ZHI, 10th son of Jing Ti (by Wang Zhi), age 6, prince of Jiaodong from 153, is made crown prince until 141.  Jiaodong kingdom survives until the time of Wang Mang.  Mother Wang Zhi is made empress dowager until 126. 150 CHC 144, bril, wikEJ, wikEWZ, wikJg, wikLW, wikWu
149 wikWu
c.150 Consort Wang Zhi, mother of Liu Zhi, is created empress. 150 nweW, wikJg, wikLW, wikWu
c.150 WEI WAN, Marquis Ai of Chienling from 151, made tutor of Crown Prince Liu Zhi until 147. 150 HFHD 217
c.150 LIU WU, King of Liang and bro of Emperor Jing, sends assassins to kill Yuan Ang and other advisors of the throne.  YUAN ANG is murdered outside of the outer gate of Anling.  Emperor Jing orders Tien Shu to investigate. 150 HFHD 193
148 HFHD 233
c.150 Paper manufactured in China, but not for writing.  It is used for packing material, clothing, and personal hygiene. 150 bk
140-131 TTS, TTT
c.150 Steel manufactured in China. 150 bk    100 wikT
c.150 Books found in house of Confucius. 150 bk
c.150 Han physician CHUNYU YI dies. 150 CHAC 875
c.150 Bronze "FLYING HORSE" manufactured in China.  Introduction of the "celestial" breed has made horses a status symbol and favored subject of Chinese art. 150 MCAW
c.150 MALAYA peninsula, occupied from 4000, receives influx of Indian adventurers. 150 B76 11-365
c.149 The Xiongnu raid Yen. 149 ICMH 144
c.149 XIAO XI Marquis of Wuyang (in Henan Province) from 155, dies. 149 HFHD 88
c.149 CHOU TSO CHE, grandson of Cao Shen, appointed Marquis of Anyang until 140. 149 HFHD 41
c.149 Hu Shin produces  Chin , a dictionary of 10,000 characters. 149 TToH
c. 148 LIU WU, king of Liang 168-44, because of his contributions during the Rebellion of Seven States, is allowed to use imperial ceremonies and colors.  Family members encourage him to seek to become crown prince.  This is favored by Empress Dowager Dou, but opposed by minister Yang Ang, who believes such a move would destabilize dynastic succession.  When Prince Liu Wu seeks permission to build a highway directly from his capital Suiyang to Chang'an, Yang Ang, fearing that the highway might be used for military purposes if Liang rebels, opposes it.  Prince Liu Wu has Yang Ang murdered.  Emperor Jing Ti is angry and sends many investigators to Liang to track down the conspirators, whom Liu Wu eventually surrenders.  Jing Ti, afraid of offending his mother and still affectionate for his bro, pardons Liu Wu but no longer considers him a possible heir. 148 wikDou, wikEJ, wikEWZ, wikJg
c. 148 LIU RONG, son of Jing Ti and consort Li, Prince Min of Linjiang from 150, is accused of intruding onto the grounds of his grandfather Emperor Wen's temple when building the walls to his palace.  Liu Rong is imprisoned and not permitted to write to his father.  His granduncle Dou Ying (Empress Dowager Dou's bro or cousin) slips in a knife and a pen, and Prince Rong writes an apology to the emperor and then suicides. 148 wikDou, wikEJ, wikJg
148/7
HFHD 133
c.148 LINJIANG, a kingdom fron 155, under Liu Rong from 150, reverts to NANJUN (Nan Commandery) until ?. 153 HFHD 134, wikEJ, wikJg   152 bril   148 HFHD 133, HFHD8 51, bril
c.148 LI JI, son of Li Shang, Marquis of Chuchou (city of Guangping Commandery), wants to marry Tsang Erh, Lady of Pingyuan, mom-in-law of Emperor Jing.  Emperor Jing is angry and dismisses Li Ji from his marquisate.  Another son of Li Shang is appointed Marquis of Chuchou. 148 HFHD 115
c.148 ZICHUAN kingdom is diminished by detachment of PEIHAI Commandery. 148 HFHD8 36, bril
c.148 Son of Zhao Yiwu, ZHAO ZHOU is made Marquis of Shangling until 112. 148 HFHD6 64
c.148 TAO CHINGTI, former marquis Yi of Kaifeng 195-55, Lieutenant Chancellor 155-50, dies. 148 HFHD 186
c.148 LIU YUE, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince HUI of Guangchuan until 136. 148 HFHD6 8, wikEJ, wikJg
c.148 QingheQINGHE, part of Zhao from 153, made a separate kingdom until 135. 147 bril
c.148 LIU FANG CHENG, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince of Qinghe until 136. 148 wikEJ, wikJg 147 HFHD 128
c.148 LIU JI, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince KANG of Jiaodong until 120. 148 HFHD 125, wikEJ, wikJg
c.147 Empress BO, 1st wife of Jing Ti, Empress 157-51, dies sonless. 147 HFHD 163, wikEB
c.147 WEI WAN, tutor of heir apparent Liu Zhi from 150, promoted to Grandee Secretary until 145. 147 HFHD 217
c.147 ZHOU YAFU, chancellor from 150, dismissed. 147 CHC 108, HFHD 42
c.147 2 Xiongnu chiefs flee to the Han and are made marquises. 147 ICMH 144, SDFH 102
c.146 Evidence that criminals worked on tombs is revealed by an amnesty which pardons them.  This will be repeated in 57 and 20BCE. 146
SDFH 224
c.146 SUNG CHANG, marquis of Chuangwu from 197, for some crime, is demoted to Kuan-nei Marquis. 146
HFHD 181
c.145 ChangshanCHANGSHAN, a commandery under Han from 155, becomes a kingdom until 114. 145 HFHD 14, bril
c.145 LIU SHUN, son of Jing Ti and consort Wang Zhi, is created prince XIAN of Changshan until 114. 145 HFHD 136, wikEJ, wikJg
c.145 DONG CHI, former Marquis of Cheng 194-51, is appointed Marquis of Chieh-shih until 138. 145 HFHD 204
c.145 LUAN PU, Marquis of Yu from 151, dies. 145 HFHD 146, ckLB
c.145 Jun 1 Son of Liu Wu, King Xiao of Liang, LIU MING is made Marquis of Huanyi. 144 HFHD6 5
c.145 Sima Qian begins writing biographies and history of China until 90. 145 bk
c.145 Emperor JING TI enacts a series of reforms beginning in 145 limiting the size and power of the kingdoms and dividing their former territories into new centrally controlled commanderies.  The kings are denied the right to appoint officials with salaries higher than 400-dan.  All their senior offices are abolished except for the chancellor, who is henceforth reduced in status and appointed directly by the central government. 145 CHC 473, 510, wikHD, wikHH
c.145 MAO CHANG, Confucian schollar, flourishes.  Writes Confucian classic  Shih Ching  "Classic of Poetry". 145
B76 VI-588
c.145 Office of Privy Treasurer in vassal kingdoms is suppressed. 145 HFHD7 30

East Asia 144-127
V